Science.gov

Sample records for finite menger sponges

  1. Absence of phase transition in the XY-model on Menger sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przedborski, M. A.; Mitrović, B.

    2014-04-01

    We have performed a Monte Carlo study of the classical XY-model on a Menger sponge with the Wolff cluster algorithm (U. Wolff, 1989). The Menger sponge is a fractal object with infinite order of ramification and fractal dimension D=log(20)/log(3)=2.7268. From the dependence of the helicity modulus on system size and on boundary conditions, we conclude that there is no phase transition in the system at any finite temperature.

  2. Menger sponge-like fractal body created by a novel template method.

    PubMed

    Mayama, H; Tsujii, K

    2006-09-28

    We have established experimental strategies on how to create a Menger sponge-like fractal body and how to control its fractal dimension. The essence was to utilize alkylketene dimer (AKD), which spontaneously forms super-water-repellent fractal surface. We prepared "fractal AKD particles" with fractal surface structure as templates of pores in fractal body. The fractal body was synthesized by filling the remained space between the packed template particles with a tetramethyl orthosilicate solution, solidifying it by the sol-gel process, and removing the template by calcinations. We have succeeded in systematically creating fractal bodies of silica with different cross-sectional fractal dimensions D(cs)=1.87, 1.84, and 1.80 using "fractal template particles" compressed under the ratio=1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, respectively. We also discussed the possibilities of their fractal geometries in comparison with mathematical models. We concluded that the created fractal bodies were close to a Menger sponge and its modified one. Our experimental strategy allows us to design fractality of porous materials.

  3. A fractal approach to the dark silicon problem: A comparison of 3D computer architectures - Standard slices versus fractal Menger sponge geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The dark silicon problem, which limits the power-growth of future computer generations, is interpreted as a heat energy transport problem when increasing the energy emitting surface area within a given volume. A comparison of two 3D-configuration models, namely a standard slicing and a fractal surface generation within the Menger sponge geometry is presented. It is shown, that for iteration orders $n>3$ the fractal model shows increasingly better thermal behavior. As a consequence cooling problems may be minimized by using a fractal architecture. Therefore the Menger sponge geometry is a good example for fractal architectures applicable not only in computer science, but also e.g. in chemistry when building chemical reactors, optimizing catalytic processes or in sensor construction technology building highly effective sensors for toxic gases or water analysis.

  4. The fractal menger sponge and Sierpinski carpet as models for reservoir rock/pore systems: I. ; Theory and image analysis of Sierpinski carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.R., Jr.; Pearn, W.C.; von Rosenberg, D. W. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper reservoir rock/pore systems are considered natural fractal objects and modeled as and compared to the regular fractal Menger Sponge and Sierpinski Carpet. The physical properties of a porous rock are, in part, controlled by the geometry of the pore system. The rate at which a fluid or electrical current can travel through the pore system of a rock is controlled by the path along which it must travel. This path is a subset of the overall geometry of the pore system. Reservoir rocks exhibit self-similarity over a range of length scales suggesting that fractal geometry offers a means of characterizing these complex objects. The overall geometry of a rock/pore system can be described, conveniently and concisely, in terms of effective fractal dimensions. The rock/pore system is modeled as the fractal Menger Sponge. A cross section through the rock/pore system, such as an image of a thin-section of a rock, is modeled as the fractal Sierpinski Carpet, which is equivalent to the face of the Menger Sponge.

  5. Sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Chris St.

    2011-11-15

    Sponge provides a web interface to Pulp (http://pulpproject.org/) that implements a particular workflow as described in the paper “Staging Package Deployment via Repository Management” (http://www.usenix.org/events/lisa11/tech/full_papers/Pierre.pdf). Namely, it implements a process for intensive management of software repositories to apply more deterministic updates to clients of those repositories.

  6. Contraceptive Sponge

    MedlinePlus

    Contraceptive sponge Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff The contraceptive sponge is a type of birth control (contraceptive) that prevents ... shaped, and made of polyurethane foam. The contraceptive sponge contains spermicide, which blocks or kills sperm. Before ...

  7. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide or sponge is much ...

  8. Sponge coring apparatus with reinforced sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, A.; Wilson, B. T.

    1985-03-05

    A well coring apparatus includes an outer barrel and an inner barrel. A hollow sponge is disposed along a liner for insertion into the inner barrel. The sponge is operable to absorb subterranean fluid from a well core. A plurality of reinforcing members are disposed on the inner surface of the liner to prevent movement of the sponge with respect thereto. A plurality of orifices are disposed in the surface of the liner to allow gas and/or fluid to escape from the interior thereof when the subterranean fluid contained within the core bleeds into the sponge.

  9. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  10. The vaginal contraceptive sponge.

    PubMed

    Edelman, D A

    1984-06-01

    The vaginal contraceptive sponge, approved on April 1, 1983 by the US Food Administration (FDA) for sale in the US as a single use, disposable, over-the-counter contraceptive, is made of polyurethane and designed to be biocompatible with the vaginal environment. The sponge is available in a single size, is round, and about 5.5 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm thick. An indentation on 1 side helps to ensure the sponge's correct placement against the cervix. A polyester retrieval loop attached to the sponge facilitates removal. Postcoital tests of the sponge without the spermicide indicated that it was ineffective in preventing sperm from entering the cervical canal. Before insertion, the contraceptive sponge is moistened with tap water to activate the spermicide and is inserted into the vagina with the indentation placed against the cervis. The sponge has been designed to provide continuous protection against pregnancy for at least 24 hours after insertion. Following a successful phase ii clinical trail of the sponge, in 1979 comparative phase iii clinical trials were initiated by Family Health International. The following trials were conducted: sponge versus the diaphragm (arcing-spring) used with a spermicide (nonoxynol-9) at 13 clinics in the US (1439 subjects) and at 2 clinics in Canada and the UK (502 subjects); sponge versus a foaming spermicidal (menfegol) suppository at 5 clinics in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh (1386) subjects); and sponge versus spermicidal (nonoxynol-9) foam at 2 clinics in Israel and Thailand (366 subjects). In all trials the contraceptive methods were raondomly assigned. Clinics were required to follow up subjects for 1 year. Only the US study has been completed. In the comparative trials of the sponge and diaphragm (both US based and overseas) the pregnancy rates were significantly higher for the sponge. In the comparative trials of the sponge and foaming suppositories or spermicidal foam there were no significant differences between the

  11. Global conservation status of sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Cárdenas, César A; Bennett, Holly

    2015-02-01

    Sponges are important for maintaining ecosystem function and integrity of marine and freshwater benthic communities worldwide. Despite this, there has been no assessment of their current global conservation status. We assessed their status, accounting for the distribution of research effort; patterns of temporal variation in sponge populations and assemblages; the number of sponges on threatened species lists; and the impact of environmental pressures. Sponge research effort has been variable; marine sponges in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and freshwater sponges in Europe and North America have received the most attention. Although sponge abundance has increased in some locations since 1990, these were typically on coral reefs, in response to declines in other benthic organisms, and restricted to a few species. Few data were available on temporal trends in freshwater sponge abundance. Despite over 8500 described sponge species, only 20 are on threatened species lists, and all are marine species from the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Of the 202 studies identified, the effects of temperature, suspended sediment, substratum loss, and microbial pathogens have been studied the most intensively for marine sponges, although responses appear to be variable. There were 20 studies examining environmental impacts on freshwater sponges, and most of these were on temperature and heavy metal contamination. We found that most sponges do not appear to be threatened globally. However, little information is available for most species and more data are needed on the impacts of anthropogenic-related pressures. This is a critical information gap in understanding sponge conservation status.

  12. Cryptochrome in Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Heinz C.; Markl, Julia S.; Grebenjuk, Vlad A.; Korzhev, Michael; Steffen, Renate; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Sponges (phylum: Porifera) react to external light or mechanical signals with contractile or metabolic reactions and are devoid of any nervous or muscular system. Furthermore, elements of a photoreception/phototransduction system exist in those animals. Recently, a cryptochrome-based photoreceptor system has been discovered in the demosponge. The assumption that in sponges the siliceous skeleton acts as a substitution for the lack of a nervous system and allows light signals to be transmitted through its glass fiber network is supported by the findings that the first spicules are efficient light waveguides and the second sponges have the enzymatic machinery for the generation of light. Now, we have identified/cloned in Suberites domuncula two additional potential molecules of the sponge cryptochrome photoreception system, the guanine nucleotide-binding protein β subunit, related to β-transducin, and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)–interacting protein. Cryptochrome and NOSIP are light-inducible genes. The studies show that the NOS inhibitor L-NMMA impairs both morphogenesis and motility of the cells. Finally, we report that the function of primmorphs to produce reactive nitrogen species can be abolished by a NOS inhibitor. We propose that the sponge cryptochrome-based photoreception system, through which photon signals are converted into radicals, is coupled to the NOS apparatus. PMID:23920109

  13. Sponge disease: a global threat?

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole S

    2007-06-01

    Sponges are the most simple and primitive metazoans, yet they have various biological and ecological properties that make them an influential component of coral-reef ecosystems. Marine sponges provide refuge for many small invertebrates and are critical to benthic-pelagic coupling across a wide range of habitats. Reports of sponge disease have increased dramatically in recent years with sponge populations decimated throughout the Mediterranean and Caribbean. Reports also suggest an increased prevalence of sponge disease in Papua New Guinea, the Great Barrier Reef and in the reefs of Cozumel, Mexico. These epidemics can have severe impacts on the survival of sponge populations, the ecology of the reef and the fate of associated marine invertebrates. Despite the ecological and commercial importance of sponges, the understanding of sponge disease is limited. There has generally been a failure to isolate and identify the causative agents of sponge disease, with only one case confirming Koch's postulates and identifying a novel Alphaproteobacteria strain as the primary pathogen. Other potential disease agents include fungi, viruses, cyanobacteria and bacterial strains within the Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera. There is some evidence for correlations between sponge disease and environmental factors such as climate change and urban/agricultural runoff. This review summarizes the occurrence of sponge disease, describes the syndromes identified thus far, explores potential linkages with environmental change and proposes a strategy for future research towards better management of sponge disease outbreaks.

  14. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages.

  15. The Sponge Hologenome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  16. A visco-hyperelastic constitutive approach for modeling polyvinyl alcohol sponge.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Beigzadeh, Borhan

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model to characterize the time dependent mechanical behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) sponges. The PVA sponges have implications in many viscoelastic soft tissues, including cartilage, liver, and kidney as an implant. However, a critical barrier to the use of the PVA sponge as tissue replacement material is a lack of sufficient study on its viscoelastic mechanical properties. In this study, the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a fabricated PVA sponge is investigated experimentally and computationally using relaxation and stress failure tests as well as finite element (FE) modeling. Hyperelastic strain energy density functions, such as Yeoh and Neo-Hookean, are used to capture the mechanical behavior of PVA sponge at ramp part, and viscoelastic model is used to describe the viscose behavior at hold part. Hyperelastic material constants are obtained and their general prediction ability is verified using FE simulations of PVA tensile experiments. The results of relaxation and stress failure tests revealed that Yeoh material model can define the mechanical behavior of PVA sponge properly compared with Neo-Hookean one. FE modeling results are also affirmed the appropriateness of Yeoh model to characterize the mechanical behavior of PVA sponge. Thus, the Yeoh model can be used in future biomechanical simulations of the spongy biomaterials. These results can be utilized to understand the viscoelastic behavior of PVA sponges and has implications for tissue engineering as scaffold.

  17. Sponge hybridomas: applications and implications.

    PubMed

    Pomponi, Shirley A; Jevitt, Allison; Patel, Jignasa; Diaz, M Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Many sponge-derived natural products with applications to human health have been discovered over the past three decades. In vitro production has been proposed as one biological alternative to ensure adequate supply of marine natural products for preclinical and clinical development of drugs. Although primary cell cultures have been established for many marine phyla, no cell lines with an extended life span have been established for marine invertebrates. Hybridoma technology has been used for production of monoclonal antibodies for application to human health. We hypothesized that a sponge cell line could be formed by fusing sponge cells of one species with those of another, or by fusing sponge cells with rapidly dividing, marine-derived, non-sponge cells. Using standard methods for formation of hybridomas, with appropriate modifications for temperature and salinity, cells from individuals of the same sponge species, as well as cells from individuals of two different sponge species were successfully fused. Research in progress is focused on optimizing fusion to produce a cell line and to stimulate expression of natural products with therapeutic relevance. Experimental hybridomas may also be used as models to test hypotheses related to naturally occurring sponge chimeras and hybridomas.

  18. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800{degrees} C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800{degrees} C to below about 300{degrees} C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300{degrees} C.

  19. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  4. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  5. Precambrian sponges with cellular structures

    PubMed

    Li; Chen; Hua

    1998-02-06

    Sponge remains have been identified in the Early Vendian Doushantuo phosphate deposit in central Guizhou (South China), which has an age of approximately 580 million years ago. Their skeletons consist of siliceous, monaxonal spicules. All are referred to as the Porifera, class Demospongiae. Preserved soft tissues include the epidermis, porocytes, amoebocytes, sclerocytes, and spongocoel. Among thousands of metazoan embryos is a parenchymella-type of sponge larvae having a shoe-shaped morphology and dense peripheral flagella. The presence of possible amphiblastula larva suggests that the calcareous sponges may have an extended history in the Late Precambrian. The fauna indicates that animals lived 40 to 50 million years before the Cambrian Explosion.

  6. Is the universe a sponge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Does the large-scale universe look more like meatballs, like Swiss cheese or like a sponge? The differences between these types of universe are described in J Richard Gott's The Cosmic Web: Mysterious Architecture of the Universe.

  7. Crouching shells, hidden sponges: Unusual Late Ordovician cavities containing sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jino; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Hong, Jongsun; Choh, Suk-Joo; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Marine cavities harbouring cryptic organisms have been ubiquitous throughout the Phanerozoic. However, our knowledge of early cryptic communities is as yet insufficient, and how metazoans began to utilize such habitats remains unknown. In this study, we document demosponge remains within intraskeletal cavities embedded in the micritic succession of a shallow carbonate platform in the Upper Ordovician (Katian) Xiazhen Formation of South China. Molluscs (gastropods, bivalves, and nautiloids) and corals (the solitary rugosan Tryplasma and colonial agetolitids) within the succession commonly contain patches of "spicular" demosponge remains (11%; n = 45/415), mainly occupying intraskeletal spaces with areas of 1-30 mm2 in thin-section. Sponge occurrence varies according to sedimentary facies: within lime mudstone facies, sponges commonly occur both inside and outside intraskeletal cavities, suggesting that sponges would have inhabited and become preserved within any available space in this environment. In contrast, when other sessile organisms co-occur in wackestone to packstone facies, there are fewer sponge occurrences both inside and outside cavities, possibly due to competition in open habitats and/or their poorer preservation in such environments. Overall, this result suggests that sponges would have exploited cryptic habitats by normal expansion of the open-surface biota. In addition, compared with coeval reef and hardground crypts, the Xiazhen intraskeletal cryptic biota is monotonous in composition, suggesting "decoupled" occupation of cryptic habitats in different environments.

  8. Martian 'Kitchen Sponge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. It shows a tiny 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer (0.62 x 0.62 mile) area of the martian north polar residual ice cap as it appears in summertime.

    The surface looks somewhat like that of a kitchen sponge--it is flat on top and has many closely-spaced pits of no more than 2 meters (5.5 ft) depth. The upper, flat surface in this image has a medium-gray tone, while the pit interiors are darker gray. Each pit is generally 10 to 20 meters (33-66 feet) across. The pits probably form as water ice sublimes--going directly from solid to vapor--during the martian northern summer seasons. The pits probably develop over thousands of years. This texture is very different from what is seen in the south polar cap, where considerably larger and more circular depressions are found to resemble slices of swiss cheese rather than a kitchen sponge.

    This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on March 8, 1999. It was one of the very last 'calibration' images taken before the start of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission, and its goal was to determine whether the MOC was properly focused. The crisp appearance of the edges of the pits confirmed that the instrument was focused and ready for its 1-Mars Year mapping mission. The scene is located near 86.9oN, 207.5oW, and has a resolution of about 1.4 meters (4 ft, 7 in) per pixel.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Analysis of sponge zones for computational fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bodony, Daniel J. . E-mail: bodony@stanford.edu

    2006-03-01

    The use of sponge regions, or sponge zones, which add the forcing term -{sigma}(q - q {sub ref}) to the right-hand-side of the governing equations in computational fluid mechanics as an ad hoc boundary treatment is widespread. They are used to absorb and minimize reflections from computational boundaries and as forcing sponges to introduce prescribed disturbances into a calculation. A less common usage is as a means of extending a calculation from a smaller domain into a larger one, such as in computing the far-field sound generated in a localized region. By analogy to the penalty method of finite elements, the method is placed on a solid foundation, complete with estimates of convergence. The analysis generalizes the work of Israeli and Orszag [M. Israeli, S.A. Orszag, Approximation of radiation boundary conditions, J. Comp. Phys. 41 (1981) 115-135] and confirms their findings when applied as a special case to one-dimensional wave propagation in an absorbing sponge. It is found that the rate of convergence of the actual solution to the target solution, with an appropriate norm, is inversely proportional to the sponge strength. A detailed analysis for acoustic wave propagation in one-dimension verifies the convergence rate given by the general theory. The exponential point-wise convergence derived by Israeli and Orszag in the high-frequency limit is recovered and found to hold over all frequencies. A weakly nonlinear analysis of the method when applied to Burgers' equation shows similar convergence properties. Three numerical examples are given to confirm the analysis: the acoustic extension of a two-dimensional time-harmonic point source, the acoustic extension of a three-dimensional initial-value problem of a sound pulse, and the introduction of unstable eigenmodes from linear stability theory into a two-dimensional shear layer.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - DYNAPHORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that has selective affinity for dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. The Forager™ Sponge technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy me...

  11. Capillary rise in cellulose sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-11-01

    A cellulose sponge, commonly used for clean-up jobs, can absorb and hold a significant amount of water within its pores, whose size ranges from micrometers to millimeters. We investigate the dynamics of capillary rise of water in the sponge using a combination of experiment and theory. We find that the rate of the capillary rise is significantly lower than Washburn's rule that assumes the sponge as a row of adjoined pores and the liquid flow to be driven by the Laplace pressure. We introduce a novel theory to model the flow in the hygroscopic porous media by combining Darcy's law based on the moisture concentration and the modified Young-Laplace equation. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results.

  12. The systematics of carnivorous sponges.

    PubMed

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Vacelet, Jean; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Borchiellini, Carole; Kelly, Michelle; Ríos, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges are characterized by their unique method of capturing mesoplanktonic prey coupled with the complete or partial reduction of the aquiferous system characteristic of the phylum Porifera. Current systematics place the vast majority of carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, with certain species assigned to Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae. Morphological characters have not been able to show whether this classification is evolutionary accurate, and whether carnivory has evolved once or in several lineages. In the present paper we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group. Molecular phylogenies were inferred using 18S rDNA and a combined dataset of partial 28S rDNA, COI and ALG11 sequences. The results recovered carnivorous sponges as a clade closely related to the families Mycalidae and Guitarridae, showing family Cladorhizidae to be monophyletic and also including carnivorous species currently placed in other families. The genus Lycopodina is resurrected for species currently placed in the paraphyletic subgenus Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) featuring forceps spicules and lacking sigmas or sigmancistras. The genera Chondrocladia and Cladorhiza are found to be monophyletic. However, results indicate that the subgenus Chondrocladia is polyphyletic with respect to the subgenera Meliiderma and Symmetrocladia. Euchelipluma, formerly Guitarridae, is retained, but transferred to Cladorhizidae. The four known carnivorous species currently in Esperiopsis are transferred to Abyssocladia. Neocladia is a junior homonym and is here renamed Koltunicladia. Our results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in sponges has evolved only once. While spicule characters mostly reflect monophyletic groups at the generic level, differences between genera represent evolution within family

  13. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  14. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  15. Sputter Deposition of Metallic Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-01-18

    Metallic films are grown with a sponge-like morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous porosity on the sub-micron scale. The stabilization of the metallic sponge is directly correlated with a limited range for the sputter deposition parameters of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This sponge-like morphology augments the features as generally understood in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross-section with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) for the deposition processing under which the metallic sponges are produced appear universal for many metals, as for example, including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  16. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera)

    PubMed Central

    Van Soest, Rob W. M.; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J.; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N. A.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all ‘known’ sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future. PMID:22558119

  17. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N A

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all 'known' sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future.

  18. The crystalline sponge method updated

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore–solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = −0.0071 (11)] represents the

  19. Diapause and estivation in sponges.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    Sponges can be found in fresh or saltwater habitats. As part of their life cycle, many sponges produce gemmules as a means of surviving environmental challenge. In most sponges, the gemmules contain cells that are initially in a state of metabolic arrest that is controlled by endogenous factors. This state is known as diapause. Following a period of exposure to unfavorable conditions, the cells in the gemmule transit from diapause into a state known as quiescence in which metabolic depression is controlled by environmental factors. When favorable conditions return, the gemmules germinate and produce a new sponge. Production of gemmules is triggered by environmental factors such as decreased temperature or desiccation and involves cell aggregation of thesocytes and the laying down of the gemmule coat. Thesocytes contain yolk platelets as an energy store and high concentrations of polyols that maintain high osmotic concentration in the cells of the gemmules. The high osmotic concentration maintains metabolic depression and turns off cell division. It is the inability to reduce the osmotic concentration that maintains the gemmules in diapause. Transition to quiescence requires the ability of the cells in the gemmules to convert the polyols to glycogen, and thus reduce the osmotic concentration. At this stage, the cells are able to reduce osmotic concentration but do not until favorable conditions return. Early in the germination process, the polyols are converted to glycogen, reducing the osmotic pressure and releasing the inhibition of cell division and metabolic rate. Both cell division and metabolic rate increase eventually leading to germination of the gemmules and production of a new sponge.

  20. The Homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella lobularis, a promising sponge model in evolutionary and developmental biology: model sponge Oscarella lobularis.

    PubMed

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Borchiellini, Carole; Gazave, Eve; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Lapébie, Pascal; Perez, Thierry; Renard, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Sponges branch basally in the metazoan phylogenetic tree and are believed to be composed of four distinct lineages with still uncertain relationships. Indeed, some molecular studies propose that Homoscleromorpha may be a fourth Sponge lineage, distinct from Demospongiae in which they were traditionally classified. They harbour many features that distinguish them from other sponges and are more evocative of those of the eumetazoans. They are notably the only sponges to possess a basement membrane with collagen IV and specialized cell-junctions, thus possessing true epithelia. Among Homoscleromorphs, we have chosen Oscarella lobularis as a model species. This common and easily accessible sponge is characterized by relatively simple histology and cell composition, absence of skeleton, and strongly pronounced epithelial structure. In this review, we explore the specific features that make O. lobularis a promising homoscleromorph sponge model for evolutionary and developmental researches.

  1. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  2. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  3. Critical behavior of the ferromagnetic q -state Potts model in fractal dimensions: Monte Carlo simulations on Sierpinski and Menger fractal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The extension of the phase diagram of the q -state Potts model to noninteger dimension is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations on Sierpinski and Menger fractal structures. Both multicanonical and canonical simulations have been carried out with the help of the Wang-Landau and the Wolff cluster algorithms. Lower bounds are provided for the critical values qc of q where a first-order transition is expected in the cases of two structures whose fractal dimension is smaller than 2: The transitions associated with the seven-state and ten-state Potts models on Sierpinski carpets with fractal dimensions df≃1.8928 and df≃1.7925 , respectively, are shown to be second-order ones, the renormalization eigenvalue exponents yh are calculated, and bounds are provided for the renormalization eigenvalue exponents yt and the critical temperatures. Moreover, the results suggest that second-order transitions are expected to occur for very large values of q when the fractal dimension is lowered below 2—that is, in the case of hierarchically weakly connected systems with an infinite ramification order. At last, the transition associated with the four-state Potts model on a fractal structure with a dimension df≃2.631 is shown to be a weakly first-order one.

  4. Terminating marine methane bubbles by superhydrophobic sponges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Wang, Jingming; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2012-11-14

    Marine methane bubbles are absorbed, steadily stored, and continuously transported based on the employment of superhydrophobic sponges. Antiwetting sponges are water-repellent in the atmosphere and absorb gas bubbles under water. Their capacity to store methane bubbles increases with enhanced submerged depth. Significantly, trapped methane bubbles can be continuously transported driven by differential pressure.

  5. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  6. Medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Indridason, O S; Thomas, L; Berkoben, M

    1996-08-01

    Medullary sponge kidney is a developmental disorder characterized by ectatic and cystic malformation of the collecting ducts and tubules. Clinical manifestations include urinary tract infections, renal stones, and hematuria. It can be associated with other developmental disorders. A case of medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy, complicated by nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, is reported here.

  7. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-12-26

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs.

  8. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati R.; Kneisel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area.

  9. Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality.

    PubMed

    de Caralt, Sònia; Uriz, María J; Wijffels, René H

    2007-10-01

    Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a new source of sponge material for cell culture. Stem cells are present in high amounts in embryos and are more versatile and resistant to infections than adult cells. Additionally, genetic engineering and cellular research on apoptotic mechanisms are promising new fields that might help to improve cell survival in sponge-cell lines. We propose that one topic for future research should be how to reduce apoptosis, which appears to be very high in sponge cell cultures.

  10. Medullary sponge kidney in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Patriquin, H.B.; O'Regan, S.

    1985-08-01

    Medullary sponge kidney is reported in six children aged 2-18 years. One child was asymptomatic; the others had hematuria or a urine-concentrating defect. Renal function and size were otherwise normal, as was liver function. The diagnosis was made at excretory urography according to criteria established in adults. Sonography revealed hyperechogenic pyramids, at first at the periphery, later generalized. Computed tomography is very sensitive to the pyramidal nephrocalcinosis that complicates this disease and explains the frequent presenting symptom of hematuria in these children.

  11. Cultivation of sponges, sponge cells and symbionts: achievements and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Klaske J; Sipkema, Detmer; Osinga, Ronald; Smidt, Hauke; Pomponi, Shirley A; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2012-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential. Since biological production is one option to supply materials for early drug development, the main challenge is to establish generic techniques for small-scale production of marine organisms. We analysed the state of the art for cultivation of whole sponges, sponge cells and sponge symbionts. To date, cultivation of whole sponges has been most successful in situ; however, optimal conditions are species specific. The establishment of sponge cell lines has been limited by the inability to obtain an axenic inoculum as well as the lack of knowledge on nutritional requirements in vitro. Approaches to overcome these bottlenecks, including transformation of sponge cells and using media based on yolk, are elaborated. Although a number of bioactive metabolite-producing microorganisms have been isolated from sponges, and it has been suggested that the source of most sponge-derived bioactive compounds is microbial symbionts, cultivation of sponge-specific microorganisms has had limited success. The current genomics revolution provides novel approaches to cultivate these microorganisms.

  12. Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Thomas H P

    2010-12-23

    Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges.

  13. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals.

  14. Sponges of the Guyana Shelf.

    PubMed

    VAN Soest, Rob W M

    2017-01-12

    Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments). The collection yielded 119 species together belonging to all sponge classes, but in large majority are Demospongiae. All species are identified to species level, occasionally tentatively, and all are described and illustrated. A new subgenus is proposed, Tedania (Stylotedania) subgen. nov. and a previously synonymized genus, Tylosigma Topsent, 1894 is revived. Thirtysix species were found to be new to science, excluding the first Central West Atlantic record of the genus Halicnemia, not named at the species level because of lack of sufficient material. The new species erected are, in alphabetical order: Amphoriscus ancora sp. nov., Biemna rhabdotylostylota sp. nov., Callyspongia (Callyspongia) scutica sp. nov., Chelonaplysilla americana sp. nov., Cladocroce guyanensis sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) gomezae sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) snelliusae sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) complanata sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) zeai sp. nov., Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) lissodendoryxoides sp. nov., Craniella crustocorticata sp. nov., Diplastrella spirastrelloides sp. nov., Epipolasis tubulata sp. nov., Erylus rhabdocoronatus sp. nov., Erylus surinamensis sp. nov., Geodia pocillum sp. nov., Geodia sulcata sp. nov., Hemiasterella camelus sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) alcoladoi sp. nov., Hymenancora cristoboi sp. nov., Penares sineastra sp. nov., Hymerhabdia kobluki sp

  15. Intravaginal contraceptive sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9. The development of sponge for clinical efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Takano, R

    1980-10-01

    Newly designed intravaginal polyurethane sponges containing the spermicide nonoxynol-9 were developed for contraceptive purposes. The sponges were made by the polymerization of urethane monomers in a solution of nonoxynol-9. This new biomaterial is analogous to a large, thick cervical cup with a dimple in the center for ease of insertion and positioning to the cervix (and external os). There is no need for precoital planning or preparation for usage of this sponge. The release of the spermicidal agent from the sponges was 1st determined by soaking the sponges in saline and squeezing the nonoxynol-9 solution from them. In order to determine the actual amount of nonoxynol-9 released from the sponge, 2 analytic techniques were used. 1 method was ultraviolet spectoscopy and its accuracy ranged from 85-97%. The other was bioassay for the spermicidal activity and its accuracy ranged from 100-124%. To simulate the actual wearing of the sponge by a patient, the sponges were soaked in a large volume of saline and almost 50% of the spermicidal agent was released during the first 24 hours. In conjunction with the laboratory studies, a limited study to determine acceptability of the devices was investigated in normal women. The women were asked to wear the sponges for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 consecutive days. It was found that all women in the population could not tolerate the sponge longer than 5 days due to the odor. Thus, with the good release rates for 2-4 days and patient acceptability for 2 days of wear, a protocol for the use of the intravaginal sponge as a 2-day device was established. (author's)

  16. Environmental Shaping of Sponge Associated Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Aline S.; Batista, Daniela; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Martins, Orlando B.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Conclusion/Significance The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated

  17. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a...

  18. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a...

  19. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a...

  1. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a...

  2. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  3. Solvent disperser for removing oil from sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Di Foggio, R.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes method for dispersing solvent for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, comprising: (a) receiving solvent dripping downwardly, and (b) conducting the received solvent by means of capillary action to an application zone located and dimensioned for passing such solvent to the sponge in a sponge core barrel.

  4. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  5. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  6. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  7. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  8. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse and distinct sponge-specific microbial communities in sponges from a single geographical location in Irish waters.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stephen A; Kennedy, Jonathan; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2012-07-01

    Marine sponges are host to numerically vast and phylogenetically diverse bacterial communities, with 26 major phyla to date having been found in close association with sponge species worldwide. Analyses of these microbial communities have revealed many sponge-specific novel genera and species. These endosymbiotic microbes are believed to play significant roles in sponge physiology including the production of an array of bioactive secondary metabolites. Here, we report on the use of culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) techniques to elucidate the bacterial community profiles associated with the marine sponges Raspailia ramosa and Stelligera stuposa sampled from a single geographical location in Irish waters and with ambient seawater. To date, little is known about the microbial ecology of sponges of these genera. Culture isolation grossly underestimated sponge-associated bacterial diversity. Four bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria) were represented amongst ~200 isolates, compared with ten phyla found using pyrosequencing. Long average read lengths of ~430 bp (V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene) allowed for robust resolution of sequences to genus level. Bacterial OTUs (2,109 total), at 95% sequence similarity, from ten bacterial phyla were recovered from R. ramosa, 349 OTUs were identified in S. stuposa representing eight phyla, while 533 OTUs from six phyla were found in surrounding seawater. Bacterial communities differed significantly between sponge species and the seawater. Analysis of the data for sponge-specific taxa revealed that 2.8% of classified reads from the sponge R. ramosa can be defined as sponge-specific, while 26% of S. stuposa sequences represent sponge-specific bacteria. Novel sponge-specific clusters were identified, whereas the majority of previously reported sponge-specific clusters (e.g. Poribacteria) were absent from these sponge species. This deep and robust analysis provides further

  9. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxiang; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Shuping; Gui, Xuchun; Wei, Hongqiu; Leng, Jinsong; Koratkar, Nikhil; Zhong, Jing

    2016-04-07

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nanocomposite results in high electrical conductivity, and thus highly effective electricity triggering capability. The carbon nanotube sponge shape memory polymer (CNTS/SMPs) nanocomposite could be triggered within ~10 seconds by the application of ~10 volts. Results from finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that for our system the interface thermal energy loss does not have a significant effect on the heating rate of the polymer matrix.

  10. Polycyclic Guanidine Alkaloids from Poecilosclerida Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Sfecci, Estelle; Lacour, Thierry; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2016-04-09

    Sessile marine sponges provide an abundance of unique and diversified scaffolds. In particular, marine guanidine alkaloids display a very wide range of biological applications. A large number of cyclic guanidine alkaloids, including crambines, crambescins, crambescidins, batzelladines or netamins have been isolated from Poecilosclerida marine sponges. In this review, we will explore the chemodiversity of tri- and pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids. NMR and MS data tools will also be provided, and an overview of the wide range of bioactivities of crambescidins and batzelladines derivatives will be given.

  11. A system-wide initiative to prevent retained vaginal sponges.

    PubMed

    Chagolla, Brenda A; Gibbs, Verna C; Keats, John P; Pelletreau, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As any perinatal nurse knows, retained vaginal sponges are an obstetrical and postpartum patient safety problem. As surgical sponge counts are not routine in some obstetrical units for vaginal births, our healthcare system chose to institute a rigorous process to eliminate retained sponges in all vaginal births. This article describes this process, along with the lessons learned, when Catholic Healthcare West implemented the Sponge ACCOUNTing System in its 32 hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Implementation of this process involved the standardization of practice for obstetricians, certified nurse midwives, nurses, obstetric technicians, radiologists, and radiology technicians in the management and accounting of surgical sponges.

  12. Sponges carrying self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Josef, Elinor; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2013-12-15

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) increase the solubility of lipophilic drugs. One barrier to their wide application is their liquid nature. We report on a new method to solidify SMEDDS-their incorporation in sponges made from a hydrophilic natural polymer. Using different freeze-drying schemes, sponges were prepared from alginate gels containing microemulsions. The sponges' structures were studied with scanning electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. The oil droplets survived the drying process, and SMEDDS were present as 9 nm-sized objects in the dried sponges. The sponges were rehydrated in water, and evidence of the presence of SMEDDS in the rehydrated sponges was found. A model hydrophobic molecule, Nile red, was soluble in all dry and rehydrated sponges. SMEDDS containing Nile red were gradually released from the sponges, at a rate that depended on the drying method. The equilibrium water uptake of the sponges was also found to be influenced by the drying scheme. The combination of SMEDDS and sponges may be a way to overcome the disadvantages of each component separately, provide a solid dosage form for SMEDDS that can sustain the release of drugs and also enable utilization of hydrophilic sponges for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  13. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges.

    PubMed

    Webster, N S; Luter, H M; Soo, R M; Botté, E S; Simister, R L; Abdo, D; Whalan, S

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65-100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral) specific sequence clusters (SC). These SC spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0 to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental perturbation.

  14. Origin of Metazoa: sponges as living fossils.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E

    1998-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Porifera (sponges) is at the base of the kingdom Metazoa. During the past few years not only rDNA sequences but--and this was a major advance--even cDNAs/genes have been isolated and characterized from sponges, especially from the marine demosponge Geodia cydonium, which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa.

  15. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Patrucco, A; Cristofaro, F; Simionati, M; Zoccola, M; Bruni, G; Fassina, L; Visai, L; Magenes, G; Mossotti, R; Montarsolo, A; Tonin, C

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications.

  16. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. PMID:21116410

  17. Sponge-Associated Microorganisms: Evolution, Ecology, and Biotechnological Potential†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael W.; Radax, Regina; Steger, Doris; Wagner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations. PMID:17554047

  18. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  19. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-04

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications.

  20. Impact absorption properties of carbon fiber reinforced bucky sponges.

    PubMed

    Thevamaran, Ramathasan; Saini, Deepika; Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Daraio, Chiara

    2017-03-24

    We describe the super compressible and highly recoverable response of bucky sponges as they are struck by a heavy flat-punch striker. The bucky sponges studied here are structurally stable, self-assembled mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon fibers (CFs). We engineered the microstructure of the sponges by controlling their porosity using different CF contents. Their mechanical properties and energy dissipation characteristics during impact loading are presented as a function of their composition. The inclusion of CFs improves the impact force damping by up to 50% and the specific damping capacity by up to 7% compared to bucky sponges without CFs. The sponges also exhibit significantly better stress mitigation characteristics compared to vertically aligned carbon nanotube foams of similar densities. We show that delamination on the MWCNT-CF interfaces occurs during unloading, and arises from the heterogeneous fibrous microstructure of the bucky sponges.

  1. Three dimensional MOF-sponge for fast dynamic adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Wenbo; Yang, Qiang; Li, Yanan; Gu, Zhenkun; Song, Yanlin

    2017-02-22

    Nowadays, environmental pollution is a big problem. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) provide a novel strategy for exhaust gases adsorption and toxic pollutants removal. We proposed a facile and versatile method to prepare a highly efficient three dimensional MOF-sponge by coating MOF crystals on polyurethane sponge surface, mimicking the porous structure of the marine animal, sponge. Owing to combination of the spatial structure of the commercial sponge and the excellent adsorption capacity of MOF coatings, the MOF-sponge possessed good permeability and high dynamic adsorption capacity. Dynamic adsorption ability of the prepared Cu3(BTC)2-sponge was demonstrated by flowing gas-mixtures of NH3/N2 and an aquatic solution of Rhodamine B through it, with a capacity of 101.6 mg g(-1) and 8.8 mg g(-1) for NH3 and Rhodamine B, respectively.

  2. Modeling the Distribution of Geodia Sponges and Sponge Grounds in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Knudby, Anders; Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds provide structurally complex habitat for fish and invertebrates and enhance local biodiversity. They are also vulnerable to bottom-contact fisheries and prime candidates for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem designation and related conservation action. This study uses species distribution modeling, based on presence and absence observations of Geodia spp. and sponge grounds derived from research trawl catches, as well as spatially continuous data on the physical and biological ocean environment derived from satellite data and oceanographic models, to model the distribution of Geodia sponges and sponge grounds in the Northwest Atlantic. Most models produce excellent fits with validation data although fits are reduced when models are extrapolated to new areas, especially when oceanographic regimes differ between areas. Depth and minimum bottom salinity were important predictors in most models, and a Geodia spp. minimum bottom salinity tolerance threshold in the 34.3-34.8 psu range was hypothesized on the basis of model structure. The models indicated two currently unsampled regions within the study area, the deeper parts of Baffin Bay and the Newfoundland and Labrador slopes, where future sponge grounds are most likely to be found. PMID:24324768

  3. Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).

    PubMed

    Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a

  4. Sponge-rhodolith interactions in a subtropical estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Enrique; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    The interactions between sponges and red macroalgae have been widely documented in tropical and subtropical environments worldwide, and many of them have been documented as mutualistic associations. Sponges, however, have also been frequently described as part of the associated fauna of rhodolith habitats (aggregations of free-living non-geniculated coralline macroalgae). Nonetheless, the types of interaction they establish as well as the role of sponges in these habitats remain unknown. In this study, the associations between sponges and rhodoliths were investigated in an estuarine ecosystem of the Mexican Pacific based on qualitative and quantitative data. A total of 13 sponge species were identified in five newly discovered rhodolith beds dominated by the non-geniculate coralline macroalga Lithophyllum margaritae. The sponge assemblages were strongly restricted to rhodolith habitats. The best predictor of sponge abundance (from 5.1 to 51.7 ind m-2) and species richness (from 2.6 to 6.1 sponge species m-2) was the rhodolith density rather than other population descriptors assessed (e.g., average size, branch density and sphericity). The identified sponges included a variety of forms: massive (46 %), encrusting (23 %), excavating (15 %), cushion-shape (8 %) and digitate (8 %). Moreover, more than 50 % of sponge species recorded (mainly massive and encrusting forms) were frequently found overgrowing and binding rhodoliths. Halichondria cf. semitubulosa and Mycale cecilia were the most common binding agents; these species bind an average of 3.1 and 6.6 rhodoliths per sponge individual, respectively. These findings reveal the importance of rhodoliths as habitat forming species, since these seaweed beds notably increased the substrate complexity in soft bottom environments. In addition, the relatively high abundance of sponges and their capability to bind rhodoliths suggest that these associated organisms could have an important contribution to rhodolith bed stability.

  5. Capillary rise and swelling in cellulose sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    A cellulose sponge, which is a mundane example of a porous hydrophilic structure, can absorb and hold a significant amount of liquid. We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of the capillary imbibition of various aqueous solutions in the sponge that swells at the same time. We find that the rate of water rise against the resistance caused by gravitational and viscous effects deviates from Washburn's rule beyond a certain threshold height. We rationalize the novel power law of the rise height versus time by combining Darcy's law with hygroscopic swelling equation and also predict the threshold height. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results, shedding light on the physics of capillary flow in deforming porous media.

  6. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges.

  7. Hydrophobic sponge structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Young; Chun, Jinsung; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Kyeong Nam; Kang, Na-Ri; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Myung Hwa; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Baik, Jeong Min; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-08-06

    Hydrophobic sponge structure-based triboelectric nanogenerators using an inverse opal structured film for sustainable energy harvesting over a wide range of humid atmosphere have been successfully demonstrated. The output voltage and current density reach a record value of 130 V and 0.10 mA cm(-2) , respectively, giving over 10-fold power enhancement, compared with the flat film-based triboelectric nanogenerator.

  8. Deciphering Galactic Hydrogen with 21-SPONGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Claire; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Goss, Miller; Heiles, Carl E.; Miller Dickey, John; Lindner, Robert; Babler, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial to the life cycles of galaxies. The balance between disparate phases of HI -- including the cold neutral (CNM) and warm neutral (WNM) medium -- governs the formation of dense, star-forming material, and reflects the nature of feedback in galaxies. To probe the multi-phase structure of HI, we present results from 21-SPONGE: the largest and most sensitive survey for Galactic HI absorption ever at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Complemented by HI emission from the Arecibo Observatory, 21-SPONGE is uniquely sensitive to CNM and WNM temperatures from 10-104 K and column densities from 1018-1022 cm-2. Despite our unprecedented sensitivity, the maximum temperature we detect for individual spectral lines is Ts~1500 K, although stacking analysis of 21-SPONGE absorption lines indicates the presence of pervasive, high-Ts WNM population with Ts~7000 K. To understand the physics underlying these results, we developed Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), a Python-based tool for efficiently and objectively analyzing spectral lines. By applying AGD to 21-SPONGE and 1000s of synthetic HI spectra from 3D numerical simulations, we correct our measurements for completeness and observational biases. We further prove that we can successfully recover the temperatures and densities of real clouds along simulated lines of sight. In addition, we show that absorption line shapes are sensitive to the strength and topology of the Lyman alpha radiation field and its role in HI excitation, which are poorly-constrained yet important for understanding the energy balance of the ISM. Our results are among the first to statistically quantify the success of observational methods at reproducing true HI properties, and represent crucial steps towards understanding the role of HI in star formation.

  9. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  10. Temperature thresholds for bacterial symbiosis with a sponge.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole S; Cobb, Rose E; Negri, Andrew P

    2008-08-01

    The impact of elevated seawater temperature on bacterial communities within the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile was assessed. Sponges were exposed to temperatures ranging between 27 and 33 degrees C. No differences in bacterial community composition or sponge health were detected in treatments between 27 and 31 degrees C. In contrast, sponges exposed to 33 degrees C exhibited a complete loss of the primary cultivated symbiont within 24 h and cellular necrosis after 3 days. Furthermore, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence analysis detected a dramatic shift in bacterial community composition between 31 and 33 degrees C. Within the first 24 h most of the DGGE bands detected in samples from 27 to 31 degrees C were absent from the 33 degrees C sponges whereas eight bands were detected exclusively in the 33 degrees C sponges. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that most of the microbes from sponges exposed to 27-31 degrees C had highest homology to known sponge-associated bacteria. In contrast, many of the microbes from sponges exposed to 33 degrees C were similar to sequences previously retrieved from diseased and bleached corals. The 16S rRNA clone library analysis also detected a significant shift in bacterial community structure. The 27 degrees C library was composed of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi whereas the 33 degrees C library contained sequences from the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The clear shifts in community composition at elevated temperatures can be attributed to the loss of symbionts and to the establishment of alien microbial populations including potential pathogens. Breakdown of symbioses and stress in the sponge occurred at temperatures identical to those reported for coral bleaching, indicating that sponges may be similarly threatened by climate change.

  11. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    PubMed Central

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  12. Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These

  13. Chloroflexi bacteria are more diverse, abundant, and similar in high than in low microbial abundance sponges.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Susanne; Deines, Peter; Behnam, Faris; Wagner, Michael; Taylor, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    Some marine sponges harbor dense and phylogenetically complex microbial communities [high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges] whereas others contain only few and less diverse microorganisms [low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges]. We focused on the phylum Chloroflexi that frequently occurs in sponges to investigate the different associations with three HMA and three LMA sponges from New Zealand. By applying a range of microscopical and molecular techniques a clear dichotomy between HMA and LMA sponges was observed: Chloroflexi bacteria were more abundant and diverse in HMA than in LMA sponges. Moreover, different HMA sponges contain similar Chloroflexi communities whereas LMA sponges harbor different and more variable communities which partly resemble Chloroflexi seawater communities. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of our own and publicly available sponge-derived Chloroflexi 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 780 sequences) revealed the enormous diversity of this phylum within sponges including 29 sponge-specific and sponge-coral clusters (SSC/SCC) as well as a 'supercluster' consisting of > 250 sponge-derived and a single nonsponge-derived 16S rRNA gene sequence. Interestingly, the majority of sequences obtained from HMA sponges, but only a few from LMA sponges, fell into SSC/SCC clusters. This indicates a much more specific association of Chloroflexi bacteria with HMA sponges and suggests an ecologically important role for these prominent bacteria.

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored.

  15. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  16. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  17. DYNAPHORE, INC. FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...

  18. The Dimension of the Pore Space in Sponges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, L. H. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm[superscript -3] was 2.948 [plus or minus] 0.008. (Contains 2 figures.)

  19. Advancement into the Arctic region for bioactive sponge secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  20. Potential of sponges and microalgae for marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wijffels, René H

    2008-01-01

    Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. In this paper two examples are described: the development of marine drugs from sponges and the use of microalgae to produce bulk chemicals and biofuels. Many sponges produce bioactive compounds with important potential applications as medical drugs. Recent developments in metagenomics, in the culturing of associated microorganisms from sponges and in the development of sponge cell-lines have the potential to solve the issue of supply, which is the main limitation for sponge exploitation. For the production of microalgal products at larger scales and the production of biofuels, major technological breakthroughs need to be realized to increase the product yield.

  1. Oil spill cleanup from sea water by carbon nanotube sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ke; Shang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng-Zhan; Li, Zhen; Li, Xin-Ming; Wei, Jin-Quan; Wang, Kun-Lin; Wu, De-Hai; Cao, An-Yuan; Zhu, Hong-Wei

    2013-06-01

    Oil spills in the sea have caused many serious environmental problems worldwide. In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges were used to cleanup oil slicks on sea waters. This method was compared with two traditional representative sorbents, including polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt. The CNT sponges had a larger oil sorption capacity than the other two sorbents. The maximum oil sorption capacity ( Q m) of the CNT sponge was 92.30 g/g, which was 12 to 13.5 times larger than the Q m of the other two sorbents (the Q m of the polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt were 7.45 and 6.74 g/g, respectively). In addition, unlike the other two sorbents, the CNT sponge was superhydrophobic and did not adsorb any water during oil spill cleanup. CNT sponges are potentially very useful for cleaning up oil spills from sea water.

  2. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  3. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  4. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  5. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  6. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  7. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  8. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  9. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  10. The sterols of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Andrea; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2008-11-01

    Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and Calcaronea were analysed for their sterol content. Two major pseudohomologous series were found, accompanied by some additional sterols. The first series encompassing conventional C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,22) sterols represented the major sterols, with ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol, C(28)Delta(5,7,22)) being most prominent in many species. The second series consisted of unusual C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,9(11),22) sterols. Cholesterol occurred sporadically, mostly in trace amounts. The sterol patterns did not resolve intraclass phylogenetic relationships, namely the distinction between the subclasses, Calcinea and Calcaronea. This pointed towards major calcarean lipid traits being established prior to the separation of subclasses. Furthermore, calcarean sterol patterns clearly differ from those found in Hexactinellida, whereas partial overlap occurred with some Demospongiae. Hence, sterols only partly reflect the phylogenetic separation of Calcarea from both of the other poriferan classes that was proposed by recent molecular work and fatty acid analyses.

  11. Origin of Metazoa: Sponges as Living Fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Werner E. G.

    1998-01-01

    , which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa.

  12. Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry.

  13. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ5, Δ7 and Δ5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  14. Marine Sponges as a Drug Treasure

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Akhter, Najeeb; Batool, Sundas; Hassan, Syed Shams ul

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges have been considered as a drug treasure house with respect to great potential regarding their secondary metabolites. Most of the studies have been conducted on sponge’s derived compounds to examine its pharmacological properties. Such compounds proved to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antitumor, immunosuppressive, and cardiovascular activity. Although, the mode of action of many compounds by which they interfere with human pathogenesis have not been clear till now, in this review not only the capability of the medicinal substances have been examined in vitro and in vivo against serious pathogenic microbes but, the mode of actions of medicinal compounds were explained with diagrammatic illustrations. This knowledge is one of the basic components to be known especially for transforming medicinal molecules to medicines. Sponges produce a different kind of chemical substances with numerous carbon skeletons, which have been found to be the main component interfering with human pathogenesis at different sites. The fact that different diseases have the capability to fight at different sites inside the body can increase the chances to produce targeted medicines. PMID:27350338

  15. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  16. Ankyrin-repeat proteins from sponge symbionts modulate amoebal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mary T H D; Liu, Michael; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-eukaryote symbiosis occurs in all stages of evolution, from simple amoebae to mammals, and from facultative to obligate associations. Sponges are ancient metazoans that form intimate symbiotic interactions with complex communities of bacteria. The basic nutritional requirements of the sponge are in part satisfied by the phagocytosis of bacterial food particles from the surrounding water. How bacterial symbionts, which are permanently associated with the sponge, survive in the presence of phagocytic cells is largely unknown. Here, we present the discovery of a genomic fragment from an uncultured gamma-proteobacterial sponge symbiont that encodes for four proteins, whose closest known relatives are found in a sponge genome. Through recombinant approaches, we show that these four eukaryotic-like, ankyrin-repeat proteins (ARP) when expressed in Eschericha coli can modulate phagocytosis of amoebal cells and lead to accumulation of bacteria in the phagosome. Mechanistically, two ARPs appear to interfere with phagosome development in a similar way to reduced vacuole acidification, by blocking the fusion of the early phagosome with the lysosome and its digestive enzymes. Our results show that ARP from sponge symbionts can function to interfere with phagocytosis, and we postulate that this might be one mechanism by which symbionts can escape digestion in a sponge host.

  17. Release of vancomycin from multilayer coated absorbent gelatin sponges.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anita; Fang, Jean C; Puranam, Sravanthi; Hammond, Paula T

    2012-01-10

    Wounds have the potential to become infected during any surgical procedure. Gelatin sponges that are commonly used to absorb blood during invasive surgeries would benefit tremendously if they released antibiotics. In this work, we have examined coating a commercial gelatin sponge with degradable polymer multilayer films containing vancomycin. The effect of the film on sponge absorption capabilities and the effect of the sponge on drug release kinetics were both examined. Application of vancomycin containing layer-by-layer assembled films to this highly porous substrate greatly increased drug loading up to approximately 880% compared to a flat substrate. Vancomycin drug release was extended out to 6 days compared to 2 days for film coated flat substrates. Additionally, the absorbent properties of the gelatin sponge were actually enhanced by up to 170% due to the presence of the vancomycin film coating. A comparison of film coated sponges with sponges soaked directly in vancomycin demonstrated the ability of the multilayer films to control drug release. Film released vancomycin was also found to remain highly therapeutic with unchanged antimicrobial properties compared to the neat drug, demonstrated by quantifying vancomycin activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

  18. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  19. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed. PMID:27144573

  20. Shape Memory Silk Protein Sponges for Minimally Invasive Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph E; Moreau, Jodie E; Berman, Alison M; McSherry, Heather J; Coburn, Jeannine M; Schmidt, Daniel F; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    Porous silk protein scaffolds are designed to display shape memory characteristics and volumetric recovery following compression. Two strategies are utilized to realize shape recovery: addition of hygroscopic plasticizers like glycerol, and tyrosine modifications with hydrophilic sulfonic acid chemistries. Silk sponges are evaluated for recovery following 80% compressive strain, total porosity, pore size distribution, secondary structure development, in vivo volume retention, cell infiltration, and inflammatory responses. Glycerol-modified sponges recover up to 98.3% of their original dimensions following compression, while sulfonic acid/glycerol modified sponges swell in water up to 71 times their compressed volume, well in excess of their original size. Longer silk extraction times (lower silk molecular weights) and higher glycerol concentrations yielded greater flexibility and shape fidelity, with no loss in modulus following compression. Sponges are over 95% porous, with secondary structure analysis indicating glycerol-induced β-sheet physical crosslinking. Tyrosine modifications with sulfonic acid interfere with β-sheet formation. Glycerol-modified sponges exhibit improved rates of cellular infiltration at subcutaneous implant sites with minimal immune response in mice. They also degrade more rapidly than unmodified sponges, a result posited to be cell-mediated. Overall, this work suggests that silk sponges may be useful for minimally invasive deployment in soft tissue augmentation procedures.

  1. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  2. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B; Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W; Thacker, Robert W; Montoya, Jose M; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S

    2016-06-16

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host-microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions.

  3. Protonated Melamine Sponge for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Liang-Ting

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic protonated melamine sponge for effective separation of water-rich immiscible oil/water mixtures with extremely high separation efficiency. This protonated melamine sponge exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 12 h without any increase in the oil content in filtrate. Moreover, our compressed protonated melamine sponge could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high separation efficiencies. The high performance of this protonated melamine sponge and its efficient, energy- and cost-effective preparation suggest that it has great potential for use in practical applications. PMID:26399444

  4. [Sponge cell reaggregation: mechanisms and dynamics of the process].

    PubMed

    Lavrov, A I; Kosevich, I A

    2014-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are lower metazoans whose organization is characterized by a high plasticity of anatomical and cellular structures. One of the manifestations of this plasticity is the ability of sponge cells to reaggregate after dissociation of tissues. This review brings together the available data on the reaggregation of sponge cells that have been obtained to date since the beginning of the 20th century. It considers the behavior of dissociated cells in suspension, the mechanisms and factors involved in reaggregation, and the rate and stages of this process in different representatives of this phylum. In addition, this review provides information about the histological structure of multicellular aggregates formed during reaggregation of cells and the regenerative morphogenetic processes leading to the formation of normal sponges from these multicellular aggregates.

  5. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  6. Protonated Melamine Sponge for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Liang-Ting

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic protonated melamine sponge for effective separation of water-rich immiscible oil/water mixtures with extremely high separation efficiency. This protonated melamine sponge exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 12 h without any increase in the oil content in filtrate. Moreover, our compressed protonated melamine sponge could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high separation efficiencies. The high performance of this protonated melamine sponge and its efficient, energy- and cost-effective preparation suggest that it has great potential for use in practical applications.

  7. Non-neural reflexes: sponges and the origins of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Meech, Robert W

    2008-01-22

    Sponges 'sneeze' without the benefit of nerves or muscles. While genomic analysis has uncovered a surprisingly complex set of molecular components in these ancient metazoans, physiological studies have revealed equally sophisticated cellular coordination.

  8. Emerging Sponge Models of Animal-Microbe Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Lucia; Fraune, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Sponges have a significant impact on marine benthic communities, they are of biotechnological interest owing to their production of bioactive natural compounds, and they promise to provide insights into conserved mechanisms of host–microbe interactions in basal metazoans. The natural variability of sponge-microbe associations across species and environments provides a meaningful ecological and evolutionary framework to investigate animal-microbial symbiosis through experimentation in the field and also in aquaria. In addition, next-generation sequencing technologies have shed light on the genomic repertoire of the sponge host and revealed metabolic capacities and symbiotic lifestyle features of their microbiota. However, our understanding of symbiotic mechanisms is still in its infancy. Here, we discuss the potential and limitations of the sponge-microbe symbiosis as emerging models for animal-associated microbiota. PMID:28066403

  9. Population dynamics of Vibrio spp. associated with marine sponge microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Fischer, Markus; Ottesen, Andrea; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Brown, Eric W; Monday, Steven R

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio is a diverse genus of marine-associated bacteria with at least 74 species and more expected as additional marine ecospheres are interrogated. This report describes a phylogenetic reconstruction of Vibrio isolates derived from one such unique ecosystem, marine sponges (Phylum Porifera) collected from depths of 150 to 1242 feet. 16S rRNA gene sequencing along with molecular typing of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions clustered many sponge-associated Vibrio (spp) with current known species. That is, several benthic Vibrio species commensal with Porifera sponges seemed genetically linked to vibrios associated with coastal or shallow-water communities, signalling a panmictic population structure among seemingly ecologically disparate strains. Conversely, phylogenetic analysis provided evidence for at least two novel Vibrio speciation events within this specific sponge microcosm. Collectively, these findings earmark this still relatively unknown environment as a bastion of taxonomic and phylogenetic variability for the genus and probably other bacterial taxa.

  10. Animal Evolution: Last Word on Sponges-First?

    PubMed

    Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2017-04-03

    A major problem in understanding animal evolution is where early branching phyla, especially sponges and comb jellies (sea gooseberries), sit in the tree of life. A new study seeks to overcome this problem by sampling more species and data cleansing.

  11. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoxiang; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Shuping; Gui, Xuchun; Wei, Hongqiu; Leng, Jinsong; Koratkar, Nikhil; Zhong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nanocomposite results in high electrical conductivity, and thus highly effective electricity triggering capability. The carbon nanotube sponge shape memory polymer (CNTS/SMPs) nanocomposite could be triggered within ~10 seconds by the application of ~10 volts. Results from finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that for our system the interface thermal energy loss does not have a significant effect on the heating rate of the polymer matrix. PMID:27052451

  12. New hexactinellid sponges from deep Mediterranean canyons.

    PubMed

    Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dubois, Maude; Goujard, Adrien; Fourt, Maïa; Pérez, Thierry; Chevaldonné, Pierre

    2017-02-21

    During the exploration of the NW Mediterranean deep-sea canyons (MedSeaCan and CorSeaCan cruises), several hexactinellid sponges were observed and collected by ROV and manned submersible. Two of them appeared to be new species of Farrea and Tretodictyum. The genus Farrea had so far been reported with doubt from the Mediterranean and was listed as "taxa inquirenda" for two undescribed species. We here provide a proper description for the specimens encountered and sampled. The genus Tretodictyum had been recorded several times in the Mediterranean and in the near Atlantic as T. tubulosum Schulze, 1866, again with doubt, since the type locality is the Japan Sea. We here confirm that the Mediterranean specimens are a distinct new species which we describe. We also provide18S rDNA sequences of the two new species and include them in a phylogenetic tree of related hexactinellids.

  13. Ecology and energetics of two Antarctic sponges.

    PubMed

    Kowalke

    2000-04-26

    Retention efficiencies, pumping and respiration rates of the two Antarctic sponge species Mycale acerata and Isodictya kerguelensis from Potter Cove, King George Island, were measured. None of the species reached a 100% retention efficiency at any given particle size. This is probably due to the sediment-laden environment in which the animals were dwelling. A less efficient retention decreases the risk of the filtering structures being clogged. Both species filter down into the bacterial size range. Pumping rates of the species were 180 ml h(-1) (M. acerata) and 220 ml h(-1) (I. kerguelensis) per g ash free dry mass (T=1 degrees C), being lower than measured in temperate water species. Oxygen consumption was 0.088 ml O(2) h(-1) (M. acerata; T=1.8 degrees C) and 0.035 ml O(2) h(-1) (I. kerguelensis; T=1 degrees C) per g ash free dry mass.

  14. Elastic, Conductive, Polymeric Hydrogels and Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yun; He, Weina; Cao, Tai; Guo, Haitao; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen; Shao, Ziqiang; Cui, Yulin; Zhang, Xuetong

    2014-01-01

    As a result of inherent rigidity of the conjugated macromolecular chains resulted from the delocalized π-electron system along the polymer backbone, it has been a huge challenge to make conducting polymer hydrogels elastic by far. Herein elastic and conductive polypyrrole hydrogels with only conducting polymer as the continuous phase have been simply synthesized in the indispensable conditions of 1) mixed solvent, 2) deficient oxidant, and 3) monthly secondary growth. The elastic mechanism and oxidative polymerization mechanism on the resulting PPy hydrogels have been discussed. The resulting hydrogels show some novel properties, e.g., shape memory elasticity, fast functionalization with various guest objects, and fast removal of organic infectants from aqueous solutions, all of which cannot be observed from traditional non-elastic conducting polymer counterparts. What's more, light-weight, elastic, and conductive organic sponges with excellent stress-sensing behavior have been successfully achieved via using the resulting polypyrrole hydrogels as precursors. PMID:25052015

  15. Investigators unable to substantiate suspected link between sponge, TSS.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    Federal investigators have failed to substantiate a suspected link between the contraceptive sponge and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In September the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported the case of a woman who inserted the contraceptive sponge last July 17 and removed itthe following day. About 6 hours later she noted the sudden onset of a fever of 104 degrees Farenheit, nausea, redness, shaking chills, and an inflamed vagina. Cultures from the sponge revealed S. aureus and S. epidemis. There was initial concern that the case may have represented early TSS. A toxin produced by certain strains of S. aureus is thought to cause TSS. The syndrome includes a fever greater than 102 degrees, rash, blood pressure less than 90mmHG, peelin g skin on the palms and soles 1-2 weeks after onset, and involvement of 3 or more of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, muscular, mucous membrane, renal, hepatic, hematologic,or central nervous system. FDA medical Officers Dr. William J. McCann told "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) that the reported case failed to fill the Centers for Disease Control criteriaof the diagnosis of TSS. Because the woman has been treated with antibiotics early in the course of her disease, McCann said he could not entirely exclude the possibility that she might have developed TSS if she had gone untreated. He added that the possibility was "remote". Dr. Gail Bolan, CDC epidemiologist, told CTU that "antibiotics do not seem to affect the outcome of the original episode" of TSS cases. She commented that milder forms of TSS might exist that may not meet CDC's strict case definition. Without a specific test, there is no way to separate milder TSS cases from viral or other diseases that may appear similar. According to Deborah Gaynor, the sponge's package insert states that clinical trials were not large enough to assess the risk of TSS. The sponge is not recommended for use during menstration. Gaynor cites a variety of reasons why the

  16. Three-dimensional molybdenum sulfide sponges for electrocatalytic water splitting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Huang; Wu, Feng-Yu; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Wiryo, Ferry; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-03-12

    Electroactive MoSx catalysts on porous 3D sponges synthezied by a simple and scalable thermolysis process are proposed. Although no conducting materials are used to host the MoSx catalysts, they still serve as efficient electrodes for hydrogen evolution. The high current density of the MoSx-coated sponges are attributed to the large electrochemical surface area and their S-rich chemical structure.

  17. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  18. Trophic transfer of radioisotopes in Mediterranean sponges through bacteria consumption.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Beaugeard, Laureen; Pascal, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Numerous field studies highlighted the capacities of marine sponges to bioaccumulate trace elements and assessed their potential as biomonitors of the marine environment. Experimental works demonstrated that dissolved metals and radionuclides can be taken up directly by sponge tissues but, to the best of our knowledge, little is known on the contribution of the dietary pathway through the consumption of contaminated bacteria considered as one of the trophic source in sponge diet. Objectives of this work are to study trophic transfer of radiotracers (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn from the marine bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri to the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina cavernicola and Ircinia oros. P. stutzeri efficiently bioaccumulated trace elements in our culture experimental conditions with CF comprised between 10(5) and 10(7) after 48 h of growth in radiolabeled medium. When fed with these radiolabelled bacteria, A. cavernicola took up around 60% of radiotracers accumulated in trophic source except (134)Cs for which only 8% has been transferred from bacteria to sponge. Contrasting to this, I. oros retained only 7% of (110m)Ag, (109)Cd and (65)Zn counted in bacteria, but retained 2-fold longer accumulated metals in its tissues. The sponge inter-specific differences of accumulation and depuration following a trophic exposure are discussed with respect to the structure and the clearance capacities of each species.

  19. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera)

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V.; Nekipelov, Serguei V.; Sivkov, Victor N.; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I.; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V.; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-01-01

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges’ holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan–Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates. PMID:23677340

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  1. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  2. Interpreting environmental signals from the coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M T; Guilderson, T P

    2004-06-30

    Coralline sponges (sclerosponges) have been proposed as a new source for paleo subsurface temperature reconstructions by utilizing methods developed for reef-building corals. However unlike corals, coralline sponges do not have density variations making age determination difficult. In this study we examined multiple elemental rations (B, Mg, Sr, Ba, U) in the coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana. We also measured skeletal density profiles along the outer ''living'' edge of the sponges and this data indicates significant thickening of skeletal material over intervals of 2-3 mm or 2-3 years. This suggests that any skeletal recovered environmental record from Astrosclera willeyana is an integration of signals over a 2-3 year period. Sponge Sr/Ca seemed to hold the most promise as a recorder of water temperature and we compared Sr/Ca from 2 sponges in the Great Barrier Reef and one from Truk in Micronesia to their respective sea surface temperature record. The correlations were not that strong ({approx} r=-0.5) but they were significant. It appears that the signal smoothing due to thickening or perhaps even some biologic control on Sr skeletal partitioning limits the use of Sr/Ca as an indicator of water temperature in Astrosclera willeyana.

  3. Characterization of a Culturable Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Common to Many Marine Sponges and Evidence for Vertical Transmission via Sponge Larvae†

    PubMed Central

    Enticknap, Julie J.; Kelly, Michelle; Peraud, Olivier; Hill, Russell T.

    2006-01-01

    A closely related group of alphaproteobacteria were found to be present in seven genera of marine sponges from several locations and were shown to be transferred between sponge generations through the larvae in one of these sponges. Isolates of the alphaproteobacterium were cultured from the sponges Axinella corrugata, Mycale laxissima, Monanchora unguifera, and Niphates digitalis from Key Largo, Florida; Didiscus oxeata and Monanchora unguifera from Discovery Bay, Jamaica; an Acanthostronglyophora sp. from Manado, Indonesia; and Microciona prolifera from the Cheasapeake Bay in Maryland. Isolates were very similar to each other on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence (>99% identity) and are closely related to Pseudovibrio denitrificans. The bacterium was never isolated from surrounding water samples and was cultured from larvae of M. laxissima, indicating that it is a vertically transmitted symbiont in this sponge. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with probes specific to the alphaproteobacterium confirmed the presence of this bacterium in the M. laxissima larvae. The alphaproteobacterium was densely associated with the larvae rather than being evenly distributed throughout the mesohyl. This is the first report of the successful culture of a bacterial symbiont of a sponge that is transferred through the gametes. PMID:16672523

  4. Characterization of a culturable alphaproteobacterial symbiont common to many marine sponges and evidence for vertical transmission via sponge larvae.

    PubMed

    Enticknap, Julie J; Kelly, Michelle; Peraud, Olivier; Hill, Russell T

    2006-05-01

    A closely related group of alphaproteobacteria were found to be present in seven genera of marine sponges from several locations and were shown to be transferred between sponge generations through the larvae in one of these sponges. Isolates of the alphaproteobacterium were cultured from the sponges Axinella corrugata, Mycale laxissima, Monanchora unguifera, and Niphates digitalis from Key Largo, Florida; Didiscus oxeata and Monanchora unguifera from Discovery Bay, Jamaica; an Acanthostronglyophora sp. from Manado, Indonesia; and Microciona prolifera from the Cheasapeake Bay in Maryland. Isolates were very similar to each other on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence (>99% identity) and are closely related to Pseudovibrio denitrificans. The bacterium was never isolated from surrounding water samples and was cultured from larvae of M. laxissima, indicating that it is a vertically transmitted symbiont in this sponge. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with probes specific to the alphaproteobacterium confirmed the presence of this bacterium in the M. laxissima larvae. The alphaproteobacterium was densely associated with the larvae rather than being evenly distributed throughout the mesohyl. This is the first report of the successful culture of a bacterial symbiont of a sponge that is transferred through the gametes.

  5. Evaluation of the use of liquid dishwashing compounds to control bacteria in kitchen sponges.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter; Brumbaugh, Ernie; Kananen, Lafonna

    2002-01-01

    A test procedure for evaluating the effect of adding commercial liquid hand dishwashing detergents to kitchen sponges to control microbial growth is described. Claims for this type of application are being made on dishwashing detergents throughout the world. In this evaluation, commercially available kitchen sponges were stripped of antimicrobial compounds. Sponges were then inoculated with a pool of 7 microorganisms which consisted of gram positives, gram negatives, and yeast. Inoculated sponges were treated with the detergent as recommended by the manufacturer and allowed to incubate for 16 h at ambient temperature. Surviving microorganisms were then quantitated using either the spiral or pour plate method. Tests were run using both clean sponges and sponges soiled with 0.5% nonfat dry milk (NFDM). Untreated sponges showed stasis or slightly increased bacterial populations after the incubation period in the absence of NFDM. Significant increases of up to 3 log cfu/mL were observed for untreated sponges when soiled with NFDM. Statistically significant reductions were observed for clean sponges (99.8-99.9998%) and sponges soiled with NFDM (87.6-99.9%) when detergents making "antibacterial sponge" claims were added to the inoculated sponges. Statistically significant differences between detergents making "antibacterial sponge" claims were also observed.

  6. The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT-52A in a controlled aquarium system.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Tanner, Jason E; Barnett, Stephen J; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sponge-associated bacteria play a critical role in sponge biology, metabolism and ecology, but how they interact with their host sponges and the role of these interactions are poorly understood. This study investigated the role of the interaction between the sponge Aplysilla rosea and its associated actinobacterium, Streptomyces ACT-52A, in modifying sponge microbial diversity, metabolite profile and bioactivity. A recently developed experimental approach that exposes sponges to bacteria of interest in a controlled aquarium system was improved by including the capture and analysis of secreted metabolites by the addition of an absorbent resin in the seawater. In a series of controlled aquaria, A. rosea was exposed to Streptomyces ACT-52A at 10(6) cfu/ml and monitored for up to 360 h. Shifts in microbial communities associated with the sponges occurred within 24 to 48 h after bacterial exposure and continued until 360 h, as revealed by TRFLP. The metabolite profiles of sponge tissues also changed substantially as the microbial community shifted. Control sponges (without added bacteria) and Streptomyces ACT-52A-exposed sponges released different metabolites into the seawater that was captured by the resin. The antibacterial activity of compounds collected from the seawater increased at 96 and 360 h of exposure for the treated sponges compared to the control group due to new compounds being produced and released. Increased antibacterial activity of metabolites from treated sponge tissue was observed only at 360 h, whereas that of control sponge tissue remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the interaction between sponges and their associated bacteria plays an important role in regulating secondary metabolite production.

  7. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David A.; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650–540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago. PMID:26903629

  8. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Summons, Roger E

    2016-03-08

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650-540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago.

  9. A Superamphiphobic Sponge with Mechanical Durability and a Self-Cleaning Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daewon; Im, Hwon; Kwak, Moo Jin; Byun, Eunkyoung; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    A robust superamphiphobic sponge (SA-sponge) is proposed by using a single initiated chemical vapor deposition (i-CVD) process. Poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PFDMA) is deposited on a commercial sponge by the polymerization of fluoroalkyl acrylates during the i-CVD process. This PFDMA is conformally coated onto both the exterior and interior of the sponge structure by a single step of the i-CVD process at nearly room temperature. Due to the inherent porous structure of the sponge and the hydrophobic property of the fluorine-based PFDMA, the demonstrated SA-sponge shows not only superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Furthermore, the fabricated SA-sponge is robust with regard to physical and chemical damage. The fabricated SA-sponge can be utilized for multi-purpose applications such as gas-permeable liquid separators. PMID:27435167

  10. Sponges as sentinels: patterns of spatial and intra-individual variation in trace metal concentration.

    PubMed

    de Mestre, C; Maher, W; Roberts, D; Broad, A; Krikowa, F; Davis, A R

    2012-01-01

    If sponges are to be effective biomonitors we require a better understanding of the spatial scales over which metals vary in these organisms. We determined how concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg and Se varied over four spatial scales for two common estuarine sponge species in the Sydney region. We examined variability with a fully nested sampling design; between coastal lakes, within coastal lakes, between sponges and within sponges. Calculation of variance components confirmed that 'within-sponge' variation in Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Se concentrations were low (1-14%) relative to the two largest spatial scales (49-98%) examined. In contrast, Hg concentrations exhibited marked variability 'between-sponges' and were below detection at one location. There was little evidence that sponge size was a good predictor of metal concentration. Taken together, these outcomes confirm that fragments of these sponges could be successfully transplanted and therefore show promise as biomonitors of metal contamination.

  11. Chitosan-hyaluronan/nano chondroitin sulfate ternary composite sponges for medical use.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Sankar, Deepthi; Mohandas, Annapoorna; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-02-15

    In this work chitosan-hyaluronan composite sponge incorporated with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticle (nCS) was developed. The fabrication of hydrogel was based on simple ionic cross-linking using EDC, followed by lyophilization to obtain the composite sponge. nCS suspension was characterized using DLS and SEM and showed a size range of 100-150 nm. The composite sponges were characterized using SEM, FT-IR and TG-DTA. Porosity, swelling, biodegradation, blood clotting and platelet activation of the prepared sponges were also evaluated. Nanocomposites showed a porosity of 67% and showed enhanced swelling and blood clotting ability. Cytocompatibility and cell adhesion studies of the sponges were done using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and the nanocomposite sponges showed more than 90% viability. Nanocomposite sponges also showed enhanced proliferation of HDF cells within two days of study. These results indicated that this nanocomposite sponges would be a potential candidate for wound dressing.

  12. A Superamphiphobic Sponge with Mechanical Durability and a Self-Cleaning Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daewon; Im, Hwon; Kwak, Moo Jin; Byun, Eunkyoung; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    A robust superamphiphobic sponge (SA-sponge) is proposed by using a single initiated chemical vapor deposition (i-CVD) process. Poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PFDMA) is deposited on a commercial sponge by the polymerization of fluoroalkyl acrylates during the i-CVD process. This PFDMA is conformally coated onto both the exterior and interior of the sponge structure by a single step of the i-CVD process at nearly room temperature. Due to the inherent porous structure of the sponge and the hydrophobic property of the fluorine-based PFDMA, the demonstrated SA-sponge shows not only superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Furthermore, the fabricated SA-sponge is robust with regard to physical and chemical damage. The fabricated SA-sponge can be utilized for multi-purpose applications such as gas-permeable liquid separators.

  13. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Hestetun, Jon T.; Dahle, Håkon; Jørgensen, Steffen L.; Olsen, Bernt R.; Rapp, Hans T.

    2016-01-01

    As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF) at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ13C and δ15N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰) compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5 to 10.5‰). We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ13C and δ15N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non-methanotrophic Cladorhiza species

  14. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  15. Medullary sponge kidney: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Antonia; Anglani, Franca; Lupo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a kidney malformation that generally manifests with nephrocalcinosis and recurrent renal stones; other signs may be renal acidification and concentration defects, and pre-calyceal duct ectasias. MSK is generally considered a sporadic disorder, but an apparently autosomal dominant inheritance has also been observed. As MSK reveals abnormalities in both the lower and the upper nephron and is often associated with urinary tract developmental anomalies, its pathogenesis should probably be sought in one of the numerous steps characterizing renal morphogenesis. Given the key role of the GDNF-RET interaction in kidney and urinary tract development and nephrogenesis, anomalies in these molecules are reasonable candidates for explaining a disorder such as MSK. As a matter of fact, we detected two, hitherto unknown, rare variants of the GDNF gene in MSK patients. We surmise that a defective distal acidification has a central role in MSK and is followed by a chain of events including defective bone mineralization, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and stone formation.

  16. Microbial communities associated with the invasive Hawaiian sponge Mycale armata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi; Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Lefait, Emilie

    2009-03-01

    Microbial symbionts are fundamentally important to their host ecology, but microbial communities of invasive marine species remain largely unexplored. Clone libraries and Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses revealed diverse microbial phylotypes in the invasive marine sponge Mycale armata. Phylotypes were related to eight phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Crenarchaeota and Firmicutes, with predominant alphaproteobacterial sequences (>58%). Three Bacterial Phylotype Groups (BPG1--associated only with sequence from marine sponges; BPG2--associated with sponges and other marine organisms and BPG3--potential new phylotypes) were identified in M. armata. The operational taxonomic units (OTU) of cluster BPG2-B, belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, are dominant sequences of two clone libraries of M. armata, but constitute only a small fraction of sequences from the non-invasive sponge Dysidea sp. Six OTUs from M. armata were potential new phylotypes because of their low sequence identity with their reference sequences. Our results suggest that M. armata harbors both sponge-specific phylotypes and bacterial phylotypes from other marine organisms.

  17. Sponge-like structures for application in photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Perlich, Jan; Kaune, Gunar; Memesa, Mine; Gutmann, Jochen S; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2009-05-13

    Large surface areas at an interface between two different materials are desired in many research fields where the interaction between these materials significantly affects the performance of the physical system. This behaviour is illustrated on sponge-like structures, which assign for such a high surface area, and demonstrate the development from bulk material to thin films and a variety of applications. The focus is on sponge-like nanostructures consisting of a network of aggregated titania nanoparticles applied in hybrid structures for photovoltaics. Examples based on a sol-gel process for the preparation of titania nanostructures in thin films, mimicking the sponge morphology, are shown. In general, titania films are widely used in photovoltaics, contributing to a large surface area available for interfacial reactions, e.g. charge carrier transfer routes. Interpenetrating networks with dimensions matching exciton diffusion lengths in the polymer component of a hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic structure are highly desirable. To characterize the fabricated morphology, atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy are employed in real space. The advanced scattering technique of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering complements the characterization in reciprocal space. From the obtained results, the sponge-like morphology is verified, a physical description of the morphology with statistical relevance is constructed and the successful complete filling of the network is shown. According to this description, the presented sponge-like titania nanostructures are well suited for use in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

  18. Effect of collagen sponge and fibrin glue on bone repair

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Thiago de Santana; ABUNA, Rodrigo Paolo Flores; de ALMEIDA, Adriana Luisa Gonçalves; BELOTI, Marcio Mateus; ROSA, Adalberto Luiz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of hemostatic agents to promote bone repair has been investigated using in vitro and in vivo models but, up to now, the results are inconclusive. Objective In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the potential of bone repair of collagen sponge with fibrin glue in a rat calvarial defect model. Material and Methods Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in rat calvariae and treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue; untreated defects were used as control. At 4 and 8 weeks, histological analysis and micro-CT-based histomorphometry were carried out and data were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test when appropriated (p≤0.05). Results Three-dimensional reconstructions showed increased bone formation in defects treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue compared with untreated defects, which was confirmed by the histological analysis. Morphometric parameters indicated the progression of bone formation from 4 to 8 weeks. Additionally, fibrin glue displayed slightly higher bone formation rate when compared with collagen sponge. Conclusion Our results have shown the benefits of using collagen sponge and fibrin glue to promote new bone formation in rat calvarial bone defects, the latter being discreetly more advantageous. PMID:26814464

  19. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments.

    PubMed

    Wolde, Tesfaye; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm(3). The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  20. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended. PMID:27840819

  1. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  2. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  3. First insights into the microbiome of a carnivorous sponge.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Samuel; Corre, Erwan; Li, Yanyan; Vacelet, Jean; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2013-12-01

    Using 454 pyrosequencing, we characterized for the first time the associated microbial community of the deep-sea carnivorous Demosponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Cladorhizidae). Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V3 and V6 hypervariable regions, we compared the diversity and composition of associated microbes of two individual sponges of A. hypogea freshly collected in the cave with surrounding seawater and with one sponge sample maintained 1 year in an aquarium after collection. With more than 22 961 high quality sequences from sponge samples, representing c. 800 operational taxonomic units per sponge sample at 97% sequence similarities, the phylogenetic affiliation of A. hypogea-associated microbes was assigned to 20 bacterial and two archaeal phyla, distributed into 45 classes and 95 orders. Several differences between the sponge and seawater microbes were observed, highlighting a specific and stable A. hypogea microbial community dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and Thaumarchaeota phyla. A high relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and a dominance of sulfate oxidizing/reducing bacteria were observed. Our findings shed lights on the potential roles of associated microbial community in the lifestyle of A. hypogea.

  4. Evolutionary origin of gastrulation: insights from sponge development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolutionary origin of gastrulation—defined as a morphogenetic event that leads to the establishment of germ layers—remains a vexing question. Central to this debate is the evolutionary relationship between the cell layers of sponges (poriferans) and eumetazoan germ layers. Despite considerable attention, it remains unclear whether sponge cell layers undergo progressive fate determination akin to eumetazoan primary germ layer formation during gastrulation. Results Here we show by cell-labelling experiments in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica that the cell layers established during embryogenesis have no relationship to the cell layers of the juvenile. In addition, juvenile epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into a range of cell types and move between cell layers. Despite the apparent lack of cell layer and fate determination and stability in this sponge, the transcription factor GATA, a highly conserved eumetazoan endomesodermal marker, is expressed consistently in the inner layer of A. queenslandica larvae and juveniles. Conclusions Our results are compatible with sponge cell layers not undergoing progressive fate determination and thus not being homologous to eumetazoan germ layers. Nonetheless, the expression of GATA in the sponge inner cell layer suggests a shared ancestry with the eumetazoan endomesoderm, and that the ancestral role of GATA in specifying internalised cells may antedate the origin of germ layers. Together, these results support germ layers and gastrulation evolving early in eumetazoan evolution from pre-existing developmental programs used for the simple patterning of cells in the first multicellular animals. PMID:24678663

  5. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source. PMID:22163194

  6. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm2 of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs. PMID:27218103

  7. Sponges as sentinels: Metal accumulation using transplanted sponges across a metal gradient.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew R; de Mestre, Corrine; Maher, William; Krikowa, Frank; Broad, Allison

    2014-12-01

    To be effective sentinels, organisms must be able to be readily translocated to contamination hotspots. The authors sought to assess metal accumulation in genetically identical explants of a relatively common estuarine sponge, Suberites cf. diversicolor. Explants were transplanted to 7 locations across a metal contamination gradient in a large coastal estuary in southeastern Australia to establish, first, that explants of this species could be successfully translocated; second, that explants accumulated metals (cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc) sufficiently rapidly to be effective sentinels; third, that rates of metal accumulation in explants were in agreement with metal concentrations within sediments (<63-µm fraction) at each of the transplant locations; and finally, that changes in explant biomass correlated with overall metal load. Suberites were readily transplanted, with no mortality observed for the 2 mo of transplantation. Metal accumulation for lead, cadmium, and zinc was in close agreement with sediment metal concentrations, and explants showed dramatic increases in these metals in the heavily contaminated northern sections of the estuarine lake. No striking patterns were apparent for copper and selenium. Finally, growth was negatively correlated with total metal load and standardized total metal load in our explants. Taken together, these outcomes confirm that explants of this sponge are amenable to translocation and show considerable promise as biomonitors.

  8. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm(2) of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs.

  9. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  10. A Novel Filtering Mutualism between a Sponge Host and Its Endosymbiotic Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a “filtering mutualism”. PMID:25330073

  11. Fabrication and biocompatibility of collagen sponge reinforced with poly(glycolic acid) fiber.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Yosuke; Kimura, Yu; Ueda, Hiroki; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2003-12-01

    This article describes an investigation of collagen sponge mechanically reinforced through the incorporation of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber. A collagen solution with PGA fiber homogeneously dispersed at collagen:PGA weight ratios of 1.5, 0.8, 0.4, and 0.2 was freeze-dried, followed by dehydrothermal cross-linking to obtain collagen sponges incorporating PGA fiber to various extents. By scanning electron microscopy observation, the collagen sponges exhibited isotropic and interconnected pore structures with an average size of 180 microm, irrespective of PGA fiber incorporation. As expected, PGA fiber incorporation enabled the collagen sponges to significantly enhance their compression strength. In vitro cell culture studies revealed that the number of L929 fibroblasts initially attached was significantly greater for any collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber than for collagen sponge. The shrinkage of sponge after cell seeding was suppressed by fiber incorporation. It is possible that shrinkage suppression results in the superior cell attachment of sponge incorporating PGA fiber. After subcutaneous implantation into the backs of mice, the residual volume of collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber was significant compared with that of collagen sponge and increased with a decrease in the collagen:PGA ratio. The greater number of cells infiltrated and deeper infiltration were observed for collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber implanted subcutaneously. We conclude that the incorporation of PGA fiber is a simple and promising way to reinforce collagen sponge without impairing biocompatibility.

  12. Diversity of the candidate phylum Poribacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Cox, C.J.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rosado, A.S.; Costa, R.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poribacterial clone libraries constructed for Aplysina fulva sponge specimens were analysed with respect to diversity and phylogeny. Results imply the coexistence of several, prevalently “intra-specific” poribacterial genotypes in a single sponge host, and suggest quantitative analysis as a desirable approach in studies of the diversity and distribution of poribacterial cohorts in marine sponges. PMID:24159324

  13. Evidence of a Putative Deep Sea Specific Microbiome in Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Flemer, Burkhardt; Jackson, Stephen A.; Morrissey, John P.; O'Gara, Ferghal; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of four individual deep water sponges, Lissodendoryx diversichela, Poecillastra compressa, Inflatella pellicula, and Stelletta normani, together with surrounding seawater were analysed by pyrosequencing of a region of the 16S rRNA gene common to Bacteria and Archaea. Due to sampling constraints at depths below 700 m duplicate samples were not collected. The microbial communities of L. diversichela, P. compressa and I. pellicula were typical of low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges while S. normani had a community more typical of high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges. Analysis of the deep sea sponge microbiota revealed that the three LMA-like sponges shared a set of abundant OTUs that were distinct from those associated with sponges from shallow waters. Comparison of the pyrosequencing data with that from shallow water sponges revealed that the microbial communities of all sponges analysed have similar archaeal populations but that the bacterial populations of the deep sea sponges were distinct. Further analysis of the common and abundant OTUs from the three LMA-like sponges placed them within the groups of ammonia oxidising Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) and sulphur oxidising γ-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales). Reads from these two groups made up over 70% of all 16S rRNA genes detected from the three LMA-like sponge samples, providing evidence of a putative common microbial assemblage associated with deep sea LMA sponges. PMID:24670421

  14. Evidence of a putative deep sea specific microbiome in marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Flemer, Burkhardt; Jackson, Stephen A; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal; O'Gara, Ferghal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of four individual deep water sponges, Lissodendoryx diversichela, Poecillastra compressa, Inflatella pellicula, and Stelletta normani, together with surrounding seawater were analysed by pyrosequencing of a region of the 16S rRNA gene common to Bacteria and Archaea. Due to sampling constraints at depths below 700 m duplicate samples were not collected. The microbial communities of L. diversichela, P. compressa and I. pellicula were typical of low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges while S. normani had a community more typical of high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges. Analysis of the deep sea sponge microbiota revealed that the three LMA-like sponges shared a set of abundant OTUs that were distinct from those associated with sponges from shallow waters. Comparison of the pyrosequencing data with that from shallow water sponges revealed that the microbial communities of all sponges analysed have similar archaeal populations but that the bacterial populations of the deep sea sponges were distinct. Further analysis of the common and abundant OTUs from the three LMA-like sponges placed them within the groups of ammonia oxidising Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) and sulphur oxidising γ-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales). Reads from these two groups made up over 70% of all 16S rRNA genes detected from the three LMA-like sponge samples, providing evidence of a putative common microbial assemblage associated with deep sea LMA sponges.

  15. Magnetic, superhydrophobic and durable silicone sponges and their applications in removal of organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Wu, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Junping

    2014-07-25

    Porous silicone sponges are fabricated by polymerization of organosilanes in the presence of Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles. The sponges feature fast magnetic responsivity, superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, high compressibility and stability. The sponges can selectively absorb floating oils on a water surface, heavy oils under water and even emulsified oils.

  16. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  17. Cyclodepsipeptides from Marine Sponges: Natural Agents for Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Andavan, Gowri Shankar Bagavananthem; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    A number of natural products from marine sponges, such as cyclodepsipeptides, have been identified. The structural characteristics of this family of cyclic peptides include various unusual amino acid residues and unique N-terminal polyketide-derived moieties. Papuamides are representatives of a class of marine sponge derived cyclic depsipeptides, including callipeltin A, celebesides A and B, homophymine A, mirabamides, microspinosamide, neamphamide A and theopapuamides. They are thought to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro by inhibiting viral entry. Jasplakinolide, a representative member of marine sponge-derived cyclodepsipeptides that include arenastatin A, geodiamolides, homophymines, spongidepsin and theopapuamides, is a potent inducer of actin polymerization in vitro. Although actin dynamics is essential for tumor metasasis, no actin targeting drugs have been used in clinical trials due to their severe cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, the actin cytoskeleton remains a potential target for anti-cancer drug development. These features imply the use of cyclodepsipeptides as molecular models in drug research. PMID:20411126

  18. In situ natural product discovery via an artificial marine sponge.

    PubMed

    La Clair, James J; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine-derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin-targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine-derived scaffolds.

  19. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings.

  20. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine.

  1. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-03-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices.

  2. Paleoclimate and evolution: emergence of sponges during the neoproterozoic.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, we had to cope with many technological and conceptual obstacles. The major hindrance was the view that sponges are primitive and exist separated from the other metazoan organisms. After answering these problems, the painful scientific process to position the most enigmatic metazoan phylum, the Porifera, into the correct phylogenetic place among the eukaryotes in general and the multicellular animals in particular came to an end. The well-studied taxon Porifera (sponges) was first grouped to the animal-plants or plant-animals, then to the Zoophyta or Mesozoa, and finally to the Parazoa. Only by the application of molecular biological techniques was it possible to place the Porifera monophyletically with the other metazoan phyla, justifying a unification of all multicellular animals to only one kingdom, the Metazoa. The first strong support came from the discovery that cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules, that were cloned from sponges (mainly the demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium) and that were subsequently expressed, share high DNA sequence and protein function similarity with the corresponding molecules of other metazoans. Together with the molecular biological studies and with the use of the cell culture technologies (primmorphs), which allowed an insight into the stem cell system of these simple organisms, it was possible to stethoscope back in the paleontological history of animals. These studies confirmed the view that the sponges evolved between two epochal ice times, 710-680 Ma (Sturtian glaciation) and 605-585 Ma (Varanger-Marinoan ice age), a period which allowed evolution to proceed but resulted also in a mass extinction of most animal taxa, with the exception of the Porifera. These animals could develop in the aqueous milieu which was rich in silica, due also to their ability to live in a symbiosis with unicellular organisms (prokaryotic and also eukaryotic). Those organisms provided the sponges with the

  3. Sintering of sponge and hydride-dehydride titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2004-04-01

    The sintering behavior of compacts produced from sponge and hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti powders was examined. Compacts were vacuum sintered at 1200 or 1300 deg C for 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 or 960 minutes. The porosity decreased with sintering time and/or temperature in compacts produced from the HDH powders. Compacts produced from these powders could be sintered to essentially full density. However, the sintering condition did not influence the amount of porosity present in compacts produced from the sponge powders. These samples could only be sintered to a density of 97% theoretical. The sintering behavior was attributed to the chemical impurities in the powders.

  4. Analytical methods and apparatus for measuring the oil content of sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; DiFoggio, R.; Tutunjian, P.N.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a method for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, using polyurethane sponge. It comprises: dissolving substantially all of the oil and substantially none of the sponge, in a sponge core sample, into a solvent having a Hansen solubility parameter of different than that of the sponge and selected from the class consisting of: solvents having no protons in their structure, deuterated solvents, and solvents having no C-H bonds in their structure; extracting the solvent and solutes from the core sample; and measuring the resultant oil concentration in the solvent and solutes extracted from the core sample.

  5. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Hong; Im, Hwon; Moon, Dong-Il; Baek, David J; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Duarte, Juan P; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    We present a sugar-templated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of oil from water. The process for fabricating the PDMS sponge does not require any intricate synthesis processes or equipment and it is not environmentally hazardous, thus promoting potential in environmental applications. The proposed PDMS sponge can be elastically deformed into any shape, and it can be compressed repeatedly in air or liquids without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils and organic solvents can be readily removed and reused by simply squeezing the PDMS sponge, enabling excellent recyclability. Furthermore, through appropriately combining various sugar particles, the absorption capacity of the PDMS sponge is favorably optimized.

  6. Configurational Variations and Finite-Beta Effects on Neoclassical Viscosities and Flows in Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.; Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.

    2008-11-01

    The impact of magnetic geometry on neoclassical flows and viscosities for the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) is investigated using the PENTA code [1,2]. Specifically, two topics are investigated: (1) finite-beta effects and (2) configurational variations. The PENTA code is used to calculate flows in HSX with the vacuum magnetic geometry and with finite-beta magnetic surfaces from the VMEC equilibrium code. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX will be discussed.[0pt] [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [0pt] [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006).

  7. First evidence of the presence of chitin in skeletons of marine sponges. Part II. Glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Krautter, Manfred; Hanke, Thomas; Simon, Paul; Knieb, Christiane; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    Sponges (Porifera) are presently gaining increased scientific attention because of their secondary metabolites and specific skeleton structures. In contrast to demosponges, whose skeletons are formed from biopolymer spongin, glass sponges (hexactinellids) possess silica-organic composites as the main natural material for their skeletal fibres. Chitin has a crystalline structure and it constitutes a network of organized fibres. This structure confers rigidity and resistance to organisms that contain it, including monocellular (yeast, amoeba, diatoms) and multicellular (higher fungi, arthropods, nematodes, molluscs) organisms. In contrast to different marine invertebrates whose exoskeletons are built of chitin, this polysaccharide has not been found previously as an endogenous biopolymer within glass sponges (Hexactinellida). We hypothesized that glass sponges, which are considered to be the most basal lineage of multicellular animals, must possess chitin. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of skeletal fragments of the glass sponge Farrea occa. We show that these fibres have a layered design with specific compositional variations in the chitin/silica composite. We applied an effective approach for the demineralization of glass sponge skeletal formations based on an etching procedure using alkali solutions. The results show unambiguously that alpha-chitin is an essential component of the skeletal structures of Hexactinellida. This is the first report of a silica-chitin's composite biomaterial found in nature. From this perspective, the view that silica-chitin scaffolds may be key templates for skeleton formation also in ancestral unicellular organisms, rather than silica-protein composites, emerges as a viable alternative hypothesis.

  8. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges are widely used for clinical applications, including ophthalmic surgical treatments, wound healing and tissue engineering. There is, however, a lack of sufficient data on the mechanical properties of PVA sponges. In this study, a biomechanical method is used to characterize the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain as well as the swelling ratio of a fabricated PVA sponge (P-sponge) and it is compared with two commercially available PVA sponges (CENEFOM and EYETEC). The results indicate that the elastic modulus of the P-sponge is 5.32% and 13.45% lower than that of the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, while it bears 4.11% more and 10.37% less stress compared to the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, respectively. The P-sponge shows a maximum strain of 32% more than the EYETEC sponge as well as a 26.78% higher swelling ratio, which is a significantly higher absorbency compared to the CENEFOM. It is believed that the results of this study would help for a better understanding of the extension, rupture and swelling mechanism of PVA sponges, which could lead to crucial improvement in the design and application of PVA-based materials in ophthalmic and plastic surgeries as well as wound healing and tissue engineering.

  9. Thermal stress responses in the bacterial biosphere of the Great Barrier Reef sponge, Rhopaloeides odorabile.

    PubMed

    Simister, Rachel; Taylor, Michael W; Tsai, Peter; Fan, Lu; Bruxner, Timothy J; Crowe, Mark L; Webster, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and provide a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats due to their high filtration rates. They also harbour extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponge hosts and not in the seawater or surrounding environment, i.e. so-called sponge-specific clusters (SCs) or sponge- and coral-specific clusters (SCCs). We employed DNA (16S rRNA gene) and RNA (16S rRNA)-based amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate the effects of sublethal thermal stress on the bacterial biosphere of the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. A total of 8381 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (97% sequence similarity) were identified, affiliated with 32 bacterial phyla from seawater samples, 23 bacterial phyla from sponge DNA extracts and 18 bacterial phyla from sponge RNA extracts. Sublethal thermal stress (31°C) had no effect on the present and/or active portions of the R. odorabile bacterial community but a shift in the bacterial assemblage was observed in necrotic sponges. Over two-thirds of DNA and RNA sequences could be assigned to previously defined SCs/SCCs in healthy sponges whereas only 12% of reads from necrotic sponges could be assigned to SCs/SCCs. A rapid decline in host health over a 1°C temperature increment suggests that sponges such as R. odorabile may be highly vulnerable to the effects of global climate change.

  10. Identification and Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sour Dough Sponges.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yoshida, I; Uchimura, T; Ohara, N; Kozaki, M

    1992-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in four samples of sour dough sponges were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. In each sponge, there were one or two species of the genus Lactobacillus: L. reuteri and L. curvatus in San Francisco sour dough sponge, L. brevis and L. hilgardii in panettone sour dough sponge produced in Italy, L. sanfrancisco from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Germany, and L. casei and L. curvatus from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Switzerland. For all isolates except the L. reuteri strains oleic acid, a component of the Tween 80 added to the medium, was essential for growth. It was of interest that lactobacilli requiring oleic acid were the predominant flora of lactic acid bacteria in the microbial environment of sour dough sponges.

  11. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface.

  12. Effects of sponge bleaching on ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: distribution and relative expression of ammonia monooxygenase genes associated with the barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    PubMed

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Erwin, Patrick M; Pawlik, Joseph R; Song, Bongkeun

    2010-10-01

    Sponge-mediated nitrification is an important process in the nitrogen cycle, however, nothing is known about how nitrification and symbiotic Archaea may be affected by sponge disease and bleaching events. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a prominent species on Caribbean reefs that contains cyanobacterial symbionts, the loss of which results in two types of bleaching: cyclic, a recoverable condition; and fatal, a condition associated with the disease-like sponge orange band (SOB) syndrome and sponge death. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses, clone libraries, and relative mRNA quantification of ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were performed using a RNA transcript-based approach to characterize the active ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) community present in bleached, non-bleached, and SOB tissues of cyclically and fatally bleached sponges. We found that non-bleached and cyclically bleached tissues of X. muta harbored a unique Crenarchaeota community closely related to those reported for other sponges. In contrast, bleached tissue from the most degraded sponge contained a Crenarchaeota community that was more similar to those found in sediment and sand. Although there were no significant differences in amoA expression among the different tissues, amoA expression was higher in the most deteriorated tissues. Results suggest that a shift in the Crenarchaeota community precedes an increase in amoA gene expression in fatally bleached sponges, while cyclic bleaching did not alter the AOA community structure and its amoA gene expression.

  13. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria across sponge species and oceans

    PubMed Central

    Garate, Leire; Sureda, Jan; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted speculation on the possible role of intracellular bacteria in the evolution of the skeleton in early animals. To gain insight into this purportedly ancestral symbiosis, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria in Mediterranean and Caribbean sponges. We found four new calcibacteria OTUs belonging to the SAR116 in two orders (Poecilosclerida and Clionaida) and three families of Demospongiae, two additional OTUs in cnidarians and one more in seawater (at 98.5% similarity). Using a calcibacteria targeted probe and CARD-FISH, we also found calcibacteria in Spirophorida and Suberitida and proved that the calcifying bacteria accumulated at the sponge periphery, forming a skeletal cortex, analogous to that of siliceous microscleres in other demosponges. Bacteria-mediated skeletonization is spread in a range of phylogenetically distant species and thus the purported implication of bacteria in skeleton formation and evolution of early animals gains relevance. PMID:28262822

  14. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria across sponge species and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, Leire; Sureda, Jan; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, Maria J.

    2017-03-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted speculation on the possible role of intracellular bacteria in the evolution of the skeleton in early animals. To gain insight into this purportedly ancestral symbiosis, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria in Mediterranean and Caribbean sponges. We found four new calcibacteria OTUs belonging to the SAR116 in two orders (Poecilosclerida and Clionaida) and three families of Demospongiae, two additional OTUs in cnidarians and one more in seawater (at 98.5% similarity). Using a calcibacteria targeted probe and CARD-FISH, we also found calcibacteria in Spirophorida and Suberitida and proved that the calcifying bacteria accumulated at the sponge periphery, forming a skeletal cortex, analogous to that of siliceous microscleres in other demosponges. Bacteria-mediated skeletonization is spread in a range of phylogenetically distant species and thus the purported implication of bacteria in skeleton formation and evolution of early animals gains relevance.

  15. Suspected Intraoperative Anaphylaxis to Gelatin Absorbable Hemostatic Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Joonyoung; Barrett, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis under anesthesia is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires rapid identification and treatment. Allergies to agents with which the general population are likely to come into contact are usually identified, but patients are exposed to uncommon agents during anesthesia and surgery. Here, we describe a case of anaphylaxis under anesthesia implicating Gelfoam sponges. PMID:25849471

  16. Chemico-physical properties of hyaluronan-based sponges.

    PubMed

    Milella, E; Brescia, E; Massaro, C; Ramires, P A

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the chemico-physical and surface properties of the hyaluronan total benzylic ester sponges to evaluate their stability, surface "cleanliness" and handling for the applications in the tissue engineering. The thermal analysis, the characterization of surface chemical composition and the swelling test were performed on these materials. Moreover, the morphological changes, the rheological behavior, and the molecular weight loss in function of the time were monitored when the sponges were incubated in cell culture medium. The results showed that the sponges were thermally stable up to 220 degrees C and the surface composition was different from that of the bulk for C-O contribution. No contaminants were detected. In culture medium, the samples swelled assuming the rheological properties of biopolymer gel. When the sponges were in contact with the culture medium, their molecular weight remained stable for the first day and a loss of 11% and 31% was recorded for samples removed from culture medium after 3 and 7 days, respectively. With the scanning electron microscopy analysis, the spongy structure appeared with open interconnecting pores. The micrographs related to the samples after incubation in culture medium showed that the degradation was evident on the surface after 1 day. The deterioration of the pore walls and the presence of craters increased with time and, after 3 days, the phenomena were present also in the section.

  17. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Glass Sponge Oopsacas minuta

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Sébastien; Rocher, Caroline; Le Bivic, André

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Mediterranean glass sponge Oopsacas minuta. This 19-kb mitochondrial genome has 24 noncoding genes (22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs) and 14 protein-encoding genes coding for 11 subunits of respiratory chain complexes and 3 ATP synthase subunits. PMID:26227597

  18. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates.

  19. Status of the glass sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah E; Conway, Kim W; Burd, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the status and general faunal composition of sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin (GB), British Columbia, Canada. Fourteen distinct deep-water glass sponge (Hexactinellid) reefs have been mapped using multibeam bathymetry and sidescan sonar in the GB. Seven of these have been surveyed visually using video from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Analysis of video data indicated that three reefs were undamaged, two were damaged and the other two were damaged but potentially recovering. The nature of the damaged reefs, with large areas of scattered dead sponge skeleton fragments and few live reef-building sponges (Aphrocallistes vastus and Heterochone calyx), as well as video evidence of tracks suggest they were damaged mechanically by mobile fishing gear. Relative abundance of the megafauna associated with the reefs is discussed in the context of oceanographic conditions, such as sediment accumulation and organic flux, as well as overall reef status. Of particular interest for fisheries conservation efforts in the area was the fact that one undamaged reef in the southern GB showed higher taxonomic richness and abundance of rockfish (Sebastes spp.), both adult and juvenile, compared to an adjacent damaged reef. This result suggests that undamaged reefs may act as refugia for these endangered stocks.

  20. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity.

  1. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  2. Patterns of chemical diversity in the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella.

    PubMed

    Noyer, Charlotte; Thomas, Olivier P; Becerro, Mikel A

    2011-01-01

    The intra-specific diversity in secondary metabolites can provide crucial information for understanding species ecology and evolution but has received limited attention in marine chemical ecology. The complex nature of diversity is partially responsible for the lack of studies, which often target a narrow number of major compounds. Here, we investigated the intra-specific chemical diversity of the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella. The chemical profiles of seven populations spreading over 1200 km in the Western Mediterranean were obtained by a straightforward SPE-HPLC-DAD-ELSD process whereas the identity of compounds was assessed by comparison between HPLC-MS spectra and literature data. Chemical diversity calculated by richness and Shannon indexes differed significantly between sponge populations but not at a larger regional scale. We used factor analysis, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to examine the chemical variability of this sponge at local and regional scales, to establish general patterns of variation in chemical diversity. The abundance of some metabolites varied significantly between sponge populations. Despite these significant differences between populations, we found a clear pattern of increasing chemical dissimilarity with increasing geographic distance. Additional large spatial scale studies on the chemical diversity of marine organisms will validate the universality or exclusivity of this pattern.

  3. Patterns of Chemical Diversity in the Mediterranean Sponge Spongia lamella

    PubMed Central

    Noyer, Charlotte; Thomas, Olivier P.; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2011-01-01

    The intra-specific diversity in secondary metabolites can provide crucial information for understanding species ecology and evolution but has received limited attention in marine chemical ecology. The complex nature of diversity is partially responsible for the lack of studies, which often target a narrow number of major compounds. Here, we investigated the intra-specific chemical diversity of the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella. The chemical profiles of seven populations spreading over 1200 km in the Western Mediterranean were obtained by a straightforward SPE-HPLC-DAD-ELSD process whereas the identity of compounds was assessed by comparison between HPLC-MS spectra and literature data. Chemical diversity calculated by richness and Shannon indexes differed significantly between sponge populations but not at a larger regional scale. We used factor analysis, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to examine the chemical variability of this sponge at local and regional scales, to establish general patterns of variation in chemical diversity. The abundance of some metabolites varied significantly between sponge populations. Despite these significant differences between populations, we found a clear pattern of increasing chemical dissimilarity with increasing geographic distance. Additional large spatial scale studies on the chemical diversity of marine organisms will validate the universality or exclusivity of this pattern. PMID:21698108

  4. A tactile sensor using a conductive graphene-sponge composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sungwoo; Hong, Ahyoung; Choi, Yeonhoi; Ha, Chunho; Park, Wanjun

    2016-04-01

    For sensors that emulate human tactile perception, we suggest a simple method for fabricating a highly sensitive force sensor using a conductive polyurethane sponge where graphene flakes are self-assembled into the porous structure of the sponge. The complete sensor device shows a sensitive and reliable detection response for a broad range of pressure and dynamic pressure that correspond to human tactile perception. Sensitivity of the sensor to detect vibration is also confirmed with vertical actuations due to slipping over micro-scale ridge structures attached on the sensors. Based on the sensor's ability to detect both pressure and vibration, the sensor can be utilized as a flexible tactile sensor.For sensors that emulate human tactile perception, we suggest a simple method for fabricating a highly sensitive force sensor using a conductive polyurethane sponge where graphene flakes are self-assembled into the porous structure of the sponge. The complete sensor device shows a sensitive and reliable detection response for a broad range of pressure and dynamic pressure that correspond to human tactile perception. Sensitivity of the sensor to detect vibration is also confirmed with vertical actuations due to slipping over micro-scale ridge structures attached on the sensors. Based on the sensor's ability to detect both pressure and vibration, the sensor can be utilized as a flexible tactile sensor. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00774k

  5. Growth Efficiency and Carbon Balance for the Sponge Haliclona oculata

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H.

    2009-01-01

    To obtain more knowledge about carbon requirements for growth by sponges, the growth rate, respiration rate, and clearance rate was measured in situ in Haliclona oculata. We found that only 34% of the particulate carbon pumped through the sponge was used for both respiration and growth. The net growth efficiency, being the ratio of carbon incorporated in biomass and the total carbon used by the sponge for respiration and growth, was found to be 0.099 ± 0.013. Thus, about 10% of the total used carbon was fixed in biomass, and over 90% was used for generating energy for growth, maintenance, reproduction, and pumping. H. oculata had 2.5 μmol C available for every micromole O2 consumed. A value of 0.75 for respiratory quotient (RQ in micromole CO2 micromole O2−1) was used for H. oculata, which is the average value reported in literature for different marine invertebrates. Thus, carbon was available in excess to meet the respiratory demand. Oxygen was found not to be the limiting factor for growth, since only 3.3% of the oxygen pumped through the sponge body was used. Our results indicate that both oxygen and carbon availability are not limiting. The low growth efficiency agrees with the low growth rates found for the species used in this study. PMID:19795172

  6. Tactile device utilizing a single magnetorheological sponge: experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    In the field of medicine, several new areas have been currently introduced such as robot-assisted surgery. However, the major drawback of these systems is that there is no tactile communication between doctors and surgical sites. When the tactile system is brought up, telemedicine including telerobotic surgery can be enhanced much more than now. In this study, a new tactile device is designed using a single magnetorhological (MR) sponge cell to realize the sensation of human organs. MR fluids and an open celled polyurethane foam are used to propose the MR sponge cell. The viscous and elastic sensational behaviors of human organs are realized by the MR sponge cell. Before developing the tactile device, tactile sensation according to touch of human fingers are quantified in advance. The finger is then treated as a reduced beam bundle model (BBM) in which the fingertip is comprised of an elastic beam virtually. Under the reduced BBM, when people want to sense an object, the fingertip is investigated by pushing and sliding. Accordingly, while several magnitudes of magnetic fields are applied to the tactile device, normal and tangential reaction forces and bending moment are measured by 6-axis force/torque sensor instead of the fingertip. These measured data are used to compare with soft tissues. It is demonstrated that the proposed MR sponge cell can realize any part of the organ based on the obtained data.

  7. Versatile routes to marine sponge metabolites through benzylidene rhodanines.

    PubMed

    Kottakota, Suresh K; Benton, Mathew; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Guzman, Juan D; Bhakta, Sanjib; McHugh, Timothy D; Gray, Mark; Groundwater, Paul W; Marrs, Emma C L; Perry, John D; Harburn, J Jonathan

    2012-12-21

    The first total synthesis of the marine natural products Psammaplin C and Tokaradine A is described. Benzylidene rhodanines were utilized as versatile intermediates toward the synthesis of seven brominated marine sponge metabolites through the optimization of protection group strategies. Spermatinamine demonstrated good inhibition of all cancer cell lines tested, in particular the leukemia K562 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines.

  8. Multiple origins of eusociality among sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus).

    PubMed

    Duffy, J E; Morrison, C L; Ríos, R

    2000-04-01

    As the most extreme expression of apparent altruism in nature, eusociality has long posed a central paradox for behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Because eusociality has arisen rarely among animals, understanding the selective pressures important in early stages of its evolution remains elusive. Employing a historical approach to this problem, we used morphology and DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of 13 species of sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus) with colony organization ranging from asocial pair-bonding through eusociality. We then used phylogenetically independent contrasts to test whether sociality was associated with evidence of enhanced competitive ability, as suggested by hypotheses invoking an advantage of cooperation in crowded habitats. The molecular, morphological, and combined data each strongly supported three independent origins of monogynous, multigenerational (eusocial) colony organization within this genus. Phylogenetically independent contrasts confirmed that highly social taxa, with strong reproductive skew, have significantly higher relative abundance within the host sponge than do less social taxa, a result that was robust to uncertainty in tree topology and varying models of character change. A similar tendency for highly social species to share their sponge with fewer congener species was suggestive, but not significant. Because unoccupied habitat appears to be limiting for many sponge-dwelling shrimp species, these data are consistent with hypotheses that cooperative social groups enjoy a competitive advantage over less organized groups or individuals, where independent establishment is difficult, and that enemy pressure is of central importance in the evolution of animal sociality.

  9. Multifunctional polyurethane sponge for polymerase chain reaction enhancement.

    PubMed

    Seok, Seunghwan; Shin, Sujeong; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Jae-Min; Yang, MinHo; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Jung Youn; Lee, Seok Jae; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Kyoung G

    2015-03-04

    Selective filtering of target biomaterials from impurities is an important task in DNA amplification through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enhancement and gene identification to save endangered animals and marine species. Conventional gene extraction methods require complicated steps, skilled persons, and expensive chemicals and instruments to improve DNA amplification. Herein, we proposed an alternative method for overcoming such challenges by imparting secondary functionality using commercially available polyurethane (PU) sponges and cost-effective fabrication approaches through polydopamine and polysiloxane coatings. The porous, highly flexible, and chemically modified superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic PU sponges allow large surface areas and mechanically stable frames for effective extraction of genomic DNA through selective filtering of fish tissues and oils. Furthermore, these chemically modified PU sponges allow separation of genes and improvement of PCR for DNA amplification for the identification of fish species. The combination of a simple fabrication method and functionalized PU sponges could be a useful platform for PCR enhancement and gene-based identification of species for practical applications.

  10. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  11. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  12. Comparative bioaccumulation kinetics of trace elements in Mediterranean marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Cachet, Nadja; Oberhänsli, François; Noyer, Charlotte; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While marine organisms such as bivalves, seagrasses and macroalgae are commonly used as biomonitors for the environment pollution assessment, widely distributed sponges received little attention as potential helpful species for monitoring programmes. In this study, the trace element and radionuclide bioaccumulation and retention capacities of some marine sponges were estimated in a species-comparative study using radiotracers technique. Six Mediterranean species were exposed to background dissolved concentrations of (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn allowing the assessment of the uptake and depuration kinetics for selected elements. Globally, massive demosponges Agelas oroides, Chondrosia reniformis and Ircinia variabilis displayed higher concentration factor (CF) than the erectile ones (Acanthella acuta, Cymbaxinella damicornis, Cymbaxinella verrucosa) at the end of exposure, suggesting that the morphology is a key factor in the metal bioaccumulation efficiency. Considering this observation, two exceptions were noted: (1) A. acuta reached the highest CF for (110m)Ag and strongly retained the accumulated metal without significant Ag loss when placed in depuration conditions and (2) C. reniformis did not accumulate Se as much as A. oroides and I. variabilis. These results suggest that peculiar metal uptake properties in sponges could be driven by specific metabolites or contrasting biosilification processes between species, respectively. This study demonstrated that sponges could be considered as valuable candidate for biomonitoring metal contamination but also that there is a need to experimentally highlight metal-dependant characteristic among species.

  13. Sponge Microbiota Are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, Dennis; Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Mari; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; van Passel, Mark W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3). Fifteen of 37 inserts harbored resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria. PMID:27909433

  14. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016. PMID:28067826

  15. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters, and process waters by absorbi...

  17. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-06

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  18. Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

  19. Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze.

    PubMed

    Antcliffe, Jonathan B; Callow, Richard H T; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-11-01

    Twenty candidate fossils with claim to be the oldest representative of the Phylum Porifera have been re-analysed. Three criteria are used to assess each candidate: (i) the diagnostic criteria needed to categorize sponges in the fossil record; (ii) the presence, or absence, of such diagnostic features in the putative poriferan fossils; and (iii) the age constraints for the candidate fossils. All three criteria are critical to the correct interpretation of any fossil and its placement within an evolutionary context. Our analysis shows that no Precambrian fossil candidate yet satisfies all three of these criteria to be a reliable sponge fossil. The oldest widely accepted candidate, Mongolian silica hexacts from c. 545 million years ago (Ma), are here shown to be cruciform arsenopyrite crystals. The oldest reliable sponge remains are siliceous spicules from the basal Cambrian (Protohertzina anabarica Zone) Soltanieh Formation, Iran, which are described and analysed here in detail for the first time. Extensive archaeocyathan sponge reefs emerge and radiate as late as the middle of the Fortunian Stage of the Cambrian and demonstrate a gradual assembly of their skeletal structure through this time coincident with the evolution of other metazoan groups. Since the Porifera are basal in the Metazoa, their presence within the late Proterozoic has been widely anticipated. Molecular clock calibration for the earliest Porifera and Metazoa should now be based on the Iranian hexactinellid material dated to c. 535 Ma. The earliest convincing fossil sponge remains appeared at around the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, associated with the great radiation events of that interval.

  20. Sponge-Microbe Associations Survive High Nutrients and Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Simister, Rachel; Taylor, Michael W.; Tsai, Peter; Webster, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) (97% sequence similarity) levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures. PMID:23284943

  1. Sponge-microbe associations survive high nutrients and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Simister, Rachel; Taylor, Michael W; Tsai, Peter; Webster, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) (97% sequence similarity) levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures.

  2. Heat Sponge: A Concept for Mass-Efficient Heat Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Blosser, Max L.; Gifford, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    The heat sponge is a device for mass-efficient storage of heat. It was developed to be incorporated in the substructure of a re-entry vehicle to reduce thermal- protection-system requirements. The heat sponge consists of a liquid/vapor mixture contained within a number of miniature pressure vessels that can be embedded within a variety of different types of structures. As temperature is increased, pressure in the miniature pressure vessels also increases so that heat absorbed through vaporization of the liquid is spread over a relatively large temperature range. Using water as a working fluid, the heat-storage capacity of the liquid/vapor mixture is many times higher than that of typical structural materials and is well above that of common phase change materials over a temperature range of 200 F to 700 F. The use of pure ammonia as the working fluid provides a range of application between 432 deg R and 730 deg R, or the use of the more practical water-ammonia solution provides a range of application between 432 deg R and 1160 deg R or in between that of water and pure ammonia. Prototype heat sponges were fabricated and characterized. These heat sponges consisted of 1.0-inch-diameter, hollow, stainless-steel spheres with a wall thickness of 0.020 inches which had varying percentages of their interior volumes filled with water and a water-ammonia solution. An apparatus to measure the heat stored in these prototype heat sponges was designed, fabricated, and verified. The heat-storage capacity calculated from measured temperature histories is compared to numerical predictions.

  3. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra: isolation and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.

  4. Could some coral reefs become sponge reefs as our climate changes?

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; Davy, Simon K; Jones, Timothy; Taylor, Michael W; Webster, Nicole S

    2013-09-01

    Coral reefs across the world have been seriously degraded and have a bleak future in response to predicted global warming and ocean acidification (OA). However, this is not the first time that biocalcifying organisms, including corals, have faced the threat of extinction. The end-Triassic mass extinction (200 million years ago) was the most severe biotic crisis experienced by modern marine invertebrates, which selected against biocalcifiers; this was followed by the proliferation of another invertebrate group, sponges. The duration of this sponge-dominated period far surpasses that of alternative stable-ecosystem or phase-shift states reported on modern day coral reefs and, as such, a shift to sponge-dominated reefs warrants serious consideration as one future trajectory of coral reefs. We hypothesise that some coral reefs of today may become sponge reefs in the future, as sponges and corals respond differently to changing ocean chemistry and environmental conditions. To support this hypothesis, we discuss: (i) the presence of sponge reefs in the geological record; (ii) reported shifts from coral- to sponge-dominated systems; and (iii) direct and indirect responses of the sponge holobiont and its constituent parts (host and symbionts) to changes in temperature and pH. Based on this evidence, we propose that sponges may be one group to benefit from projected climate change and ocean acidification scenarios, and that increased sponge abundance represents a possible future trajectory for some coral reefs, which would have important implications for overall reef functioning.

  5. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  6. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater). Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on reef DOM and

  7. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona; Juračka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  8. Polyketide genes in the marine sponge Plakortis simplex: a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthases from sponge symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Della Sala, Gerardo; Hochmuth, Thomas; Costantino, Valeria; Teta, Roberta; Gerwick, William; Gerwick, Lena; Piel, Jörn; Mangoni, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sponge symbionts are a largely unexplored source of new and unusual metabolic pathways. Insights into the distribution and function of metabolic genes of sponge symbionts are crucial to dissect and exploit their biotechnological potential. Screening of the metagenome of the marine sponge Plakortis simplex led to the discovery of the swf family, a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthase/fatty acid synthase (PKS/FAS) specifically associated with sponge symbionts. Two different examples of the swf cluster were present in the metagenome of P. simplex. A third example of the cluster is present in the previously sequenced genome of a poribacterium from the sponge Aplysina aerophoba but was formerly considered orthologous to the wcb/rkp cluster. The swf cluster was also found in six additional species of sponges. Therefore, the swf cluster represents the second group of mono-modular PKS, after the supA family, to be widespread in marine sponges. The putative swf operon consists of swfA (type I PKS/FAS), swfB (reductase and sulphotransferase domains) and swfC (radical S-adenosylmethionine, or radical SAM). Activation of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of the SwfA protein to its holo-form by co-expression with Svp is the first functional proof of swf type genes in marine sponges. However, the precise biosynthetic role of the swf clusters remains unknown. PMID:24249289

  9. Protection of biomass from snail overgrazing in a trickling filter using sponge media as a biomass carrier: down-flow hanging sponge system.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) technology as a promising trickling filter (TF) using sponge media as a biomass carrier with an emphasis on protection of the biomass against macrofauna overgrazing. A pilot-scale DHS reactor fed with low-strength municipal sewage was operated under ambient temperature conditions for 1 year at a sewage treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand. The results showed that snails (macrofauna) were present on the surface of the sponge media, but could not enter into it, because the sponge media with smaller pores physically protected the biomass from the snails. As a result, the sponge media maintained a dense biomass, with an average value of 22.3 gVSS/L sponge (58.1 gTSS/L sponge) on day 370. The snails could graze biomass on the surface of the sponge media. The DHS reactor process performance was also successful. The DHS reactor requires neither chemical treatments nor specific operations such as flooding for snail control. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the DHS reactor is able to protect biomass from snail overgrazing.

  10. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  11. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  12. Relationships between host phylogeny, host type and bacterial community diversity in cold-water coral reef sponges.

    PubMed

    Schöttner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Friederike; Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems.

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  14. Diversity and biotechnological potential of the sponge-associated microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi

    2006-07-01

    Sponges are well known to harbor diverse microbes and represent a significant source of bioactive natural compounds derived from the marine environment. Recent studies of the microbial communities of marine sponges have uncovered previously undescribed species and an array of new chemical compounds. In contrast to natural compounds, studies on enzymes with biotechnological potential from microbes associated with sponges are rare although enzymes with novel activities that have potential medical and biotechnological applications have been identified from sponges and microbes associated with sponges. Both bacteria and fungi have been isolated from a wide range of marine sponge, but the diversity and symbiotic relationship of bacteria has been studied to a greater extent than that of fungi isolated from sponges. Molecular methods (e.g., rDNA, DGGE, and FISH) have revealed a great diversity of the unculturable bacteria and archaea. Metagenomic approaches have identified interesting metabolic pathways responsible for the production of natural compounds and may provide a new avenue to explore the microbial diversity and biotechnological potential of marine sponges. In addition, other eukaryotic organisms such as diatoms and unicellular algae from marine sponges are also being described using these molecular techniques. Many natural compounds derived from sponges are suspected to be of bacterial origin, but only a few studies have provided convincing evidence for symbiotic producers in sponges. Microbes in sponges exist in different associations with sponges including the true symbiosis. Fungi derived from marine sponges represent the single most prolific source of diverse bioactive marine fungal compounds found to date. There is a developing interest in determining the true diversity of fungi present in marine sponges and the nature of the association. Molecular methods will allow scientists to more accurately identify fungal species and determine actual diversity of

  15. Synthesis of a Novel Highly Oleophilic and Highly Hydrophobic Sponge for Rapid Oil Spill Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Maryam; Azizian, Saeid

    2015-11-18

    A highly hydrophobic and highly oleophilic sponge was synthesized by simple vapor-phase deposition followed by polymerization of polypyrrole followed by modification with palmitic acid. The prepared sponge shows high absorption capacity in the field of separation and removal of different oil spills from water surface and was able to emulsify oil/water mixtures. The sponge can be compressed repeatedly without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils can be readily collected by simple mechanical squeezing of the sponge. The prepared hydrophobic sponge can collect oil from water in both static and turbulent conditions. The proposed method is simple and low cost for the manufacture of highly oleophilic and highly hydrophobic sponges, which can be successfully used for effective oil-spill cleanup and water filtration.

  16. Graphene/polyaniline composite sponge of three-dimensional porous network structure as supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiu-Xing, Jiang; Xu-Zhi, Zhang; Zhen-Hua, Wang; Jian-Jun, Xu

    2016-04-01

    As a supercapacitor electrode, the graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite sponge with a three-dimensional (3D) porous network structure is synthesized by a simple three-step method. The three steps include an in situ polymerization, freeze-drying and reduction by hydrazine vapor. The prepared sponge has a large specific surface area and porous network structure, so it is in favor of spreading the electrolyte ion and increasing the charge transfer efficiency of the system. The process of preparation is simple, easy to operate and low cost. The composite sponge shows better electrochemical performance than the pure individual graphene sponge while PANI cannot keep the shape of a sponge. Such a composite sponge exhibits specific capacitances of 487 F·g-1 at 2 mV/s compared to pristine PANI of 397 F·g-1. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation from Harbin University of Science and Technology and Harbin Institute of Technology.

  17. Entotheonella Bacteria as Source of Sponge-Derived Natural Products: Opportunities for Biotechnological Production.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Agneya; Peters, Eike E; Piel, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development. Recent research has focused on understanding natural product biosynthesis in sponges and on investigating symbiotic bacteria as possible production sources in order to develop sustainable production systems. This chapter covers research efforts that have taken place over the past few years involving the identification of 'Entotheonella' symbionts responsible for production of sponge compounds, as well as the elucidation of their biosynthetic routes, highlighting future biotechnological applications.

  18. Microbial Diversity and Putative Diazotrophy in High- and Low-Microbial-Abundance Mediterranean Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Rafel; Riemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities associated with marine sponges carry out nutrient transformations essential for benthic-pelagic coupling; however, knowledge about their composition and function is still sparse. We evaluated the richness and diversity of prokaryotic assemblages associated with three high-microbial-abundance (HMA) and three low-microbial-abundance (LMA) sympatric Mediterranean sponges to address their stability and uniqueness. Moreover, to examine functionality and because an imbalance between nitrogen ingestion and excretion has been observed for some of these species, we sequenced nitrogenase genes (nifH) and measured N2 fixation. The prokaryotic communities in the two sponge types did not differ in terms of richness, but the highest diversity was found in HMA sponges. Moreover, the discrete composition of the communities in the two sponge types relative to that in the surrounding seawater indicated that horizontal transmission and vertical transmission affect the microbiomes associated with the two sponge categories. nifH genes were found in all LMA species and sporadically in one HMA species, and about half of the nifH gene sequences were common between the different sponge species and were also found in the surrounding water, suggesting horizontal transmission. 15N2-enriched incubations showed that N2 fixation was measurable in the water but was not associated with the sponges. Also, the analysis of the isotopic ratio of 15N to 14N in sponge tissue indicated that N2 fixation is not an important source of nitrogen in these Mediterranean sponges. Overall, our results suggest that compositional and functional features differ between the prokaryotic communities associated with HMA and LMA sponges, which may affect sponge ecology. PMID:26070678

  19. Microbial Diversity and Putative Diazotrophy in High- and Low-Microbial-Abundance Mediterranean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Marta; Dziallas, Claudia; Coma, Rafel; Riemann, Lasse

    2015-09-01

    Microbial communities associated with marine sponges carry out nutrient transformations essential for benthic-pelagic coupling; however, knowledge about their composition and function is still sparse. We evaluated the richness and diversity of prokaryotic assemblages associated with three high-microbial-abundance (HMA) and three low-microbial-abundance (LMA) sympatric Mediterranean sponges to address their stability and uniqueness. Moreover, to examine functionality and because an imbalance between nitrogen ingestion and excretion has been observed for some of these species, we sequenced nitrogenase genes (nifH) and measured N2 fixation. The prokaryotic communities in the two sponge types did not differ in terms of richness, but the highest diversity was found in HMA sponges. Moreover, the discrete composition of the communities in the two sponge types relative to that in the surrounding seawater indicated that horizontal transmission and vertical transmission affect the microbiomes associated with the two sponge categories. nifH genes were found in all LMA species and sporadically in one HMA species, and about half of the nifH gene sequences were common between the different sponge species and were also found in the surrounding water, suggesting horizontal transmission. (15)N2-enriched incubations showed that N2 fixation was measurable in the water but was not associated with the sponges. Also, the analysis of the isotopic ratio of (15)N to (14)N in sponge tissue indicated that N2 fixation is not an important source of nitrogen in these Mediterranean sponges. Overall, our results suggest that compositional and functional features differ between the prokaryotic communities associated with HMA and LMA sponges, which may affect sponge ecology.

  20. Identification and isolation of a retrotransposon from the freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis: implication in rapid evolution of endemic sponges.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Isabel M; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are found in all major branches of life. Similarities to retroviruses concerning genome structure and transposition mechanism suggest a familial relationship. Transposons are important evolutionary drivers that trigger genetic changes such as genomic rearrangement, alteration of gene expression, and gene duplication. And, indeed, now more than ever the effect of transposons on genome evolution represents a dynamic field of research. Since sponges (phylum Porifera) are the phylogenetically oldest still extant metazoan taxon, the study of poriferan mobile elements contributes to the understanding of the generation of phenotypic diversity and speciation at the base of the metazoan tree of life. This work describes the analyses of the first poriferan mobile genetic element so far identified, the long terminal repeats- retrotransposon Baikalum-1 of Lubomirskia baicalensis (Demospongiae; Ceractinomorpha). Baikalum-1 embraces a continuous open reading frame, putatively coding for a polyprotein that consists of nucleo capsid, protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase, all proteins/ enzymes characteristic of retrotransposons. Baikalum-1 was discovered in all freshwater sponge species endemic to Lake Baikal, as well as in cosmopolitan sponge species that inhabit a Lake Baikal-feeding rivulet. However, the same cosmopolitan species sampled from lakes and rivers (Siberian and European) with no direct contact to Lake Baikal did not contain this particular mobile genetic element. Thus, Baikalum-1 is probably the result of an evolutionarily ancient retroviral infection that spread exclusively amongst Baikalian sponge species. In addition, the retro-transposon is found in the vicinity of the silicatein-A1 gene. Silicateins are cathepsin-like proteins that catalyze the synthesis of poriferan siliceous skeletal elements (spicules). In L. baicalensis, the silicatein-A1 gene is flanked by two palindroms, probably remnants of

  1. NOAA to develop strategy to protect coral and sponge habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) will develop a strategy to address research, conservation, and management issues regarding deep-ocean coral and sponge habitat, the agency indicated in an 11 July Federal Register notice. The Service, which is a unit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, indicated that this strategy “eventually may result in rulemaking for some fisheries” but that “emergency rulemaking is not warranted.”The NMFS announcement is in response to a 24 March 2004 petition to the Commerce Department filed by Oceana, a non-governmental organization. That petition urged the department through NMFS to “initiate immediate rulemaking” to protect coral and sponge habitats in the U.S. exclusive economic zone through mapping, monitoring, research, and enforcement measures.

  2. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake.

  3. A first exploration of genome size diversity in sponges.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Jardine, Catherine B; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    The phyla known as early-branching lineages of animals have become the subject of increasing interest from the perspectives of genomics and evolutionary biology. Unfortunately, data on even the most fundamental properties of their genomes, such as genome size, remain very scarce. In this study, genome size estimates are reported for 75 species of sponges (phylum Porifera) representing 33 families and 12 orders, marking the first large survey of genome size diversity for an early-branching phylum. Sponge genome sizes averaged around 0.2 pg but exhibited a 17-fold range overall (0.04-0.63 pg). In addition, the results of comparisons of two methods of genome size quantification (flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry) are presented, thereby facilitating future work on these animals. Some particularly promising avenues for future investigation are highlighted.

  4. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  5. Retained Sponge: A Rare Complication in Acetabular Osteosinthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Mañanes, Rubén Pérez; Rojo-Manaute, José; Moran-Blanco, Luz María; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Retained sponges after a surgical treatment of polytrauma may cause a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and present a difficult diagnostic problem. We report a case of retained surgical sponge in a 35-year-old man transferred from another hospital, that sustained a open acetabular fracture. The fracture was reduced through a limited ilio-inguinal approach. After 4 days, he presented massive wound dehiscence of the surgical approach. An abdominal CT scan showed, lying adjacent to the outer aspect of the left iliac crest, a mass of 10 cm, identified as probable foreign body. The possibility of this rare complication should be in the differential diagnosis of any postoperative patient who presents with pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:26312116

  6. Medullary sponge kidney and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Masciovecchio, Stefano; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The medullary sponge kidney is also known as Lenarduzzi's kidney or Cacchi and Ricci's disease from the first Italian authors who described its main features. A review of the scientific literature underlines particular rarity of the association of MSK with developmental abnormalities of the lower urinary tract and genital tract such as hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism. The work presented is the only one in the scientific literature that shows the association between the medullary sponge kidney and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. A question still remains unanswered: are the MSK and TDS completely independent malformation syndromes occurring, in this case, simultaneously for a rare event or are they different phenotypic expressions of a common malformative mechanism? In the future we hope that these questions will be clarified.

  7. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Masciovecchio, Stefano; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The medullary sponge kidney is also known as Lenarduzzi's kidney or Cacchi and Ricci's disease from the first Italian authors who described its main features. A review of the scientific literature underlines particular rarity of the association of MSK with developmental abnormalities of the lower urinary tract and genital tract such as hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism. The work presented is the only one in the scientific literature that shows the association between the medullary sponge kidney and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. A question still remains unanswered: are the MSK and TDS completely independent malformation syndromes occurring, in this case, simultaneously for a rare event or are they different phenotypic expressions of a common malformative mechanism? In the future we hope that these questions will be clarified. PMID:24716085

  8. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  9. Drivers of epibenthic megafaunal composition in the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Lindsay; Kenchington, Ellen; Yashayaev, Igor; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2015-04-01

    Deep-water sponges are considered ecosystem engineers, and the presence of large aggregations of these organisms, commonly referred to as sponge grounds, is associated with enhanced biodiversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna compared to non-sponge habitat. However, the degree and magnitude to which the presence of these sponge grounds elicits large changes in composition of the associated megafaunal community remains unknown. Here we identify the external drivers of epibenthic megafaunal community composition and explore the patterns and magnitude of compositional change in the megafaunal community within the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic. Epibenthic megafauna were quantified from five image transects collected on the Sackville Spur in 2009 between 1080 and 1723 m depth. Using Gradient Forest Modelling we found that the abundance of structure-forming sponges was the most important variable for predicting compositional patterns in the Sackville Spur megafaunal community, followed by depth, range in bottom current speed, in situ salinity, and longitude. Along the gradient in structure-forming sponge abundance, the largest turnover in megafaunal community composition occurred when the sponges reached 15 individuals m-2. Examination of the regional hydrographic conditions suggests that the dense sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur are associated with a warm, salty water mass that occurs between ~1300 and 1800 m.

  10. Composition of Archaea in seawater, sediment, and sponges in the Kepulauan Seribu reef system, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Ana R M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Duarte, Leticia N; de Voogd, Nicole J; Gomes, Newton C M

    2014-04-01

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems in the world. Most research has, however, focused on eukaryotes such as corals and fishes. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the composition of prokaryotes, particularly those inhabiting corals and sponges, but these have mainly focused on bacteria. There have been very few studies of coral reef Archaea, despite the fact that Archaea have been shown to play crucial roles in nutrient dynamics, including nitrification and methanogenesis, of oligotrophic environments such as coral reefs. Here, we present the first study to assess Archaea in four different coral reef biotopes (seawater, sediment, and two sponge species, Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria). The archaeal community of both sponge species and sediment was dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained more than 72% of the variation in archaeal composition. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was highest in sediment and seawater biotopes and substantially lower in both sponge hosts. No "sponge-specific" archaeal OTUs were found, i.e., OTUs found in both sponge species but absent from nonhost biotopes. Despite both sponge species hosting phylogenetically distinct microbial assemblages, there were only minor differences in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional pathways. In contrast, most functional pathways differed significantly between microbiomes from sponges and nonhost biotopes including all energy metabolic pathways. With the exception of the methane and nitrogen metabolic pathway, all energy metabolic pathways were enriched in sponges when compared to nonhost biotopes.

  11. Purification and in vitro cultivation of archaeocytes (stem cells) of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve (Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Liming; Song, Yuefan; Qu, Yi; Yu, Xingju; Zhang, Wei

    2007-04-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are the best source of marine bioactive metabolites for drug discovery and development, although the sustainable production of most sponge-derived metabolites remains a difficult task. In vitro cultivation of sponge cells in bioreactors has been proposed as a promising technology. However, no continuous cell line has as yet been developed. Archaeocytes are considered to be toti/multipotent stem cells in sponges and, when purified, may allow the development of continuous sponge cell lines. As a prerequisite, we have developed a novel four-step protocol for the purification of archaeocytes from a marine sponge, Hymeniacidon perleve: (1) differential centrifugation to separate large sponge cells including archaeocytes; (2) selective agglomeration in low-Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) artificial seawater in which living archaeocytes form small loose aggregates with some pinacocytes and collencytes; (3) differential adherence to remove anchorage-dependent pinacocytes, collencytes and other mesohyl cells; (4) Ficoll-Vrografin density gradient centrifugation to purify archaeocytes. The final purity of archaeocytes is greater than 80%. The proliferation potential of the archaeocytes has been demonstrated by high levels of BrdU incorporation, PCNA expression and telomerase activity. In 4-day primary cultures, the purified archaeocytes show a 2.5-fold increase in total cell number. This study opens an important avenue towards developing sponge cell cultures for the commercial exploitation of sponge-derived drugs.

  12. The ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying prokaryotes associated with sponges from different sea areas.

    PubMed

    Han, Minqi; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Fengli

    2013-08-01

    Marine sponges have been suggested to play an important role in the marine nitrogen cycling. However, the role of sponge microbes in the nitrogen transformation remains limited, especially on the bacterial ammonia oxidization and denitrification. Hence, in the present study, using functional genes (amoA, nirS, nirK, and nxrA) involved in ammonia oxidization and denitrification and 16S rRNA genes for specific bacterial groups as markers, phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes including bacteria and archaea, which may be involved in the ammonia oxidization and denitrification processes in sponges, were revealed in seven sponge species. Ammonia oxidizers were found in all species, whereas three sponges (Placospongia sp., Acanthella sp., and Pericharax heteroraphis) harbor only ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), two sponges (Spirastrellidae diplastrella and Mycale fibrexilis) host only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), while the remaining two sponges (Haliclona sp. and Lamellomorpha sp.) harbor both AOB and AOA. S. diplastrella and Lamellomorpha sp. also harbor denitrifying bacteria. Nitrite reductase gene nirK was detected only in Lamellomorpha sp. with higher phylogenetic diversity than nirS gene observed only in S. diplastrella. The detected functional genes related to the ammonia oxidization and nitrite reduction in deep-sea and shallow-water sponges highlighted the potential ecological roles of prokaryotes in sponge-related nitrogen transformation.

  13. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified.

  14. Bubble template fabrication of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) sponges for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changfeng; Liu, Li; Huang, Tao; Wang, Qiong; Fang, Yue'e

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation involves the synthesis of chitosan based composite sponges in view of their applications in wound dressing, antibacterial and haemostatic. A facile CO2 bubbles template freeze-drying method was developed for the fabrication of macroporous chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite sponges with a typical porosity of 50% and pore size of 100-300 μm. Effects of the content of cross-linking agent and PVA on morphology, mechanical properties, water uptake and moisture permeability were examined. The macroporous chitosan/PVA composite sponges exhibited an enhanced water absorption capacity over those reported microporous chitosan sponges prepared using traditional free-drying methods. Improved strength and flexibility of the chitosan sponges were observed with the presence of PVA. Further, the antibacterial and haemostatic activities have been also demonstrated. The chitosan/PVA composite sponges showed higher haemostatic activity than pure chitosan sponges and solutions. Erythrocytes cells bind first to the surface of chitosan polymer in the sponges and then promote the binding with other cells in the solution. The chitosan/PVA sponges of high liquid absorbing, appropriate moisture permeability, antimicrobial property and unique haemostatic behavior can be used for wound dressing applications.

  15. Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Chawla, N; Gupta, N; Dhawan, N

    2016-11-01

    Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.

  16. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  17. Phylogeny and evolution of glass sponges (porifera, hexactinellida).

    PubMed

    Dohrmann, Martin; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim; Collins, Allen G; Worheide, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of sponges (Porifera) is one of the remaining challenges to resolve the metazoan Tree of Life and is a prerequisite for understanding early animal evolution. Molecular phylogenetic analyses for two of the three extant classes of the phylum, Demospongiae and Calcarea, are largely incongruent with traditional classifications, most likely because of a paucity of informative morphological characters and high levels of homoplasy. For the third class, Hexactinellida (glass sponges)--predominantly deep-sea inhabitants with unusual morphology and biology--we present the first molecular phylogeny, along with a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. We collected 18S, 28S, and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of 34 glass sponge species from 27 genera, 9 families, and 3 orders and conducted partitioned Bayesian analyses using RNA secondary structure-specific substitution models (paired-sites models) for stem regions. Bayes factor comparisons of different paired-sites models against each other and conventional (independent-sites) models revealed a significantly better fit of the former but, contrary to previous predictions, the least parameter-rich of the tested paired-sites models provided the best fit to our data. In contrast to Demospongiae and Calcarea, our rDNA phylogeny agrees well with the traditional classification and a previously proposed phylogenetic system, which we ascribe to a more informative morphology in Hexactinellida. We find high support for a close relationship of glass sponges and Demospongiae sensu stricto, though the latter may be paraphyletic with respect to Hexactinellida. Homoscleromorpha appears to be the sister group of Calcarea. Contrary to most previous findings from rDNA, we recover Porifera as monophyletic, although support for this clade is low under paired-sites models.

  18. Understanding Zika virus pathogenesis: an interview with Catherine Spong.

    PubMed

    Spong, Catherine Y

    2016-06-06

    A recent outbreak of Zika virus has been linked to fetal abnormalities in pregnant women who have been infected. The scientific community is working toward understanding Zika virus pathogenesis to better manage affected women and children. In an interview with Dr. Catherine Spong, we discuss the aims and challenges of a forthcoming longitudinal study of a cohort of pregnant women in areas of current active Zika virus transmission.

  19. Sponge derived bromotyrosines: structural diversity through natural combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Hendrik; Marmann, Andreas; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sponge derived bromotyrosines are a multifaceted class of marine bioactive compounds that are important for the chemical defense of sponges but also for drug discovery programs as well as for technical applications in the field of antifouling constituents. These compounds, which are mainly accumulated by Verongid sponges, exhibit a diverse range of bioactivities including antibiotic, cytotoxic and antifouling effects. In spite of the simple biogenetic building blocks, which consist only of brominated tyrosine and tyramine units, an impressive diversity of different compounds is obtained through different linkages between these precursors and through structural modifications of the side chains and/or aromatic rings resembling strategies that are known from combinatorial chemistry. As examples for bioactive, structurally divergent bromotyrosines psammaplin A, Aplysina alkaloids featuring aerothionin, aeroplysinin-1 and the dienone, and the bastadins, including the synthetically derived hemibastadin congeners, have been selected for this review. Whereas all of these natural products are believed to be involved in the chemical defense of sponges, some of them may also be of particular relevance to drug discovery due to their interaction with specific molecular targets in eukaryotic cells. These targets involve important enzymes and receptors, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), which are inhibited by psammaplin A, as well as ryanodine receptors that are targeted by bastadine type compounds. The hemibastadins such as the synthetically derived dibromohemibastadin are of particular interest due to their antifouling activity. For the latter, a phenoloxidase which catalyzes the bioglue formation needed for firm attachment of fouling organisms to a given substrate was identified as a molecular target. The Aplysina alkaloids finally provide a vivid example for dynamic wound induced bioconversions of natural products that generate highly

  20. Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from Okinawan Marine Sponges Agelas spp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kusama, Taishi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    In our continuing study for structurally and biogenetically interesting natural products from marine organisms, Okinawan marine sponges Agelas spp. were investigated, resulting in the isolation of 18 unique alkaloids including five dimeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (1-5), ten monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (6-15), and three conjugates of monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloid and hydroxykynurenine (16-18). In this mini-review, the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimicrobial activities of these alkaloids are summarized.

  1. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Ziping; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds. PMID:28287431

  2. Population Dynamics of a Commercial Sponge in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, W. P.; Lirman, D.; Tosini, S. C.; DiResta, D.; Luo, J.; Wang, J.

    2001-07-01

    The dynamics of glove sponge ( Spongia graminea) population in Biscayne Bay, Florida were investigated using a series of matrix population models, a hydrodynamic model, and a GIS data base. Sponges at Billy's Point, on the eastern margin of Biscayne Bay, were sampled between 1993 and 1995 and resampled in 2000 for model calibration and testing. An iterative procedure was used to fit unmeasured fecundity and a growth parameter by minimizing the 1993 to 2000 simulated differences from the observed year 2000 size class distribution. A density dependent model was found to fit the total population size in 2000 better than the density independent matrix model. Systematic sampling of the bay was used to identify four local populations with sponge densities above 50 ha -1. The three western populations experienced salinity below 25, based on hydrodynamic model outputs for 1995, whereas the eastern Billy's Point population had a stable ocean salinity environment. The hydrodynamic model was used to simulate larval transport between local populations as lagrangian drifting particles. These simulations indicated that the Billy's Point population was likely to be demographically closed.

  3. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  4. Crystallographic orientation and concentric layers in spicules of calcareous sponges.

    PubMed

    Rossi, André Linhares; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Lemos, Moara; Werckmann, Jacques; Borojevic, Radovan; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle; Farina, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the crystallography of calcareous sponges (Porifera) spicules and the organization pattern of the concentric layers present in their inner structure were investigated in 10 species of the subclass Calcaronea and three species of the subclass Calcinea. Polished spicules had specific concentric patterns that varied depending on the plane in which the spicules were sectioned. A 3D model of the concentric layers was created to interpret these patterns and the biomineralization process of the triactine spicules. The morphology of the spicules was compared with the crystallographic orientation of the calcite crystals by analyzing the Kikuchi diffraction patterns using a scanning electron microscope. Triactine spicules from the subclass Calcinea had actines (rays) elongated in the 〈210〉 direction, which is perpendicular to the c-axis. The scale spicules of the hypercalcified species Murrayona phanolepis presented the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the scale, which is in accordance with the crystallography of all other Calcinea. The triactine spicules of the calcaronean species had approximately the same crystallographic orientation with the unpaired actine elongated in the ∼[211] direction. Only one Calcaronea species, whose triactine was regular, had a different orientation. Three different crystallographic orientations were found in diactines. Spicules with different morphologies, dimensions and positions in the sponge body had similar crystallographic directions suggesting that the crystallographic orientation of spicules in calcareous sponges is conserved through evolution.

  5. The Size of Gelatin Sponge Particles: Differences with Preparation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. To assess whether the size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them and the type of original sheet. Methods. Gelatin sponge particles of approximately 1-1.5 x 1-1.5 x 2 mm were made from either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by cutting with a scalpel and scissors. Particles were also made of either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by pumping with two syringes and a three-way stopcock. The size distribution of the particles in saline was compared among the groups. Results. (1) Cutting versus pumping: When Spongel was used, cutting produced lower rates of smaller particles {<=}500 {mu}m and larger particles >2000 {mu}m compared with pumping back and forth 30 times (1.1% vs 37.6%, p < 0.0001; 2.2% vs 14.4%, p = 0.008). When Gelfoam was used, cutting produced lower rates of smaller and larger particles compared with pumping (8.5% vs 20.4%, p = 0.1809; 0% vs 48.1%, p < 0.0001). (2) Spongel versus Gelfoam: There was no significant difference in the size distribution of the particles between Spongel and Gelfoam (p = 0.2002) when cutting was used. Conclusion. The size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them. More uniform particle sizes can be achieved by cutting than by pumping.

  6. Preparation of hydrophilic luffa sponges and their water absorption performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Pan, Yanxiong; Shi, Kai; Wang, Weicai; Peng, Chao; Li, Wei; Sha, Di; Wang, Zhe; Ji, Xiangling

    2016-08-20

    Hydrophilic luffa sponges are prepared by grafting polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on luffa cylindrica and subsequent partial hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to verify the composition of the grafted (luffa-g-PAM) and hydrolyzed (luffa-g-(PAM-co-PAANa)) samples. Alkalization conditions, including aqueous NaOH concentrations, alkalization temperature, and time, are studied extensively. Optimized conditions are then obtained. The grafting percentage (GP) of polyacrylamide increases with the feed ratios of [AM]/[OH] and [Ce]/[OH], reaction temperature, and time. Furthermore, the GP can reach up to 160%. Pristine, alkalized, grafted, and hydrolyzed luffa sponges show rapid absorption kinetics, and the pseudo second-order rate equation is applied to describe their kinetic procedure. Reaction conditions, such as [AM]/[OH], [Ce]/[OH], reaction temperature and time, influence the water absorption capacities of grafted and hydrolyzed samples. The hydrolyzed luffa sponges particularly exhibit high water absorption capacities of 75gg(-1). The absorption mechanism is also discussed.

  7. Monitoring bioeroding sponges: using rubble, Quadrat, or intercept surveys?

    PubMed

    Schönberg, C H L

    2015-04-01

    Relating to recent environmental changes, bioerosion rates of calcium carbonate materials appear to be increasing worldwide, often driven by sponges that cause bioerosion and are recognized bioindicators for coral reef health. Various field methods were compared to encourage more vigorous research on bioeroding sponges and their inclusion in major monitoring projects. The rubble technique developed by Holmes et al. (2000) had drawbacks often due to small specimen sizes: it was time-costly, generated large variation, and created a biased impression about dominant species. Quadrat surveys were most rapid but overestimated cover of small specimens. Line intercepts are recommended as easiest, least spatially biased, and most accurate, especially when comparing results from different observers. Intercepts required fewer samples and provided the best statistical efficiency, evidenced by better significances and test power. Bioeroding sponge abundances and biodiversities are influenced by water depth, sediment quality, and most importantly by availability of suitable attached substrate. Any related data should thus be standardized to amount of suitable substrate to allow comparison between different environments, concentrating on dominant, easily recognized species to avoid bias due to experience of observers.

  8. Secondary metabolites from three Florida sponges with antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Kochanowska, Anna J; Rao, Karumanchi V; Childress, Suzanne; El-Alfy, Abir; Matsumoto, Rae R; Kelly, Michelle; Stewart, Gina S; Sufka, Kenneth J; Hamann, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.

  9. Sponge-supported synthesis of colloidal selenium nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Snober; Brockgreitens, John; Xu, Ke; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-11-01

    With increasing biomedical and engineering applications of selenium nanospheres (SeNS), new efficient methods are needed for the synthesis and long-term preservation of these nanomaterials. Currently, SeNS are mostly produced through the biosynthesis route using microorganisms or by using wet chemical reduction, both of which have several limitations in terms of nanoparticle size, yield, production time and long-term stability of the nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a novel approach for rapid synthesis and long-term preservation of SeNS on a solid microporous support by combining a mild hydrothermal process with chemical reduction. By using a natural sponge as a solid three-dimensional matrix for nanoparticle growth, we have synthesized highly monodisperse spherical nanoparticles with a wide size range (10-1000 nm) and extremely high yield in a relatively short period of time (1 h). Additionally, the synthesized SeNS can be stored and retrieved whenever needed by simply washing the sponge in water. Keeping the nanospheres in the support offers remarkable long-term stability as particles left on the sponge preserve their morphological and colloidal characteristics even after eight months of storage. Furthermore, this work reveals that SeNS can be used for efficient mercury capture from contaminated waters with a record-breaking mercury removal capacity of 1900 mg g-1.

  10. Biosorption of lead by maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge.

    PubMed

    García-Rosales, G; Colín-Cruz, A

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by a maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge. Equilibrium and kinetic models for Pb(II) sorption were developed by considering the effect of the contact time and concentration at the optimum pH of 6 +/- 0.2. The Freundlich model was found to describe the sorption energetics of Pb(II) by Z. mays stalk sponge, and a maximum Pb(II) loading capacity of 80 mg g(-1) was determined. The kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting data from experiments measuring the effect of contact time on adsorption capacity into pseudo-first and second-order equations. The kinetics of Pb(II) sorption onto Z. mays biosorbent were well defined using linearity coefficients (R(2)) by the pseudo-second-order equation (0.9998). The results obtained showed that Zea may stalk sponge was a useful biomaterial for Pb(II) sorption and that pH has an important effect on metal biosorption capacity.

  11. The distribution of brominated long-chain fatty acids in sponge and symbiont cell types from the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis.

    PubMed

    Garson, M J; Zimmermann, M P; Battershill, C N; Holden, J L; Murphy, P T

    1994-07-01

    The tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis (family Niphatidae, order Haplosclerida) has previously been shown to possess unusual lipids, including unusual fatty acids. The biosynthetic origin of these fatty acids is of interest as the sponge supports a significant population of eubacterial and cyanobacterial symbionts. The total fatty acid composition of the sponge was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the methyl esters. Among the most abundant of the fatty acids in intact tissue were 16:0, 18:0 and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadecanoic (phytanic) acid. In addition, three brominated fatty acids, (5E,9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (24:2Br), (5E,9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-pentacosadienoic acid (25:2Br) and (5E,9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (26:2Br) were also present. The three brominated fatty acids, together with phytanic acid, were isolated from both ectosomal (superficial) and choanosomal (internal) regions of the sponge. Analysis of extracts prepared from sponge/symbiont cells, partitioned by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll, indicated that phytanic acid and the three brominated fatty acids were associated with sponge cells only. Further, a fatty acid methyl ester sample from intact tissue of A. terpenensis was partitioned according to phospholipid class, and the brominated fatty acids were shown to be associated with the phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions that are commonly present in marine sponge lipids. The phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol fractions were rich in the relatively shorter chain fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0). The association of brominated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) with sponge cells has been confirmed. The findings allow comment on the use of fatty acid profiles in chemotaxonomy and permit further interpretation of LCFA biosynthetic pathways in sponges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Estimates of Particulate Organic Carbon Flowing from the Pelagic Environment to the Benthos through Sponge Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Blázquez, Alejandra; Davy, Simon K.; Bell, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of trophic interactions between organisms, and the relationship between primary production and benthic diversity, there have been few studies that have quantified the carbon flow from pelagic to benthic environments as a result of the assemblage level activity of suspension-feeding organisms. In this study, we examine the feeding activity of seven common sponge species from the Taputeranga marine reserve on the south coast of Wellington in New Zealand. We analysed the diet composition, feeding efficiency, pumping rates, and the number of food particles (specifically picoplanktonic prokaryotic cells) retained by sponges. We used this information, combined with abundance estimates of the sponges and estimations of the total amount of food available to sponges in a known volume of water (89,821 m3), to estimate: (1) particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes through sponges as a result of their suspension-feeding activities on picoplankton; and (2) the proportion of the available POC from picoplankton that sponges consume. The most POC acquired by the sponges was from non-photosynthetic bacterial cells (ranging from 0.09 to 4.69 g C d−1 with varying sponge percentage cover from 0.5 to 5%), followed by Prochlorococcus (0.07 to 3.47 g C d−1) and then Synechococcus (0.05 to 2.34 g C d−1) cells. Depending on sponge abundance, the amount of POC that sponges consumed as a proportion of the total POC available was 0.2–12.1% for Bac, 0.4–21.3% for Prochlo, and 0.3–15.8% for Synecho. The flux of POC for the whole sponge assemblage, based on the consumption of prokaryotic picoplankton, ranged from 0.07–3.50 g C m2 d−1. This study is the first to estimate the contribution of a sponge assemblage (rather than focusing on individual sponge species) to POC flow from three groups of picoplankton in a temperate rocky reef through the feeding activity of sponges and demonstrates the importance of sponges to energy flow in rocky reef environments

  13. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from

  14. Estimates of particulate organic carbon flowing from the pelagic environment to the benthos through sponge assemblages.

    PubMed

    Perea-Blázquez, Alejandra; Davy, Simon K; Bell, James J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of trophic interactions between organisms, and the relationship between primary production and benthic diversity, there have been few studies that have quantified the carbon flow from pelagic to benthic environments as a result of the assemblage level activity of suspension-feeding organisms. In this study, we examine the feeding activity of seven common sponge species from the Taputeranga marine reserve on the south coast of Wellington in New Zealand. We analysed the diet composition, feeding efficiency, pumping rates, and the number of food particles (specifically picoplanktonic prokaryotic cells) retained by sponges. We used this information, combined with abundance estimates of the sponges and estimations of the total amount of food available to sponges in a known volume of water (89,821 m(3)), to estimate: (1) particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes through sponges as a result of their suspension-feeding activities on picoplankton; and (2) the proportion of the available POC from picoplankton that sponges consume. The most POC acquired by the sponges was from non-photosynthetic bacterial cells (ranging from 0.09 to 4.69 g C d(-1) with varying sponge percentage cover from 0.5 to 5%), followed by Prochlorococcus (0.07 to 3.47 g C d(-1)) and then Synechococcus (0.05 to 2.34 g C d(-1)) cells. Depending on sponge abundance, the amount of POC that sponges consumed as a proportion of the total POC available was 0.2-12.1% for Bac, 0.4-21.3% for Prochlo, and 0.3-15.8% for Synecho. The flux of POC for the whole sponge assemblage, based on the consumption of prokaryotic picoplankton, ranged from 0.07-3.50 g C m(2) d(-1). This study is the first to estimate the contribution of a sponge assemblage (rather than focusing on individual sponge species) to POC flow from three groups of picoplankton in a temperate rocky reef through the feeding activity of sponges and demonstrates the importance of sponges to energy flow in rocky reef environments.

  15. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On On; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  16. Host-specificity among abundant and rare taxa in the sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Reveillaud, Julie; Maignien, Loïs; Murat Eren, A; Huber, Julie A; Apprill, Amy; Sogin, Mitchell L; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Microbial communities have a key role in the physiology of the sponge host, and it is therefore essential to understand the stability and specificity of sponge-symbiont associations. Host-specific bacterial associations spanning large geographic distance are widely acknowledged in sponges. However, the full spectrum of specificity remains unclear. In particular, it is not known whether closely related sponges host similar or very different microbiota over wide bathymetric and geographic gradients, and whether specific associations extend to the rare members of the sponge microbiome. Using the ultra-deep Illumina sequencing technology, we conducted a comparison of sponge bacterial communities in seven closely related Hexadella species with a well-resolved host phylogeny, as well as of a distantly related sponge Mycale. These samples spanned unprecedentedly large bathymetric (15-960 m) gradients and varying European locations. In addition, this study included a bacterial community analysis of the local background seawater for both Mycale and the widespread deep-sea taxa Hexadella cf. dedritifera. We observed a striking diversity of microbes associated with the sponges, spanning 47 bacterial phyla. The data did not reveal any Hexadella microbiota co-speciation pattern, but confirmed sponge-specific and species-specific host-bacteria associations, even within extremely low abundant taxa. Oligotyping analysis also revealed differential enrichment preferences of closely related Nitrospira members in closely related sponges species. Overall, these results demonstrate highly diverse, remarkably specific and stable sponge-bacteria associations that extend to members of the rare biosphere at a very fine phylogenetic scale, over significant geographic and bathymetric gradients.

  17. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  18. First documentation of tidal-channel sponge biostromes (upper Pleistocene, southeastern Florida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Rigby, J. Keith; Wacker, Michael A.; Curran, H. Allen

    2007-05-01

    Sponges are not a common principal component of Cenozoic reefs and are more typically dominant in deep-water and/or cold-water localities. Here we report the discovery of extensive upper Pleistocene shallow-marine, tropical sponge biostromes from the Miami Limestone of southeastern Florida built by a new ceractinomorph demosponge. These upright, barrel- to vase-shaped sponges occur in monospecific aggregations constructed within the tidal channels of an oolitic tidal-bar belt similar to modern examples on the Great Bahama Bank. The biostromes appear to have a ribbon-like geometry, with densely spaced sponges populating a paleochannel along a 3.5 km extent in the most lengthy biostrome. These are very large (as high as 2 m and 1.8 m in diameter), particularly well-preserved calcified sponges with walls as hard as concrete. Quartz grains are the most common particles agglutinated in the structure of the sponge walls. Where exposed, sediment fill between the sponges is commonly a highly burrowed or cross-bedded ooid-bearing grainstone and, locally, quartz sand. It is postulated that the dense, localized distribution of these particular sponges was due to a slight edge over competitors for food or energy supply and space in a stressed environment of tidal-influenced salinity and nutrient changes, strong currents, and frequently shifting submarine sand dunes. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of sponge biostromes composed of very large upright sponges within high-energy tidal channels between ooid shoals. The remarkably well-preserved accumulations provide an alternative example of sponge reefs for comparative paleoenvironmental studies.

  19. First documentation of tidal-channel sponge biostromes (upper Pleistocene, southeastern Florida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.; Rigby, J.K.; Wacker, M.A.; Curran, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are not a common principal component of Cenozoic reefs and are more typically dominant in deep-water and/or cold-water localities. Here we report the discovery of extensive upper Pleistocene shallow-marine, tropical sponge biostromes from the Mami Limestone of southeastern Florida built by a new ceractinomorph demosponge. These upright, barrel- to vase-shaped sponges occur in monospecific aggregations constructed within the tidal channels of an oolitic tidal-bar belt similar to modern examples on the Great Bahama Bank. The biostromes appear to have a ribbon-like geometry, with densely spaced sponges populating a paleochannel along a 3.5 km extent in the most lengthy biostrome. These are very large (as high as 2 m and 1.8 m in diameter), particularly well-preserved calcified sponges with walls as hard as concrete. Quartz grains are the most common particles agglutinated in the structure of the sponge walls. Where exposed, sediment fill between the sponges is commonly a highly burrowed or cross-bedded ooid-bearing grainstone and, locally, quartz sand. It is postulated that the dense, localized distribution of these particular sponges was due to a slight edge over competitors for food or energy supply and space in a stressed environment of tidal-influenced salinity and nutrient changes, strong currents, and frequently shifting submarine sand dunes. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of sponge biostromes composed of very large upright sponges within high-energy tidal channels between ooid shoals. The remarkably well-preserved accumulations provide an alternative example of sponge reefs for comparative paleoenvironmental studies. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological studies have rarely been performed at the community level across a large biogeographic region. Sponges are now the primary habitat-forming organisms on Caribbean coral reefs. Recent species-level investigations have demonstrated that predatory fishes (angelfishes and some parrotfishes) differentially graze sponges that lack chemical defenses, while co-occurring, palatable species heal, grow, reproduce, or recruit at faster rates than defended species. Our prediction, based on resource allocation theory, was that predator removal would result in a greater proportion of palatable species in the sponge community on overfished reefs. We tested this prediction by performing surveys of sponge and fish community composition on reefs having different levels of fishing intensity across the Caribbean. A total of 109 sponge species was recorded from 69 sites, with the 10 most common species comprising 51.0% of sponge cover (3.6–7.7% per species). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated that the species composition of sponge communities depended more on the abundance of sponge-eating fishes than geographic location. Across all sites, multiple-regression analyses revealed that spongivore abundance explained 32.8% of the variation in the proportion of palatable sponges, but when data were limited to geographically adjacent locations with strongly contrasting levels of fishing pressure (Cayman Islands and Jamaica; Curaçao, Bonaire, and Martinique), the adjusted R2 values were much higher (76.5% and 94.6%, respectively). Overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs, particularly by fish trapping, removes sponge predators and is likely to result in greater competition for space between faster-growing palatable sponges and endangered reef-building corals. PMID:24567392

  1. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E.; Henkel, Timothy P.; Vicente, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs. PMID:25945305

  2. Inter- and intraspecific variations of bacterial communities associated with marine sponges from san juan island, washington.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  3. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2014-03-18

    Ecological studies have rarely been performed at the community level across a large biogeographic region. Sponges are now the primary habitat-forming organisms on Caribbean coral reefs. Recent species-level investigations have demonstrated that predatory fishes (angelfishes and some parrotfishes) differentially graze sponges that lack chemical defenses, while co-occurring, palatable species heal, grow, reproduce, or recruit at faster rates than defended species. Our prediction, based on resource allocation theory, was that predator removal would result in a greater proportion of palatable species in the sponge community on overfished reefs. We tested this prediction by performing surveys of sponge and fish community composition on reefs having different levels of fishing intensity across the Caribbean. A total of 109 sponge species was recorded from 69 sites, with the 10 most common species comprising 51.0% of sponge cover (3.6-7.7% per species). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated that the species composition of sponge communities depended more on the abundance of sponge-eating fishes than geographic location. Across all sites, multiple-regression analyses revealed that spongivore abundance explained 32.8% of the variation in the proportion of palatable sponges, but when data were limited to geographically adjacent locations with strongly contrasting levels of fishing pressure (Cayman Islands and Jamaica; Curaçao, Bonaire, and Martinique), the adjusted R(2) values were much higher (76.5% and 94.6%, respectively). Overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs, particularly by fish trapping, removes sponge predators and is likely to result in greater competition for space between faster-growing palatable sponges and endangered reef-building corals.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Sponge Symbiont Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea IPB1, Isolated from Hilo, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Sakai-Kawada, Francis E; Yakym, Christopher J; Helmkampf, Martin; Hagiwara, Kehau; Ip, Courtney G; Antonio, Brandi J; Armstrong, Ellie; Ulloa, Wesley J; Awaya, Jonathan D

    2016-09-22

    We report here the 6.0-Mb draft genome assembly of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea strain IPB1 that was isolated from the Hawaiian marine sponge Iotrochota protea Genome mining complemented with bioassay studies will elucidate secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways and will help explain the ecological interaction between host sponge and microorganism.

  5. Sublethal effects of contamination on the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe: metal accumulation and biological responses.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, E; Martí, R; Uriz, J M; Turon, X

    2003-10-01

    The effect of low levels of pollution on the growth, reproduction output, morphology and survival of adult sponges and settlers of the sponge Crambe crambe were examined. We transplanted sponges from a control area to a contaminated site and measured the main environmental variables (chemical and physical) of both sites during the study period. Except some punctual differences in particulate organic matter, silicates, nitrates, and water motion, most environmental variables in the water were similar at both sites during the study months. Mainly copper, lead and OM concentrations in the sediment, and water motion were significantly higher at the polluted site and may be implicated in the biological effects observed: decrease in the percentage of specimens with embryos, increase in shape irregularity and decrease in growth rate. Individuals naturally occurring at the polluted site and those transplanted there for four months accumulated ten times more copper than either untouched or transplant controls. Although lead concentration in sediment did not differ between sites, native specimens from the contaminated site accumulated this metal more than untouched controls. Vanadium concentration also tended to increase in the sponges living at or transplanted to the contaminated site but this difference was not significant. C. crambe is a reliable indicator of metal contamination since it accumulates copper, lead and vanadium in high amounts. At the contaminated site, sponge growth, fecundity and survival were inhibited, whereas sponge irregularity ending in sponge fission was promoted. All these effects may compromise the structure and dynamics of the sponge populations in sheltered, metal-contaminated habitats.

  6. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-08-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses.

  7. Unique microbial signatures of the alien Hawaiian marine sponge Suberites zeteki.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Li, Quanzi; Wang, Guangyi

    2008-04-01

    Invasive species poses a threat to the world's oceans. Alien sponges account for the majority of introduced marine species in the isolated Hawaiian reef ecosystems. In this study, cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques were applied to investigate microbial consortia associated with the alien Hawaiian marine sponge Suberites zeteki. Its microbial communities were diverse with representatives of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Planctomycetes, and Cyanobacteria. Specifically, the genus Chlamydia was identified for the first time from marine sponges, and two genera (Streptomyces and Rhodococcus) were added to the short list of culturable actinobacteria from sponges. Culturable microbial communities were dominated by Bacillus species (63%) and contained actinobacterial species closely affiliated with those from habitats other than marine sponges. Cyanobacterial clones were clustered with free-living cyanobacteria from water column and other environmental samples; they show no affiliation with other sponge-derived cyanobacteria. The low sequence similarity of Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, and alpha-Proteobacteria clones to other previously described sequences suggested that S. zeteki may contain new lineages of these bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of S. zeteki was different from that of other studied marine sponges. This is the first report on microbial communities of alien marine invertebrate species. For the first time, it provides an insight into microbial structure within alien marine sponges in the Hawaiian marine ecosystems.

  8. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal...

  9. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal...

  10. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal...

  11. Flourishing Sponge-Based Ecosystems after the End-Ordovician Mass Extinction.

    PubMed

    Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Zhang, Yuandong; Ma, Xuan; Ma, Junye; Wang, Longwu; Zhang, Jianfang; Song, Yanyan; Fang, Xiang

    2017-02-20

    The Late Ordovician (Hirnantian, approximately 445 million years ago) extinction event was among the largest known, with 85% species loss [1]. Post-extinction survival faunas are invariably low diversity, especially benthic communities [2], but ecological structure was restored relatively rapidly [1]. This pattern, however, reflects organisms with robust skeletons, as only one exceptionally preserved Hirnantian fossil biota was previously known [3, 4]; in particular, almost no Hirnantian sponges have been recorded. Our study reveals an extraordinarily diverse, sponge-dominated community thriving immediately after the Hirnantian extinction in Zhejiang, South China. Several contemporaneous sites preserve a total diversity of over 75 sponge species, many with preserved soft tissues, in pronounced contrast to normal survival and early recovery faunas. This diversity is unprecedented for any Hirnantian fossil group, and the fauna provides a unique window into a post-extinction ecosystem. The sponges are often large and structurally complex and represent numerous different lineages that survived the extinction. Layers with abundant sponge remains were deposited after other mass extinctions [5, 6], suggesting a general pattern of sponge abundance during collapse of Phanerozoic marine ecosystems. It is possible that the conditions of ecological collapse increase the particulate food sources for sponges, while they themselves are relatively unaffected by the crises. Furthermore, the abundance of sponges in the Hirnantian sequence of South China may have aided post-extinction ecosystem recovery by stabilizing the sediment surface, allowing sessile suspension feeders such as brachiopods, corals, and bryozoans to recover rapidly.

  12. A novel human-like collagen hemostatic sponge with uniform morphology, good biodegradability and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xijuan; Wang, Ya; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Liu, Lin; Duan, Zhiguang

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable sponges, as a promising hemostatic biomaterial, has been clinically required over the past decades. Current hemostatic sponges are generally prepared by crosslinking and freeze-drying, but the quality control or biocompatibility is often unsatisfactory due to the freezing-caused morphological non-uniformity and the toxicity of raw materials or cross-linkers. The crosslinking often greatly retards the degradation of the sponges and thus affects the healing of the wound. In this work, we prepared a novel hemostatic sponge using human-like collagen and glutamine transaminase (non-toxic cross-linker) and optimized its morphology via "two-step" freezing instead of conventional "one-step" freezing. The resulting sponge showed a good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity and implantation tests and had a significant hemostatic effect in ear artery and liver injury models. Moreover, the sponge could be degraded high efficiently by several common enzymes in organisms (e.g. I collagenase, trypsase, and lysozyme), which means that the sponge can be easily digested by metabolism and can facilitate seamless healing. Finally, both the front and back of the sponge prepared via two-step freezing was more uniform in morphology than that prepared via one-step freezing. More importantly, two-step freezing can be used as a universal approach for preparation of diverse uniform biomaterials.

  13. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

  14. On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

    2012-06-01

    Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

  15. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M. M.; Sorokin, Shirley J.; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3–D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers. PMID:28150727

  16. Changes in bacterial communities of the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer into aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Enticknap, Julie J; Lohr, Jayme E; McIntosh, Scott M; Hill, Russell T

    2008-02-01

    The changes in bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial community of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial communities changed during aquaculture. These communities were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial communities when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these communities may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves.

  17. Monitoring bacterial diversity of the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina upon transfer into aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Rao, Venkateswara; Hamann, Mark T; Kelly, Michelle; Hill, Russell T

    2008-07-01

    Marine sponges in the genus Ircinia are known to be good sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities. A major obstacle in the development of sponge-derived metabolites is the difficulty in ensuring an economic, sustainable supply of the metabolites. A promising strategy is the ex situ culture of sponges in closed or semiclosed aquaculture systems. In this study, the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina (order Dictyoceratida: family Irciniidae) was collected from the wild and maintained for a year in a recirculating aquaculture system. Microbiological and molecular community analyses were performed on freshly collected sponges and sponges maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 9 months. Chemical analyses were performed on wild collected sponges and individuals maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 1 year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to assess the complexity of and to monitor changes in the microbial communities associated with I. strobilina. Culture-based and molecular techniques showed an increase in the Bacteroidetes and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria components of the bacterial community in aquaculture. Populations affiliated with Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Planctomycetes emerged in sponges maintained in aquaculture. The diversity of bacterial communities increased upon transfer into aquaculture.

  18. Marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Saibaba, Ganesan; Kiran, George Seghal; Yang, Yung-Hun; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries. In recent times, a particular attention has been devoted to bacterial biopolymer (polyesters) such as intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacterial PHAs act as an internal reserve for carbon and energy and also are a tremendous alternative for fossil fuel-based polymers mainly due to their eco-friendliness. In addition, PHAs are produced when the microorganisms are under stressful conditions and this biopolymer synthesis might be exhibited as one of the survival mechanisms of sponge-associated or endosymbiotic bacteria which exist in a highly competitive and stressful sponge-mesohyl microenvironment. In this review, we have emphasized the industrial prospects of marine bacteria for the commercial production of PHAs and special importance has been given to marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential resource for PHAs.

  19. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-10

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents.

  20. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  1. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteri...

  2. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Sorokin, Shirley J; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3-D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers.

  3. 50 CFR 17.48 - Special rules-common sponges and other forms. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-common sponges and other forms. 17.48 Section 17.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 17.48 Special rules—common sponges and other forms....

  4. 50 CFR 17.48 - Special rules-common sponges and other forms. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-common sponges and other forms. 17.48 Section 17.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 17.48 Special rules—common sponges and other forms....

  5. 50 CFR 17.48 - Special rules-common sponges and other forms. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-common sponges and other forms. 17.48 Section 17.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 17.48 Special rules—common sponges and other forms....

  6. Enhanced oil recovery. Improved reservoir evaluation object of sponge coring process

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-04-01

    Oil saturation data determined by core analysis have improved. One result is the development of the sponge coring process. In the sponge coring method, the core sample is taken in much the same way as in conventional coring. The major difference is the porous, hard sponge that lines the core barrel. The sponge is so porous (approximately 80%) that cigarette smoke can be blown through it. It has one full darcy permeability and is oil-wet. The sponge is inside a thin polyvinyl chloride liner with small perforations in it. As the sponge core barrel is run into the hole, the sponge becomes wet with drilling fluid, usually water. Any oil in the core being forced out by the water and the reduction in pressure as the core is brought to surface is caught by the sponge. Since it is oil-wet the oil is retained. But water is forced out the small perforations in the liner. At the surface the 20-ft core is cut into 5-ft sections and put into special containers filled with fluid from the formation. That keeps the core in standard condition. Even much of the gas in solution remains in the core. This is noted during capping operations as the cap is forced back until the glue on it holds and seals the tube.

  7. 50 CFR 17.48 - Special rules-common sponges and other forms. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules-common sponges and other forms. 17.48 Section 17.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 17.48 Special rules—common sponges and other forms....

  8. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions.

  9. 50 CFR 17.48 - Special rules-common sponges and other forms. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules-common sponges and other forms. 17.48 Section 17.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 17.48 Special rules—common sponges and other forms....

  10. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera].

    PubMed

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike; Uriz, Maria Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) system (OAS, 2'-Phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2'-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2-5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2-5A degrading activity. Upon this finding, two out of three elements forming the 2-5A system have been found in sponges, only a endoribonuclease, RNAse L or similar, has to be found. We suspect the existence of a complex immune system in sponges, besides the self/non-self recognition system and the use of phagocytosis and secondary metabolites against pathogens.

  11. Cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes in hybrid porous collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous collagen sponges incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared and used for 3D culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). The pore structures of the sponges were controlled by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The responses of cells to SWCNTs were investigated in this 3D cell culture system by evaluation of cell functions and cellular uptake of SWCNTs. The results showed that cells adhered and spatially distributed in the porous sponges. The incorporation of SWCNTs in the porous sponges promoted cell proliferation and production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG). Confocal Raman imaging revealed that SWCNTs could be internalized by cells. The hybrid porous sponges not only provided nanostructured pore surfaces to facilitate cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion but also supplied nanomaterials for cellular uptake which may be useful for biomedical applications.

  12. Facile synthesis of flexible macroporous polypropylene sponges for separation of oil and water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guowei; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oil spill disasters always occur accidentally, accompanied by the release of plenty of crude oil that could spread quickly over a wide area, creating enormous damage to the fragile marine ecological system. Therefore, the facile large-scale synthesis of hydrophobic three-dimensional (3-D) porous sorbents from low cost raw materials is in urgent demand. In this study, we report the facile template-free synthesis of polypropylene (PP) sponge by using a thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. The obtained sponge showed macroporous structure, excellent mechanical property, high hydrophobicity, and superoleophilicity. Oil could be separated from an oil/water mixture by simple immersing the sponge into the mixture and subsequent squeezing the sponge. All of these features make this sponge the most promising oil sorbent that will replace commercial non-woven PP fabrics. PMID:26880297

  13. The effects of coastal development on sponge abundance, diversity, and community composition on Jamaican coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Stubler, Amber D; Duckworth, Alan R; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, development along the northern coast of Jamaica has accelerated, resulting in elevated levels of sedimentation on adjacent reefs. To understand the effects of this development on sponge community dynamics, we conducted surveys at three locations with varying degrees of adjacent coastal development to quantify species richness, abundance and diversity at two depths (8-10 m and 15-18 m). Sediment accumulation rate, total suspended solids and other water quality parameters were also quantified. The sponge community at the location with the least coastal development and anthropogenic influence was often significantly different from the other two locations, and exhibited higher sponge abundance, richness, and diversity. Sponge community composition and size distribution were statistically different among locations. This study provides correlative evidence that coastal development affects aspects of sponge community ecology, although the precise mechanisms are still unclear.

  14. The ctenophore lineage is older than sponges? That cannot be right! Or can it?

    PubMed

    Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-02-15

    Recent phylogenetic analyses resulting from collection of whole genome data suggest that ctenophores, or comb jellies, are sister to all other animals. Even before publication, this result prompted discussion among researchers. Here, I counter common criticisms raised about this result and show that assumptions placing sponges as the basal-most extant animal lineage are based on limited evidence and questionable premises. For example, the idea that sponges are simple and the reported similarity of sponge choanocytes to Choanflagellata do not provide useful characters for determining the positions of sponges within the animal tree. Intertwined with discussion of basal metazoan phylogeny is consideration of the evolution of neuronal systems. Recent data show that neural systems of ctenophores are vastly different from those of other animals and use different sets of cellular and genetic mechanisms. Thus, neural systems appear to have at least two independent origins regardless of whether ctenophores or sponges are the earliest branching extant animal lineage.

  15. A single betaproteobacterium dominates the microbial community of the crambescidine-containing sponge Crambe crambe

    PubMed Central

    Croué, Julie; West, Nyree J.; Escande, Marie-Line; Intertaglia, Laurent; Lebaron, Philippe; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2013-01-01

    Crambe crambe is a marine sponge that produces high concentrations of the pharmacologically significant pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids (PGAs), Crambescines and Crambescidines. Although bio-mimetic chemical synthesis of PGAs suggests involvement of microorganisms in their biosynthesis, there are conflicting reports on whether bacteria are associated with this sponge or not. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing we show that the associated bacterial community of C. crambe is dominated by a single bacterial species affiliated to the Betaproteobacteria. Microscopy analysis of sponge tissue sections using a specific probe and in situ hybridization confirmed its dominance in the sponge mesohyl and a single microbial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. If confirmed the presence of a simple bacteria community in C. crambe makes this association a very pertinent model to study sponge-bacteria interactions and should allow further research into the possible implication of bacteria in PGA biosynthesis. PMID:24002533

  16. Facile synthesis of flexible macroporous polypropylene sponges for separation of oil and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guowei; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Oil spill disasters always occur accidentally, accompanied by the release of plenty of crude oil that could spread quickly over a wide area, creating enormous damage to the fragile marine ecological system. Therefore, the facile large-scale synthesis of hydrophobic three-dimensional (3-D) porous sorbents from low cost raw materials is in urgent demand. In this study, we report the facile template-free synthesis of polypropylene (PP) sponge by using a thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. The obtained sponge showed macroporous structure, excellent mechanical property, high hydrophobicity, and superoleophilicity. Oil could be separated from an oil/water mixture by simple immersing the sponge into the mixture and subsequent squeezing the sponge. All of these features make this sponge the most promising oil sorbent that will replace commercial non-woven PP fabrics.

  17. Restriction of sponges to an atoll lagoon as a result of reduced environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Ingrid S S; Williams, Gareth J; Carballo, José Luis; Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Bell, James J

    2013-01-15

    The lagoon at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific was subject to major military modifications during WWII and now the dominant fauna on the lagoon's hard substrate are sponges, not corals. In this study, we quantified the physical and biological factors explaining the variation in sponge distribution patterns across 11 sites to determine the potential for the sponges in the lagoon at Palmyra to invade the surrounding reef systems. Significant differences in sponge assemblages were found among all but three sites. For all the models we examined the strongest environmental relationships were found for variables related to sedimentation/turbidity and food/habitat availability. Our findings suggest that the sponges in Palmyra's lagoon are likely to be restricted to this habitat type where they are associated with conditions resulting from the earlier heavy disturbance and are unlikely to spread to the outer reef environments unless there is a dramatic decline in environmental quality.

  18. Method for determining the amount of oil in a sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    DiFoggio, R.; Ellington, W.E.; Dangayach, K.C.B.

    1988-11-29

    For use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, a method is described for extracting oil from the sponge without substantially affecting the sponge. The method consists of: (a) extracting the oil from the sponge by dissolving the oil in a predetermined quantity of a solvent selected from the group consisting of cycloalkanes, ethers, and freons, and (b) determining the amount of oil dissolved into the solvent by: (i) preparing a standard solution of oil in another quantity of the selected solvent, and (ii) comparing the concentration of the oil extracted from the sponge in the predetermined quantity of solvent with the concentration of the oil in the standard solution, using supercritical fluid chromatography to determine the concentrations of the oil.

  19. Silicon uptake by sponges: a twist to understanding nutrient cycling on continental margins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Manuel; Navarro, Laura; Grasa, Ana; Gonzalez, Alicia; Vaquerizo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    About 75% of extant sponge species use dissolved silicon (DSi) to build a siliceous skeleton. We show that silicon (Si) uptake by sublittoral Axinella demosponges follows an enzymatic kinetics. Interestingly, maximum uptake efficiency occurs at experimental DSi concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than those in the sponge habitats, being unachievable in coastal waters of modern oceans. Such uptake performance appears to be rooted in a former condition suitable to operate at the seemingly high DSi values characterizing the pre-Tertiary (>65 mya) habitats where this sponge lineage diversified. Persistence of ancestral uptake systems causes sponges to be outcompeted by the more efficient uptake of diatoms at the low ambient DSi levels characterizing Recent oceans. Yet, we show that sublittoral sponges consume substantial coastal DSi (0.01-0.90 mmol Si m(-2) day(-1)) at the expenses of the primary-production circuit. Neglect of that consumption hampers accurate understanding of Si cycling on continental margins.

  20. Environmental heterogeneity and microbial inheritance influence sponge-associated bacterial composition of Spongia lamella.

    PubMed

    Noyer, Charlotte; Casamayor, Emilio O; Becerro, Mikel A

    2014-10-01

    Sponges are important components of marine benthic communities. High microbial abundance sponges host a large diversity of associated microbial assemblages. However, the dynamics of such assemblages are still poorly known. In this study, we investigated whether bacterial assemblages present in Spongia lamella remained constant or changed as a function of the environment and life cycle. Sponges were collected in multiple locations and at different times of the year in the western Mediterranean Sea and in nearby Atlantic Ocean to cover heterogeneous environmental variability. Co-occurring adult sponges and offsprings were compared at two of the sites. To explore the composition and abundance of the main bacteria present in the sponge mesohyl, embryos, and larvae, we applied both 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of excised DGGE bands and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR). On average, the overall core bacterial assemblage showed over 60 % similarity. The associated bacterial assemblage fingerprints varied both within and between sponge populations, and the abundance of specific bacterial taxa assessed by qPCR significantly differed among sponge populations and between adult sponge and offsprings (higher proportions of Actinobacteria in the latter). Sequences showed between 92 and 100 % identity to sequences previously reported in GenBank, and all were affiliated with uncultured invertebrate bacterial symbionts (mainly sponges). Sequences were mainly related to Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria and a few to Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Additional populations may have been present under detection limits. Overall, these results support that both ecological and biological sponge features may shape the composition of endobiont bacterial communities in S. lamella.

  1. Particulate organic matter as a food source for a coral reef sponge.

    PubMed

    Hadas, E; Shpigel, M; Ilan, M

    2009-11-01

    The ability of sponges to feed in diverse (including oligotrophic) ecosystems significantly contributes to their ubiquitous aquatic distribution. It was hypothesized that sponges that harbour small amounts of symbiotic bacteria in their mass feed mainly on particulate organic matter (POM). We examined the nearly symbiont-free (by microscopic observation) filter-feeding Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica in order to: (a) study removal efficiency of naturally occurring organic particles, (b) measure the total amount of absorbed particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), and (c) estimate organic carbon and nitrogen flux in this sponge. Total amount of organic carbon and nitrogen in the Gulf of Aqaba was found to be 48.46+/-5.69 microg l(-1) and 6.45+/-0.7 microg l(-1), respectively. While detritus contributed 54% of POC, most PON (84%) came from planktonic microorganisms, mainly prokaryotes. Particle removal efficiency ranged from 99% (the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.) to 37% (for eukaryotic cells >8 microm). On average, N. magnifica ingested 480 microg C day(-1) g(-1) (wet mass, WM) sponge and 76.6 microg N day(-1) g(-1) sponge. Ingested POC balanced 85% of the sponge's energetic demand but more is needed for biomass production because it cannot digest all of the carbon. 54.4+/-16.1 microg N day(-1) g(-1) (WM) nitrogen was excreted as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN); however, nitrogen allowance should be higher because more nitrogen is deposited for sponge biomass during growth. It is hypothesized that the discrepancy in the nutritional requirements should be covered by the sponge absorbing carbon and nitrogen from sources that are not dealt with in the present research, such as dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen. This study highlights the significance of detritus as a carbon source, and prokaryotes as a PON source in sponge feeding.

  2. Efforts to develop a cultured sponge cell line: revisiting an intractable problem.

    PubMed

    Grasela, James J; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rinkevich, Buki; Grima, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Residents of the marine environment, sponges (Porifera) have the ability to produce organic compounds known as secondary metabolites, which are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Because of their sessile nature, the production of these bioactive compounds has been interpreted as a functional adaptation to serve in an important survival role as a means to counter various environmental stress factors such as predation, overgrowth by fouling organisms, or competition for limited space. Regardless of the reasons for this adaptation, a variety of isolated compounds have already proven to demonstrate remarkable anticancer, fungicidal, and antibiotic properties. A major obstacle to the isolation and production of novel compounds from sponges is the lack of a large, reliable source of sponge material. Sponge collection from the sea would be environmentally detrimental to the already stressed and sparse sponge populations. Sponge production in an aquaculture setting might appear to be an ideal alternative but would also be cost-ineffective and sponge growth is extremely slow. A third approach involves the development of a sponge cell culture system capable of producing the necessary cell numbers to harvest for research purposes as well as for the eventual commercial-scale production of promising bioactive compounds. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in this direction other than the establishment of temporary cultures containing aggregates and fragments of cells. One impediment toward successful sponge cell culture might be ascribed to a lack of published knowledge of failed methodologies, and thus, time and effort is wasted on continued reinvention of the same methods and procedures. Consequently, we have undertaken here to chart some of our unsuccessful research efforts, our methodology, and results to provide the sponge research community with knowledge to assist them to better avoid taking the same failed

  3. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning.

  4. Experimental manipulation of sponge/bacterial symbiont community composition with antibiotics: sponge cell aggregates as a unique tool to study animal/microorganism symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Crystal; Hill, Malcolm; Marks, Carolyn; Runyen-Janecky, Laura; Hill, April

    2012-08-01

    Marine sponges can harbor dense and diverse bacterial communities, yet we have a limited understanding of important aspects of this symbiosis. We developed an experimental methodology that permits manipulating the composition of the microbial community. Specifically, we evaluated sponge cell aggregates (SCA) from Clathria prolifera that had been treated with different classes of antibiotics to determine whether this system might offer novel experimental approaches to the study of sponge/bacterial symbioses. Microscopic analysis of the SCA demonstrated that two distinct morphological types of microbiota existed on the external surface vs. the internal regions of the SCA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that we were unable to create entirely aposymbiotic SCA but that different classes of antibiotics produced distinctive shifts in the SCA-associated bacterial community. After exposure to antibiotics, some bacterial species were 'revealed', thus uncovering novel components of the sponge-associated community. The antibiotic treatments used here had little discernible effect on the formation of SCA or subsequent development of the adult. The experimental approach we describe offers empirical options for studying the role symbionts play in sponge growth and development and for ascertaining relationships among bacterial species in communities residing in sponges.

  5. Gelatine sponge particles: handling characteristics for endovascular use.

    PubMed

    Abada, Hicham T; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-12-01

    Gelatin sponge particles have been used since the mid 1960's in interventional radiology. It had played an important role as a temporary occlusive agent in the past. Embolization has gained a widespread acceptance in interventional radiology leading to different innovative new agents. This review is aimed to underline the persistent role of Gelfoam along with a better understanding of handling techniques in light of what we have learned from other particles as PVA and Embospheres. The clinical impact of embolization with gelfoam will be also stressed and discussed.

  6. New Cytotoxic 24-Homoscalarane Sesterterpenoids from the Sponge Ircinia felix

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ya-Yuan; Chen, Li-Chai; Wu, Chug-Fung; Lu, Mei-Chin; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Tung-Ying; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Two new 24-homoscalarane sesterterpenoids, felixins F (1) and G (2), were isolated from the sponge Ircinia felix. The structures of new homoscalaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, particularly with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, and, by comparison, the spectral data with those of known analogues. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against the proliferation of a limited panel of tumor cell lines was evaluated and 1 was found to show cytotoxicity toward the leukemia K562, MOLT-4, and SUP-T1 cells (IC50 ≤ 5.0 μM). PMID:26378524

  7. Halogenated Cyclic Peptides Isolated From the Sponge Corticium sp

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Damian W.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Feng, Xidong; Bugni, Tim S.; Harper, Mary Kay; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of two Fijian specimens of the sponge Corticium sp., led to the isolation of the known active alkaloid steroid plakinamine A and two new halogenated cyclic peptides, corticiamide A (1) and cyclocinamide B (2). Structural elucidation of 1 and 2 was achieved by an extensive combination of high field NMR and HRFT MS/MS experiments, and the absolute stereochemistry of 2 was determined by acid hydrolysis and Marfey’s analysis. Corticiamide A (1) and cyclocinamide B (2) represent the first peptides to be described from the genus Corticium. PMID:17391049

  8. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Mai, Linh H.; Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R.; Loaëc, Nadège; Bescond, Amandine; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a), B (1b), 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2) and xestoadociaminals A–D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c), together with seven known compounds (5–11) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders as well as for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25927661

  9. Bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Aplysina lacunosa

    PubMed Central

    Göthel, Qun; Sirirak, Thanchanok

    2015-01-01

    Summary Three new bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids 14-debromo-11-deoxyfistularin-3 (1), aplysinin A (2), and aplysinin B (3), together with 15 known compounds (4–18) were isolated from the sponge Aplysina lacunosa collected from Stirrup Cay, Bahamas. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data analysis. The 13C NMR assignment of spirocyclohexadienylisoxazoline moieties of 1 and 2 were confirmed by an 1,1-ADEQUATE experiment. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a mild to moderate cytotoxic activities against KB-31 and FS4-LTM cell lines. Only aplysinin A (2) exhibited cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. PMID:26734082

  10. Discorhabdins from the Korean marine sponge Sceptrella sp.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Eun; Na, Zeyei; Jung, Misong; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Nahm, Keepyung; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2010-02-26

    Two new pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids of the discorhabdin class, along with 12 compounds including one previously described synthetic derivative of the same and related skeletal classes, were isolated from the sponge Sceptrella sp., collected from Gageodo, Korea. The structures of these new compounds, designated as (-)-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin D (11) and (-)-discorhabdin Z (12), were determined by combined spectroscopic analyses. Compound 12 possesses an unusual hemiaminal group among the discorhabdin alkaloids. These compounds exhibited moderate to significant cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, and inhibitory activity against sortase A.

  11. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of glutaraldehyde-based crosslinked gelatin as a local hemostat sponge in surgery: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imani, Rana; Rafienia, Mohammad; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, preparation and characterization of soft crosslinked gelatin sponge for blood hemostasis application was considered. The effects of gelatin and crosslinker concentrations and altering freeze-drying temperature on sponges' density and structure, water absorption ability and biodegradation, cytotoxicity, mechanical properties and hemostatic effect were investigated. The density measurement indicated that the density of freeze-dried sponges increased when the freezing temperature was lowered. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images showed that gelatin sponges had uniform small pores (60 μm) after freezing at liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Biodegradation study demonstrated that the crosslinked sponges containing 1% and 2% gelatin lost respectively nearly 40 to 70% of their weight during 24 h. Prepared sponges showed desired water absorption ability (30-40 times of own dry weight) improved by lowering glutaraldehyde concentration. Cell toxicity was not detected in any of the samples. Compression modulus of sponges decreased four times (160 to 40 kPa) as the gelatin content varied from 2 to 1% w/v. Hemostasis study confirmed that the hemolytic ability of sponges increased through raising gelatin content and porosity of sponge. We suggest using gelatin sponges containing 1% w/v gelatin, 0.5% w/v glutaraldehyde frozen in liquid nitrogen, as a potential substitution for local hemostat absorbable sponge.

  13. Microbial community structure of two freshwater sponges using Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed high microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-12-01

    Sponges are primitive metazoans that are known to harbour diverse and abundant microbes. All over the world attempts are being made to exploit these microbes for their biotechnological potential to produce, bioactive compounds and antimicrobial peptides. However, the majority of the studies are focussed on the marine sponges and studies on the freshwater sponges have been neglected so far. To increase our understanding of the microbial community structure of freshwater sponges, microbiota of two fresh water sponges namely, Eunapius carteri and Corvospongilla lapidosa is explored for the first time using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. Overall the microbial composition of these sponges comprises of 14 phyla and on an average, more than 2900 OTUs were obtained from C. lapidosa while E. carteri showed 980 OTUs which is higher than OTUs obtained in the marine sponges. Thus, our study showed that, fresh water sponges also posses highly diverse microbial community than previously thought and it is distinct from the marine sponge microbiota. The present study also revealed that microbial community structure of both the sponges is significantly different from each other and their respective water samples. In the present study, we have detected many bacterial lineages belonging to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, etc. that are known to produce compounds of biotechnological importance. Overall, this study gives insight into the microbial composition of the freshwater sponges which is highly diverse and needs to be studied further to exploit their biotechnological capabilities.

  14. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Förster, Frank; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont. PMID:27877161

  15. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  16. Occurrence of a silicatein gene in glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

    PubMed

    Veremeichik, Galina N; Shkryl, Yuri N; Bulgakov, Victor P; Shedko, Sergey V; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Kulchin, Yuri N

    2011-08-01

    Silicatein genes are involved in spicule formation in demosponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). However, numerous attempts to isolate silicatein genes from glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) resulted in a limited success. In the present investigation, we performed analysis of potential silicatein/cathepsin transcripts in three different species of glass sponges (Pheronema raphanus, Aulosaccus schulzei, and Bathydorus levis). In total, 472 clones of such transcripts have been analyzed. Most of them represent cathepsin transcripts and only three clones have been found to represent transcripts, which can be related to silicateins. Silicatein transcripts were identified in A. schulzei (Hexactinellida; Lyssacinosida; Rosselidae), and the corresponding gene was called AuSil-Hexa. Expression of AuSil-Hexa in A. schulzei was confirmed by real-time PCR. Comparative sequence analysis indicates high sequence identity of the A. schulzei silicatein with demosponge silicateins described previously. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AuSil-Hexa protein belongs to silicateins. However, the AuSil-Hexa protein contains a catalytic cysteine instead of the conventional serine.

  17. Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)).

  18. The Sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) and its Endobiotic Fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luiz; Nalesso, Rosebel

    1996-02-01

    The endobiotic fauna of the sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) was studied for 2·5 years at two sites, Ubatuba and São Sebastião, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-two macrofaunal species (over 1 mm long) were identified among which Cnidaria, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Pycnogonida, Echinodermata, Ascidiacea and Pisces were represented. The results obtained on the number of species (species richness), the abundances of different species and faunal composition were related to the physico-biotic characteristics of the study sites. The influence of sample volume and other methodological artifacts on sample characteristics were also examined. The ophiuroid Ophiactis savignyi(Müller & Troschell) was the dominant endobiotic species, comprising 64% of all individuals collected. The São Sebastião endobiotic fauna was more diversified than the Ubatuba endobiotic fauna, possibly due to higher larval recruitment, and to the closeness of Z. parishiito the sea-floor providing a greater possibility for inhabitants of this microhabitat to find and to live inside the sponge.

  19. Structural characterization of siliceous spicules from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Croce, Gianluca; Frache, Alberto; Milanesio, Marco; Marchese, Leonardo; Causà, Mauro; Viterbo, Davide; Barbaglia, Alessia; Bolis, Vera; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Cerrano, Carlo; Benatti, Umberto; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Siliceous sponges, one of the few animal groups involved in a biosilicification process, deposit hydrated silica in discrete skeletal elements called spicules. A multidisciplinary analysis of the structural features of the protein axial filaments inside the spicules of a number of marine sponges, belonging to two different classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida), is presented, together with a preliminary analysis of the biosilicification process. The study was carried out by a unique combination of techniques: fiber diffraction using synchrotron radiation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and molecular modeling. From a phylogenetic point of view, the main result is the structural difference between the dimension and packing of the protein units in the spicule filaments of the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida species. Models of the protein organization in the spicule axial filaments, consistent with the various experimental evidences, are given. The three different species of demosponges analyzed have similar general structural features, but they differ in the degree of order. The structural information on the spicule axial filaments can help shed some light on the still unknown molecular mechanisms controlling biosilicification.

  20. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Diaa T. A.; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Asfour, Hani Z.

    2013-01-01

    In continuation of our search for drug leads from Red Sea sponges we have investigated the ethyl acetate fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Hyrtios species. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active fraction resulted into the identification of three new alkaloids, hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3). Hyrtioerectines D–F belong to the rare marine alkaloids in which the indole and β-carboline fragments of the molecule are linked through C-3/C-3 of both moieties. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and high-resolution mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and the free radical scavenging activity of the compounds using DPPH reagent were evaluated. In addition, the growth inhibitory activity of the compounds against three cancer cell lines was also evaluated. Hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3) displayed variable antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibition activities. Generally, compounds 1 and 3 were more active than compound 2. PMID:23538870

  1. Anti-Biofilm Compounds Derived from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, Sean D.; Richards, Justin J.; Tucker, Ashley T.; Thompson, Richele; Melander, Christian; Cavanagh, John

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are surface-attached communities of microorganisms that are protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules. In the biofilm state, bacteria are significantly more resistant to external assault, including attack by antibiotics. In their native environment, bacterial biofilms underpin costly biofouling that wreaks havoc on shipping, utilities, and offshore industry. Within a host environment, they are insensitive to antiseptics and basic host immune responses. It is estimated that up to 80% of all microbial infections are biofilm-based. Biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, since once the device is colonized, infection is almost impossible to eliminate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there is a notable effort towards developing small, synthetically available molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. Here, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms specifically through non-microbicidal mechanisms. Importantly, we discuss several sets of compounds derived from marine sponges that we are developing in our labs to address the persistent biofilm problem. We will discuss: discovery/synthesis of natural products and their analogues—including our marine sponge-derived compounds and initial adjuvant activity and toxicological screening of our novel anti-biofilm compounds. PMID:22073007

  2. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    SciTech Connect

    Freymann, Douglas M.; Nakamura, Yuka; Focia, Pamela J.; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-09-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  3. QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.

    2006-06-09

    Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.

  4. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  5. 10-Dimethylamino Derivatives of Benzo[h]quinoline and Benzo[h]quinazolines: Fluorescent Proton Sponge Analogues with Opposed peri-NMe2/-N═ Groups. How to Distinguish between Proton Sponges and Pseudo-Proton Sponges.

    PubMed

    Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Mikshiev, Vladimir Y; Antonov, Alexander S; Chernyshev, Anatoly V; Metelitsa, Anatoly V; Borodkin, Gennady S; Fedik, Nikita S; Dyablo, Olga V

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, 10-dimethylamino derivatives of benzo[h]quinoline 6 and benzo[h]quinazoline 7a-e as mixed analogues of archetypal 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene ("proton sponge") 1 and quino[7,8-h]quinoline 2a have been examined. Similar to 1 and 2, compounds 6 and 7 display rather high basicity, forming chelated monocations. At the same time, unexpected specifics of the protonated NMe2/-N═ systems consist of a strong shift of the NH proton to the 10-NMe2 group, contrary to the "aniline-pyridine" basicity rule. In case of 4H(+), a rapid migration (in the NMR time scale) of the NH proton between two nitrogen atoms along the N-H···N hydrogen bond was registered at room temperature and frozen below -30 °C with the proton fixed on the NMe2 group. Two different approaches for classification of strong neutral nitrogen organic bases as proton sponges (kinetically inert compounds) or pseudo-proton sponges (kinetically active) are discussed. On this basis, benzoquinoline 6 was identified as staying closer to pseudo-proton sponges while 7a-e to proton sponges due to the presence in their molecules of bulky substituents in the pyrimidine ring. Other remarkable peculiarities of 6 and 7 are their yellow color and luminescence in the visible region distinguishing them from colorless 1 and 2a.

  6. Mariculture and natural production of the antitumoural (+)-discodermolide by the Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cesar; Valderrama, Katherine; Zea, Sven; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2013-10-01

    Biotechnological research on marine organisms, such as ex situ or in situ aquaculture and in vitro cell culture, is being conducted to produce bioactive metabolites for biomedical and industrial uses. The Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta is the source of (+)-discodermolide, a potent antitumoural polyketide that has reached clinical trials. This sponge usually lives at depths greater than 30 m, but at Santa Marta (Colombia) there is a shallower population, which has made it logistically possible to investigate for the first time, on ways to supply discodermolide. We thus performed in situ, 6-month fragment culture trials to assess the performance of this sponge in terms of growth and additional discodermolide production and studied possible factors that influence the variability of discodermolide concentrations in the wild. Sponge fragments cultured in soft mesh bags suspended from horizontal lines showed high survivorship (93 %), moderate growth (28 % increase in volume) and an overall rise (33 %) in the discodermolide concentration, equivalent to average additional production of 8 μg of compound per millilitre of sponge. The concentration of discodermolide in wild sponges ranged from 8 to 40 μg mL(-1). Locality was the only factor related to discodermolide variation in the wild, and there were greater concentrations in peripheral vs. basal portions of the sponge, and in clean vs. fouled individuals. As natural growth and regeneration rates can be higher than culture growth rates, there is room for improving techniques to sustainably produce discodermolide.

  7. Phosphorus sequestration in the form of polyphosphate by microbial symbionts in marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Blasiak, Leah C.; Karolin, Jan O.; Powell, Ryan J.; Geddes, Chris D.; Hill, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are major habitat-forming organisms in coastal benthic communities and have an ancient origin in evolution history. Here, we report significant accumulation of polyphosphate (polyP) granules in three common sponge species of the Caribbean coral reef. The identity of the polyP granules was confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by the fluorescence properties of the granules. Microscopy images revealed that a large proportion of microbial cells associated with sponge hosts contained intracellular polyP granules. Cyanobacterial symbionts cultured from sponges were shown to accumulate polyP. We also amplified polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes from sponge DNA and confirmed that the gene was expressed. Based on these findings, we propose here a potentially important phosphorus (P) sequestration pathway through symbiotic microorganisms of marine sponges. Considering the widespread sponge population and abundant microbial cells associated with them, this pathway is likely to have a significant impact on the P cycle in benthic ecosystems. PMID:25713351

  8. Zooxanthellar symbionts shape host sponge trophic status through translocation of carbon.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Jeremy B; Massaro, Andrew J; Ramsby, Blake D; Hill, Malcolm S

    2010-12-01

    Sponges belonging to the genus Cliona are common inhabitants of many coral reefs, and as bioeroders, they play an important role in the carbonate cycle of the reef. Several Cliona species maintain intracellular populations of dinoflagellate zooxanthellae (i.e., Symbiodinium spp.), which also form symbioses with a variety of other invertebrates and protists (e.g., corals, molluscs, foraminifera). Unlike the case of coral symbioses, however, almost nothing is known of the metabolic interaction between sponges and their zooxanthella symbionts. To assess this interaction, we performed a tracer experiment to follow C and N in the system, performed a reciprocal transplant experiment, and measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of Cliona spp. with and without zooxanthellae to study the influence of environment on the interaction. We found strong evidence of a transfer of C from zooxanthellae to their sponge hosts but no evidence of a transfer of N from sponge to zooxanthellae. We also saw significant influences of the environment on the metabolism of the sponges. Finally, we observed significant differences in carbon metabolism of sponge species with and without symbionts. These data strongly support hypotheses of metabolic integration between zooxanthellae and their sponge host and extend our understanding of basic aspects of benthic-pelagic coupling in shallow-water marine environments.

  9. Ecology of Caribbean Sponges: Are Top-Down or Bottom-Up Processes More Important?

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Michael P.; Slattery, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling and the role of bottom-up versus top-down processes are recognized as having a major impact on the structure of marine communities. While the roles of bottom-up processes are better appreciated they are still viewed as principally affecting the outcome of top-down processes. Sponges on coral reefs are important members of the benthic community and provide a critically important functional linkage between water-column productivity and the benthos. As active suspension feeders sponges utilize the abundant autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton in the water column. As a result sponges across the Caribbean basin exhibit a consistent and significant pattern of greater biomass, tube extension rate, and species numbers with increasing depth. Likewise, the abundance of their food supply also increases along a depth gradient. Using experimental manipulations it has recently been reported that predation is the primary determinant of sponge community structure. Here we provide data showing that the size and growth of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis are significantly affected by food availability. Sponges increased in size and tube extension rate with increasing depth down to 46 m, while simultaneously exposed to the full range of potential spongivores at all depths. Additionally, we point out important flaws in the experimental design used to demonstrate the role of predation and suggest that a resolution of this important question will require well-controlled, multi-factorial experiments to examine the independent and interactive effects of predation and food abundance on the ecology of sponges. PMID:24244563

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Hybrid Sponge for Healing of Infectious Burn Wound.

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, Venkat; Suganiya, Selvaraj A; Mala, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Burn is the fourth most common type of trauma worldwide. It often creates a third degree to fourth degree burn wound in the victims of accident. Hence a study was undertaken to fabricate hybrid sponge with biopolymers, silver nano particle and phytochemical constituents to accelerate wound healing. Antimicrobial susceptibility of wound isolates was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The silver nano particle was synthesized using the extracts of clove bud. The size of silver nano material ranged from 59-98 nm. The sponge was fabricated by freeze drying and its swelling property was evaluated. In the present study, 82.3% of the swelling of the sponge was observed within 20 minutes. The efficiency of sponge in healing infectious burn wound was assessed in rats. On the 20(th) day, 96.92% of wound was healed in sponge dressing and 58.2% in silverex treated rats. Thus, the study proved that the sponge accelerated the healing rate. Recent patents on the formulation of antimicrobial dressings and sponge have also been discussed in this paper.

  11. Sustainable production of bioactive compounds by sponges--cell culture and gene cluster approach: a review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Le Pennec, Gaël; Schröder, Heinz- C; Brümmer, Franz; Hentschel, Ute; Müller, Isabel M; Breter, Hans- J

    2004-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile marine filter feeders that have developed efficient defense mechanisms against foreign attackers such as viruses, bacteria, or eukaryotic organisms. Protected by a highly complex immune system, as well as by the capacity to produce efficient antiviral compounds (e.g., nucleoside analogues), antimicrobial compounds (e.g., polyketides), and cytostatic compounds (e.g., avarol), they have not become extinct during the last 600 million years. It can be assumed that during this long period of time, bacteria and microorganisms coevolved with sponges, and thus acquired a complex common metabolism. It is suggested that (at least) some of the bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from sponges are produced by functional enzyme clusters, which originated from the sponges and their associated microorganisms. As a consequence, both the host cells and the microorganisms lost the ability to grow independently from each other. Therefore, it was--until recently--impossible to culture sponge cells in vitro. Also the predominant number of "symbiotic bacteria" proved to be nonculturable. In order to exploit the bioactive potential of both the sponge and the "symbionts," a 3D-aggregate primmorph culture system was established; also it was proved that one bioactive compound, avarol/avarone, is produced by the sponge Dysidea avara. Another promising way to utilize the bioactive potential of the microorganisms is the cloning and heterologous expression of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism, such as the polyketide synthases.

  12. Spherulization as a process for the exudation of chemical cues by the encrusting sponge C. crambe

    PubMed Central

    Ternon, Eva; Zarate, Lina; Chenesseau, Sandrine; Croué, Julie; Dumollard, Rémi; Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological interactions in the marine environment are now recognized to be partly held by chemical cues produced by marine organisms. In particular, sponges are sessile animals thought to rely on the bioactive substances they synthesize to ensure their development and defense. However, the mechanisms leading the sponges to use their specialized metabolites as chemical cues remain unknown. Here we report the constant release of bioactive polycyclic guanidinic alkaloids by the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe into the dissolved and the particulate phases using a targeted metabolomics study. These compounds were proven to be stored into already described specialized (spherulous) sponge cells and dispersed into the water column after release through the sponge exhaling channels (oscula), leading to a chemical shield surrounding the sponge. Low concentrations of these compounds were demonstrated to have teratogenic effects on embryos of a common sea squirt (ascidian). This mechanism of action called spherulization may therefore contribute to the ecological success of encrusting sponges that need to extend their substrate cover to expand. PMID:27381941

  13. [Phylogenetic position of sponges from Chagytaĭ and Tore-Khol' lakes].

    PubMed

    Maĭkova, O O; Itskovich, V B; Semiturkina, N A; Kaliuzhnaia, O V; Belikov, S I

    2010-12-01

    Morphological and molecular genetic data for freshwater sponges from the lakes of Tuva Depression, Baikalospongia dzhegatajensis (Rezvo, 1936), forms Dzh05 and Dzh06, from Chagatai Lake, as well as forms TKhl and TKh2, from the Lake Tore-Khol, were obtained and examined. In the sponges examined, which on phylogenetic tree clustered together with the Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linneaus, 1758) sponge from the family Spongillidae, the ITS rDNA regions were sequenced. Comparison of highly variable interal spacer regions of the mitochondrial genome was performed using corresponding sequences of three sponges from the family Spongillidae (E. fluviatilis, E. muelleri and Spongilla lacustris), sponges from the Chagatai and Tore-Khol lakes (Dzh06 and TKh2) with an unknown status, and sponges from the Baikalian family Lubomirskiidae. Minimum genetic differences were observed between E. fluviatilis, Dzh06, and TKh2 (from 0.003 to 0.01% of nucleotide substitutions), while maximum differences were found between the species of Lubomirskiidae and Spongillidae (from 0.928 to 2.06%). The data obtained indicated that sponges from Chagatai and Tore-Khol lakes were most close to E. fluviatilis.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of freshwater sponges provide evidence for endemism and radiation in ancient lakes.

    PubMed

    Meixner, Martin J; Lüter, Carsten; Eckert, Carsten; Itskovich, Valeria; Janussen, Dorte; von Rintelen, Thomas; Bohne, Alexandra V; Meixner, Johannes M; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2007-12-01

    Morphologic and phylogenetic analysis of freshwater sponges endemic to lakes in Central Sulawesi, Siberia and South-East Europe is presented. We also analyzed several cosmopolitan sponge species from Eurasia and North America and included sponge sequences from public databases. In agreement with previous reports [Addis, J.S., Peterson, K.J., 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of freshwater sponges (Porifera, Spongillina) inferred from analyses of 18S rDNA, COI mtDNA, and ITS2 rDNA sequences. Zool. Scr. 34, 549-557], the metaniid sponge Corvomeyenia sp. was the most deeply branching species within a monophyletic lineage of the suborder Spongillina. Pachydictyum globosum (Malawispongiidae) and Nudospongilla vasta (Spongillidae), two morphologically quite distinct species from Sulawesi were found in a joint clade with Trochospongilla (Spongillidae) rendering Trochospongilla paraphyletic. Furthermore, Ochridaspongia sp., another Malawispongiidae, clustered far away from that clade, together with Ephydatia fluviatilis, making the latter family polyphyletic. The Lubomirskiidae endemic to Lake Baikal, Lubomirskia abietina, Baikalospongia bacillifera, B. intermedia, and Swartschewskia papyracea formed a well-supported clade that was most closely linked to the genus Ephydatia (99.9% identity over a total length of 2169 concatenated nucleotide positions). Our study indicates the frequent and independent origin of sponge species endemic to different freshwater ecosystems from a few cosmopolitan founder species. The highly specific primer sets newly developed here facilitate work on the molecular phylogeny and DNA barcoding of sponges.

  15. Ecology of Caribbean sponges: are top-down or bottom-up processes more important?

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P; Slattery, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling and the role of bottom-up versus top-down processes are recognized as having a major impact on the structure of marine communities. While the roles of bottom-up processes are better appreciated they are still viewed as principally affecting the outcome of top-down processes. Sponges on coral reefs are important members of the benthic community and provide a critically important functional linkage between water-column productivity and the benthos. As active suspension feeders sponges utilize the abundant autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton in the water column. As a result sponges across the Caribbean basin exhibit a consistent and significant pattern of greater biomass, tube extension rate, and species numbers with increasing depth. Likewise, the abundance of their food supply also increases along a depth gradient. Using experimental manipulations it has recently been reported that predation is the primary determinant of sponge community structure. Here we provide data showing that the size and growth of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis are significantly affected by food availability. Sponges increased in size and tube extension rate with increasing depth down to 46 m, while simultaneously exposed to the full range of potential spongivores at all depths. Additionally, we point out important flaws in the experimental design used to demonstrate the role of predation and suggest that a resolution of this important question will require well-controlled, multi-factorial experiments to examine the independent and interactive effects of predation and food abundance on the ecology of sponges.

  16. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures.

  17. Vertical Transmission of Diverse Microbes in the Tropical Sponge Corticium sp.▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty H.; Eam, Boreth; Faulkner, D. John; Haygood, Margo G.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are host to extremely diverse bacterial communities, some of which appear to be spatiotemporally stable, though how these consistent associations are assembled and maintained from one sponge generation to the next is not well understood. Here we report that a diverse group of microbes, including both bacteria and archaea, is consistently present in aggregates within embryos of the tropical sponge Corticium sp. The major taxonomic groups represented in bacterial 16S rRNA sequences amplified from the embryos are similar to those previously described in a variety of marine sponges. Three selected bacterial taxa, representing proteobacteria, actinobacteria, and a clade including recently described sponge-associated bacteria, were tested and found to be present in all adult samples tested over a 3-year period and in the embryos throughout development. Specific probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize cells of the three types in the embryos and mesohyl. This study confirms the vertical transmission of multiple, phylogenetically diverse microorganisms in a marine sponge, and our findings lay the foundation for future work on exploring vertical transmission of specific, yet diverse, microbial assemblages in marine sponges. PMID:17122394

  18. Patterns in the distribution of sponge populations across the central Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Clive R.; Cheshire, Anthony C.

    1989-12-01

    Coral reef sponge populations were surveyed at two spatial scales: different depths and different reef locations across the continental shelf of the central Great Barrier Reef. The surveys were conducted on the forereef slopes of 12 reefs from land-influenced, inner-shelf reefs to those in the oligotrophic waters of the Coral Sea. Few sponges occur in shallow waters and the largest populations are found between 10 and 30 m depth. Sponges are apparently excluded from shallow waters because of excessive turbulence and possibly by high levels of damaging light. Sponge biomass is highest on the innershelf reefs and decreases away from the coast, whereas abundance is generally higher on middle-shelf reefs. There are considerable overlaps in the species composition on middle-, outer-shelf and Coral Sea reefs, but those on inner-shelf reefs are significantly different. The nature and size of sponge populations reflect environmental conditions across the continental shelf. The larger inner-shelf populations probably reflect higher levels of organic and inorganic nutrients and reduced amounts of physical turbulence, whereas sponges on reefs further from shore may be able to resist greater turbulence but appear more sensitive to the effects of fine sediments. These latter populations are smaller, reflecting the reduced availability of organic matter, however, many of these sponges rely on cyanobacterial symbionts to augment nutrition in these clearer, more oligotrophic waters.

  19. Implementing sponge physiological and genomic information to enhance the diversity of its culturable associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Adi; Keren, Ray; Haber, Markus; Schwartz, Inbar; Ilan, Micha

    2014-02-01

    In recent years new approaches have emerged for culturing marine environmental bacteria. They include the use of novel culture media, sometimes with very low-nutrient content, and a variety of growth conditions such as temperature, oxygen levels, and different atmospheric pressures. These approaches have largely been neglected when it came to the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria. Here, we used physiological and environmental conditions to reflect the environment of sponge-associated bacteria along with genomic data of the prominent sponge symbiont Candidatus Poribacteria sp. WGA-4E, to cultivate bacteria from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Designing culturing conditions to fit the metabolic needs of major bacterial taxa present in the sponge, through a combined use of diverse culture media compositions with aerobic and microaerophilic states, and addition of antibiotics, yielded higher diversity of the cultured bacteria and led to the isolation of novel sponge-associated and sponge-specific bacteria. In this work, 59 OTUs of six phyla were isolated. Of these, 22 have no close type strains at the species level (< 97% similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence), representing novel bacteria species, and some are probably new genera and even families.

  20. Spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis studied with fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    Annenkov, Vadim V; Danilovtseva, Elena N

    2016-04-01

    Siliceous sponges are the most primitive multicellular animals whose skeleton consists of spicules - needle-like constructions from silicon dioxide surrounding organic axial filaments. Mechanisms of spicule formation have been intensively studied due to the high ecological importance of sponges and their interest to materials science. Light and electron microscopy are not appropriate enough to display the process from silicon-enriched cells to mature spicules because of composite structure of the sponge tissues. In this article, spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge has been studied for the first time with the use of fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent vital dye NBD-N2 was applied to stain growing siliceous structures in the sponge and primmorph cell system. The main stages of spicule growth in the fresh-water sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis (Pallas, 1773) were visualized: silicon accumulation in sclerocytes; formation of an organic filament protruding from the cell; further elongation of the filament and growth of the spicule in a spindle-like form with enlargement in the center; merger with new sclerocytes and formation of the mature spicule. Fluorescent microscopy combined with SEM allows us to overcome the virtual differentiation between intra- and extracellular mechanisms of spicule growth. The growing spicule can capture silicic acid from the extracellular space and merge with new silicon-enriched cells. Visualization of the growing spicules with the fluorescent dye allows us to monitor sponge viability in ecological or toxicological experiments and to apply genomic, proteomic and biochemical techniques.

  1. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Cai, Lin; Bajic, Vladimir; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body.

  2. Application of diffusion growth chambers for the cultivation of marine sponge-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Georg; Whitfield, Susanna; Taylor, Michael W; Thoms, Carsten; Schupp, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Marine sponges contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which are renowned as a source of bioactive metabolites. The biological activities of sponge-microbe natural products span a broad spectrum, from antibacterial and antifungal to antitumor and antiviral applications. However, the potential of sponge-derived compounds has not been fully realized, due largely to the acknowledged "supply issue." Most bacteria from environmental samples have resisted cultivation on artificial growth media, and cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria has been a major focus in the search for novel marine natural products. One approach to isolate so-called "uncultivable" microorganisms from different environments is the diffusion growth chamber method. Here, we describe the first application of diffusion growth chambers for the isolation of cultivable and previously uncultivated bacteria from sponges. The study was conducted by implanting diffusion growth chambers in the tissue of Rhabdastrella globostellata reef sponges. In total, 255 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, with phylogenetic analyses revealing their affiliations with the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Fifteen sequences represented previously uncultivated bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma classes). Our results indicate that the diffusion growth chamber approach can be successfully applied in a natural, living marine environment such as sponges.

  3. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a total of 77 actinomycete strains were isolated from 15 South China Sea sponge species. Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 12 families and 20 genera, among which three rare genera (Marihabitans, Polymorphospora, and Streptomonospora) were isolated from marine sponges for the first time. Subsequently, β-ketoacyl synthase (KSα) gene was used as marker for evaluating the potential of the actinomycete strains to produce aromatic polyketides. As a result, KSα gene was detected in 35 isolates related to seven genera (Kocuria, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, and Streptomyces). Finally, 10 strains were selected for small-scale fermentation, and one angucycline compound was detected from the culture extract of Streptomyces anulatus strain S71. This study advanced our knowledge of the sponge-associated actinomycetes regarding their diversity and potential in producing aromatic polyketides. PMID:26483773

  4. Fabrication and characterization of a novel crosslinked human keratin-alginate sponge.

    PubMed

    Hartrianti, Pietradewi; Nguyen, Luong T H; Johanes, Julianto; Chou, Siaw Meng; Zhu, Pengcheng; Tan, Nguan Soon; Tang, Mark Boon Yang; Ng, Kee Woei

    2016-04-25

    Human hair keratins have been explored for biomedical applications because of their abundance, bioactivity and processability. However, pure keratin templates have poor mechanical properties, which limit their practical relevance. Herein, we described a novel composite sponge, consisting of human hair keratins chemically crosslinked with alginate using 1-ethyl-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, with improved mechanical properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and free amine group quantification using ninhydrin revealed a maximum crosslinking index of 82.1 ± 1.3%. With increasing alginate proportions, the sponges exhibited increased tensile strength, tensile modulus and compression modulus at maximum values of 10.3 ± 1.92 kPa, 219.07 ± 52.39 kPa and 191.48 ± 32.89 kPa, respectively. The crosslinked sponges also demonstrated water vapour transmission rates comparable to commercial wound dressings. Meanwhile, sponges with higher proportions of keratin showed lower water uptake capacities and higher degradation rates by proteinase K, in comparison with sponges with higher proportions of alginate. Higher proportions of keratin on coated two-dimensional surfaces and in three-dimensional sponges resulted in more attachment and improved proliferation of L929 fibroblasts, verifying the bioactive role of keratin in the composites. In addition, subcutaneous implantation of the keratin-alginate sponges into C57BL/6NTac mice over 4 weeks showed no significant immunological reaction and minimal formation of fibrotic capsules. Furthermore, the sponges supported cellular infiltration, neo-tissue formation and vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of producing crosslinked human hair keratin-alginate sponges, with tuneable physical and mechanical properties, which are cell compliant in vitro and biocompatible in vivo, suggesting their potential for clinically relevant exploitations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  5. Chemical defenses of cryptic and aposematic Gastropterid molluscs feeding on their host sponge Dysidea granulosa.

    PubMed

    Becerro, Mikel A; Starmer, John A; Paul, Valerie J

    2006-07-01

    Numerous opisthobranchs are known to sequester chemical defenses from their prey and use them for their own defense. Information on feeding biology is critical for understanding the ecology and evolution of molluscs, yet information on feeding biology is still scarce for many groups. Gastropterid molluscs are often found on sponges, but there is controversy as to whether they are true sponge feeders. On Guam, we found the gastropterids Sagaminopteron nigropunctatum and S. psychedelicum on the sponge Dysidea granulosa. They seem to rely on contrasting defense strategies as S. psychedelicum has vivid colors, consistent with the warning coloration found in many chemically defended opisthobranchs, whereas S. nigropunctatum is highly cryptic on the sponge. S. nigropunctatum is avoided by the pufferfish Canthigaster solandri in aquarium assays. We analyzed the secondary metabolites of the two species and found that both share polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) with their host sponge D. granulosa. S. psychedelicum and S. nigropunctatum sequester the major BDE in the sponge and accumulate it in the mantle at approximately the same concentration as in the sponge (4.03 and 2.37%, respectively), and concentrate it in their parapodia at over twice the sponge concentration (7.97 and 10.10%, respectively). We also detected trace amounts in the mucus secretion of S. psychedelicum, and quantified significant amounts in the mucus (1.84%) and egg masses (2.22%) of S. nigropunctatum. Despite contrasting color patterns displayed by the two gastropterid species, they seem to share a similar chemical defense strategy, i.e., they feed on D. granulosa and accumulate the major BDE of the sponge in their tissues.

  6. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral.

    PubMed

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions.

  7. Tolerance of Sponge Assemblages to Temperature Anomalies: Resilience and Proliferation of Sponges following the 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs across the world are under threat from a range of stressors, and while there has been considerable focus on the impacts of these stressors on corals, far less is known about their effect on other reef organisms. The 1997–8 El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had notable and severe impacts on coral reefs worldwide, but not all reef organisms were negatively impacted by this large-scale event. Here we describe how the sponge fauna at Bahia, Brazil was influenced by the 1997–8 ENSO event. Sponge assemblages from three contrasting reef habitats (reef tops, walls and shallow banks) at four sites were assessed annually from 1995 to 2011. The within-habitat sponge diversity did not vary significantly across the study period; however, there was a significant increase in density in all habitats. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant difference in sponge assemblage composition (ANOSIM) between pre- and post-ENSO years for any of the habitats, suggesting that neither the 1997–8 nor any subsequent smaller ENSO events have had any measurable impact on the reef sponge assemblage. Importantly, this is in marked contrast to the results previously reported for a suite of other taxa (including corals, echinoderms, bryozoans, and ascidians), which all suffered mass mortalities as a result of the ENSO event. Our results suggest that of all reef taxa, sponges have the potential to be resilient to large-scale thermal stress events and we hypothesize that sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms. PMID:24116109

  8. Mining Genomes of Three Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacterial Isolates for Secondary Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three actinobacterial isolates, Micromonospora sp. RV43, Rubrobacter sp. RV113, and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 that had previously been isolated from Mediterranean sponges. The draft genomes were analyzed for the presence of gene clusters indicative of secondary metabolism using antiSMASH 3.0 and NapDos pipelines. Our findings demonstrated the chemical richness of sponge-associated actinomycetes and the efficacy of genome mining in exploring the genomic potential of sponge-derived actinomycetes. PMID:26430030

  9. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cynachirella tarentina) are active against all phytopathogenic fungi studied.

  10. Bioactive compounds from marine sponges and their symbiotic microbes: a potential source of nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Dewapriya, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Sponges are considered as the chemical factory in marine environment because of its immense production of chemically diverse compounds. Other than the chemical diversity, these compounds possess remarkable bioactivities. This great potential has aroused applications of sponge-derived compounds as therapeutics and at present, a number of promising compounds are in clinical and preclinical trials. Recently, nutraceuticals have received considerable interest among the health conscious community because of its multiple therapeutic effects. Natural health-promoting substances gain continuous popularity as nutraceuticals due to its reduced risk of side effects. This overview discusses the potentials of marine sponge-derived bioactivities as natural health-promoting compounds.

  11. Construction of a metagenomic DNA library of sponge symbionts and screening of antibacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Cui, Chengbin; Fang, Yuchun; Liu, Hongbing; Liu, Peipei; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2006-04-01

    To study the bioactive metabolites produced by sponge-derived uncultured symbionts, a metagenomic DNA library of the symbionts of sponge Gelliodes gracilis was constructed. The average size of DNA inserts in the library was 20 kb. This library was screened for antibiotic activity using paper dise assaying. Two clones displayed the antibacterial activity against Micrococcus tetragenus. The metabolites of these two clones were analyzed through HPLC. The result showed that their metabolites were quite different from those of the host E. coli DH5α and the host containing vector pHZ132. This study may present a new approach to exploring bioactive metabolites of sponge symbionts.

  12. Production of indole antibiotics induced by exogenous gene derived from sponge metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Takeshige, Yuya; Egami, Yoko; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2015-05-01

    Sponge metagenomes are accessible genetic sources containing genes and gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of sponge-derived bioactive natural products. In this study, we obtained the clone pDC112, producing turbomycin A and 2,2-di(3-indolyl)-3-indolone, based on the functional screening of the metagenome library derived from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx. The subcloning experiment identified ORF 25, which is homologous to inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase and required for the production of 2,2-di(3-indolyl)-3-indolone in Escherichia coli.

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing field filter cake on sponge cores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, A.; Wilson, B. T.

    1984-10-30

    A well coring apparatus includes an outer barrel and an inner barrel. The inner barrel is sealed with a rupturable diaphragm and a check valve. A sponge is disposed around the inner walls of the inner barrel for contacting the core. A fluid is disposed in the sealed inner barrel to prewet the sponge. A piercer is reciprocally disposed within the outer barrel and has a conical shaped surface, the apex of which is operable to pierce the diaphragm. In response to forming of the core, the fluid displaced by the core prevents drilling mud from being disposed between the core and the sponge.

  14. Sponge-associated bacteria mineralize arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Mayzel, Boaz; Lavy, Adi; Polishchuk, Iryna; Levy, Davide; Fakra, Sirine C.; Pokroy, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic and barium are ubiquitous environmental toxins that accumulate in higher trophic-level organisms. Whereas metazoans have detoxifying organs to cope with toxic metals, sponges lack organs but harbour a symbiotic microbiome performing various functions. Here we examine the potential roles of microorganisms in arsenic and barium cycles in the sponge Theonella swinhoei, known to accumulate high levels of these metals. We show that a single sponge symbiotic bacterium, Entotheonella sp., constitutes the arsenic- and barium-accumulating entity within the host. These bacteria mineralize both arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles. Our results indicate that Entotheonella sp. may act as a detoxifying organ for its host. PMID:28233852

  15. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  16. Modeling the Proton Sponge Hypothesis: Examining Proton Sponge Effectiveness for Enhancing Intracellular Gene Delivery through Multiscale Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Eric C.; Weiland, Lisa M.; Meng, Wilson S.

    2012-01-01

    Dendrimers have been proposed as therapeutic gene delivery platforms. Their superior transfection efficiency is attributed to their ability to buffer the acidification of the endosome and attach to the nucleic acids. For effective transfection the strategy is to synthesize novel dendrimers that optimize both of these traits, but the prediction of the buffering behavior in the endosome remains elusive. It is suggested that buffering dendrimers induce an osmotic pressure sufficient to rupture the endosome and release nucleic acids, which forms to sequestrate most internalized exogenous materials. Presented here are the results of a computational study modeling osmotically-driven endosome burst, or the “proton sponge effect.” The approach builds on previous cellular simulation efforts by linking the previous model with a sponge protonation model then observing the impact on endosomal swelling and acidification. Calibrated and validated using reported experimental data, the simulations offer insights into defining the properties of suitable dendrimers for enhancing gene delivery as a function of polymer structure. PMID:23565683

  17. Hydrogen motion in proton sponge cations: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Horbatenko, Yevhen; Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2011-04-18

    This work presents a study of intramolecular NHN hydrogen bonds in cations of the following proton sponges: 2,7-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (1), 1,6-diazabicyclo[4.4.4.]tetradecane (2), 1,9-bis(dimethylamino)dibenzoselenophene (3), 1,9-bis(dimethylamino)dibenzothiophene (4), 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)fluorene (5), quino[7,8-h]quinoline (6) 1,2-bis(dimethylamino)benzene (7), and 1,12-bis(dimethylamino)benzo[c]phenantrene (8). Three different patterns were found for proton motion: systems with a single-well potential (cations 1-2), systems with a double-well potential and low proton transfer barrier, ΔEe (cations 3-5), and those with a double-well potential and a high barrier (cations 6-8). Tests of several density functionals indicate that the PBEPBE functional reproduces the potential-energy surface (PES) obtained at the MP2 level well, whereas the B3LYP, MPWB1K, and MPW1B95 functionals overestimate the barrier. Three-dimensional PESs were constructed and the vibrational Schrödinger equation was solved for selected cases of cation 1 (with a single-well potential), cation 4 (with a ΔEe value of 0.1 kcal mol(-1) at the MP2 level), and cations 6 (ΔEe = 2.4 kcal mol(-1)) and 7 (ΔEe=3.4 kcal mol(-1)). The PES is highly anharmonic in all of these cases. The analysis of the three-dimensional ground-state vibrational wave function shows that the proton is delocalized in cations 1 and 4, but is rather localized around the energy minima for cation 7. Cation 6 is an intermediate case, with two weakly pronounced maxima and substantial tunneling. This allows for classification of proton sponge cations into those with localized and those with delocalized proton behavior, with the borderline between them at ΔEe values of about 1.5 kcal mol(-1). The excited vibrational states of proton sponge cations with a low barrier can be described within the framework of a simple particle-in-a-box model. Each cation can be assigned an effective box width.

  18. Effects of sodium acetate buffer on chitosan sponge properties and in vivo degradation in a rat intramuscular model.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashley Cox; Smith, James Keaton; Reves, Benjamin; Jennings, Jessica Amber; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O

    2015-02-01

    Chitosan sponges were developed for adjunctive local antibiotic delivery to reduce bacteria in wounds. There is a need to increase sponge degradation for rapid clearance from the wound site during initial wound care. This work examined the effect of using 0.25 M sodium acetate buffers, at pH 4.6 or 5.6, to fabricate sponges with an amorphous chitosan polymer structure. Sponges were evaluated for their crystallinity, thermal, spectroscopic, and morphological properties, in addition to in vitro degradation, and cytocompatibility analysis using normal human dermal fibroblasts. In vivo degradation and biocompatibility were also examined after 4 and 10 days in rat intramuscular tissues. Both buffered chitosan sponge variations exhibited decreases in crystallinity and thermal decomposition temperatures, and increases in surface roughness, which resulted in over 40% increases in degradation over 10 days in vitro compared to the neutral sponges. There were no significant differences between sponges during in vivo degradation over 10 days with respect to histomorphometric analysis of the recovered sponges. These results demonstrated that the acetate buffer did change characteristic chitosan sponge material properties, and increasing the in vivo sponge degradation rate will require balancing material characteristics and processing.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of local drug delivery of amphotericin B and in vivo degradation of chitosan and polyethylene glycol blended sponges.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashley Cox; Rhodes, Cheyenne; Jennings, Jessica Amber; Hittle, Lauren; Shirtliff, Mark; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the combination of polyethylene glycol with chitosan in point-of-care loaded sponges made by one or two lyophilizations for adjunctive local antifungal delivery in musculoskeletal wounds. Blended and control chitosan sponges were evaluated in vitro for antifungal release and activity, degradation, cytocompatibility, and characterized for spectroscopic, crystallinity, thermal, and morphologic material properties. In vivo biocompatibility and degradation of sponges were also evaluated in a rat intramuscular pouch model 4 and 10 days after implantation. Blended sponges released amphotericin B active against Candida albicans (>0.25 µg/mL) over 72 h and did not elicit cytotoxicity response of fibroblasts. Blended sponges exhibited decreases in surface roughness, decreased thermal decomposition temperatures, as well as small Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity differences, compared with chitosan-only sponges. Three of the four blended sponge formulations exhibited 31%-94% increases in in vitro degradation from the chitosan sponges after 10 days, but did not demonstrate the same increase in in vivo degradation. Low inflammatory in vivo tissue response to blended and chitosan-only sponges was similar over 10 days. These results demonstrated that adding polyethylene glycol to chitosan sponges does improve local antifungal release, cytocompatibility, and in vitro degradation, but does not increase in vivo degradation.

  20. Development of a sixth-generation down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor using rigid sponge media for post-treatment of UASB treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Tandukar, Madan; Sugiyana, Doni; Uemura, Shigeki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    A sixth-generation down-flow hanging sponge reactor (DHS-G6), using rigid sponge media, was developed as a novel aerobic post-treatment unit for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treating municipal sewage. The rigid sponge media were manufactured by copolymerizing polyurethane with epoxy resin. The UASB and DHS system had a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.6 h (8.6 h for UASB and 2 h for DHS) when operated at 10-28 °C. The system gave reasonable organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. The final effluent had a total biochemical oxygen demand of only 12 mg/L and a total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of 6 mg/L. The DHS reactor gave particularly good nitrification performance, which was attributed to the new rigid sponge media. The sponge media helped to provide a sufficient HRT, and retained a high biomass concentration, extending the solids retention time. The DHS reactor maintained a high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural ventilation.

  1. New approaches to quantifying bioerosion by endolithic sponge populations: applications to the coral reefs of Grand Cayman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, G. N.; Perry, C. T.; Chin, P.; McCoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    Bioerosion is a critical process on coral reefs, influencing reef structural integrity and complexity and generating significant amounts of sediment. Excavating sponges are important bioeroders, especially in the Caribbean where sponges dominate macroborer communities. However, the contribution of bioeroding sponge communities to total bioerosion on coral reefs is not well understood; census surveys are rarely employed by monitoring agencies, and there is little data on the erosion rates of different species. Here, we investigated bioerosion by two Caribbean sponge species with different growth forms ( Siphonodictyon brevitubulatum—α-form and Cliona tenuis—β-form). We also described new approaches to estimating bioerosion by sponge communities. By categorising the growth form of different species, we applied newly developed bioerosion rates, along with a previously published rate for C. delitrix, to census surveys and use these to estimate bioerosion by sponge communities on Grand Cayman reefs. Results indicate distinct habitat preferences for the two most abundant sponge species, C. tenuis and C. caribbaea. Mean sponge bioerosion across eight sites was 0.1 kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1. Visible cover by α-growth-form excavating sponges caused a disproportionately high level of bioerosion in comparison with cover by β-growth-form species. Therefore, it is important to consider growth forms and excavation strategies when assessing bioerosion by sponge communities. Our present level of understanding of bioerosion by sponge species is limited, and more research is clearly required. However, the approaches described here can generate instant, meaningful results on sponge abundance and bioerosion and would complement many current benthic monitoring regimes. Furthermore, they create a framework for the provision of data, which is relevant to both coral reef management and to developing our understanding of how bioeroding sponge populations influence reef structure and

  2. In four shallow and mesophotic tropical reef sponges from Guam the microbial community largely depends on host identity

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Georg; Taylor, Michael W.; Deines, Peter; Simister, Rachel L.; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Hoggard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are important members of almost all aquatic ecosystems, and are renowned for hosting often dense and diverse microbial communities. While the specificity of the sponge microbiota seems to be closely related to host phylogeny, the environmental factors that could shape differences within local sponge-specific communities remain less understood. On tropical coral reefs, sponge habitats can span from shallow areas to deeper, mesophotic sites. These habitats differ in terms of environmental factors such as light, temperature, and food availability, as well as anthropogenic impact. In order to study the host specificity and potential influence of varying habitats on the sponge microbiota within a local area, four tropical reef sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata, Callyspongia sp., Rhaphoxya sp., and Acanthella cavernosa, were collected from exposed shallow reef slopes and a deep reef drop-off. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing profiles, beta diversity analyses revealed that each sponge species possessed a specific microbiota that was significantly different to those of the other species and exhibited attributes that are characteristic of high- and/or low-microbial-abundance sponges. These findings emphasize the influence of host identity on the associated microbiota. Dominant sponge- and seawater-associated bacterial phyla were Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Comparison of individual sponge taxa and seawater samples between shallow and deep reef sites revealed no significant variation in alpha diversity estimates, while differences in microbial beta diversity (variation in community composition) were significant for Callyspongia sp. sponges and seawater samples. Overall, the sponge-associated microbiota is significantly shaped by host identity across all samples, while the effect of habitat differentiation seems to be less predominant in tropical reef sponges. PMID:27114882

  3. In four shallow and mesophotic tropical reef sponges from Guam the microbial community largely depends on host identity.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Georg; Taylor, Michael W; Deines, Peter; Simister, Rachel L; de Voogd, Nicole J; Hoggard, Michael; Schupp, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are important members of almost all aquatic ecosystems, and are renowned for hosting often dense and diverse microbial communities. While the specificity of the sponge microbiota seems to be closely related to host phylogeny, the environmental factors that could shape differences within local sponge-specific communities remain less understood. On tropical coral reefs, sponge habitats can span from shallow areas to deeper, mesophotic sites. These habitats differ in terms of environmental factors such as light, temperature, and food availability, as well as anthropogenic impact. In order to study the host specificity and potential influence of varying habitats on the sponge microbiota within a local area, four tropical reef sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata, Callyspongia sp., Rhaphoxya sp., and Acanthella cavernosa, were collected from exposed shallow reef slopes and a deep reef drop-off. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing profiles, beta diversity analyses revealed that each sponge species possessed a specific microbiota that was significantly different to those of the other species and exhibited attributes that are characteristic of high- and/or low-microbial-abundance sponges. These findings emphasize the influence of host identity on the associated microbiota. Dominant sponge- and seawater-associated bacterial phyla were Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Comparison of individual sponge taxa and seawater samples between shallow and deep reef sites revealed no significant variation in alpha diversity estimates, while differences in microbial beta diversity (variation in community composition) were significant for Callyspongia sp. sponges and seawater samples. Overall, the sponge-associated microbiota is significantly shaped by host identity across all samples, while the effect of habitat differentiation seems to be less predominant in tropical reef sponges.

  4. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  5. Developmental gene expression provides clues to relationships between sponge and eumetazoan body plans.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Sven; Adamski, Marcin; Bergum, Brith; Guder, Corina; Liu, Jing; Laplante, Mary; Bråte, Jon; Hoffmann, Friederike; Fortunato, Sofia; Jordal, Signe; Rapp, Hans Tore; Adamska, Maja

    2014-05-20

    Elucidation of macroevolutionary transitions between diverse animal body plans remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We address the sponge-eumetazoan transition by analyzing expression of a broad range of eumetazoan developmental regulatory genes in Sycon ciliatum (Calcispongiae). Here we show that many members of surprisingly numerous Wnt and Tgfβ gene families are expressed higher or uniquely in the adult apical end and the larval posterior end. Genes involved in formation of the eumetazoan endomesoderm, such as β-catenin, Brachyury and Gata, as well as germline markers Vasa and Pl10, are expressed during formation and maintenance of choanoderm, the feeding epithelium of sponges. Similarity in developmental gene expression between sponges and eumetazoans, especially cnidarians, is consistent with Haeckel's view that body plans of sponges and cnidarians are homologous. These results provide a framework for further studies aimed at deciphering ancestral developmental regulatory networks and their modifications during animal body plans evolution.

  6. Spongy Gels by a Top‐Down Approach from Polymer Fibrous Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaohua; Duan, Gaigai; Kuhn, Ute; Mörl, Michaela; Altstädt, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultralight cellular sponges offer a unique set of properties. We show here that solvent uptake by these sponges results in new gel‐like materials, which we term spongy gels. The appearance of the spongy gels is very similar to classic organogels. Usually, organogels are formed by a bottom‐up process. In contrast, the spongy gels are formed by a top‐down approach that offers numerous advantages for the design of their properties, reproducibility, and stability. The sponges themselves represent the scaffold of a gel that could be filled with a solvent, and thereby form a mechanically stable gel‐like material. The spongy gels are independent of a time‐consuming or otherwise demanding in situ scaffold formation. As solvent evaporation from gels is a concern for various applications, we also studied solvent evaporation of wetting and non‐wetting liquids dispersed in the sponge. PMID:28194915

  7. Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott.

    PubMed

    Botting, Joseph P; Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2005-02-01

    The relationships of the sponge classes are controversial, particularly between the calcareous and siliceous sponges. Specimens of the putative calcarean Eiffelia globosa Walcott from the Burgess Shale show the presence of diagnostic hexactinellid spicules integrated into the skeletal mesh. The arrangement of these spicules in Eiffelia is shown to be precisely equivalent to that of early protospongioid hexactinellids, and sponge growth occurred through an identical pattern to produce identical skeletal body morphology. The difference in spicule composition of the classes is interpreted through the observation of taphonomic features of Eiffelia that suggest the presence of at least two mineralogically distinct layers within the spicules. These results support molecular analyses that identify the calcarean-silicisponge transition as the earliest major sponge branch and suggest that the heteractinids were paraphyletic with respect to the Hexactinellida.

  8. Proposal of a taste evaluating method of the sponge cake by using 3D range sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko

    2002-10-01

    Nowadays, the image processing techniques are while applying to the food industry in many situations. The most of these researches are applications for the quality control in plants, and there are hardly any cases of measuring the 'taste'. We are developing the measuring system of the deliciousness by using the image sensing. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of the deliciousness of a sponge cake. Considering about the deliciousness of the sponge cake, if the size of the bubbles on the surface is small and the number of them is large, then it is defined that the deliciousness of the sponge cake is better in the field of the food science. We proposed a method of detection bubbles in the surface of the sectional sponge cake automatically by using 3-D image processing. By the statistical information of these detected bubbles based on the food science, the deliciousness is estimated.

  9. [Microbial community of freshwater sponges in Lake Baĭkal].

    PubMed

    Parfenova, V V; Terkina, I A; Kostornova, T Ia; Nikulina, I G; Chernykh, V I; Maksimova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community of Baikal sponges has been studied in five species belonging to the genera Swartschewskia, Baicalospongia, and Lubomirskia of the endemic family Lubomirskiidae. The results show that the total numbers of bacteria and bacterioplankton production have an effect on the growth of L. baicalensis body. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Sarcina, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter, and Acinetobacter living in the sponges are representatives of the Baikal bacterioplankton. Actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora are a permanent component of the cultivable sponge microbial community. The numbers and enzyme activities of heterotrophic, oligotrophic, and psychrophilic bacteria isolated from different sponge species and the surrounding water in autumn and in winter have been estimated.

  10. Effect of sponges and gas-charged incubators on recovery of Campylobacter from broiler rinses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganisms. Methods to increase exposure of Campylobacter to appropriate microaerobic conditions could theoretically improve recovery of stressed cells. The porous nature of a sponge greatly increases the sample surface area exposed to mic...

  11. Cytotoxic diterpenoid pseudodimers from the Korean sponge Phorbas gukhulensis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-eun; Liao, Lijuan; Kim, Heegyu; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2013-09-27

    Four new cytotoxic diterpenoid pseudodimers (2-5), along with a previously reported one, gukulenin A (1), were isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas gukhulensis collected off the coast of Gagu-do, Korea. These novel compounds, designated gukulenins C-F (2-5), were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be pseudodimers of the gagunins, like gukulenin A. The termini of the tropolone-containing side chains in gukulenins C-E (2-4) were found to have diverse modifications involving acetamides or taurine, whereas gukulenin F (5) was formed from 1 by the ring-opening of a cyclic hemiketal. The relative and absolute configurations were assigned by Murata's and modified Snatzke's methods using a HETLOC experiment and a CD measurement of a dimolybdenum complex, respectively. All of these compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the K562 and A549 cell lines.

  12. Superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges for separation and absorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Liang, Weidong; Zhao, Xinhong; La, Peiqing; Deng, Weiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Highly porous activated carbon with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized by KOH activation using commercially available activated carbon as a precursor. By modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), highly porous activated carbon showed superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 163.6°. The changes in wettability of PDMS- treated highly porous activated carbon were attributed to the deposition of a low-surface-energy silicon coating onto activated carbon (confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), which had microporous characteristics (confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses). Using an easy dip-coating method, superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges were also fabricated; those exhibited excellent absorption selectivity for the removal of a wide range of organics and oils from water, and also recyclability, thus showing great potential as efficient absorbents for the large-scale removal of organic contaminants or oil spills from water.

  13. Bioactive Cycloperoxides Isolated from the Puerto Rican Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Ortiz, Idelisse; Vicente, Jan; Vera, Brunilda; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Nam, Sangkil; Jove, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Two new five-membered-ring polyketide endoperoxides, epiplakinic acid F methyl ester (1) and epiplakinidioic acid (3), and a peroxide-lactone, plakortolide J (2), were isolated from the Puerto Rican sponge Plakortis halichondrioides, along with two previously reported cyclic peroxides, 4 and 5. The structures of the new metabolites were determined by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The absolute stereostructures of 1, 2, and 5 were determined by degradation reactions followed by application of Kishi's method for the assignment of absolute configuration of alcohols. Biological screening of cycloperoxides 1-5 and semisynthetic analogues 7-12 for cytotoxic activity against various human tumor cell lines revealed that compounds 3, 4, and 11 are very active. Upon assaying for antimalarial and antitubercular activity, some of the compounds tested showed strong activity against the pathogenic microbes Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  15. [Concerning one obsolete tradition: does gastrulation in sponges exist?].

    PubMed

    Dondua, A K; Kostiuchenko, R P

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of comparative-embryological and molecular-biological data leads to the conclusion that universal basic mechanisms of morphogenesis occurred first in the evolution of animals in the ancestors of modern sponges and eumetazoans, which served as a basis of different evolution of individual development in Parazoa and Eumetazoa lines. In the former, morphogenesis in early embryogenesis led to formation of the water-current system as a means for capturing and delivery of food particles to different parts of the animal. In the latter, morphogenetic movements manifested themselves as gastrulation, during which the germ layers and the digestive system formed. The morphogenetic movements of cells in Metazoa emerged independently of cell specification. They are primary relative to cell differentiation. Theunity of all Metazoa is based on the similarity of mechanisms of morphogenesis rather than on the presence of germ layers.

  16. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H C; Pan, Likun

    2015-06-11

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g(-1) in ∼ 500 mg L(-1) NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material.

  17. Optical fibres based on natural biological minerals - sea sponge spicules

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Voznesenskii, S S; Galkina, A N; Mal'tseva, T L; Nagornyi, I G; Bukin, O A; Gnedenkov, S V; Kuryavyi, V G; Sinebryukhov, S L; Cherednichenko, A I; Drozdov, A L

    2008-01-31

    A complex study of spicules of glass sponges Hyalonema sieboldi and Pheronema sp. is performed. It is shown that skeletal spicules represent a bundle of composite fibres cemented with silicon dioxide, which imparts a high mechanical strength to spicules. The presence of a layered organosilicon structure at the nanometre scale in the spicule cross section gives rise to a periodic spatial modulation of the permittivity of the spicule material, which allows one to treat spicules as one-dimensional photonic crystals. Upon excitation of basal spicules by second-harmonic pulses from a Nd:YAG laser, we observed a considerable increase in the fluorescence intensity in the long-wavelength region with a maximum at 770 nm, saturation and anomalously large fluorescence lifetimes. (fibre optics)

  18. The friable sponge model of a cometary nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horanyi, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Korosmezey, A.; Kecskemety, K.; Szego, K.; Cravens, T. E.; Nagy, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The mantle/core model of cometary nuclei, first suggested by Whipple and subsequently developed by Mendis and Brin, is modified and extended. New terms are added to the heat conduction equation for the mantle, which is solved in order to obtain the temperature distribution in the mantle and the gas production rate as a function of mantle thickness and heliocentric distance. These results are then combined with some specific assumptions about the mantle structure (the friable sponge model) in order to make predictions for the variation of gas production rate and mantle thickness as functions of heliocentric distance for different comets. A solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation is presented in order to check some of the assumptions.

  19. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida

    PubMed Central

    Galeano, Elkin; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana; Martinez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Nine bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Verongula rigida. Two of them, aeroplysinin-1 (1) and dihydroxyaerothionin (2), are known compounds for this species, and the other seven are unknown compounds for this species, namely: 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyraminium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N, O-tetramethyltyraminium (4), purealidin R (5), 19-deoxyfistularin 3 (6), purealidin B (7), 11-hydroxyaerothionin (8) and fistularin-3 (9). Structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed using one- and two-dimensional NMR, MS and other spectroscopy data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against three parasitic protozoa: Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compounds 7 and 8 showed selective antiparasitic activity at 10 and 5 μM against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human promonocytic cell line was also assessed. PMID:22073002

  20. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  1. A New Soluble Gelatin Sponge for Transcatheter Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sahara, Shinya; Minamiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Motoki; Ikoma, Akira; Nakata, Kouhei; Sonomura, Tetsuo

    2010-12-15

    To prepare a soluble gelatin sponge (GS) and to explore the GS particles (GSPs) that inhibit development of collateral pathways when transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization is performed. The approval of the Institutional Committee on Research Animal Care of our institution was obtained. By means of 50 and 100 kDa of regenerative medicine-gelatin (RM-G), RM-G sponges were prepared by freeze-drying and heating to temperatures of 110-150{sup o}C for cross-linkage. The soluble times of RM-GSPs were measured in vitro. Eight swine for transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization were assigned into two groups: six received 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSPs, and 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, with soluble time of 48 h or more in vitro; two swine received Gelpart GSPs (G-GSPs) with insoluble time of 14 days as a control. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed on two branches of the hepatic artery per swine. RM-GSPs heated at temperatures of 110-138{sup o}C were soluble. Mean soluble times of the RM-GSPs increased with higher temperature. Hepatic branches embolized with G-GSP remained occluded after 6 days, and development of collateral pathways was observed after 3 days. Hepatic branches embolized with 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSP and 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSP remained occluded for 4 h, and recanalization was observed after 1 day. Hepatic branches embolized with 138{sup o}C/50RM-GS remained occluded for 1 day, and recanalization was observed after 2 days with no development of collateral pathways. In RM-GSs with various soluble times that were prepared by modulating the heating temperature, 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSP was the soluble GSP with the longest occlusion time without inducing development of collateral pathways.

  2. Sponge mesoporous silica formation using disordered phospholipid bilayers as template.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Anne; Sartori, Federica; Cangiotti, Michela; Mineva, Tzonka; Di Renzo, Francesco; Ottaviani, M Francesca

    2010-02-18

    Lecithin/dodecylamine/lactose mixtures in ethanol/aqueous media led to the formation of sponge mesoporous silica (SMS) materials by means of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica source. SMS materials show a "sponge-mesoporous" porosity with a pore diameter of about 5-6 nm, in accordance to the length of a lecithin bilayer. SMS synthesis was developed to create a new class of powerful biocatalysts able to efficiently encapsulate enzymes by adding a porosity control to the classical sol-gel synthesis and by using phospholipids and lactose as protecting agents for the enzymes. In the present study, the formation of SMS was investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) probes inserted inside phospholipid bilayers. The influence of progressive addition of each component (ethanol, dodecylamine, lactose, TEOS) on phospholipid bilayers was first examined; then, the time evolution of EPR spectra during SMS synthesis was studied. Parameters informative of mobility, structure, order, and polarity around the probes were extracted by computer analysis of the EPR line shape. The results were discussed on the basis of solids characterization by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen isotherm, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results, together with the well-known ability of ethanol to promote membrane hemifusion, suggested that the templating structure is a bicontinuous phospholipid bilayer phase, shaped as a gyroid, resulting of multiple membrane hemifusions induced by the high alcohol content used in SMS synthesis. SMS synthesis was compared to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) synthesis accomplished by adding TEOS to a dodecylamine/EtOH/water mixture. EPR evidenced the difference between HMS and SMS synthesis; the latter uses an already organized but slowly growing mesophase of phospholipids, never observed before, whereas the former shows a progressive elongation of micelles into wormlike structures. SMS-type materials represent a new

  3. Identification of the protease inhibitor miraziridine A in the Red sea sponge Theonella swinhoei

    PubMed Central

    Tabares, Paula; Degel, Björn; Schaschke, Norbert; Hentschel, Ute; Schirmeister, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Miraziridine A, a natural peptide isolated from a marine sponge, is a potent cathepsin B inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 × 104 M-1 s-1. In the present study, miraziridine A was isolated from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei on the basis of chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. We conclude that T. swinhoei from the Red Sea represents an alternative source of the aziridinylpeptide miraziridine A to the previously identified Theonella mirabilis from Japan. We confirmed that the metabolite is produced by marine sponges from different geographical locations. Context: Marine sponges have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites exhibiting a huge diversity of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Theonella species (order Lithistida, Demospongiae) have been shown to be a source of anti-protease and anti-HIV secondary metabolites. Aims: To identify the protease inhibitor mirazirine A in the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Material and Methods: The marine sponge Theonella swinhoei was collected by SCUBA diving in the Red Sea in Eilat (Israel). Sponge material was lyophilized and further extracted successively with cyclohexane, dichloromethane and methanol to obtain three crude extracts. LC-MS analysis was performed to confirm the presence of Miraziridine A in the dichloromethane fraction. Results: In the present study, miraziridine A was isolated from the Red Sea sponge T. swinhoei on the basis of chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. Conclusions: We conclude that T. swinhoei from the Red Sea represents an alternative source of the aziridinylpeptide miraziridine A to the previously identified Theonella mirabilis from Japan. PMID:22224064

  4. The unique invention of the siliceous sponges: their enzymatically made bio-silica skeleton.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ailin; Hu, Shixue; Gan, Lu; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are sessile filter feeders that, among the metazoans, evolved first on Earth. In the two classes of the siliceous sponges (the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida), the complex filigreed body is stabilized by an inorganic skeleton composed of amorphous silica providing them a distinct body shape and plan. It is proposed that the key innovation that allowed the earliest metazoans to form larger specimens was the enzyme silicatein. This enzyme is crucial for the formation of the siliceous skeleton. The first sponge fossils with body preservation were dated back prior to the "Precambrian-Cambrian" boundary [Vendian (610-545 Ma)/Ediacaran (542-580 Ma)]. A further molecule required for the formation of a hard skeleton was collagen, fibrous organic filaments that need oxygen for their formation. Silicatein forming the spicules and collagen shaping their morphology are the two organic components that control the appositional growth of these skeletal elements. This process starts in both demosponges and hexactinellids intracellularly and is completed extracellularly where the spicules may reach sizes of up to 3 m. While the basic strategy of their formation is identical in both sponge classes, it differs on a substructural level. In Hexactinellida, the initial silica layers remain separated, those layers bio-fuse (bio-sinter) together in demosponges. In some sponge taxa, e.g., the freshwater sponges from the Lake Baikal, the individual spicules are embedded in an organic matrix that is composed of the DUF protein. This protein comprises clustered stretches of amino acid sequences composed of pronounced hydrophobic segments, each spanning around 35 aa. We concluded with the remark of Thompson (1942) highlighting that "the sponge-spicule is a typical illustration of the theory of 'bio-crystallisation' to form 'biocrystals' ein Mittelding between an inorganic crystal and an organic secretion." Moreover, the understanding of the enzymatic formation of the spicules

  5. A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Ge, Jin; Wang, Chang-Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Yong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-12-10

    A fractured microstructure design: A new type of piezoresistive sensor with ultra-high-pressure sensitivity (0.26 kPa(-1) ) in low pressure range (<2 kPa) and minimum detectable pressure of 9 Pa has been fabricated using a fractured microstructure design in a graphene-nanosheet-wrapped polyurethane (PU) sponge. This low-cost and easily scalable graphene-wrapped PU sponge pressure sensor has potential application in high-spatial-resolution, artificial skin without complex nanostructure design.

  6. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea as main drivers of nitrification in cold-water sponges.

    PubMed

    Radax, Regina; Hoffmann, Friederike; Rapp, Hans Tore; Leininger, Sven; Schleper, Christa

    2012-04-01

    The association of archaea with marine sponges was first described 15 years ago and their role in the nitrification process in Mediterranean and tropical sponges has been suggested. Here we explore the occurrence and abundance of potential ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in four morphologically different cold-water sponges (Phakellia ventilabrum, Geodia barretti, Antho dichotoma and Tentorium semisuberites) from the sublittoral and upper bathyal zone [Correction added on 30 December 2011, after first online publication on 19 December 2011: The term 'mesopelagic zone' has been replaced.] of the Norwegian coast, and relate them to nitrification rates determined in laboratory incubations. Net nitrification rates, calculated from the sum of nitrite and nitrate release during 24 h, were up to 1880 nmol N cm(-3) day(-1); i.e. comparable with those measured in Mediterranean sponges. Furthermore, a high abundance of archaeal cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridizations (CARD-FISH) and quantitative PCR, targeting archaeal amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase). AmoA genes as well as amoA transcripts were either exclusively detectable from archaea or were orders of magnitudes higher in abundance than their bacterial counterparts. Phylogenetic analyses of AOA and bacterial nitrite oxidizers (genus Nitrospira) confirmed the presence of specific populations of nitrifying microorganisms in the sponge mesohyl, which either were affiliated with groups detected earlier in marine sponges or were typical inhabitants of cold- and deep-water environments. Estimated cell-specific nitrification rates for P. ventilabrum were 0.6 to 6 fmol N archaeal cell(-1) day(-1), thus comparable with planktonic organisms. Our results identify AOA as the major drivers of nitrification in four cold-water sponges, and indicate that these archaea may be considered as a relevant factor in nitrogen cycling in ocean regions with high sponge biomass.

  8. Onnamide F: a new nematocide from a southern Australian marine sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer.

    PubMed

    Vuong, D; Capon, R J; Lacey, E; Gill, J H; Heiland, K; Friedel, T

    2001-05-01

    A southern Australian marine sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer, has yielded a potent new nematocide with antifungal activity which has been identified as onnamide F (1). The structure for 1 was assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion to the methyl ester 2. Onnamide F contains a common structural motif previously described in a number of natural products exhibiting interesting pharmacological activities, including the insect chemical defense agent pederin (3), and the sponge metabolites the onnamides, mycalamides, and theopederins.

  9. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:25762993

  10. Pyrosequencing of Bacterial Symbionts within Axinella corrugata Sponges: Diversity and Seasonal Variability

    PubMed Central

    White, James R.; Patel, Jignasa; Ottesen, Andrea; Arce, Gabriela; Blackwelder, Patricia; Lopez, Jose V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine sponge species are of significant interest to many scientific fields including marine ecology, conservation biology, genetics, host-microbe symbiosis and pharmacology. One of the most intriguing aspects of the sponge “holobiont” system is the unique physiology, interaction with microbes from the marine environment and the development of a complex commensal microbial community. However, intraspecific variability and temporal stability of sponge-associated bacterial symbionts remain relatively unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We have characterized the bacterial symbiont community biodiversity of seven different individuals of the Caribbean reef sponge Axinella corrugata, from two different Florida reef locations during variable seasons using multiplex 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA amplicons. Over 265,512 high-quality 16 S rRNA sequences were generated and analyzed. Utilizing versatile bioinformatics methods and analytical software such as the QIIME and CloVR packages, we have identified 9,444 distinct bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Approximately 65,550 rRNA sequences (24%) could not be matched to bacteria at the class level, and may therefore represent novel taxa. Differentially abundant classes between seasonal Axinella communities included Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacter and Nitrospira. Comparisons with a proximal outgroup sponge species (Amphimedon compressa), and the growing sponge symbiont literature, indicate that this study has identified approximately 330 A. corrugata-specific symbiotic OTUs, many of which are related to the sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae. This family appeared exclusively within A. corrugata, comprising >34.5% of all sequenced amplicons. Other A. corrugata symbionts such as Deltaproteobacteria, Bdellovibrio, and Thiocystis among many others are described. Conclusions/Significance Slight shifts in several bacterial taxa were observed

  11. Symbiotic adaptation drives genome streamlining of the cyanobacterial sponge symbiont "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum".

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Batang, Zenon B; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaz M; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" is a cyanobacterial symbiont widely distributed in sponges, but its functions at the genome level remain unknown. Here, we obtained the draft genome (1.66 Mbp, 90% estimated genome recovery) of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" strain SH4 inhabiting the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens. Phylogenomic analysis revealed a high dissimilarity between SH4 and free-living cyanobacterial strains. Essential functions, such as photosynthesis, the citric acid cycle, and DNA replication, were detected in SH4. Eukaryoticlike domains that play important roles in sponge-symbiont interactions were identified exclusively in the symbiont. However, SH4 could not biosynthesize methionine and polyamines and had lost partial genes encoding low-molecular-weight peptides of the photosynthesis complex, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, and proteins involved in resistance to environmental toxins and in biosynthesis of capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. These genetic modifications imply that "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" SH4 represents a low-light-adapted cyanobacterial symbiont and has undergone genome streamlining to adapt to the sponge's mild intercellular environment. IMPORTANCE Although the diversity of sponge-associated microbes has been widely studied, genome-level research on sponge symbionts and their symbiotic mechanisms is rare because they are unculturable. "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" is a widely distributed uncultivated cyanobacterial sponge symbiont. The genome of this symbiont will help to characterize its evolutionary relationship and functional dissimilarity to closely related free-living cyanobacterial strains. Knowledge of its adaptive mechanism to the sponge host also depends on the genome-level research. The data presented here provided an alternative strategy to obtain the draft genome of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" strain SH4 and provide insight into its evolutionary and functional features.

  12. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%), Spirochaetes (~7%) and Chloroflexi (~3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  13. Hydrophobic modification on surface of chitin sponges for highly effective separation of oil.

    PubMed

    Duan, Bo; Gao, Huimin; He, Meng; Zhang, Lina

    2014-11-26

    A highly hydrophobic and oleophilic chitin sponge was synthesized, for the first time, via a freeze-dried method and then by using a thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTCS) at different relative humidity. Fourier-transform infrared, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the silanization occurred on the pore wall surface of the chitin sponge. The MTCS-coated chitin sponge had interconnected open-cell structures with the average pore size from 20 to 50 μm, and the MTCS nanofilaments immobilized on the chitin matrix, leading to the high hydrophobicity, as a result of the existence of a solid/air composite rough surface. Cyclic compression test indicated that the hydrophobic chitin sponges exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical durability. The sponges could efficiently collect organics both on the surface and bottom from the water with the highest 58 times of their own weight absorption capacities through the combination of the particular wettability and great porosity. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics of the chitin sponge forecasted that the chitin could be completely biodegraded within 32 days by the microorganisms in the soil. This work provided a new pathway to prepare the chitin-based materials for highly effective removal of oil from water, showing potential application in the pollutant remediation field.

  14. Ribosomal ITS sequences allow resolution of freshwater sponge phylogeny with alignments guided by secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Itskovich, Valeria; Gontcharov, Andrey; Masuda, Yoshiki; Nohno, Tsutomu; Belikov, Sergey; Efremova, Sofia; Meixner, Martin; Janussen, Dorte

    2008-12-01

    Freshwater sponges include six extant families which belong to the suborder Spongillina (Porifera). The taxonomy of freshwater sponges is problematic and their phylogeny and evolution are not well understood. Sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of 11 species from the family Lubomirskiidae, 13 species from the family Spongillidae, and 1 species from the family Potamolepidae were obtained to study the phylogenetic relationships between endemic and cosmopolitan freshwater sponges and the evolution of sponges in Lake Baikal. The present study is the first one where ITS1 sequences were successfully aligned using verified secondary structure models and, in combination with ITS2, used to infer relationships between the freshwater sponges. Phylogenetic trees inferred using maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony methods and Bayesian inference revealed that the endemic family Lubomirskiidae was monophyletic. Our results do not support the monophyly of Spongillidae because Lubomirskiidae formed a robust clade with E. muelleri, and Trochospongilla latouchiana formed a robust clade with the outgroup Echinospongilla brichardi (Potamolepidae). Within the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae the genera Radiospongilla and Eunapius were found to be monophyletic, while Ephydatia muelleri was basal to the family Lubomirskiidae. The genetic distances between Lubomirskiidae species being much lower than those between Spongillidae species are indicative of their relatively recent radiation from a common ancestor. These results indicated that rDNA spacers sequences can be useful in the study of phylogenetic relationships of and the identification of species of freshwater sponges.

  15. Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacteria Associated with the Marine Sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile†

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Nicole S.; Wilson, Kate J.; Blackall, Linda L.; Hill, Russell T.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular techniques were employed to document the microbial diversity associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. The phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated bacteria was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing of cloned DNA fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups indicated by 16S rDNA analysis. The community structure was extremely diverse with representatives of the Actinobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, the β- and γ-subdivisions of the Proteobacteria, Cytophaga/Flavobacterium, green sulfur bacteria, green nonsulfur bacteria, planctomycetes, and other sequence types with no known close relatives. FISH probes revealed the spatial location of these bacteria within the sponge tissue, in some cases suggesting possible symbiotic functions. The high proportion of 16S rRNA sequences derived from novel actinomycetes is good evidence for the presence of an indigenous marine actinomycete assemblage in R. odorabile. High microbial diversity was inferred from low duplication of clones in a library with 70 representatives. Determining the phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated microorganisms by 16S rRNA analysis facilitated the rational selection of culture media and isolation conditions to target specific groups of well-represented bacteria for laboratory culture. Novel media incorporating sponge extracts were used to isolate bacteria not previously recovered from this sponge. PMID:11133476

  16. Mucoadhesive cellulosic derivative sponges as drug delivery system for vaginal application.

    PubMed

    Furst, Tania; Piette, Marie; Lechanteur, Anna; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Géraldine

    2015-09-01

    Vaginal delivery of active drugs has been largely studied for local and systemic applications. It is well known that vagina is a complex route, due to physiological and non-physiological changes. Therefore, in order to achieve a prolonged local effect, these variations have to be considered. The aim of this study was to formulate and to characterize a solid system, called sponges, obtained by lyophilization of cellulosic derivative (HEC 250M) hydrogels. These sponges have to meet particular criteria to be adapted for vaginal application: they have to adhere to the vaginal cavity and to be rehydrated by the small amount of vaginal fluids. Moreover, they have to be easily manipulated and to be stable. Three freezing temperatures have been tested to prepare sponges (-15°C, -25°C, -35°C). By SEM analyzes, it was observed that the pores into the sponges were smaller and numerous as the freezing temperature decreases. However, this temperature did not have any influence on the rehydration speed that was rather influenced by the HEC concentration. Viscosity and mucoadhesive strength of hydrogels and corresponding sponges were also measured. It appeared that these parameters are mainly dependent on the HEC concentration. These mucoadhesive sponges can be considered as potential drug delivery systems intended for vaginal application.

  17. Allocation of chemical and structural defenses in the sponge Melophlus sarasinorum

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Schupp, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges have evolved a variety of chemical and structural defense mechanisms to avoid predation. While chemical defense is well established in sponges, studies on structural defense are rare and with ambiguous results. We used field and laboratory experiments to investigate predation patterns and the anti-predatory defense mechanisms of the sponge Melophlus sarasinorum, a common inhabitant of Indo-pacific coral reefs. Specifically, we aimed to investigate whether M. sarasinorum is chemically or structurally defended against predation and if the defenses are expressed differently in the ectosomal and choanosomal tissue of the sponge. Chemical defense was measured as feeding deterrence, structural defense as feeding deterrence and toughness. Our results demonstrated that chemical defense is evenly distributed throughout the sponge and works in conjunction with a structurally defended ectosome to further reduce predation levels. The choanosome of the sponge contained higher protein levels, but revealed no structural defense. We conclude that the equal distribution of chemical defenses throughout M. sarasinorum is in accordance with Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) in regards to fish predation, while structural defense supports ODT by being restricted to the surface layer which experiences the highest predation risks from mesograzers. PMID:21461028

  18. Small inverted repeats drive mitochondrial genome evolution in Lake Baikal sponges.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Maikova, Olga O; Pett, Walker; Belikov, Sergey I

    2012-08-15

    Demosponges, the largest and most diverse class in the phylum Porifera, possess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markedly different from that in other animals. Although several studies investigated evolution of demosponge mtDNA among major lineages of the group, the changes within these groups remain largely unexplored. Recently we determined mitochondrial genomic sequence of the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis and described proliferation of small inverted repeats (hairpins) that occurred in it since the divergence between L. baicalensis and the most closely related cosmopolitan freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri. Here we report mitochondrial genomes of three additional species of Lake Baikal sponges: Swartschewskia papyracea, Rezinkovia echinata and Baikalospongia intermedia morpha profundalis (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Lubomirskiidae) and from a more distantly related freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia sp. (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Metaniidae). We use these additional sequences to explore mtDNA evolution in Baikalian sponges, paying particular attention to the variation in the rates of nucleotide substitutions and the distribution of hairpins, abundant in these genomes. We show that most of the changes in Lubomirskiidae mitochondrial genomes are due to insertion/deletion/duplication of these elements rather than single nucleotide substitutions. Thus inverted repeats can act as an important force in evolution of mitochondrial genome architecture and be a valuable marker for population- and species-level studies in this group. In addition, we infer (((Rezinkovia+Lubomirskia)+Swartschewskia)+Baikalospongia) phylogeny for the family Lubomirskiidae based on the analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences from freshwater sponges.

  19. Single-cell genomics reveals complex carbohydrate degradation patterns in poribacterial symbionts of marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Kamke, Janine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Mavromatis, Kostas; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Many marine sponges are hosts to dense and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities that are located in the extracellular matrix of the animal. The candidate phylum Poribacteria is a predominant member of the sponge microbiome and its representatives are nearly exclusively found in sponges. Here we used single-cell genomics to obtain comprehensive insights into the metabolic potential of individual poribacterial cells representing three distinct phylogenetic groups within Poribacteria. Genome sizes were up to 5.4 Mbp and genome coverage was as high as 98.5%. Common features of the poribacterial genomes indicated that heterotrophy is likely to be of importance for this bacterial candidate phylum. Carbohydrate-active enzyme database screening and further detailed analysis of carbohydrate metabolism suggested the ability to degrade diverse carbohydrate sources likely originating from seawater and from the host itself. The presence of uronic acid degradation pathways as well as several specific sulfatases provides strong support that Poribacteria degrade glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, which are important components of the sponge host matrix. Dominant glycoside hydrolase families further suggest degradation of other glycoproteins in the host matrix. We therefore propose that Poribacteria are well adapted to an existence in the sponge extracellular matrix. Poribacteria may be viewed as efficient scavengers and recyclers of a particular suite of carbon compounds that are unique to sponges as microbial ecosystems. PMID:23842652

  20. An Upper Ordovician sponge-bearing micritic limestone and implication for early Palaeozoic carbonate successions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jino; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Hong, Jongsun; Choh, Suk-Joo; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    A potentially new type of non-reef sponge-bearing micritic limestone is reported from the Upper Ordovician Xiazhen Formation of south-eastern China. The sponges are preserved as incomplete skeletons that consist of curved bifurcated and trifurcated spicules embedded in dark micrite, and can only be recognized under a petrographic microscope. The characteristics of the spicule networks suggest that the sponges are probably belonging to demosponges. However, based on the absence of features such as desma, zygome, a distinct dermal layer, and a canal system, they are not considered to be lithistids. The majority of the sponges are found in a lime mudstone facies, together with some micritic portions of wackestone to grainstone facies, comprising approximately 13% of the 50-m thick micritic limestone successions. It is interpreted that the non-lithistid demosponges flourished on soft substrates over shallow marine carbonate platform. Such sponge-bearing carbonates are similar to spiculites and spongolites in terms of being a major constituent of the sedimentary rocks and their potential contribution as sediment producers, but affinity and modes of preservation of the Xiazhen sponges are significantly different to those of the spiculites and spongolites. In light of the present finding, it is suggested that non-lithistid demosponges may have been more widespread in early Palaeozoic non-reef carbonates than has previously been recognized, thus indicating the critical need for further detailed studies if we are to understand their distributions and sedimentological contributions.

  1. Temporal molecular and isotopic analysis of active bacterial communities in two New Zealand sponges.

    PubMed

    Simister, Rachel; Taylor, Michael W; Rogers, Karyne M; Schupp, Peter J; Deines, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The characterization of changes in microbial communities is an essential step towards a better understanding of host-microbe associations. It is well established that sponges (phylum Porifera) harbour a diverse and abundant microbial community, but it is not known whether these microbial communities change over time. Here, we followed two sponge species (Ancorina alata and Tethya stolonifera) over a 2-year sampling period using RNA (16S rRNA)-based amplicon pyrosequencing and bulk stable isotope analysis (δ(13) C and δ(15)N). A total of 4468 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was identified, which were affiliated with 26 bacterial phyla. Bacterial communities of both sponge species were remarkably stable throughout the monitoring period, driven by a small number of OTUs that dominated their respective communities. Variability of sponge-associated bacterial communities was driven by OTUs that were low in abundance or transient over time. Stable isotope analysis provided evidence of both bacteria- and host-derived nutrients and their variability throughout the season. While δ(15) N values were similar, significant differences were found in δ(13) C of sponge tissue, indicative of a varying reliance on particulate organic matter as a carbon source. Further temporal studies, such as those undertaken here, will be highly valuable to identify which members of a sponge bacterial community are truly symbiotic in nature.

  2. Natural marine sponges for bone tissue engineering: The state of art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Granito, Renata Neves; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-05-10

    Marine life and its rich biodiversity provide a plentiful resource of potential new products for the society. Remarkably, marine organisms still remain a largely unexploited resource for biotechnology applications. Among them, marine sponges are sessile animals from the phylum Porifera dated at least from 580 million years ago. It is known that molecules from marine sponges present a huge therapeutic potential in a wide range of applications mainly due to its antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic effects. In this context, this article reviews all the information available in the literature about the potential of the use of marine sponges for bone tissue engineering applications. First, one of the properties that make sponges interesting as bone substitutes is their structural characteristics. Most species have an efficient interconnected porous architecture, which allows them to process a significant amount of water and facilitates the flow of fluids, mimicking an ideal bone scaffold. Second, sponges have an organic component, the spongin, which is analogous to vertebral collagen, the most widely used natural polymer for tissue regeneration. Last, osteogenic properties of marine sponges is also highlighted by their mineral content, such as biosilica and other compounds, that are able to support cell growth and to stimulate bone formation and mineralization. This review focuses on recent studies concerning these interesting properties, as well as on some challenges to be overcome in the bone tissue engineering field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  3. Freshwater sponges have functional, sealing epithelia with high transepithelial resistance and negative transepithelial potential.

    PubMed

    Adams, Emily D M; Goss, Greg G; Leys, Sally P

    2010-11-29

    Epithelial tissue - the sealed and polarized layer of cells that regulates transport of ions and solutes between the environment and the internal milieu - is a defining characteristic of the Eumetazoa. Sponges, the most ancient metazoan phylum, are generally believed to lack true epithelia, but their ability to occlude passage of ions has never been tested. Here we show that freshwater sponges (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) have functional epithelia with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), a transepithelial potential (TEP), and low permeability to small-molecule diffusion. Curiously, the Amphimedon queenslandica sponge genome lacks the classical occluding genes [5] considered necessary to regulate sealing and control of ion transport. The fact that freshwater sponge epithelia can seal suggests that either occluding molecules have been lost in some sponge lineages, or demosponges use novel molecular complexes for epithelial occlusion; if the latter, it raises the possibility that mechanisms for occlusion used by sponges may exist in other metazoa. Importantly, our results imply that functional epithelia evolved either several times, or once, in the ancestor of the Metazoa.

  4. Glass sponges and bilaterian animals share derived mitochondrial genomic features: a common ancestry or parallel evolution?

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Lang, B Franz; Pomponi, Shirley A; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2007-07-01

    Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic animals that have a unique syncytial organization and possess a characteristic siliceous skeleton. Although hexactinellids are traditionally grouped with calcareous and demosponges in the phylum Porifera, the monophyly of sponges and the phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida remain contentious. We determined and analyzed the nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the hexactinellid sponges Iphiteon panicea and Sympagella nux. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed several mitochondrial genomic features shared between glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg --> Ser change in the genetic code, a characteristic secondary structure of one of the serine tRNAs, highly derived tRNA and rRNA genes, and the presence of a single large noncoding region. At the same time, glass sponge mtDNA contains atp9, a gene previously found only in the mtDNA of demosponges (among animals), and encodes a tRNA(Pro);(UGG) with an atypical A11-U24 pair that is also found in demosponges and placozoans. Most of our sequence-based phylogenetic analyses place Hexactinellida as the sister group to the Bilateria; however, these results are suspect given accelerated rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution in these groups. Thus, it remains an open question whether shared mitochondrial genomic features in glass sponges and bilaterian animals reflect their close phylogenetic affinity or provide a remarkable example of parallel evolution.

  5. Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohd Azrul; Morillo, Jose A; Sørensen, Søren J; Waleed, Abu Al-Soud; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of next-generation technology sequencing has deepened our knowledge of marine sponge-associated microbiota with the identification of at least 32 phyla of Bacteria and Archaea from a large number of sponge species. In this study, we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. The three sponges harbor species-specific communities each dominated by a different class of Proteobacteria. An α-proteobacterial Rhodobacter-like phylotype was confirmed as the predominant symbiont of Halichondria panicea. The microbial communities of Haliclona xena and H. oculata are described for the first time in this study and are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, respectively. Several common phylotypes belonging to Chlamydiae, TM6, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were detected in all sponge samples. A number of phylotypes of the phylum Chlamydiae were present at an unprecedentedly high relative abundance of up to 14.4 ± 1.4% of the total reads, which suggests an important ecological role in North Sea sponges. These Chlamydiae-affiliated operational taxonomic units may represent novel lineages at least at the genus level as they are only 86-92% similar to known sequences.

  6. Effects of purified alginate sponge on the regeneration of chondrocytes: in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, A Ram; Lee, Cheon Jung; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Yoon, Kun Ho; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration science has been studied using tissue engineering techniques due to the self-renewal difficulties of damaged or degenerated cartilage. A scaffold with biodegradability and biocompatibility features plays a key role in developing cartilage tissue similar to human biological materials. Herein, we have fabricated three-dimensional sponge using purified alginate for the regeneration of chondrocytes cells and formation of cartilage. We demonstrated that the alginate purification can effectively minimize inflammatory reaction through reducing the content of mannuronic acid causing immune rejection. Cartilage regeneration research was performed using three-dimensional non-purified and purified alginate sponges synthesized by modified Korbutt method. In vitro cell viability and specific gene expression in the cartilage cells were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after seeding chondrocytes on the as-fabricated sponges. Specific extracellular matrix (ECM) of chondrocytes, sGAG, and the content of collagen were also measured. Histological staining was carried out after purified alginate sponge seeded with chondrocytes and was implanted in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction. Compared to the non-purified ones, the purified alginate sponges showed positive effects on maintaining affinities and phenotype of chondrocytes. From these results, it can be suggested that the purified alginate sponges provide a promising platform for cartilage regeneration.

  7. Sponge OAS has a distinct genomic structure within the 2-5A synthetase family.

    PubMed

    Reintamm, Tõnu; Kuusksalu, Anne; Metsis, Madis; Päri, Mailis; Vallmann, Kerli; Lopp, Annika; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2008-11-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (2-5A synthetases, OAS) are enzymes that play an important role in the interferon-induced antiviral defense mechanisms in mammals. Sponges, the evolutionarily lowest multicellular animals, also possess OAS; however, their function is presently unclear. Low homology between primary structures of 2-5A synthetases from vertebrates and sponges renders their evolutionary relationship obscure. The genomic structure of vertebrate OASs has been thoroughly examined, making it possible to elucidate molecular evolution and expansion of this gene family. Until now, no OAS gene structure was available from sponges to compare it with the corresponding genes from higher organisms. In the present work, we determined the exon/intron structure of the OAS gene from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium and found it to be completely different from the strictly conserved exon/intron pattern of the OAS genes from vertebrates. This finding was corroborated by the analysis of OAS genes from another sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, whose genome was recently sequenced. Our data suggest that vertebrate and sponge OAS genes have no direct common intron-containing ancestor and two (sub)types of OAS may be discriminated. This study opens new perspectives for understanding the phylogenesis and evolution of 2-5A synthetases as well as functional aspects of this multigene family.

  8. A complex life cycle in a warming planet: gene expression in thermally stressed sponges.

    PubMed

    Webster, N; Pantile, R; Botté, E; Abdo, D; Andreakis, N; Whalan, S

    2013-04-01

    Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important components of aquatic biotopes with crucial associations for many reef fish and invertebrates. Sponges have strict temperature optima, and mass mortality events have occurred after unusually high temperatures. To assess how sponges may adapt to thermal stress associated with a changing climate, we applied gene expression profiling to both stages of their bipartite life cycles. Adult Rhopaloeides odorabile are highly sensitive to thermal stress (32 °C), yet their larvae can withstand temperatures up to 36 °C. Here, we reveal the molecular mechanisms that underpin these contrasting thermal tolerances, which may provide sponges with a means to successfully disperse into cooler waters. Heat shock protein 70 was induced by increasing temperature in adult sponges, and genes involved in important biological functions including cytoskeleton rearrangement, signal transduction, protein synthesis/degradation, oxidative stress and detoxification were all negatively correlated with temperature. Conversely, gene expression in larvae was not significantly affected until 36 °C when a stress response involving extremely rapid activation of heat shock proteins occurred. This study provides the first transcriptomic assessment of thermal stress on both life history stages of a marine invertebrate facilitating better predictions of the long-term consequences of climate change for sponge population dynamics.

  9. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  10. [Bleaching of Baikalian Sponge Affects The Taxonomic Composition of Symbiotic Microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kaluzhnaya, O V; Itskovich, V B

    2015-11-01

    The diversity of 16S rRNA genes in the microbial community of endemic sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis with bleached patches of tissue was studied. Eight bacterial phyla were identified in the sponge microbiome: Cyanobacteria (27.3%; n = 36; 2 OTU, operational taxonomic unit), Proteobacteria (22.7%; n = 30; 5 OTU), Actinobacteria (16.7%; n = 22; 7 OTU, operation taxonomic unit), Verrucomicrobia (15.2%; n = 20; 4 OTU), Plactomycetes (9%; n = 12; 3 OTU), Bacteroidetes (4.5%; n = 6; 3 OTU), WS5 (3%; n = 4; 1 OTU), and TM7 (1.5%; n = 2; 1 OTU). The basic phyla typical of freshwater sponge microbiomes are present in the community. However, in contrast to previously studied L. baicalensis bacterial associations, a dominance of Cyanobacteria and a low number of representatives of the Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria were observed in the bleached sponge community. Phylotypes exhibiting a high percentage of similarity with the microorganisms inhabiting substrates rich in organic matter were also found. Clearly, the bleaching processes of Baikal sponges affect the composition and the ratio of the major taxonomic groups of sponge-associated bacteria.

  11. The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.

  12. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  13. The distribution of deep-sea sponge aggregations in the North Atlantic and implications for their effective spatial management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Kerry-Louise; Piechaud, Nils; Downie, Anna-Leena; Kenny, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Sponge aggregations have been recognised as key component of shallow benthic ecosystems providing several important functional roles including habitat building and nutrient recycling. Within the deep-sea ecosystem, sponge aggregations may be extensive and available evidence suggests they may also play important functional roles, however data on their ecology, extent and distribution in the North Atlantic is lacking, hampering conservation efforts. In this study, we used Maximum Entropy Modelling and presence data for two deep-sea sponge aggregation types, Pheronema carpenteri aggregations and ostur aggregations dominated by geodid sponges, to address the following questions: 1) What environmental factors drive the broad-scale distribution of these selected sponge grounds? 2) What is the predicted distribution of these grounds in the northern North Atlantic, Norwegian and Barents Sea? 3) How are these sponge grounds distributed between Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and High Seas areas? 4) What percentage of these grounds in High Seas areas are protected by the current High Seas MPA network? Our results suggest that silicate concentration, temperature, depth and amount of particulate organic carbon are the most important drivers of sponge distribution. Most of the sponge grounds are located within national EEZs rather than in the High Seas. Coordinated conservation planning between nations with significant areas of sponge grounds such as Iceland, Greenland and Faroes (Denmark), Norway (coastal Norway and Svalbard), Portugal and the UK, should be implemented in order to effectively manage these communities in view of the increasing level of human activity within the deep-sea environment.

  14. Effects of the water-holding capability of polyvinyl formal sponges on osteogenic ability in in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Togami, Wakana; Sei, Akira; Okada, Tatsuya; Taniwaki, Takuya; Fujimoto, Toru; Tahata, Shogo; Nagamura, Kazuma; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran-coated polyvinyl formal (PVF) sponges with high water-holding capability were developed to increase the osteogenic response in the PVF sponge. The study aimed to estimate the effect of the increased water-holding capability of the sponges on osteogenic capacity at a bone defect site in the rabbit femur epiphysis. Bone formation was evaluated using radiography, microcomputed tomography (CT), and histological analysis at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after implantation. As shown by radiography and micro-CT findings, the dextran-coated PVF sponge without water-holding capability showed little bone formation at all evaluated time points. However, the dextran-coated PVF sponge with high water-holding capability showed increasing bone formation around the implant at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, as shown by micro-CT quantitative analysis, the grafted PVF sponge with high water-holding capability showed significantly greater values for percentage of bone volume per total volume and mean bone mineral density compared with the grafted PVF sponge without water-holding capability at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation. These results suggest that the dextran-coated PVF sponge with high water-holding capability promoted osteogenesis in vivo. The PVF sponge might be a new biomaterial to be used as a fill material for bone defects.

  15. Isolation and diversity of planctomycetes from the sponge Niphates sp., seawater, and sediment of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I; Fuerst, John A

    2013-10-01

    Planctomycetes are ubiquitous in marine environment and were reported to occur in association with multicellular eukaryotic organisms such as marine macroalgae and invertebrates. Here, we investigate planctomycetes associated with the marine sponge Niphates sp. from the sub-tropical Australian coast by assessing their diversity using culture-dependent and -independent approaches based on the 16S rRNA gene. The culture-dependent approach resulted in the isolation of a large collection of diverse planctomycetes including some novel lineages of Planctomycetes from the sponge as well as sediment and seawater of Moreton Bay where this sponge occurs. The characterization of these novel planctomycetes revealed that cells of one unique strain do not possess condensed nucleoids, a phenotype distinct from other planctomycetes. In addition, a culture-independent clone library approach identified unique planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to other sponge-derived sequences. The analysis of tissue of the sponge Niphates sp. showed that the mesohyl of the sponge is almost devoid of microbial cells, indicating this species is in the group of 'low microbial abundant' (LMA) sponges. The unique planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences identified in this study were phylogenetically closely related to sequences from LMA sponges in other published studies. This study has revealed new insights into the diversity of planctomycetes in the marine environment and the association of planctomycetes with marine sponges.

  16. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  17. Pyrosequencing reveals the microbial communities in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and their impressive shifts in abnormal tissues.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum," were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  18. Primmorphs from archaeocytes-dominant cell population of the sponge hymeniacidon perleve: improved cell proliferation and spiculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Cao, Xupeng; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Meifang

    2003-12-05

    Marine sponges (Porifera) possess an extraordinary diversity of bioactive metabolites for new drug discovery and development. In vitro cultivation of sponge cells in a bioreactor system is very attractive for the sustainable production of sponge-derived bioactive metabolites; however, it is still a challenging task. The recent establishment of sponge primmorphs, multicellular aggregates from dissociated mixed-cell population (MCP), has been widely acknowledged to hold great promise for cultivation in vitro. Here we present a new method to establish an in vitro sponge primmorph culture from archaeocyte-dominant cell population (ADCP) enriched by a Ficoll gradient, rather than a mixed-cell population (MCP). Our rationale is based upon the totipotency (the ability of a cell to differentiate into other cell types) of archaeocyte cells and the different biological functions of various sponge cell types. A sponge, Hymeniacidon perleve collected from the China Yellow Sea was used as a model system for this investigation. Distinct dynamics of primmorph formation were observed while significant increases in DNA synthesis, cell proliferation (up to threefold), and cell growth (up to fourfold) were achieved. Furthermore, a time-dependent spiculogenesis was clearly demonstrated in our longterm culture, indicating high metabolic activity of primmorphs from the ADCP. This new method represents an important step forward to advance sponge cell culture in vitro that may lead to commercial exploitation of sponge-derived drugs.

  19. In Search of Alternative Antibiotic Drugs: Quorum-Quenching Activity in Sponges and their Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saurav, Kumar; Bar-Shalom, Rinat; Haber, Markus; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Oliviero, Giorgia; Costantino, Valeria; Morgenstern, David; Steindler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS), because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of 14 sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ) potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that ≈20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not correlate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts), and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater, and marine sediments). Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges and may simply have been trapped in the filtration channels of the

  20. In Search of Alternative Antibiotic Drugs: Quorum-Quenching Activity in Sponges and their Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Bar-Shalom, Rinat; Haber, Markus; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Oliviero, Giorgia; Costantino, Valeria; Morgenstern, David; Steindler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS), because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of 14 sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ) potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that ≈20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not correlate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts), and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater, and marine sediments). Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges and may simply have been trapped in the filtration channels of the

  1. A pretty good sponge: Dealing with open boundaries in limited-area ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavelle, J. W.; Thacker, W. C.

    The problem of computing within a limited domain surrounded by open boundaries is discussed within the context of the shallow-water wave equations by comparing three different treatments, all of which surround the domain by absorbing zones intended to prevent reflections of outgoing waves. The first, which has attracted a lot of attention for use in electromagnetic and aeroacoustic applications, is intended to prevent all reflections. However, it has not yet been developed to handle the second important requirement of open boundaries, namely the ability to pass information about external conditions into the domain of interest. The other two treatments, which absorb differences from a specified external solution, allow information to pass through the open boundary in both directions. One, based on the flow relaxation scheme of [Martinsen, E.A., Engedahl, H., 1987. Implementation and testing of a lateral boundary scheme as an open-boundary condition in a barotropic ocean model. Coastal Eng. 11, 603-627] and termed here the "simple sponge," relaxes all fields toward their external counterparts. The other, a simplification and generalization of the perfectly matched layer, referred to here as the "pretty good sponge," avoids absorbing the component of momentum parallel to the open boundary. Comparisons for a case that is dominated by outgoing waves shows the pretty good sponge to perform essentially as well as the perfectly matched layer and better than the simple sponge. In comparisons for a geostrophically balanced eddy passing through open boundaries, the pretty good sponge out-performed the simple sponge when the only external information available was about the advecting flow, but when information about the nature of the eddy in the sponge zones was also available, the simple sponge performed better. For the case of an equatorial soliton passing through the boundary and no information provided about its nature outside the open domain, again the pretty good sponge

  2. Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Abundance and reproductive patterns of the excavating sponge Cliona vermifera: a threat to Pacific coral reefs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista-Guerrero, Eric; Carballo, José Luis; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cliona vermifera is a common excavating sponge in coral reefs from the East Pacific. Abundance and reproductive patterns of the sponge in a Mexican Pacific coral reef over a 4-year period are herein described. Sponge abundance was estimated along three transects 50 m long which were randomly placed on the reef, and along each one, a piece of coral rubble and a branch of a live coral from the Pocillopora spp. coral colony closest to the transect were collected at random, approximately every 2 m, yielding 25 pieces of each category per transect (and 75 pieces total of each category). A 2-way ANOVA revealed that invasion was significantly higher in living coral colonies (34.8 %) than in rubble (13.7 %). It also indicated that the abundance in both coralline substrates showed a temporal variation without a clear pattern of increase over the years. It was estimated that 60-85 % of sponges in the population reproduced sexually every year. The sponge proved gonochoristic, with a sex ratio strongly departing from parity (1 male: 3 females). Over the 4-year study period, at least two cohorts of oocytes with densities of up to 3.5 oocytes per mm2 tissue were observed. Spermatogenesis lasted about a month, but often producing more than a pulse from July to November, coupled with peaks of oocyte maturation. Fertilization occurred internally to produce encapsulated zygotes that were released in one or more spawning events from July to November. In the following months (December to February), which were the periods of lowest temperature (~18.5-20 °C), no gametic activity occurred in the sponges. Because anomalous temperature rises that are detrimental to corals do not appear to negatively affect the reproduction and abundance of C. vermifera, it is likely that the excavating activity of this sponge may be compromising the health of those coral reefs that are recurrently affected by episodes of thermal stress.

  4. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    PubMed

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  5. Sample Processing Impacts the Viability and Cultivability of the Sponge Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Amer, Nimra; Nguyen, Mary; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sponges host complex microbial communities of recognized ecological and biotechnological importance. Extensive cultivation efforts have been made to isolate sponge bacteria, but most still elude cultivation. To identify the bottlenecks of sponge bacterial cultivation, we combined high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing with a variety of cultivation media and incubation conditions. We aimed to determine the extent to which sample processing and cultivation conditions can impact bacterial viability and recovery in culture. We isolated 325 sponge bacteria from six specimens of Cymbastela concentrica and three specimens of Scopalina sp. These isolates were distributed over 37 different genera and 47 operational taxonomic units (defined at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). The cultivable bacterial community was highly specific to its sponge host and different media compositions yielded distinct microbial isolates. Around 97% of the isolates could be detected in the original sponge and represented a large but highly variable proportion (0.5–92% total abundance, depending on sponge species) of viable bacteria obtained after sample processing, as determined by propidium monoazide selective DNA modification of compromised cells. Our results show that the most abundant viable bacteria are also the most predominant groups found in cultivation, reflecting, to some extent, the relative abundances of the viable bacterial community, rather than the overall community estimated by direct molecular approaches. Cultivation is therefore shaped not only by the growth conditions provided, but also by the different cell viabilities of the bacteria that constitute the cultivation inoculum. These observations highlight the need to perform experiments to assess each method of sample processing for its accurate representation of the actual in situ bacterial community and its yield of viable cells. PMID:27242673

  6. Biodiversity of Actinomycetes associated with Caribbean sponges and their potential for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison; Song, Bongkeun; Hill, Russell T; Wright, Jeffrey L

    2013-08-01

    Marine actinomycetes provide a rich source of structurally unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Numerous genera of marine actinomycetes have been isolated from marine sediments as well as several sponge species. In this study, 16 different species of Caribbean sponges were collected from four different locations in the coastal waters off Puerto Rico in order to examine diversity and bioactive metabolite production of marine actinomycetes in Caribbean sponges. Sediments were also collected from each location, in order to compare actinomycete communities between these two types of samples. A total of 180 actinomycetes were isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of at least 14 new phylotypes belonging to the genera Micromonospora, Verruscosispora, Streptomyces, Salinospora, Solwaraspora, Microbacterium and Cellulosimicrobium. Seventy-eight of the isolates (19 from sediments and 59 from sponges) shared 100 % sequence identity with Micromonospora sp. R1. Despite having identical 16S rRNA sequences, the bioactivity of extracts and subsequent fractions generated from the fermentation of both sponge- and sediment-derived isolates identical to Micromonospora sp. R1 varied greatly, with a marked increase in antibiotic metabolite production in those isolates derived from sponges. These results indicate that the chemical profiles of isolates with high 16S rRNA sequence homology to known strains can be diverse and dependent on the source of isolation. In addition, seven previously reported dihydroquinones produced by five different Streptomyces strains have been purified and characterized from one Streptomyces sp. strain isolated in this study from the Caribbean sponge Agelas sceptrum.

  7. Composite Sampling of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate with Cellulose Sponge Surface Samplers from a Nonporous Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tufts, Jenia A. M.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Calfee, Michael Worth; Lee, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the utility of composite-based collection of surface samples for the detection of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate using cellulose sponge samplers on a nonporous stainless steel surface. Two composite-based collection approaches were evaluated over a surface area of 3716 cm2 (four separate 929 cm2 areas), larger than the 645 cm2 prescribed by the standard Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention cellulose sponge sampling protocol for use on nonporous surfaces. The CDC method was also compared to a modified protocol where only one surface of the sponge sampler was used for each of the four areas composited. Differences in collection efficiency compared to positive controls and the potential for contaminant transfer for each protocol were assessed. The impact of the loss of wetting buffer from the sponge sampler onto additional surface areas sampled was evaluated. Statistical tests of the results using ANOVA indicate that the collection of composite samples using the modified sampling protocol is comparable to the collection of composite samples using the standard CDC protocol (p  =  0.261). Most of the surface-bound spores are collected on the first sampling pass, suggesting that multiple passes with the sponge sampler over the same surface may be unnecessary. The effect of moisture loss from the sponge sampler on collection efficiency was not significant (p  =  0.720) for both methods. Contaminant transfer occurs with both sampling protocols, but the magnitude of transfer is significantly greater when using the standard protocol than when the modified protocol is used (p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that composite surface sampling, by either method presented here, could successfully be used to increase the surface area sampled per sponge sampler, resulting in reduced sampling times in the field and decreased laboratory processing cost and turn-around times. PMID:25470365

  8. Validation of a gauze sponge sampling methodology to detect Tritrichomonas foetus by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Dewell, Grant A; Phillips, Patrick E; Dohlman, Tyler M; Harmon, Karen M; Gauger, Phil C

    2016-09-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis is a concern for the cattle industry. Advances in testing systems have increased the ability to detect the disease in bulls. However, the greatest limitation is proper collection of an adequate sample. The low repeatability observed with most sample collection techniques can cause false-negative results. The aim of our study was to validate a sample collection technique that increases diagnostic sensitivity and is easier and safer to collect than preputial scraping. Commercial bulls (n = 111) of unknown infection status were sampled for detection of Tritrichomonas foetus using 2 different collection methods: 1) preputial scraping with a dry insemination pipette and 2) penile sponging with a 16-ply gauze sponge. Preputial scraping samples were collected by vigorously scraping preputial and penile mucosa using a rigid insemination pipette while applying negative pressure with a syringe. Penile sponge samples were obtained by swabbing the penile and preputial mucosa with a gauze sponge during full extension of the penis. All samples were processed using a commercial medium and submitted under similar conditions for PCR testing. Positive PCR results were detected in 37 of 111 (33%) bulls using the preputial scraping technique; however, 39 of 111 (35%) were positive using the penile sponging technique. The Newton-Raphson algorithm predicted that the sensitivity of the preputial scraping method was 0.919 (95% CI: 0.689-0.983) and the sensitivity of the penile sponging was 0.949 (95% CI: 0.818-0.987). These data indicate that the penile sponging technique is a reliable alternative to the preputial scraping method.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the marine sponge skeleton as a bone mimicking biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Samit K; Kundu, Biswanath; Mahato, Arnab; Thakur, Narsinh L; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mandal, Biman B

    2015-02-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify and characterize marine sponges as potential bioscaffolds in bone tissue engineering. The marine sponge (Biemna fortis) samples were collected from the rocky intertidal region of Anjuna, Goa, India, freeze-dried and converted to pure cristobalite at low temperature. After thorough evaluation of sponge samples by DTA-TGA thermography, XRD, FTIR, SEM and cell cytotoxicity by MTT assay, bare sponge scaffolds were fabricated by firing at 1190 °C. These scaffolds were loaded with growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2), checked for quasi-dynamic in vitro release kinetics and finally implanted into femoral bone defects in rabbits for up to 90 days, by keeping an empty defect as a control. The in vivo bone healing process was evaluated and compared using chronological radiology, histology, SEM and fluorochrome labeling studies. SEM revealed that the sponge skeleton possesses a collagenous fibrous network consisting of highly internetworked porosity in the size range of 10-220 μm. XRD and FTIR analysis showed a cristobalite phase with acicular crystals of high aspect ratio, and crystallinity was found to increase from 725 to 1190 °C. MTT assay demonstrated the non-cytotoxicity of the samples. A combination of burst and sustained release profile was noticed for both the growth factors and about 74.3% and 83% total release at day 28. In the radiological, histological, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling analysis, the IGF-1 impregnated converted sponge scaffold promoted excellent osseous tissue formation followed by the BMP-2 loaded and bare one. These observations suggest that the marine sponge alone and in combination with growth factors is a promising biomaterial for bone repair and bone augmentation.

  10. miRNAsong: a web-based tool for generation and testing of miRNA sponge constructs in silico

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Tomas; Peskova, Lucie; Hampl, Ales

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA transcripts containing multiple high-affinity binding sites that associate with and sequester specific miRNAs to prevent them from interacting with their target messenger (m)RNAs. Due to the high specificity of miRNA sponges and strong inhibition of target miRNAs, these molecules have become increasingly applied in miRNA loss-of-function studies. However, improperly designed sponge constructs may sequester off-target miRNAs; thus, it has become increasingly important to develop a tool for miRNA sponge construct design and testing. In this study, we introduce microRNA sponge generator and tester (miRNAsong), a freely available web-based tool for generation and in silico testing of miRNA sponges. This tool generates miRNA sponge constructs for specific miRNAs and miRNA families/clusters and tests them for potential binding to miRNAs in selected organisms. Currently, miRNAsong allows for testing of sponge constructs in 219 species covering 35,828 miRNA sequences. Furthermore, we also provide an example, supplemented with experimental data, of how to use this tool. Using miRNAsong, we designed and tested a sponge for miR-145 inhibition, and cloned the sequence into an inducible lentiviral vector. We found that established cell lines expressing miR-145 sponge strongly inhibited miR-145, thus demonstrating the usability of miRNAsong tool for sponge generation. URL: http://www.med.muni.cz/histology/miRNAsong/. PMID:27857164

  11. miRNAsong: a web-based tool for generation and testing of miRNA sponge constructs in silico.

    PubMed

    Barta, Tomas; Peskova, Lucie; Hampl, Ales

    2016-11-18

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA transcripts containing multiple high-affinity binding sites that associate with and sequester specific miRNAs to prevent them from interacting with their target messenger (m)RNAs. Due to the high specificity of miRNA sponges and strong inhibition of target miRNAs, these molecules have become increasingly applied in miRNA loss-of-function studies. However, improperly designed sponge constructs may sequester off-target miRNAs; thus, it has become increasingly important to develop a tool for miRNA sponge construct design and testing. In this study, we introduce microRNA sponge generator and tester (miRNAsong), a freely available web-based tool for generation and in silico testing of miRNA sponges. This tool generates miRNA sponge constructs for specific miRNAs and miRNA families/clusters and tests them for potential binding to miRNAs in selected organisms. Currently, miRNAsong allows for testing of sponge constructs in 219 species covering 35,828 miRNA sequences. Furthermore, we also provide an example, supplemented with experimental data, of how to use this tool. Using miRNAsong, we designed and tested a sponge for miR-145 inhibition, and cloned the sequence into an inducible lentiviral vector. We found that established cell lines expressing miR-145 sponge strongly inhibited miR-145, thus demonstrating the usability of miRNAsong tool for sponge generation. URL: http://www.med.muni.cz/histology/miRNAsong/.

  12. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    Musculoskeletal injuries are some of the most prevalent injuries in both civilian and military populations and their infections can be difficult to treat, often resulting in multiple surgeries and increased costs. In both previous and recent military operations, extremity injuries have been the most common battlefield injuries and many involve complex, open fractures. These extremity injuries are especially susceptible to multiple pathogenic, and sometimes drug resistant, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections have recently become increasingly problematic in both military and civilian populations and have significantly higher amputation rates than those from bacterial infections. Many of these bacterial and fungal strains adhere to tissue and implanted orthopaedic hardware within wounds, forming biofilms. These problematic, often polymicrobial, infections threaten the health of the patient, but the risk also exists of spreading within hospitals to become prominent resistant infections. Local antimicrobial delivery releases high levels of antimicrobials directly to injured wound tissue, overcoming sub-bactericidal or subfungicidal antimicrobial levels present in the avascular wound zones. This research will determine the ability of modified chitosan sponges, buffered with sodium acetate or blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to act as short term adjunctive therapies to initial surgical treatment for delivering both antibiotics and/or antifungals for early abatement of infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate both types of modified sponges for in vitro and in vivo material characteristics and device functionality. In vitro analysis demonstrated both the buffered and PEG modified chitosan sponges exhibited increased degradation and functional cytocompatibility. The chitosan/PEG sponges were able to be loaded with hydrophobic antifungals and the sponges released in vitro biologically active concentrations, alone or in combination with the antibiotic

  13. MiRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ning; Wu, Cui Yun; Lin, Man-Hua; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3' non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA‑10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

  14. miRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, AI-LING; ZHANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, NING; WU, CUI YUN; LIN, MAN-HUA; LIU, YONG-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3′ non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA-10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26820121

  15. The fatty acids of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Andrea; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-nine specimens of calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea, Phylum Porifera), covering thirteen representative species of the families Soleneiscidae, Leucaltidae, Levinellidae, Leucettidae, Clathrinidae, Sycettidae, Grantiidae, Jenkinidae, and Heteropiidae were analysed for their fatty acids. The fatty acids of Calcarea generally comprise saturated and monounsaturated linear (n-), and terminally methylated (iso-, anteiso-) C(14)-C(20) homologues. Furthermore, polyunsaturated C(22) fatty acids and the isoprenoic 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid were found. The most prominent compounds are n-C(16), iso-C(17), iso-C(18), n-C(18), n-C(20). In addition, a high abundance of the exotic 16-methyloctadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(19)) appears to be a characteristic trait of Calcarea. Long-chain 'demospongic acids', typically found in Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, are absent in Calcarea. The completely different strategy of calcarean fatty acid synthesis supports their phylogenetic distinctiveness from a common Demospongiae/Hexactinellida taxon. Both intraspecific and intraclass patterns of Calcarea showed great similarity, suggesting a conserved fatty acid composition that already existed in the last common ancestor of Calcinea and Calcaronea, i.e. before subclasses diverged.

  16. Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-11-01

    Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 μm dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

  17. Marine Drugs from Sponge-Microbe Association—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tresa Remya A.; Kavlekar, Devanand P.; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam A.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this review is the biodiversity of marine sponges and associated microbes which have been reported to produce therapeutically important compounds, along with the contextual information on their geographic distribution. Class Demospongiae and the orders Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida and Dictyoceratida are the richest sources of these compounds. Among the microbial associates, members of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal division Ascomycota have been identified to be the dominant producers of therapeutics. Though the number of bacterial associates outnumber the fungal associates, the documented potential of fungi to produce clinically active compounds is currently more important than that of bacteria. Interestingly, production of a few identical compounds by entirely different host-microbial associations has been detected in both terrestrial and marine environments. In the Demospongiae, microbial association is highly specific and so to the production of compounds. Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only a few studies have covered these dimensions. The need to augment production of these compounds through tissue culture and mariculture has also been stressed. The reviewed database of these compounds is available at www.niobioinformatics.in/drug.php. PMID:20479984

  18. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2015-06-01

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g-1 in ˜500 mg L-1 NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material.

  19. Development and characterization of sponge-like acyclovir ocular minitablets.

    PubMed

    Refai, Hanan; Tag, Randa

    2011-01-01

    For the treatment of ocular keratitis acyclovir, as a highly specific inhibitor of herpes virus replication, is applied topically into the eye. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate freeze-dried, bioadhesive and biodegredable acyclovir ocular minitablets for prolonged local drug action. The sponge-like nature of the lyophilized ocular minitablets ensures rapid hydration and gelation of these tablets in the eye and thus would reduce the foreign body sensation. The polymers used were sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, chitosan and Carbopol 943P. The minitablets were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, bioadhesion, water uptake and in vitro drug release. In addition, the rheological characteristics of the polymers solutions were investigated. Rheological data revealed that all tested polymers exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour which is required to minimize interference with blinking. Drug release was found to be affected by the type and concentration of polymer. The order of sustainment was chitosan > xanthan > HPMC > Carbopol > NaCMC. Water uptake study, dissolution rate of the polymers and viscosity measurements could explain the different release profiles of the drug from the polymers. Chitosan minitablet was chosen for its significant sustained release and good bioadhesive property for in vivo study in rabbits. The tablet showed a good permeation into the cornea in comparison to the commercially available Zovirax(®) eye ointment. In conclusion, chitosan ocular minitablets containing acyclovir could be considered as a promising sustained drug delivery system for ocular keratitis treatment.

  20. Ordovician "sphinctozoan" sponges from Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Karl, S.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A faunule of silicified hypercalcified "sphinctozoan" sponges has been recovered from a clast of Upper Ordovician limestone out of the Early Devonian Karheen Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included in the faunule are abundant examples of the new genus Girtyocoeliana, represented by Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter), and Corymbospongia adnata Rigby and Potter, along with rare Corymbospongia amplia n. sp., and Girtyocoelia(?) sp., plus common Amblysiphonella sp. 1 and rare Amblysiphonella(?) sp. 2. The assemblage is similar to that from Ordovician clasts from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California. This indicates that the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska is related paleogeographically to the lithologically and paleontologically similar terrane of the eastern Klamath Mountains. This lithology and fossil assemblage of the clast cannot be tied to any currently known local rock units on Prince of Wales Island. Other clasts in the conglomerate appear to have been locally derived, so it is inferred that the limestone clasts were also locally derived, indicating the presence of a previously undocumented Ordovician limestone unit on northern Prince of Wales Island. 

  1. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2015-01-01

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g−1 in ∼500 mg L−1 NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material. PMID:26063676

  2. Scientists not Sponges: STEM Interest and Inquiry in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jipson, J. L.; Callanan, M. A.; Schultz, G.; Hurst, A.

    2014-07-01

    Young children are fascinated by the natural world. They explore endlessly, with both a sense of wonder and determination, usually in self-directed investigations or informal interactions with peers and adults. Capitalizing on this early period of spontaneous interest and inquiry is critical to efforts to promote lifelong STEM literacy. To inform education and public outreach efforts, it is important to consider common assumptions about how children of this age learn and consider how such assumptions influence the ways we support children's learning. Four metaphors for children learning are investigated in this paper: the young child as sponge, the young child as unlit match, the young child as scientist, and the young child as apprentice. As we critically evaluate these views on learning, we share research findings from developmental psychology that demonstrate that children's engagement with STEM begins well before kindergarten, that children between three and five years of age develop surprisingly sophisticated scientific reasoning capacities and conceptual knowledge, and that parents play an important role in structuring and supporting preschool children's learning.

  3. Heterologous expression of DsRed2 in young sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are currently considered to be the first branch off the Urmetazoa, common ancestors of all multicellular animals or metazoa. Research in the field of the developmental biology of sponges was restricted to morphological observations. Nowadays, research is mainly concentrated on larval development, primarily dealing with tissue formation. Already since 1907, methods for developing functional sponges from stem cells have been at hand. Functional freshwater sponges can be grown from stem cell populations originating from gemmulae. A number of poriferan sequences with high similarity to regulative genes in higher metazoa have already been found. We have now succeeded in heterologously expressing the red fluorescent protein DsRedN1 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter in young specimens of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. The protein folded correctly, polymerized and subsequently was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Reporting this expression system, we now consider this appealing system for early meatazoan development to be ready for molecular developmental biology and functional genetics research.

  4. The Sponge Community of a Subtidal Area with Hydrothermal Vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2000-11-01

    Sponges were sampled by SCUBA diving at six subtidal rocky sites, three of which were close to hydrothermal vents, a common feature on the sea-floor off the south-east coast of Milos. Twenty-five species (2 Calcarea and 23 Demospongiae) were found, few compared with the 589 recorded for the Mediterranean, but an important addition to the scant information on the sponge fauna of the Aegean Sea. The number of species found at vent sites was consistently higher than that found at non-vent sites, but no vent-obligate species could be identified. However, Geodia cydonium and three species of Cliona ( C. copiosa, C. nigricans and C. rhodensis) showed a tendency to colonize vent areas. The former might take advantage of increased silica availability, the latter of the enhanced deposition of carbonates near vents. Substratum cover by sponges (estimated from wire-framed photographs of 0·7 m 2), varied greatly both among and within sites, mostly according to slope. Most sponge species preferred vertical to overhanging, shaded substrata. Proximity to vents seemed to have little or no influence on sponge cover, notwithstanding a primary effect on species diversity.

  5. A comparative clinical trial of the contraceptive sponge and Neo Sampoon tablets.

    PubMed

    Borko, E; McIntyre, S L; Feldblum, P J

    1985-04-01

    Neo Sampoon, a foaming vaginal tablet containing 60 mg of the spermicide menfegol, and the Collatex sponge (now marketed in the United States as the Today sponge), a dome-shaped polyurethane device that contains 1 g of nonoxynol-9, were compared in terms of effectiveness, safety, and acceptability. Both methods were new to the Maribor General Hospital, Yugoslavia, where the trial was conducted among 450 volunteers randomly assigned to one of the two methods. At 12 months, the life-table pregnancy rate per 100 women for the Neo Sampoon group was 12.8, compared with a rate of 10.4 among the sponge users (P greater than .10). After pregnancy, the second most frequent reason for termination was discomfort, with a 12-month termination rate due to this cause of 6.9 per 100 women in the Neo Sampoon group and 6.2 in the sponge group. Although fewer than a quarter of the volunteers had any experience with barrier methods before this trial, the life-table continuation rate was high in both groups, with more than 70% using their assigned method for the full 12 months. Also, upon conclusion of the study, 41% of the volunteers chose another barrier contraceptive method. Although the effectiveness of the sponge and Neo Sampoon is not comparable to that of the pill or IUD, both vaginal methods appear to be safe and acceptable additions to the range of contraceptive choices.

  6. Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ajna S; Ozturk, Nuri; Fahey, Bryony; Plachetzki, David C; Degnan, Bernard M; Sancar, Aziz; Oakley, Todd H

    2012-04-15

    Many larval sponges possess pigment ring eyes that apparently mediate phototactic swimming. Yet sponges are not known to possess nervous systems or opsin genes, so the unknown molecular components of sponge phototaxis must differ fundamentally from those in other animals, inspiring questions about how this sensory system functions. Here we present molecular and biochemical data on cryptochrome, a candidate gene for functional involvement in sponge pigment ring eyes. We report that Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge, possesses two cryptochrome/photolyase genes, Aq-Cry1 and Aq-Cry2. The mRNA of one gene (Aq-Cry2) is expressed in situ at the pigment ring eye. Additionally, we report that Aq-Cry2 lacks photolyase activity and contains a flavin-based co-factor that is responsive to wavelengths of light that also mediate larval photic behavior. These results suggest that Aq-Cry2 may act in the aneural, opsin-less phototaxic behavior of a sponge.

  7. Analysis of bacterial diversity in sponges collected from Chuuk and Kosrae Islands in Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In-Hye; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Park, Jin-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria resident in sponges collected from Chuuk Lagoon and Kosrae Island of Micronesia were investigated using the 16S rRNA gene PCR-tagged pyrosequencing method. These sponges were clustered into 5 groups based on their bacterial composition. Diversity indexes and cumulative rank abundance curves showed the different compositions of bacterial communities in the various groups of sponges. Reads related to the phylum Chloroflexi were observed predominantly (9.7-68.2%) in 9 sponges of 3 groups and unobserved in the other 2 groups. The Chloroflexi-containing group had similar bacterial patterns at the phylum and lower taxonomic levels, for example, significant proportions of Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, SBR1093, and PAUC34f were observed in most members of this group. The three groups in the Chloroflexi-containing group, however, showed some minor differences in the composition and diversity. The other two groups contained high proportions of Proteobacteria (>87%) or Bacteroidetes (>61%) and different composition and diversity compared to the Chloroflexi-containing group and each other. Four pairs of specimens with the same species showed similar bacterial profiles, but, the bacteria in sponges were highly specific at the individual level.

  8. Influence of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of atelocollagen/gelatin sponge biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longqiang; Tanabe, Koji; Miura, Tadashi; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Shintani, Seikou; Kasahara, Masataka

    2017-03-08

    This study aimed to investigate influences of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of ACG sponge. ACG sponges of different freezing temperatures (-30, -80 and -196(o)C), freezing times (1, 2 and 24 h), gelatin concentrations (0.6%AC+0.15%G, 0.6%AC+0.6%G and 0.6%AC+2.4%G), and with 500 μM fluvastatin were fabricated. Pore structures including porosity and pore size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ. The cytotoxic effects of ACG sponges were evaluated in vitro. Freezing temperature did not affect porosity while high freezing temperature (-30(o)C) increased pore size. The high gelatin concentration group (0.6%AC+2.4%G) had decreased porosity and pore size. Freezing time and 500 μM fluvastatin did not affect pore structures. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays revealed that ACG sponges had no cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell growth and proliferation. These results indicate that ACG sponge may be a good biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration.

  9. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with marine sponges in the China Seas.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar) proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and "Micromonospora-Streptomyces" was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera) of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes.

  10. Calcareous sponges from abyssal and bathyal depths in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Janussen, Dorte; Tendal, Ole S.

    2011-03-01

    Calcareous sponges have traditionally been regarded as shallow-water organisms, a persistent myth created by Hentschel (1925), partly supported by the problematic question of calcareous skeletal secretion under high partial CO 2-pressure below the CCD in the abyss. Up to now, only few species world-wide of the sponge class Calcarea have been described from depths below 2000 m. By far, the largest number of records of Antarctic Calcarea is known from shelf areas between 50 and 400 m depth. They have only been sporadically recorded on the lower shelf and the upper slope from depths between 570 and 850 m. From abyssal depths in the Antarctic there are no previous records of calcareous sponges. It was therefore a big surprise when the first true deep-sea Calcarea from the Antarctic were collected at depths between 1120 and 4400 m during the ANDEEP I, II and III expeditions ( Janussen et al., 2006). To date, five calcareous sponge species have been found, including three species new to science. The three new species belong to the genera Ascaltis, Clathrina and Leucetta. Although calcareous sponges are rare in the Antarctic deep sea, they seem to constitute a constant component of the fauna. Antarctic Calcarea shows all the characteristics of need for revision and further collection and investigation. Still, many new species are likely to be discovered in the Antarctic deep-sea.

  11. Observations of asexual reproductive strategies in Antarctic hexactinellid sponges from ROV video records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixidó, Núria; Gili, Josep-Maria; Uriz, María-J.; Gutt, Julian; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2006-04-01

    Hexactinellid sponges are one of the structuring taxa of benthic communities on the Weddell Sea shelf (Antarctica). However, little is known about their reproduction patterns (larval development, release, settlement, and recruitment), particularly in relation to sexual and asexual processes in sponge populations. Video stations obtained during several expeditions covering a wide depth range and different areas recorded a high frequency of asexual reproductive strategies (ARS) (bipartition and budding) among hexactinellids. Analysis of seabed video strips between 108 and 256 m depth, representing an area of 1400 m 2, showed that about 28% of these sponges exhibited ARS. The Rossella nuda type dominated most of the video stations and exhibited the highest proportion of budding (35%). This proportion increased with the size class. Size class >20 cm exhibited in all the stations a mean value of 8.3±0.7 (SE) for primary and of 2.5±0.2 (SE) for secondary propagules per sponge, respectively. Results from a shallow station (Stn 059, 117 m depth) showed the highest relative abundance of R. nuda type and budding (>20 cm ˜72%, 10-20 cm ˜60%, 5-10 cm ˜12%, and <5 cm ˜3%). A potential influence of iceberg scouring disturbance on the occurrence of budding and number of propagules also was investigated. We conclude that asexual reproduction in hexactinellid sponges may be more frequent than has been thought before and it may greatly influence the genetic structure of populations.

  12. Extracting growth rates from the non-laminated coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana using "bomb" radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, S; Guilderson, T

    2004-06-30

    Coralline sponges have the potential to fill in gaps in our understanding of subsurface oceanographic variability. However, one disadvantage they have compared to hermatypic reef building coral proxies is that they do not have annual density bands and need to be radiometrically dated for an age determination. To elucidate growth rate variability we have measured radiocarbon in 1 mm increments from Astrosclera willeyana sponges collected off the Central and Northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and from Truk in the Caroline Islands and compared these radiocarbon profiles to independently dated coral radiocarbon records. Growth rates of the GBR sponges average 1.2 {+-} 0.3 and 1.0 {+-} 0.3 mm yr{sup -1}, north and central respectively but can vary by a factor of two. The growth rate of the Truk sponge averages 1.2 {+-} 0.1 mm yr{sup -1}. These growth rates are significantly faster to those measured for other GBR Astrosclera willeyana sponges (0.2 mm yr{sup -1}) by Calcein staining (Woerheide 1988).

  13. Environmental solutions for the sustainable production of bioactive natural products from the marine sponge Crambe crambe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Ternon, Eva; González-García, Sara; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Thomas, Olivier P; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2014-03-15

    Crambe crambe is a Mediterranean marine sponge known to produce original natural substances belonging to two families of guanidine alkaloids, namely crambescins and crambescidins, which exhibit cytotoxic and antiviral activities. These compounds are therefore considered as potential anticancer drugs. The present study focuses on the environmental assessment of a novel in vivo process for the production of pure crambescin and crambescidin using sponge specimens cultured in aquarium. The assessment was performed following the ISO 14040 standard and extended from the production of the different mass and energy flows to the system to the growth of the sponge in indoor aquarium and further periodic extraction and purification of the bioactive compounds. According to the results, the two stages that have a remarkable contribution to all impact categories are the purification of the bioactive molecules followed by the maintenance of the sponge culture in the aquarium. Among the involved activities, the production of the chemicals (particularly methanol) together with the electricity requirements (especially due to the aquarium lighting) are responsible for up to 90% of the impact in most of the assessed categories. However, the contributions of other stages to the environmental burdens, such as the collection of sponges, considerably depend on the assumptions made during the inventory stage. The simulation of alternative scenarios has led to propose improvement alternatives that may allow significant reductions ranging from 20% to 70%, mainly thanks to the reduction of electricity requirements as well as the partial reuse of methanol.

  14. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  15. Identification of genes suitable for DNA barcoding of morphologically indistinguishable Korean Halichondriidae sponges.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Sim, Chung-Ja; Baek, Jina; Min, Gi-Sik

    2007-04-30

    The development of suitable genetic markers would be useful for defining species and delineating the species boundaries of morphologically indistinguishable sponges. In this study, genetic variation in the sequences of nuclear rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (CO1 and CO3) regions were compared in morphologically indistinguishable Korean Halichondriidae sponges in order to determine the most suitable species-specific molecular marker region. The maximal congeneric nucleotide divergences of Halichondriidae sponges in CO1 and CO3 are similar to those found among anthozoan cnidarians, but they are 2- to 8-fold lower than those found among genera of other triploblastic metazoans. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS: ITS1 + ITS2) showed higher congeneric variation (17.28% in ITS1 and 10.29% in ITS2) than those of CO1 and CO3. Use of the guidelines for species thresholds suggested in the recent literature indicates that the mtDNA regions are not appropriate for use as species-specific DNA markers for the Halichondriidae sponges, whereas the rDNA ITS regions are suitable because ITS exhibits a low level of intraspecific variation and a relatively high level of interspecific variation. In addition, to test the reliability of the ITS regions for identifying Halichondriidae sponges by PCR, a species-specific multiplex PCR primer set was developed.

  16. Technical Note: Silica stable isotopes and silicification in a carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K. R.; Swann, G. E. A.; Leng, M. J.; Sloane, H. J.; Goodwin, C.; Berman, J.; Maldonado, M.

    2014-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of benthic sponge spicule silica is a potential source of palaeoceanographic information about past deep seawater chemistry. The silicon isotopic composition of spicules has been shown to relate to the silicic acid concentration of ambient water, although existing calibrations do exhibit a degree of scatter in the relationship. Less is known about how the oxygen isotope composition of sponge spicule silica relates to environmental conditions during growth. Here, we investigate the biological vital effects on silica silicon and oxygen isotope composition in a carnivorous sponge, Asbestopluma sp., from the Southern Ocean. We find significant variations in silicon and oxygen isotopic composition within the specimen that appear related to unusual spicule silicification. The largest variation in both isotope systems was associated to the differential distribution of an unconventional, hypersilicified spicule type (desma) along the sponge body. The absence of an internal canal in the desmas suggests an unconventional silicification pattern leading to an unusually heavy isotopic signature. Additional internal variability derives from a systematic offset between the peripheral skeleton of the body having systematically a higher isotopic composition than the internal skeleton. A simplified silicon isotope fractionation model, in which desmas were excluded, suggests that the lack of a system for seawater pumping in carnivorous sponges favours a low replenishment of dissolved silicon within the internal tissues, causing kinetic fractionation during silicification that impacts the isotopic signature of the internal skeleton. Analysis of multiple spicules should be carried out to "average out" any artefacts in order to produce more robust downcore measurements.

  17. Long-term cultivation of primmorphs from freshwater Baikal sponges Lubomirskia baikalensis.

    PubMed

    Chernogor, Lubov I; Denikina, Natalia N; Belikov, Sergey I; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2011-08-01

    The work was aimed at performing long-term cultivation of primmorphs in vitro from freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baikalensis (Pallas 1776), collected from Lake Baikal, obtaining its long-term primmorph culture in both natural (NBW) and artificial (ABW) Baikal water and at identifying the impact of different environmental factors on formation and growth of primmorphs. The first fine aggregates of L. baikalensis are formed in vitro 10-15 min after dissociation of sponge cells. Epithelization of aggregates begins 4 h later after the dissociation. Young primmorphs are formed 1 or 2 days later. The surface of primmorphs is covered with a layer of exopinacocytes. The primmorphs remain viable for more than 10 months at 3-6 °C. Over 50% of primmorphs in NBW and 25% in ABW are attached to the substrate and grow like adult sponges. Thus, the long-term primmorph cultivation in vitro allows the creation of a controlled live model system under experimental conditions. The results of this work will allow the creation of a cell culture collection of Baikal freshwater sponges for studying morphogenesis of primmorphs during cultivation at different stages and transdifferentiation of their cells, physiological functions of sponge cells, processes of spiculogenesis, identification of proteins involved in biomineralization process, decoding of their genes, as well as a spectrum of secondary metabolites.

  18. Technical Note: Silica stable isotopes and silicification in a carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K. R.; Swann, G. E. A.; Leng, M. J.; Sloane, H. J.; Goodwin, C.; Berman, J.; Maldonado, M.

    2015-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of benthic sponge spicule silica is a potential source of palaeoceanographic information about past deep seawater chemistry. The silicon isotope composition of spicules has been shown to relate to the silicic acid concentration of ambient water, although existing calibrations do exhibit a degree of scatter in the relationship. Less is known about how the oxygen isotope composition of sponge spicule silica relates to environmental conditions during growth. Here, we investigate the vital effects on silica, silicon and oxygen isotope composition in a carnivorous sponge, Asbestopluma sp., from the Southern Ocean. We find significant variations in silicon and oxygen isotopic composition within the specimen that are related to unusual spicule silicification. The largest variation in both isotope systems was associated with the differential distribution of an unconventional, hypersilicified spicule type (desma) along the sponge body. The absence an internal canal in the desmas suggests an unconventional silicification pattern leading to an unusually heavy isotope signature. Additional internal variability derives from a systematic offset between the peripheral skeleton of the body having systematically a higher isotopic composition than the internal skeleton. A simplified silicon isotope fractionation model, in which desmas were excluded, suggests that the lack of a system for seawater pumping in carnivorous sponges favours a low replenishment of dissolved silicon within the internal tissues, causing kinetic fractionation during silicification that impacts the isotope signature of the internal skeleton. Analysis of multiple spicules should be carried out to "average out" any artefacts in order to produce more robust downcore measurements.

  19. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs.

    PubMed

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Risk, Michael J; Sherwood, Owen A; Jaap, Walter C

    2005-01-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of delta15N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and delta15N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge delta15N values were 5.2(+/-0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1(+/-0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction.

  20. Primmorphs cryopreservation: a new method for long-time storage of sponge cells.

    PubMed

    Mussino, Francesca; Pozzolini, Marina; Valisano, Laura; Cerrano, Carlo; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2013-06-01

    The possibility to cryopreserve cells allows for wide opportunities of flexible handling of cell cultures from different sponge species. Primmorphs model, a multicellular 3D aggregate formed by dissociated sponge cells, is considered one of the best approaches to establish sponge cell culture but, in spite of the available protocols for freezing sponge cells, there is no information regarding the ability of the latter to form primmorphs after thawing. In the present work, we demonstrate that, after a freezing and thawing cycle using dissociated Petrosia ficiformis cells as a model, cells viability was high but it was not possible to obtain primmorphs. The same protocol for cryopreservation was then used to directly freeze primmorphs. In this second case, after thawing, viability and the cellular proliferative level were similar to unfrozen standard primmorphs. Spiculogenesis in thawed primmorphs was evaluated by quantifying the silicatein gene expression level and by assaying the silica amount in the newly formed spicules, then compared with the correspondent values obtained in standard unfrozen primmorphs. Results indicate that the freezing cycle does not affect the spiculogenesis rate. Finally, the expression level of heat shock protein 70, a well-known stress marker, was assayed and the results showed no differences between frozen and unfrozen samples. These findings are likely to promote relevant improvements in sponge cell culture technique, allowing for a worldwide exchange of living biological material, paving the way for cell banking of Porifera.

  1. SITE demonstration of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology to remove dissolved metals from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, C.R.; Vaccaro, G.

    1995-10-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration was conducted of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology during the week of April 3, 1994 at the N.L. Industries Superfund Site in Pedricktown, New Jersey. The Forager Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. This technology is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The developer states that the technology can be used to remove heavy metals from a wide variety of aqueous media, such as groundwater, surface waters and process waters. The sponge matrix can be directly disposed, or regenerated with chemical solutions. For this demonstration the sponge was set up as a mobile pump-and-treat system which treated groundwater contaminated with heavy metals. The demonstration focused on the system`s ability to remove lead, cadmium, chromium and copper from the contaminated groundwater over a continuous 72-hour test. The removal of heavy metals proceeded in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of innocuous cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and aluminum.

  2. Late Eocene siliceous sponge fauna of southern Australia: reconstruction based on loose spicules record.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Magdalena

    2015-02-09

    An abundant and diversified assemblage of siliceous loose sponge spicules has been identified in the Late Eocene deposits cropping out along the southern coasts of Australia. Based on the comparison of the obtained spicules with those of living sponges, representatives of at least 43 species within 33 genera, 26 families, and 9 orders of "soft" Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha have been identified in the assemblage. Within the studied sediments, the spicules representing demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Hadromerida, and Astrophorida were the most diverse. The rest of the five demosponge orders (Halichondrida, Agelasida, Haplosclerida, Spirophorida, and Chondrosida) are represented by single families. Also, a single family Plakinidae within the class Homoscleromorpha that includes two genera was present. The diversity of spicules is similar in all studied samples and areas, even distant geographically, and there are only minor differences between the sections. That indicates a homogenous character of this rich siliceous sponge assemblage. Most of the studied sponge spicules have Recent equivalents among present-day siliceous spicules. However, the fossil ones are bigger which is most likely due to different environmental conditions. Among the recognized sponge species, at least eleven (Agelas cf. axifera, Agelas cf. wiedenmayeri, Penares sclerobesa, Histodermella australis, Trikentrion flabelliforme, Cliona cf. mucronata, Tethya cf. omanensis, Terpios sp., Placinolopha cf. sarai, Dotona pulchella, and Sigmosceptrella quadrilobata) are noted for the first time in the fossil record.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of temperature and pH of water in an Indian freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Bhunia, Anindya Sundar; Bhunia, Niladri Sekhar; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-07-01

    Eunapius carteri, a freshwater sponge of India, inhabits the ponds and lakes and experiences variations of temperature and pH of water throughout the year. Sponges bear evolutionary and ecological importance with limited information on their immunological attribute and adaptational resilience in a changing environment. This paper reports temperature and pH specific responses of immune related parameters in sponge maintained in the experimental conditions of laboratory. Innate immunological parameters like phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase activity were estimated in E. carteri at different environmentally realistic water temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) and pH (6.4, 7.4 and 8.4). Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are established as important immune parameters of invertebrates. Calalase, an antioxidant enzyme and phosphatases are involved in pathogen destruction and are considered as components of innate immunity. Activities of catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatases were estimated in E. carteri at different thermal regimes and pH. Modulation of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses and the activities of catalase and phosphatases at different water temperatures and pH indicated temperature and pH specific immunological status of E. carteri. Present investigation deals with the effects of selected hydrological parameters on the fundamental immune related parameters in sponge indicating its adaptational plasticity. Immunological resilience of this species in the face of variation of water temperature and pH is thought to be a special adaptive feature of sponge, a reported "living fossil".

  4. Chemical and mechanical bioerosion of boring sponges from Mexican Pacific coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Carballo, José Luis

    2008-09-01

    Species richness (S) and frequency of invasion (IF) by boring sponges on living colonies of Pocillopora spp. from National Park Isla Isabel (México, East Pacific Ocean) are presented. Twelve species belonging to the genera Aka, Cliona, Pione, Thoosa and Spheciospongia were found, and 56% of coral colonies were invaded by boring sponges, with Cliona vermifera Hancock 1867 being the most abundant species (30%). Carbonate dissolution rate and sediment production were quantified for C. vermifera and Cliona flavifodina Rützler 1974. Both species exhibited similar rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution (1.2+/-0.4 and 0.5+/-0.2 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively, mean +/- s.e.m.), and sediment production (3.3+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1)), resulting in mean bioerosion rates of 4.5+/-0.9 and 5.1+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively. These bioerosion rates are close to previous records of coral calcification per unit of area, suggesting that sponge bioerosion alone can promote disequilibrium in the reef accretion/destruction ratio in localities that are heavily invaded by boring sponges. The proportion of dissolved material by C. vermifera and C. flavifodina (27 and 10.2%, respectively) confirms that chemical bioerosion plays an important role in sponge bioerosion and in the CaCO3 cycle in coral reefs.

  5. Functional and Structural Characterization of FAU Gene/Protein from Marine Sponge Suberites domuncula.

    PubMed

    Perina, Dragutin; Korolija, Marina; Hadžija, Marijana Popović; Grbeša, Ivana; Belužić, Robert; Imešek, Mirna; Morrow, Christine; Marjanović, Melanija Posavec; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Mikoč, Andreja; Ćetković, Helena

    2015-07-07

    Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) gene is down-regulated in human prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Moreover, its dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Sponges (Porifera) are animals without tissues which branched off first from the common ancestor of all metazoans. A large majority of genes implicated in human cancers have their homologues in the sponge genome. Our study suggests that FAU gene from the sponge Suberites domuncula reflects characteristics of the FAU gene from the metazoan ancestor, which have changed only slightly during the course of animal evolution. We found pro-apoptotic activity of sponge FAU protein. The same as its human homologue, sponge FAU increases apoptosis in human HEK293T cells. This indicates that the biological functions of FAU, usually associated with "higher" metazoans, particularly in cancer etiology, possess a biochemical background established early in metazoan evolution. The ancestor of all animals possibly possessed FAU protein with the structure and function similar to evolutionarily more recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues and the origin of tumors and metastasis. It provides an opportunity to use pre-bilaterian animals as a simpler model for studying complex interactions in human cancerogenesis.

  6. Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.

    2016-06-01

    The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated

  7. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Jasmin, C.; Anas, Abdulaziz; Nair, Shanta

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome. PMID:25938436

  8. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, C; Anas, Abdulaziz; Nair, Shanta

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  9. [Sponges (porifera) distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Núñez Flores, Mónica; Rodríguez-Quintal, José Grego