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Sample records for finite temperature properties

  1. Physical properties of a soliton black hole at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rong-Shi; Su, Ru-Keng

    1992-03-01

    It is shown that the nontopological scalar black hole suggested by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang is dynamically stable at finite temperature. The heat capacity of a scalar soliton black hole is positive. The physical properties of a scalar black hole at finite temperature are discussed.

  2. Thermophysical properties of iridium at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    2016-11-01

    The bulk properties of materials in an extreme environment such as high temperature and high pressure can be understood by studying anharmonic effects due to the vibration of lattice ions and thermally excited electrons. In this spirit, in the present paper, anharmonic effects are studied by using the recently proposed mean-field potential (MFP) approach and Mermin functional which arise due to the vibration of lattice ions and thermally excited electrons, respectively. The MFP experienced by a wanderer atom in the presence of surrounding atoms is constructed in terms of cold energy using the local form of the pseudopotential. We have calculated the temperature variation of several thermophysical properties in an extreme environment up to melting temperature. The results of our calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental findings as well as the theoretical results obtained by using first principle methods. We conclude that presently used conjunction scheme (MFP+pseudopotential) is simple computationally, transparent physically, and accurate in the sense that the results generated are comparable and sometimes better than the results obtained by first principle methods. Local pseudopotential used is transferable to extreme environment without adjusting its parameters. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Fund for Improvement of Science and Technology Infrastructure Project (DST-FIST) (Level 1) of Department of Sciences and Technology (DST), New Delhi (Grant No. SR/FST/PST-001/2006).

  3. Finite-Temperature Properties of Three-Dimensional Chiral Helimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Misako; Hoshino, Shintaro; Masaki, Yusuke; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    We study a three-dimensional (3d) classical chiral helimagnet at finite temperatures through analysis of a spin Hamiltonian, which is defined on a simple cubic lattice and consists of the Heisenberg exchange, monoaxial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, and the Zeeman energy due to a magnetic field applied in the plane perpendicular to the helical axis. We take account of the quasi-two-dimensionality of the known monoaxial chiral helimagnet CrNb3S6 and we adopt three methods: (i) a conventional mean-field (MF) analysis, which we call the 3dMF method, (ii) a hybrid method called the 2dMC-1dMF method, which is composed of a classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a MF approximation applied respectively to the intra- and interlayer interactions, and (iii) a simple-MC simulation (3dMC) at zero field. The temperature dependence of the magnetization calculated by the 3dMF method shows a cusp-like structure similar to that observed in experiments. In the absence of a magnetic field, both 2dMC-1dMF and 3dMC yield similar values of the transition temperature. The 2dMC-1dMF method provides a quantitative description of the thermodynamic properties, even under an external field, at an accessible numerical cost.

  4. Properties of the sigma meson at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, J. R. Morones; Aguirre, A. J. Garza; Flores-Baez, Francisco V.

    2015-12-01

    We study the changes of the mass and width of the sigma meson in the framework of the Linear Sigma Model at finite temperature, in the one-loop approximation. We have found that as the temperature increases, the mass of sigma shifts down. We have also analyzed the σ-spectral function and we observe an enhancement at the threshold which is a signature of partial restoration of chiral symmetry, also interpreted as a tendency to chiral phase transition. Additionally, we studied the width of the sigma, when the threshold enhancement takes place, for different values of the sigma mass. We found that there is a brief enlargement followed by an abrupt fall in the width as the temperature increases, which is also related with the restoration of chiral symmetry and an indication that the sigma is a bound state of two pions.

  5. Meson properties in a nonlocal SU(3) chiral quark model at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, G. A.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2010-11-12

    Finite temperature meson properties are studied in the context of a nonlocal SU(3) quark model which includes flavor mixing and the coupling of quarks to the Polyakov loop (PL). We analyze the behavior of scalar and pseudoscalar meson masses and mixing angles, as well as quark-meson couplings and pseudoscalar meson decay constants.

  6. Finite Temperature Properties of Mixed Diamond Chain with Spins 1 and 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo; Takano, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2009-08-01

    We formulate statistical mechanics for a mixed diamond chain with spins 1 and 1/2. Owing to a series of conservation laws, any eigenstate of this system is decomposed into eigenstates of finite odd-length spin-1 chains. The ground state undergoes five quantum phase transitions with varying λ, a parameter that controls frustration. We evaluated the residual entropy and Curie constant which characterize each phase and phase boundary at low temperatures. We further find various characteristic finite-temperature properties such as the nonmonotonic temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility, the multipeak structure in the λ-dependence of entropy, the plateau-like temperature dependence of entropy and the multipeak structure of specific heat.

  7. Finite temperature effect on mechanical properties of graphene sheets with various grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Ge; Hong-Xiang, Sun; Yi-Jun, Guan; Gan-He, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene sheets with various grain boundaries are studied by molecular dynamics method at finite temperatures. The finite temperature reduces the ultimate strengths of the graphenes with different types of grain boundaries. More interestingly, at high temperatures, the ultimate strengths of the graphene with the zigzag-orientation grain boundaries at low tilt angles exhibit different behaviors from those at lower temperatures, which is determined by inner initial stress in grain boundaries. The results indicate that the finite temperature, especially the high one, has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of graphene with grain boundaries, which gives a more in-depth understanding of their mechanical properties and could be useful for potential graphene applications. Project supported by the Nation Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347219 and 11404147), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20140519), the Training Project of Young Backbone Teacher of Jiangsu University, the Advanced Talents of Jiangsu University, China (Grant No. 11JDG118), the Practice Innovation Training Program Projects for Industrial Center of Jiangsu University, China, and the State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLOA201308).

  8. Impact of finite temperatures on the transport properties of Gd from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadova, K.; Mankovsky, S.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.

    2017-03-01

    Finite-temperature effects have a pronounced impact on the transport properties of solids. In magnetic systems, besides the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons, an additional scattering source coming from the magnetic degrees of freedom must be taken into account. A first-principle scheme which treats all these scattering effects on equal footing was recently suggested within the framework of the multiple scattering formalism. Employing the alloy analogy model treated by means of the CPA, thermal lattice vibrations and spin fluctuations are effectively taken into account. In the present work the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity and the anomalous Hall effect in the strongly correlated metal Gd is considered. The comparison with experiments demonstrates that the proposed numerical scheme does provide an adequate description of the electronic transport at finite temperatures.

  9. QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.

    2006-06-09

    Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.

  10. Gaussian fluctuations in the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover: finite temperature properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-02-01

    The role of fluctuations is enhanced in lower dimensionality systems: in a two dimensions off- diagonal long-range order is destroyed by the fluctuations at any finite temperature, drastically modifying the critical properties with respect to the three-dimensional counterpart. Recently two-dimensional systems of interacting fermions have been the subject of Montecarlo studies and experimental investigations, in particular an ultracold gas of attractive fermions with a widely tunable interaction due to a Feshbach resonance has been realized and the Berezinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition has been observed. The present work deals with the theoretical description of an ultracold Fermi gas: we discuss the role of Gaussian fluctuations of the order parameter in the equation of state, in particular we take into account the first sound velocity, showing that the inclusion of order parameter fluctuations is needed in order to get the correct composite-boson limit in the strong-coupling regime. The theory is also compared with experimental data. Finally we focus on the superfluid density in the weak-coupling, intermediate and strong-coupling regimes at finite temperature, through which the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature is obtained.

  11. Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Correlational and thermodynamic properties of finite-temperature electron liquids in the hypernetted-chain approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    Correlational and thermodynamic properties of homogeneous electron liquids at finite temperatures are theoretically analyzed in terms of dielectric response formalism with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation and its modified version. The static structure factor and the local-field correction to describe the strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are self-consistently calculated through solution to integral equations in the paramagnetic (spin unpolarized) and ferromagnetic (spin polarized) states. In the ground state with the normalized temperature θ =0 , the present HNC scheme well reproduces the exchange-correlation energies obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations over the whole fluid phase (the coupling constant rs≤100 ), i.e., within 1% and 2% deviations from putative best QMC values in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, respectively. As compared with earlier studies based on the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander and modified convolution approximations, some improvements on the correlation energies and the correlation functions including the compressibility sum rule are found in the intermediate to strong coupling regimes. When applied to the electron fluids at intermediate Fermi degeneracies (θ ≈1 ), the static structure factors calculated in the HNC scheme show good agreements with the results obtained by the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation, while a small negative region in the radial distribution function is observed near the origin, which may be associated with a slight overestimation for the exchange-correlation hole in the HNC approximation. The interaction energies are calculated for various combinations of density and temperature parameters ranging from strong to weak degeneracy and from weak to strong coupling, and the HNC values are then parametrized as functions of rs and θ. The HNC exchange-correlation free energies obtained through the coupling-constant integration show reasonable

  13. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    PETRECZKY, P.

    2005-03-12

    I review recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature. Results on the transition temperature will be summarized. Recent progress in understanding in-medium modifications of interquark forces and quarkonia spectral functions at finite temperatures is discussed.

  14. Low-temperature study of the magnetic properties of finite atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    A simple method for the calculation of the spontaneous remagnetization time and magnetization curves of atomic finite-length ferromagnetic chains at a low temperature within the Heisenberg model has been proposed. The applicability limits of the method have been studied. It has been shown that the proposed method gives results being in good agreement with the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results. Formulas obtained within our model can also be used to determine the lower bound for the Curie temperature.

  15. The effect of finite temperature and chemical potential on nucleon properties in the logarithmic quark sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Shady, M.; Abu-Nab, A.

    2015-12-01

    The logarithmic quark sigma model is applied to study the nucleon properties at finite temperature and chemical potential. The field equations have been solved numerically in the mean-field approximation by using the extended iteration method at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. Baryon properties are investigated, such as the hedgehog mass, the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron, and the pion-nucleon coupling constant. We find that the hedgehog mass and the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron increase with increasing temperature and chemical potential, while the pion-nucleon coupling constant decreases. A comparison with the original sigma model and QCD sum rules is presented. We conclude that the logarithmic quark sigma model successfully describes baryon properties of a hot and dense medium.

  16. Predicting Molecular Crystal Properties from First Principles: Finite-Temperature Thermochemistry to NMR Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Beran, Gregory J O; Hartman, Joshua D; Heit, Yonaton N

    2016-11-15

    Molecular crystals occur widely in pharmaceuticals, foods, explosives, organic semiconductors, and many other applications. Thanks to substantial progress in electronic structure modeling of molecular crystals, attention is now shifting from basic crystal structure prediction and lattice energy modeling toward the accurate prediction of experimentally observable properties at finite temperatures and pressures. This Account discusses how fragment-based electronic structure methods can be used to model a variety of experimentally relevant molecular crystal properties. First, it describes the coupling of fragment electronic structure models with quasi-harmonic techniques for modeling the thermal expansion of molecular crystals, and what effects this expansion has on thermochemical and mechanical properties. Excellent agreement with experiment is demonstrated for the molar volume, sublimation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy, and the bulk modulus of phase I carbon dioxide when large basis second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) or coupled cluster theories (CCSD(T)) are used. In addition, physical insight is offered into how neglect of thermal expansion affects these properties. Zero-point vibrational motion leads to an appreciable expansion in the molar volume; in carbon dioxide, it accounts for around 30% of the overall volume expansion between the electronic structure energy minimum and the molar volume at the sublimation point. In addition, because thermal expansion typically weakens the intermolecular interactions, neglecting thermal expansion artificially stabilizes the solid and causes the sublimation enthalpy to be too large at higher temperatures. Thermal expansion also frequently weakens the lower-frequency lattice phonon modes; neglecting thermal expansion causes the entropy of sublimation to be overestimated. Interestingly, the sublimation free energy is less significantly affected by neglecting thermal expansion because the systematic

  17. The properties of Tonks-Girardeau gas at finite temperature and comparison with spin-polarized fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yajiang; Song, Yafei; Fu, Xiaochen

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas confined in a harmonic trap at finite temperature with thermal Bose-Fermi mapping method. The pair distribution, density distribution, reduced one-body density matrix (ROBDM), the first-order correlation function, the occupations number of natural orbitals and momentum distribution are evaluated. In the whole temperature regime, the pair distribution and density distribution exhibit the same properties as those of spin-polarized fermions because both of them depend on the modulus of wavefunction rather than wavefunction. While the ROBDM, the first-order correlation function, the natural orbital occupation, momentum distribution, which depend on wavefunction, of Tonks gas displays Bose properties different from spin-polarized fermions at low temperature. At high temperature we cannot distinguish Tonks gas from the spin-polarized Fermi gas qualitatively by all properties.

  18. Finite-temperature properties of ultra-thin lead films on gold (110) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De'Bell, K.; Imeson, D.

    1997-07-01

    At low coverages, lead adatoms form a single layer on the gold (110) surface. However, if a critical coverage 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1 is exceeded, a second adlayer forms. At zero temperature, various properties such as the energy and atomic spacing of atoms in the first adlayer are discontinuous at 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1. The effects of temperature on the discontinuities and location of 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1 are reported. Results for clean Au(110) and Pb(110) surfaces are also reported.

  19. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  20. Static and Statistical Properties of Hot Rotating Nuclei in a Macroscopic Temperature-Dependent Finite-Range Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, E.G.; Adeev, G.D.

    2005-09-01

    A macroscopic temperature-dependent model that takes into account nuclear forces of finite range is used to calculate the static and statistical properties of hot rotating compound nuclei. The level-density parameter is approximated by an expression of the leptodermous type. The resulting expansion coefficients are in good agreement with their counterparts proposed previously by A.V. Ignatyuk and his colleagues. The effect of taking simultaneously into account the temperature of a nucleus and its angular momentum on the quantities under study, such as the heights and positions of fission barriers and the effective moments of inertia of nuclei at the barrier, is considered, and the importance of doing this is demonstrated. The fissility parameter (Z{sup 2}/A){sub crit} and the position of the Businaro-Gallone point are studied versus temperature. It is found that, with increasing temperature, both parameters are shifted to the region of lighter nuclei. It is shown that the inclusion of temperature leads to qualitatively the same effects as the inclusion of the angular momentum of a nucleus, but, quantitatively, thermal excitation leads to smaller effects than rotational excitation.

  1. Atomic configuration and properties of austenitic steels at finite temperature: Effect of longitudinal spin fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, A. V.; Dehghani, M.

    2016-09-01

    High-temperature atomic configurations of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with alloy composition close to austenitic steel are studied in statistical thermodynamic simulations with effective interactions obtained in ab initio calculations. The latter are done taking longitudinal spin fluctuations (LSF) into consideration within a quasiclassical phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic state affects greatly the alloy properties, and in particular, it is shown that the LSF substantially modify the bonding and interatomic interactions of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys even at ambient conditions. The calculated atomic short-range order is in reasonable agreement with existing experimental data for Fe0.56Cr0.21Ni0.23 , which has strong preference for the (001)-type ordering between Ni and Cr atoms. A similar ordering tendency is found for the Fe0.75Cr0.17Ni0.08 alloy composition, which approximately corresponds to the widely used 304 and 316 austenitic steel grades.

  2. Systematic study of magnetodynamic properties at finite temperatures in doped permalloy from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fan; Chico, Jonathan; Hellsvik, Johan; Delin, Anna; Bergman, Anders; Bergqvist, Lars

    2016-12-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated how the magnetodynamic properties Gilbert damping, magnetization, and exchange stiffness are affected when permalloy (Py) (Fe0.19Ni0.81 ) is doped with 4 d or 5 d transition metal impurities. We find that the trends in the Gilbert damping can be understood from relatively few basic parameters such as the density of states at the Fermi level, the spin-orbit coupling, and the impurity concentration. The temperature dependence of the Gilbert damping is found to be very weak which we relate to the lack of intraband transitions in alloys. Doping with 4 d elements has no major impact on the studied Gilbert damping, apart from diluting the host. However, the 5 d elements have a profound effect on the damping and allow it to be tuned over a large interval while maintaining the magnetization and exchange stiffness. As regards the spin stiffness, doping with early transition metals results in considerable softening, whereas late transition metals have a minor impact. Our result agree well with earlier calculations where available. In comparison to experiments, the computed Gilbert damping appears slightly underestimated, whereas the spin stiffness shows a general good agreement.

  3. Finite temperature instability for compactification

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.

    1986-03-01

    We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Finite temperature path integral Monte Carlo simulations of structural and dynamical properties of ArN-CO2 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Xie, Daiqian

    2012-08-01

    We report finite temperature quantum mechanical simulations of structural and dynamical properties of ArN-CO2 clusters using a path integral Monte Carlo algorithm. The simulations are based on a newly developed analytical Ar-CO2 interaction potential obtained by fitting ab initio results to an anisotropic two-dimensional Morse/Long-range function. The calculated distributions of argon atoms around the CO2 molecule in ArN-CO2 clusters with different sizes are consistent to the previous studies of the configurations of the clusters. A first-order perturbation theory is used to quantitatively predict the CO2 vibrational frequency shift in different clusters. The first-solvation shell is completed at N = 17. Interestingly, our simulations for larger ArN-CO2 clusters showed several different structures of the argon shell around the doped CO2 molecule. The observed two distinct peaks (2338.8 and 2344.5 cm-1) in the υ3 band of CO2 may be due to the different arrangements of argon atoms around the dopant molecule.

  5. Finite-temperature properties of nonmagnetic transition metals: Comparison of the performance of constraint-based semilocal and nonlocal functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul; Hyldgaard, Per

    2017-02-01

    We assess the performance of nonempirical, truly nonlocal, and semilocal functionals with regard to structural and thermal properties of 3 d ,4 d , and 5 d nonmagnetic transition metals. We focus on constraint- based functionals and consider the consistent-exchange van der Waals density-functional version vdW-DF-cx [Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.035412], the semilocal PBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865], and the PBEsol functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 136406 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.136406], as well as the AM05 metafunctional [Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.085108]. Using the quasiharmonic approximation, the structural parameters, elastic response, and thermal expansion at finite temperatures are computed and compared to experimental data. We also compute cohesive energies explicitly including zero-point vibrations. It is shown that overall vdW-DF-cx provides an accurate description of thermal properties and retains a level of transferability and accuracy that is comparable to or better than some of the best constraint-based semilocal functionals. Especially, with regard to the cohesive energies, the consistent inclusion of spin-polarization effects in the atoms turns out to be crucial, and it is important to use the rigorous spin-vdW-DF-cx formulation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 136402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.136402]. This demonstrates that vdW-DF-cx has general-purpose character and can be used to study systems that have both sparse and dense electron distributions.

  6. Electroweak relaxation from finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We study theories which naturally select a vacuum with parametrically small Electroweak Scale due to finite temperature effects in the early universe. In particular, there is a scalar with an approximate shift symmetry broken by a technically natural small coupling to the Higgs, and a temperature dependent potential. As the temperature of the universe drops, the scalar follows the minimum of its potential altering the Higgs mass squared parameter. The scalar also has a periodic potential with amplitude proportional to the Higgs expectation value, which traps it in a vacuum with a small Electroweak Scale. The required temperature dependence of the potential can occur through strong coupling effects in a hidden sector that are suppressed at high temperatures. Alternatively, it can be generated perturbatively from a one-loop thermal potential. In both cases, for the scalar to be displaced, a hidden sector must be reheated to temperatures significantly higher than the visible sector. However this does not violate observational constraints provided the hidden sector energy density is transferred to the visible sector without disrupting big bang nucleosynthesis. We also study how the mechanism can be implemented when the visible sector is completed to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at a high scale. Models with a UV cutoff of 10 TeV and no fields taking values over a range greater than 1012 GeV are possible, although the scalar must have a range of order 108 times the effective decay constant in the periodic part of its potential.

  7. Quantum memories at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Loss, Daniel; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Self, Chris N.; Wootton, James R.

    2016-10-01

    To use quantum systems for technological applications one first needs to preserve their coherence for macroscopic time scales, even at finite temperature. Quantum error correction has made it possible to actively correct errors that affect a quantum memory. An attractive scenario is the construction of passive storage of quantum information with minimal active support. Indeed, passive protection is the basis of robust and scalable classical technology, physically realized in the form of the transistor and the ferromagnetic hard disk. The discovery of an analogous quantum system is a challenging open problem, plagued with a variety of no-go theorems. Several approaches have been devised to overcome these theorems by taking advantage of their loopholes. The state-of-the-art developments in this field are reviewed in an informative and pedagogical way. The main principles of self-correcting quantum memories are given and several milestone examples from the literature of two-, three- and higher-dimensional quantum memories are analyzed.

  8. Frontiers of finite temperature lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsányi, Szabolcs

    2017-03-01

    I review a selection of recent finite temperature lattice results of the past years. First I discuss the extension of the equation of state towards high temperatures and finite densities, then I show recent results on the QCD topological susceptibility at high temperatures and highlight its relevance for dark matter search.

  9. Nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory at finite temperature with interaction between sigma-omega mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-05-21

    We study the nuclear matter properties in the regime of high temperatures using a relativistic mean-field theory. Contrasting with the usual linear Walecka model, we include the sigma-omega meson coupling in order to investigate the role of this interaction in the nucleon effective mass behavior. Some numerical results are presented and discussed.

  10. Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.

    2016-03-01

    The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.

  11. Strange stars at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Subharthi; Bagchi, Manjari; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2006-03-01

    We calculate strange star properties, using large Nc approximation with built-in chiral symmetry restoration (CSM). We used a relativistic Hartree Fock meanfield approximation method, using a modi.ed Richardson potential with two scale parameters Λ and Λ', to find a new set of equation of state (EOS) for strange quark matter. We take the effect of temperature (T) on gluon mass, in addition to the usual density dependence, and find that the transition T from hadronic matter to strange matter is 80 MeV. Therefore formation of strange stars may be the only signal for formation of QGP with asymptotic freedom (AF) and CSM.

  12. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.

    2004-02-24

    temperature for three different lattice spacings and performed a continuum extrapolation of T{sub tr} for the first time. Lattice calculations of the meson spectral functions were presented by M. Asakawa, S. Datta, E. Laermann and H. Matsufuru. These show that charmonia ground states ({eta}{sub c} and J/{psi}) continue to exist in the plasma at least up to a temperature of 1.7 T{sub tr}. At what temperature charmonia states cease to exist is not yet clear. Calculations presented by M. Asakawa show dissolution of the J/{psi} at T = 1.7 T{sub tr}, while the analysis presented H. Matsufuru provided evidence that ground state charmonia still exist at this temperature. S. Datta argued that the ground state charmonia is likely to dissolve only for temperatures T > 2.25 T{sub tr}, while the P-states are dissociated at, 1.1 T{sub tr}. It is also very interesting that, even in the case of light quarks, meson spectral functions show a resonance-like structure in the plasma phase (talk by E. Laermann). Finally attempts to calculate transport properties in the Quark Gluon Plasma were presented by S. Gupta. The workshop devoted special attention to the finite temperature modification of inter-quark forces and color screening, another area where considerable progress has been made in recent years (talks by 0. Kaczmarek, K. Petrov, O. Philipsen and F. Zantow). Many other new theoretical developments which cannot be discussed here were also presented on the workshop. Altogether the workshop was a great success, for which we thank all the participants.

  13. Antioscillons from bubble collisions at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-04-01

    We study the role of the topology of bubbles at finite temperatures plays on collisions and the existence of new field configurations. We show that in the case of false vacuum decay at finite temperature, the cylindrical symmetry of bubbles admits a new exotic field with negative energies, the antiperiodic "twisted" field. New field configurations arise generically, not only at finite temperatures but whenever a cluster of bubbles resulting from collisions form nontrivial topologies. The interaction of both configurations induces instabilites on the bubble. Collisions of bubbles occupied by the new fields can lead to the emergence of new structures, named antioscillons.

  14. Holographic trace anomaly at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Park, Chanyong

    2017-01-01

    Using the holographic renormalization, we investigate the finite temperature and size effect to the energy-momentum tensor of the dual field theory and its renormalization group (RG) flow. Following the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, the dual field theory of the AdS space is well known to be a conformal field theory that has no nontrivial RG flow. Holographically, that theory can be lifted to a finite temperature version by considering a AdS black hole solution. Because the black hole horizon associated with temperature is dimensionful, it breaks the boundary conformal symmetry and leads to a nontrivial RG flow. In this work, we investigate the finite temperature and size correction to a strongly interacting conformal field theory along the Wisonian renormalization group flow.

  15. Schwinger pair production at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Leandro; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal corrections to Schwinger pair production are potentially important in particle physics, nuclear physics and cosmology. However, the lowest-order contribution, arising at one loop, has proved difficult to calculate unambiguously. We show that this thermal correction may be calculated for charged scalars using the worldline formalism, where each term in the decay rate is associated with a worldline instanton. We calculate all finite-temperature worldline instantons, their actions and fluctuation prefactors, thus determining the complete one-loop decay rate at finite temperature. The thermal contribution to the decay rate becomes nonzero at a threshold temperature T =e E /2 m , above which it dominates the zero-temperature result. This is the lowest of an infinite set of thresholds at T =n e E /2 m . The decay rate is singular at each threshold as a consequence of the failure of the quadratic approximation to the worldline path integral. We argue that higher-order effects will make the decay rates finite everywhere and model those effects by the inclusion of hard thermal loop damping rates. We also demonstrate that the formalism developed here generalizes to the case of finite-temperature pair production in inhomogeneous fields.

  16. Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-08-26

    The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.

  17. Theories with Extra Dimensions at Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzza, Alessia

    2005-10-12

    In 5-dimensional theories on multiply-connected manifolds the fifth component of the gauge fields can be identified with the Higgs field. We consider the Hosotani mechanism on S1/Z2 orbifold with an SU(2) gauge group. When A5 gets a VEV the gauge symmetry is completely broken. The VEV is undetermined at the tree level but a potential is generated at one loop. Finite temperature effects on the effective potential are studied.

  18. Finite-temperature magnetism in bcc Fe under compression.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xianwei; Cohen, R E

    2010-09-22

    We investigate the contributions of finite-temperature magnetic fluctuations to the thermodynamic properties of bcc Fe as functions of pressure. First, we apply a tight-binding total-energy model parameterized to first-principles linearized augmented plane-wave computations to examine various ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and noncollinear spin spiral states at zero temperature. The tight-binding data are fit to a generalized Heisenberg Hamiltonian to describe the magnetic energy functional based on local moments. We then use Monte Carlo simulations to compute the magnetic susceptibility, the Curie temperature, heat capacity, and magnetic free energy. Including the finite-temperature magnetism improves the agreement with experiment for the calculated thermal expansion coefficients.

  19. Finite Temperature Quasicontinuum: Molecular Dynamics without all the Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, L; Tadmor, E B; Miller, R E; Phillips, R

    2005-02-02

    Using a combination of statistical mechanics and finite-element interpolation, the authors develop a coarse-grained (CG) alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) for crystalline solids at constant temperature. The new approach is significantly more efficient than MD and generalizes earlier work on the quasi-continuum method. The method is validated by recovering equilibrium properties of single crystal Ni as a function of temperature. CG dynamical simulations of nanoindentation reveal a strong dependence on temperature of the critical stress to nucleate dislocations under the indenter.

  20. Skyrmion Approach to Finite Density and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Riska, D. O.

    We review an approach, developed over the past few years, to describe hadronic matter at finite density and temperature, whose underlying theoretical framework is the Skyrme model, an effective low energy theory rooted in large Nc QCD. In this approach matter is described by various crystal structures of skyrmions, classical topological solitons carrying baryon number, from which conventional baryons appear by quantization. Chiral and scale symmetries play a crucial role in the dynamics as described by pion, dilaton and vector meson degrees of freedom. When compressed or heated skyrmion matter describes a rich phase diagram which has strong connections with the confinement/deconfinement phase transition.

  1. Ferromagnetism in metals at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gyorffy, B.L.; Staunton, J.B.; Stocks, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional spin-polarized band theory is well known to give a reasonable description of the magnetic ground states of metals. Here it is generalized to finite temperatures. The resulting theory is the first first-principles theory of the ferromagnetic phase transition in metals. It is a mean-field theory. For iron we find T/sub c/ = 1250 K and chi/sup -1/(q = 0) follows a Curie-Weiss law. We also report on our results for the wave-vector dependent susceptibility chi(q) which is a measure of magnetic short-range order above T/sub c/.

  2. LARGE volume string compactifications at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Anguelova, Lilia; Calò, Vincenzo; Cicoli, Michele E-mail: v.calo@qmul.ac.uk

    2009-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the finite-temperature behaviour of the LARGE Volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that certain moduli can thermalise at high temperatures. Despite that, their contribution to the finite-temperature effective potential is always negligible and the latter has a runaway behaviour. We compute the maximal temperature T{sub max}, above which the internal space decompactifies, as well as the temperature T{sub *}, that is reached after the decay of the heaviest moduli. The natural constraint T{sub *} < T{sub max} implies a lower bound on the allowed values of the internal volume V. We find that this restriction rules out a significant range of values corresponding to smaller volumes of the order V ∼ 10{sup 4}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to standard GUT theories. Instead, the bound favours values of the order V ∼ 10{sup 15}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to TeV scale SUSY desirable for solving the hierarchy problem. Moreover, our result favours low-energy inflationary scenarios with density perturbations generated by a field, which is not the inflaton. In such a scenario, one could achieve both inflation and TeV-scale SUSY, although gravity waves would not be observable. Finally, we pose a two-fold challenge for the solution of the cosmological moduli problem. First, we show that the heavy moduli decay before they can begin to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Hence they are not able to dilute any unwanted relics. And second, we argue that, in order to obtain thermal inflation in the closed string moduli sector, one needs to go beyond the present EFT description.

  3. A Theory of the Magnetovolume Effect at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro

    1981-06-01

    The Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is extended to the finite temperatures, and the expressions for the spontaneous volume magnetostriction and the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion coefficient are given by using the functional integral method within the static approximation. The temperature variations of these quantities are determined mainly by the amplitude of the local magnetic moment and the s-d charge transfer. Two types of the thermal expansion, the αFe type and the Weiss model type, appear within the CPA-LSA and their properties are examined and discussed.

  4. Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2005-08-01

    We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.

  5. Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…

  6. Entropic uncertainty relation at finite temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    1992-01-01

    We discussed how much information is lost when a particle is in equilibrium with the thermal reservoir of temperature T = 1/beta. The universal temperature correction to the r.h.s. of U(X,P:psi) greater than or = 1 + ln(pi) is determined. For this purpose, it is convenient to employ the framework of thermo-field dynamics (TFD). This formulation of finite-temperature (T not = 0) quantum theory utilizes the doubled Hilbert space, the normal operator (A) acting on the objective space, and its corresponding tildian operator on the fictitious space. The physical probability density associated with the measurement of the normal operator, A, is given, and the information entropy at T not = 0 is defined. The results describe how the thermal disturbance effects in S sub X or S sub P (delta X or delta P) can be suppressed by squeezing with keeping U = S sub X + S sub P (delta X x delta P) its minimum value.

  7. Finite temperature static charge screening in quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-07-01

    The shielding potential around a test charge is calculated, using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic formulation with the statistical pressure and Bohm potential derived from finite temperature kinetic theory, and the temperature effects on the force between ions is assessed. The derived screening potential covers the full range of electron degeneracy in the equation of state of the plasma electrons. An attractive force between shielded ions in an arbitrary degenerate plasma exists below a critical temperature and density. The effect of the temperature on the screening potential profile qualitatively describes the ion-ion bound interaction strength and length variations. This may be used to investigate physical properties of plasmas and in molecular-dynamics simulations of fermion plasma. It is further shown that the Bohm potential including the kinetic corrections has a profound effect on the Thomson scattering cross section in quantum plasmas with arbitrary degeneracy.

  8. Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-15

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature.

  9. Finite element wavelets with improved quantitative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang; Stevenson, Rob

    2009-08-01

    In [W. Dahmen, R. Stevenson, Element-by-element construction of wavelets satisfying stability and moment conditions, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (1) (1999) 319-352 (electronic)], finite element wavelets were constructed on polygonal domains or Lipschitz manifolds that are piecewise parametrized by mappings with constant Jacobian determinants. The wavelets could be arranged to have any desired order of cancellation properties, and they generated stable bases for the Sobolev spaces Hs for (or s<=1 on manifolds). Unfortunately, it appears that the quantitative properties of these wavelets are rather disappointing. In this paper, we modify the construction from the above-mentioned work to obtain finite element wavelets which are much better conditioned.

  10. Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos

    It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.

  11. Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES Tunneling Conductance in a Normal Metal/Ferromagnetic Superconductor Nano-Junction at a Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza, Emamipour; M. R., Abolhassani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the tunneling conductance at a finite temperature in a normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor nano-junction where the ferromagnetic superconductor (FS) is in three different cooper pairing states: spin singlet s-wave pairing (SWP), spin triplet opposite spin pairing (OSP), and spin triplet equal spin pairing (ESP) while including Fermi wave mismatch (FWM) and effective mass mismatch (EMM) in two sides of the nano-junction. We find that the conductance shows clearly different behaviors all depending on the symmetries of cooper pairing in a manner that the conductance spectra shows a gap-like structure, two interior dips structure and zero bias peak for SWP, OSP, and ESP, respectively. Also, the effective FS gap (Δeff) is a linear and decreasing function of exchange field. The slope of (Δeff) versus exchange field for OSP is twice the SWP. Thus, we can determine the spin polarization of N/FS nano-junction based on the dependence of (Δeff) to exchange field.

  13. Baryon number fluctuations at finite temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-jie; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Rennecke, Fabian; Schaefer, Bernd-Jochen

    2016-12-01

    We investigate baryon number fluctuations for finite temperature and density in two-flavor QCD. This is done within a QCD-improved low-energy effective theory in an extension of the approach put forward by Fu and Pawlowski [Phys. Rev. D 92, 116006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.116006 and Phys. Rev. D 93, 091501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.091501]. In the present work, we aim to improve the predictive power of this approach for large temperatures and, in partitular, large densities, that is, for small collision energies. This is achieved by taking into account the full frequency dependence of the quark dispersion. This ensures the necessary Silver Blaze property of finite density QCD for the first time, which so far was only implemented approximately. Moreover, we show that Polyakov-loop fluctuations have a sizeable impact at large temperatures and density. The results for the kurtosis of baryon number fluctuations are compared to previous effective theory results, lattice results, and recent experimental data from STAR.

  14. Correlation effects on a topological insulator at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norio

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the effects of the local Coulomb interaction on a topological band insulator (TBI) by applying the dynamical mean-field theory to a generalized Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model having electron correlations. It is elucidated how the correlation effects modify electronic properties in the TBI phase at finite temperatures. In particular, the band inversion character of the TBI inevitably leads to the large reduction of the spectral gap via the renormalization effect, which results in the strong temperature dependence of the spin Hall conductivity. We clarify that a quantum phase transition from the TBI to a trivial Mott insulator, if it is nonmagnetic, is of first order with a hysteresis. This is confirmed via the interaction dependence of the double occupancy and the spectral function. A magnetic instability is also addressed. All these results imply that the spectral gap does not close at the transition.

  15. Damping of Ultrasoft Fermions in Finite Temperature QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bouakaz, K.; Abada, A.

    2008-04-21

    We calculate the fermion damping rates to second order in powers of the external momentum in the context of QED at finite temperature using the hard-thermal-loop summation scheme. We find the coefficients of zeroth and first orders finite whereas that of second order logarithmically infrared sensitive. The calculation is done in covariant gauge and the result is independent of gauge fixing.

  16. Finite ion temperature effects on scrape-off layer turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Mosetto, Annamaria Halpern, Federico D.; Jolliet, Sébastien; Loizu, Joaquim; Ricci, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    Ion temperature has been measured to be of the same order, or higher, than the electron temperature in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamak machines, questioning its importance in determining the SOL turbulent dynamics. Here, we present a detailed analysis of finite ion temperature effects on the linear SOL instabilities, such as the resistive and inertial branches of drift waves and ballooning modes, and a discussion of the properties of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability in the SOL, identifying the η{sub i}=L{sub n}/L{sub T{sub i}} threshold necessary to drive the mode unstable. The non-linear analysis of the SOL turbulent regimes by means of the gradient removal theory is performed, revealing that the ITG plays a negligible role in limited SOL discharges, since the ion temperature gradient is generally below the threshold for driving the mode unstable. It follows that the resistive ballooning mode is the prevailing turbulence regime for typical limited SOL parameters. The theoretical estimates are confirmed by non-linear flux-driven simulations of SOL plasma dynamics.

  17. Finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Lee, Hyun Kyu |; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    We calculate the finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model using the effective potential formalism. Assuming that the dilaton limit is applicable at some short length scale, we interpret the results to represent the behavior of hadrons in dense and hot matter. We obtain the scaling law, f{sub {pi}}(T)/f{sub {pi}} = m{sub Q}(T)/m{sub Q} {approx_equal} m{sub {sigma}}(T)/m{sub {sigma}}while we argue, using PCAC, that pion mass does not scale within the temperature range involved in our Lagrangian. It is found that the hadron masses and the pion decay constant drop faster with temperature in the dilated chiral quark model than in the conventional linear sigma model that does not take into account the QCD scale anomaly. We attribute the difference in scaling in heat bath to the effect of baryonic medium on thermal properties of the hadrons. Our finding would imply that the AGS experiments (dense and hot matter) and the RHIC experiments (hot and dilute matter) will ``see`` different hadron properties in the hadronization exit phase.

  18. Reprint of : Single-electron coherence: Finite temperature versus pure dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalets, Michael; Haack, Géraldine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze a coherent injection of single electrons on top of the Fermi sea in two situations, at finite-temperature and in the presence of pure dephasing. Both finite-temperature and pure dephasing change the property of the injected quantum states from pure to mixed. However, we show that the temperature-induced mixedness does not alter the coherence properties of these single-electron states. In particular two such mixed states exhibit perfect antibunching while colliding at an electronic wave splitter. This is in striking difference with the dephasing-induced mixedness which suppresses antibunching. On the contrary, a single-particle shot noise is suppressed at finite temperatures but is not affected by pure dephasing. This work therefore extends the investigation of the coherence properties of single-electron states to the case of mixed states and clarifies the difference between different types of mixedness.

  19. QED effective action at finite temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmfors, Per; Persson, David; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1993-07-01

    Results are presented of calculations of the QED effective action at finite temperature and density to all orders in an external homogeneous and time-independent magnetic field, in the weak coupling limit. The free energy, obtained explicitly, exhibits the expected de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. An effective coupling at finite temperature and density is derived in a closed form and is compared with renormalization group results.

  20. THE TWO-LEVEL MODEL AT FINITE-TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.L.

    1980-07-01

    The finite-temperature HFB cranking equations are solved for the two-level model. The pair gap, moment of inertia and internal energy are determined as functions of spin and temperature. Thermal excitations and rotations collaborate to destroy the pair correlations. Raising the temperature eliminates the backbending effect and improves the HFB approximation.

  1. Dynamics of a finite temperature Bose gas in atomtronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colussi, Victor; Holland, Murray; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the problem of modeling atomtronic devices that utilize the nonequilibrium dynamics of a finite temperature Bose-condensed gas placed underneath an atom chip to mimic the properties of classical circuit elements. Our model consists of the full dynamics of the condensate and thermal cloud. The thermal cloud is treated semiclassically, in the spirit of the ZNG method (Zaremba, Nikuni and Griffin.) However, we develop a novel procedure to account for collisions between the condensate and thermal cloud which evaluates collision rates directly. We present the results of this model compared to two experiments: the atomtronic battery and transistor [arXiv:1208.3109v2]. Also presented are predictions for more complex circuit elements. This work is funded by the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JILA and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  2. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics: Nonlinear finite elements and finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; Broughton, J Q

    2005-05-30

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a technique developed as a concurrent multiscale model that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) to a more coarse-grained description of the periphery. The coarse-grained regions are modeled on a mesh in a formulation that generalizes conventional finite element modeling (FEM) of continuum elasticity. CGMD is derived solely from the MD model, however, and has no continuum parameters. As a result, it provides a coupling that is smooth and provides control of errors that arise at the coupling between the atomistic and coarse-grained regions. In this article, we elaborate on the formulation of CGMD, describing in detail how CGMD is applied to anharmonic solids and finite temperature simulations. As tests of CGMD, we present in detail the calculation of the phonon spectra for solid argon and tantalum in 3D, demonstrating how CGMD provides a better description of the elastic waves than that provided by FEM. We also present elastic wave scattering calculations that show the elastic wave scattering is more benign in CGMD than FEM. We also discuss the dependence of scattering on the properties of the mesh. We introduce a rigid approximation to CGMD that eliminates internal relaxation, similar to the Quasicontinuum technique, and compare it to the full CGMD.

  3. Finite-size test for the finite-temperature chiral phase transition in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Mino, H.; Okawa, M.; Ukawa, A. Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University, Kofu National Laboratory for High Energy Physics , Ibaraki Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki )

    1990-08-13

    A finite-size test was carried out for the finite-temperature chiral phase transition in QCD for flavor number {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=4 and 2 on a lattice with four time slices using the Kogut-Susskind quark action at quark mass of 0.025 in lattice units. All the evidence supports a first-order transition for {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=4. For {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=2, however, the data on spatial lattice up to 12{sup 3} fail to yield convincing finite-size signatures for a first-order transition at this quark mass.

  4. GENERAL: Fluctuation of Mesoscopic RLC Circuit at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ji-Suo; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2008-09-01

    We consider the fluctuation of mesoscopic RLC circuit at finite temperature since a resistance always produces Joule heat when the circuit is working. By virtue of the thermo Geld dynamics and the coherent thermo state representation we show that the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuations of both charge and current increase with the rising temperature and the resistance value.

  5. Finite temperature effective potential in a Kaluza-Klein universe

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P. )

    1990-01-20

    The authors evaluate the finite temperature one-loop effective potential for scalar fields in Kaluza-Klein universe consisting of the product of a space with open Robertson-Walker metric and the N sphere S{sup N}. The one-loop effective potential has been computed in both high and low temperature limits.

  6. Two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate of a finite number of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Z.; Rzazewski, K.

    2003-09-01

    We consider two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate, which are related to certain properties of the condensate statistics. We calculate them for an ideal gas confined in power-law traps and show that they approach the critical temperature in the limit of large number of particles. The considered characteristic temperatures can be useful in the studies of Bose-Einstein condensates of a finite number of atoms indicating the point of a phase transition.

  7. Variational Equation for Quantum Number Projection at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kosai; Nakada, Hitoshi

    2008-04-01

    To describe phase transitions in a finite system at finite temperature, we develop a formalism of the variation-after-projection (VAP) of quantum numbers based on the thermofield dynamics (TFD). We derive a new Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type equation by variating the free energy with approximate entropy without violating Peierls inequality. The solution to the new BCS equation describes the S-shape in the specific heat curve and the superfluid-to-normal phase transition caused by the temperature effect. It simulates the exact quantum Monte Carlo results well.

  8. Kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Van Long; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa

    2008-11-15

    Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.

  9. Lee-Wick standard model at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.; Long, Andrew J.; TerBeek, Russell H.

    2013-10-01

    The Lee-Wick Standard Model at temperatures near the electroweak scale is considered, with the aim of studying the electroweak phase transition. While Lee-Wick theories possess states of negative norm, they are not pathological but instead are treated by imposing particular boundary conditions and using particular integration contours in the calculation of S-matrix elements. It is not immediately clear how to extend this prescription to formulate the theory at finite temperature; we explore two different pictures of finite-temperature Lee-Wick theories, and calculate the thermodynamic variables and the (one-loop) thermal effective potential. We apply these results to study the Lee-Wick Standard Model and find that the electroweak phase transition is a continuous crossover, much like in the Standard Model. However, the high-temperature behavior is modified due to cancellations between thermal corrections arising from the negative- and positive-norm states.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo finite temperature electronic structure of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2002-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We test the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in one and three dimensional harmonic oscillator potentials and apply it in evaluation of finite temperature effects of single and coupled quantum dots. Our simulations show the correct finite temperature excited state populations including degeneracy in cases of one and three dimensional harmonic oscillators. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and coupled quantum dots are compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Distributions are shown to agree and the finite temperature effects are discussed. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. Other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).

  11. Spinor field theory at finite temperature in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N.; Mallik, S.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the Dirac field on a spatially flat Robertson-Walker space-time. We find the exact expression for the Dirac propagator for an arbitrary scale factor in the real-time formulation of finite-temperature field theory. The mode functions used in the construction satisfy uncoupled ordinary differential equations.

  12. Charmed mesons at finite temperature and chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2017-03-01

    We compute the masses of the pseudoscalar mesons π+, K0 and D+ at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. The computations are based on a symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector four quark contact interaction. The results found for the temperature dependence of the meson masses are in qualitative agreement with lattice QCD data and QCD sum rules calculations. The chemical potential dependence of the masses provide a novel prediction of the present computation.

  13. Schwinger pair production at finite temperature in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Yoon, Yongsung

    2009-02-15

    We use the evolution operator method to find the Schwinger pair-production rate at finite temperature in scalar and spinor QED by counting the vacuum production, the induced production, and the stimulated annihilation from the initial ensemble. It is shown that the pair-production rate for each state is factorized into the mean number at zero temperature and the initial thermal distribution for bosons and fermions.

  14. Equation of state for QCD at finite temperature and density. Resummation versus lattice data

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Su, Nan

    2016-01-22

    The perturbative series for finite-temperature field theories has very poor convergence properties and one needs a way to reorganize it. In this talk, I review two ways of reorganizing the perturbative series for field theories at finite temperature and chemical potential, namely hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) and dimensional reduction (DR). I will present results for the pressure, trace anomaly, speed of sound, and the quark susceptibilities from a 3-loop HTLpt calculation and for the quark susceptibilities using DR at four loops. A careful comparison with available lattice data shows good agreement for a number of physical quantities.

  15. Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hong; Yao, Minjie; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2008-06-01

    The Friedberg-Lee model is studied at finite temperature and density. By using the finite temperature field theory, the effective potential of the Friedberg-Lee model and the bag constant B(T) and B(T,μ) have been calculated at different temperatures and densities. It is shown that there is a critical temperature TC≃106.6 MeV when μ=0 MeV and a critical chemical potential μ≃223.1 MeV for fixing the temperature at T=50 MeV. We also calculate the soliton solutions of the Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density. It turns out that when T⩽TC (or μ⩽μC), there is a bag constant B(T) [or B(T,μ)] and the soliton solutions are stable. However, when T>TC (or μ>μC) the bag constant B(T)=0 MeV [or B(T,μ)=0 MeV] and there is no soliton solution anymore, therefore, the confinement of quarks disappears quickly.

  16. A truncated quasiharmonic method for free energy calculations and finite-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan Yu; Chen, Chuin Shan

    2012-12-01

    Harmonic-based finite-temperature calculation methods play an important role in the study of thermodynamic properties of materials. In this study, we propose a truncated quasiharmonic (TQH) method to approximate the Helmholtz free energy by truncating the high-order terms of finite-temperature vibrational energy. To evaluate the efficacy of the TQH method against other established finite-temperature methods, i.e. the quasiharmonic (QH), the modified local harmonic (MLH) and the local quasiharmonic (LQH) methods, analysis of a homogeneous and vacancy-containing atomic system is performed with each method and compared. We found that the TQH method provides improved accuracy over the MLH and LQH methods for a system containing defects while requiring less computational time than the QH method to achieve convergence.

  17. A note on the pulay force at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Niklasson, Anders M N

    2008-01-01

    Pulay's original expression for the basis-set dependent adjustment term to the Hellmann-Feynman force in electronic structure theory, which occurs for nonorthogonal local basis-set representations, is based on the idempotency condition of a pure ensemble. At finite electronic temperatures with a fractional occupation of the states, the conventional expression of the Pulay force is therefore no longer valid. Here we derive a simple and computationally efficient expression for a generalized Pulay force, which is suitable for large-scale ab initio simulations at finite electronic temperatures using local nonorthogonal basis-set representations. The generalized Pulay force expression is given in terms of the temperature-dependent density matrix. For the construction of the density matrix, we propose a recursive Fermi operator expansion algorithm that automatically converges to the correct chemical potential.

  18. Phase transition in finite density and temperature lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the chiral condensate in lattice QCD at finite temperature and finite chemical potential. The study was done using two flavors of light quarks and with a series of β and ma at the lattice size 24 × 122 × 6. The calculation was done in the Taylor expansion formalism. We are able to calculate the first and second order derivatives of ≤ft< {\\bar{\\psi} \\psi } \\right> in both isoscalar and isovector channels. With the first derivatives being small, we find that the second derivatives are sizable close to the phase transition and that the magnitude of \\bar{\\psi} \\psi decreases under the influence of finite chemical potential in both channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335001, 11105153, 11405178), Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges NSFC (11261130311)

  19. Spin-polarised band theory at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gyorffy, B.L.; Kollar, J.; Pindor, A.J.; Staunton, J.; Stocks, G.M.; Winter, H.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from a Spin-Density functional description of electrons in a potentially ferromagnetic metal and the notion of temporarily broken ergodicity, a method is derived for performing finite temperature spin-polarized band theory with random local moment orientations. Formally, it is based on the KKR-CPA theory for randomly distributed spin-polarized scattering centers on a regular lattice. It is shown how the theory can lead to finite moments above the transition temperature, T/sub c/, and a Curie-Weiss law. We discuss the results of self-consistent spin-polarized KKR-CPA calculations in the disordered local moment (DLM) state for Fe, Co, Ni, and Cr.

  20. Superhigh moduli and tension-induced phase transition of monolayer gamma-boron at finite temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junhua; Yang, Zhaoyao; Wei, Ning; Kou, Liangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) gamma-boron (γ-B28) thin films have been firstly reported by the experiments of the chemical vapor deposition in the latest study. However, their mechanical properties are still not clear. Here we predict the superhigh moduli (785 ± 42 GPa at 300 K) and the tension-induced phase transition of monolayer γ-B28 along a zigzag direction for large deformations at finite temperatures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The new phase can be kept stable after unloading process at these temperatures. The predicted mechanical properties are reasonable when compared with our results from density functional theory. This study provides physical insights into the origins of the new phase transition of monolayer γ-B28 at finite temperatures. PMID:26979283

  1. Vibrations of rectangular plates with moderately large initial deflections at elevated temperatures using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    A finite-element formulation is developed for the free vibration of rectangular plates which are under the influence of moderately large stress-free initial deflections and large thermal deflections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used to account for the thermal deflections. The plates are thin, isotropic, and Hookean in nature. The temperature imposed on the plate is assumed to be constant through the thickness of the plate. Uniform and sinusoidal temperature distributions are studied. The material properties of the plates are temperature-dependent due to the relatively high temperatures imposed on the plates.

  2. Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent

    2015-03-01

    We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.

  3. On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 1018 GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M t ≳ 173 .6 GeV, with M h ≃ 125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.

  4. QCD nature of dark energy at finite temperature: Cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Katırcı, N.

    2016-05-01

    The Veneziano ghost field has been proposed as an alternative source of dark energy, whose energy density is consistent with the cosmological observations. In this model, the energy density of the QCD ghost field is expressed in terms of QCD degrees of freedom at zero temperature. We extend this model to finite temperature to search the model predictions from late time to early universe. We depict the variations of QCD parameters entering the calculations, dark energy density, equation of state, Hubble and deceleration parameters on temperature from zero to a critical temperature. We compare our results with the observations and theoretical predictions existing at different eras. It is found that this model safely defines the universe from quark condensation up to now and its predictions are not in tension with those of the standard cosmology. The EoS parameter of dark energy is dynamical and evolves from -1/3 in the presence of radiation to -1 at late time. The finite temperature ghost dark energy predictions on the Hubble parameter well fit to those of Λ CDM and observations at late time.

  5. Occupation number and fluctuations in the finite-temperature Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.

    2004-07-01

    We study the occupation numbers and number fluctuations of ultracold atoms in deep optical lattices for finite-temperatures within the Bose-Hubbard model. Simple analytical expressions for the mean occupation number and number fluctuations are obtained in the weak-hopping regime using an interpolation between results from different perturbation approaches in the Mott-insulator and superfluid phases. With this approach the magnitude of number fluctuations under a wide range of experimental conditions can be estimated and the properties of the finite-temperature phase diagram can be studied. These analytical results are compared to exact one-dimensional numerical calculations using a finite temperature variant of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and found to have a high degree of accuracy. We find very good agreement, also in the crossover 'thermal' region. We also analyze the influence of finite temperature on the behavior of the system in the vicinity of the zero-temperature phase transition, in one, two, and three dimensions.

  6. Chaotic dynamics of a magnetic particle at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, O. J.; Laroze, D.; Martínez-Mardones, J.; Altbir, D.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study nonlinear aspects of the deterministic spin dynamics of an anisotropic single-domain magnetic particle at finite temperature modeled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The magnetic field has two components: a constant term and a term involving a harmonic time modulation. The dynamical behavior of the system is characterized with the Lyapunov exponents and by means of bifurcation diagrams and Fourier spectra. In particular, we explore the effects of the magnitude and frequency of the applied magnetic field, finding that the system presents multiple transitions between regular and chaotic states when varying the control parameters. We also address the temperature dependence and evidence that it plays an important role in these transitions, almost suppressing the chaotic behavior close to the Curie temperature. Finally, we find that the system has hyperchaotic states for specific values of field and temperature.

  7. Quantum coherence of spin-boson model at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of quantum coherence in spin-boson model, which consists of a qubit coupled to a finite-temperature bosonic bath with power-law spectral density beyond rotating wave approximation, by employing l1-norm as well as quantum relative entropy. It is shown that the temperature of bosonic bath and counter-rotating terms significantly affect the decoherence rate in sub-Ohmic, Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths. At high temperature, we find the counter-rotating terms of spin-boson model are able to increase the decoherence rate for sub-Ohmic baths, however, for Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths, the counter-rotating terms tend to decrease the value of decoherence rate. At low temperature, we find the counter-rotating terms always play a positive role in preserving the qubit's quantum coherence regardless of sub-Ohmic, Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths.

  8. Finite-temperature mechanical instability in disordered lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leyou; Mao, Xiaoming

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical instability takes different forms in various ordered and disordered systems and little is known about how thermal fluctuations affect different classes of mechanical instabilities. We develop an analytic theory involving renormalization of rigidity and coherent potential approximation that can be used to understand finite-temperature mechanical stabilities in various disordered systems. We use this theory to study two disordered lattices: a randomly diluted triangular lattice and a randomly braced square lattice. These two lattices belong to two different universality classes as they approach mechanical instability at T =0 . We show that thermal fluctuations stabilize both lattices. In particular, the triangular lattice displays a critical regime in which the shear modulus scales as G ˜T1 /2 , whereas the square lattice shows G ˜T2 /3 . We discuss generic scaling laws for finite-T mechanical instabilities and relate them to experimental systems.

  9. An improved classical mapping method for homogeneous electron gases at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-08-14

    We introduce a modified classical mapping method to predict the exchange-correlation free energy and the structure of homogeneous electron gases (HEG) at finite temperature. With the classical map temperature parameterized on the basis of the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data for the correlation energy and exact results at high and low temperature limits, the new theoretical procedure greatly improves the classical mapping method for correlating the energetic properties HEG over a broad range of thermodynamic conditions. Improvement can also be identified in predicting the long-range components of the spin-averaged pair correlation functions.

  10. Sideband Rabi spectroscopy of finite-temperature trapped Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Schmied, Roman; Treutlein, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We use Rabi spectroscopy to explore the low-energy excitation spectrum of a finite-temperature Bose gas of rubidium atoms across the phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). To record this spectrum, we coherently drive the atomic population between two spin states. A small relative displacement of the spin-specific trapping potentials enables sideband transitions between different motional states. The intrinsic nonlinearity of the motional spectrum, mainly originating from two-body interactions, makes it possible to resolve and address individual excitation lines. Together with sensitive atom counting, this constitutes a feasible technique to count single excited atoms of a BEC and to determine the temperature of nearly pure condensates. As an example, we show that for a nearly pure BEC of N =800 atoms the first excited state has a population of less than five atoms, corresponding to an upper bound on the temperature of 30 nK .

  11. Finite Element Estimation of Meteorite Structural Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Kenneth Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project titled Asteroid Threat Assessment at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop risk assessment tools. The expertise in atmospheric entry in the Entry Systems and Technology Division is being used to describe the complex physics of meteor breakup in the atmosphere. The breakup of a meteor is dependent on its structural properties, including homogeneity of the material. The present work describes an 11-week effort in which a literature survey was carried for structural properties of meteoritic material. In addition, the effect of scale on homogeneity isotropy was studied using a Monte Carlo approach in Nastran. The properties were then in a static structural response simulation of an irregularly-shape meteor (138-scale version of Asteroid Itokawa). Finally, an early plan was developed for doctoral research work at Georgia Tech. in the structural failure fragmentation of meteors.

  12. Analysis of temperature rise for piezoelectric transformer using finite-element method.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Jong-Seok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of heat problem and temperature field of a piezoelectric transformer, operated at steady-state conditions, is described. The resonance frequency of the transformer is calculated from impedance and electrical gain analysis using a finite-element method. Mechanical displacement and electric potential of the transformer at the calculated resonance frequency are used to calculate the loss distribution of the transformer. Temperature distribution using discretized heat transfer equation is calculated from the obtained losses of the transformer. Properties of the piezoelectric material, dependent on the temperature field, are measured to recalculate the losses, temperature distribution, and new resonance characteristics of the transformer. Iterative method is adopted to recalculate the losses and resonance frequency due to the changes of the material constants from temperature increase. Computed temperature distributions and new resonance characteristics of the transformer at steady-state temperature are verified by comparison with experimental results.

  13. Nonlocal microscopic theory of Casimir forces at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Despoja, V.; Marusic, L.

    2011-04-15

    The interaction energy between two metallic slabs in the retarded limit at finite temperature is expressed in terms of surface polariton propagators for separate slabs, avoiding the usual matching procedure, with both diamagnetic and paramagnetic excitations included correctly. This enables appropriate treatment of arbitrary electron density profiles and fully nonlocal electronic response, including both collective and single-particle excitations. The results are verified by performing the nonretarded and long-wavelength (local) limits and showing that they reduce to the previously obtained expressions. Possibilities for practical use of the theory are explored by applying it to calculation of various contributions to the Casimir energy between two silver slabs.

  14. On finite element implementation and computational techniques for constitutive modeling of high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.

  15. Prediction of the bulk temperature in spur gears based on finite element temperature analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patir, N.; Cheng, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature distribution in spur gears operating in a state of thermal equilibrium is solved by using a finite element method. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on bulk temperature are shown. A table is provided which can be used to predict the bulk temperature on gear teeth, once the heat transfer coefficients and frictional heat input is estimated. Theoretical results for estimating heat transfer coefficients and frictional heat are also summarized.

  16. Macroscopic quantum entanglement of a Kondo cloud at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-S B; Park, Jinhong; Sim, H-S

    2015-02-06

    We propose a variational approach for computing the macroscopic entanglement in a many-body mixed state, based on entanglement witness operators, and compute the entanglement of formation (EoF), a mixed-state generalization of the entanglement entropy, in single- and two-channel Kondo systems at finite temperature. The thermal suppression of the EoF obeys power-law scaling at low temperature. The scaling exponent is halved from the single- to the two-channel system, which is attributed, using a bosonization method, to the non-Fermi liquid behavior of a Majorana fermion, a "half" of a complex fermion, emerging in the two-channel system. Moreover, the EoF characterizes the size and power-law tail of the Kondo screening cloud of the single-channel system.

  17. Baryon number dissipation at finite temperature in the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E. ); Raby, S. . Dept. of Physics); Starkman, G. . Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-01-01

    We analyze the phenomenon of baryon number violation at finite temperature in the standard model, and derive the relaxation rate for the baryon density in the high temperature electroweak plasma. The relaxation rate, {gamma} is given in terms of real time correlation functions of the operator E{center dot}B, and is directly proportional to the sphaleron transition rate, {Gamma}: {gamma} {preceq} n{sub f}{Gamma}/T{sup 3}. Hence it is not instanton suppressed, as claimed by Cohen, Dugan and Manohar (CDM). We show explicitly how this result is consistent with the methods of CDM, once it is recognized that a new anomalous commutator is required in their approach. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Topological order, entanglement, and quantum memory at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mazac, Dalimil Hamma, Alioscia

    2012-09-15

    We compute the topological entropy of the toric code models in arbitrary dimension at finite temperature. We find that the critical temperatures for the existence of full quantum (classical) topological entropy correspond to the confinement-deconfinement transitions in the corresponding Z{sub 2} gauge theories. This implies that the thermal stability of topological entropy corresponds to the stability of quantum (classical) memory. The implications for the understanding of ergodicity breaking in topological phases are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculate the topological entropy of a general toric code in any dimension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find phase transitions in the topological entropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transitions coincide with the appearance of quantum/classical memory.

  19. A finite-temperature Hartree-Fock code for shell-model Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, G. F.; Mehlhaff, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The codes HFgradZ.py and HFgradT.py find axially symmetric minima of a Hartree-Fock energy functional for a Hamiltonian supplied in a shell model basis. The functional to be minimized is the Hartree-Fock energy for zero-temperature properties or the Hartree-Fock grand potential for finite-temperature properties (thermal energy, entropy). The minimization may be subjected to additional constraints besides axial symmetry and nucleon numbers. A single-particle operator can be used to constrain the minimization by adding it to the single-particle Hamiltonian with a Lagrange multiplier. One can also constrain its expectation value in the zero-temperature code. Also the orbital filling can be constrained in the zero-temperature code, fixing the number of nucleons having given Kπ quantum numbers. This is particularly useful to resolve near-degeneracies among distinct minima.

  20. Finite Larmor radius effects on the coupled trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.

    2007-09-15

    The properties of the coupled trapped electron and toroidal ion temperature gradient modes are investigated using the standard reactive fluid model and taking rigorously into account the effects attributed to the ion polarization drift and to the drifts associated with the lowest-order finite ion Larmor radius effects. In the flat density regime, where the coupling between the modes is relatively weak, the properties of the unstable modes are slightly modified through these effects. For the peak density regions, where the coupling of the modes is rather strong, these second-order drifts determine the spectra of the unstable modes near the marginal conditions.

  1. Higher-derivative Lorentz-breaking terms in extended QED at the finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celeste, A.; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss finiteness and ambiguities of the higher-derivative Lorentz-breaking terms in extended QED with a magnetic coupling at the finite temperature. We find that, besides the higher-derivative Carroll-Field-Jackiw-like term and Myers-Pospelov term, many extra terms arise in a finite temperature case but these terms vanish in high temperature limit. Moreover, the contributions for the nonminimal coupling will dominate at large temperatures.

  2. Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punk, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.

  3. Lattice QCD at finite temperature and density from Taylor expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In the first part, I present an overview of recent Lattice QCD simulations at finite temperature and density. In particular, we discuss fluctuations of conserved charges: baryon number, electric charge and strangeness. These can be obtained from Taylor expanding the QCD pressure as a function of corresponding chemical potentials. Our simulations were performed using quark masses corresponding to physical pion mass of about 140 MeV and allow a direct comparison to experimental data from ultra-relativistic heavy ion beams at hadron colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In the second part, we discuss computational challenges for current and future exascale Lattice simulations with a focus on new silicon developments from Intel and NVIDIA.

  4. Kinetic model of trapped finite-temperature binary condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, M. J.; Lee, K. L.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a nonequilibrium theory for the dynamics of two interacting finite-temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and use it to numerically estimate the relative rates of the arising collisional processes near equilbrium. The condensates are described by dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equations, coupled to quantum Boltzmann equations for the thermal atoms. The density-density interactions between atoms in different components facilitate a number of transport processes of relevance to sympathetic cooling: in particular, considering realistic miscible and immiscible trapped atomic 87Rb-41K and 87Rb-85Rb condensate mixtures, we highlight the dominance of an intercomponent scattering process associated with collisional "exchange" of condensed and thermal atoms between the components close to equilibrium.

  5. Separation of finite electron temperature effect on plasma polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Kusama, Yoshinori

    2012-12-01

    This study demonstrates the separation of the finite electron temperature on the plasma polarimetry in the magnetic confined fusion plasma for the first time. Approximate solutions of the transformed Stokes equation, including the relativistic effect, suggest that the orientation angle, θ, and ellipticity angle, ε, of polarization state have different dependency on the electron density, n(e), and the electron temperature, T(e), and that the separation of n(e) and T(e) from θ and ε is possible in principle. We carry out the equilibrium and kinetic reconstruction of tokamak plasma when the central electron density was 10(20) m(-3), and the central electron temperatures were 5, 10, 20, and 30 keV. For both cases when a total plasma current, I(p), is known and when I(p) is unknown, the profiles of plasma current density, j(φ), n(e), and T(e) are successfully reconstructed. The reconstruction of j(φ) without the information of I(p) indicates the new method of I(p) measurement applicable to steady state operation of tokamak.

  6. Separation of finite electron temperature effect on plasma polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Kusama, Yoshinori

    2012-12-15

    This study demonstrates the separation of the finite electron temperature on the plasma polarimetry in the magnetic confined fusion plasma for the first time. Approximate solutions of the transformed Stokes equation, including the relativistic effect, suggest that the orientation angle, {theta}, and ellipticity angle, {epsilon}, of polarization state have different dependency on the electron density, n{sub e}, and the electron temperature, T{sub e}, and that the separation of n{sub e} and T{sub e} from {theta} and {epsilon} is possible in principle. We carry out the equilibrium and kinetic reconstruction of tokamak plasma when the central electron density was 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, and the central electron temperatures were 5, 10, 20, and 30 keV. For both cases when a total plasma current, I{sub p}, is known and when I{sub p} is unknown, the profiles of plasma current density, j{sub {phi}}, n{sub e}, and T{sub e} are successfully reconstructed. The reconstruction of j{sub {phi}} without the information of I{sub p} indicates the new method of I{sub p} measurement applicable to steady state operation of tokamak.

  7. Aspects of holographic entanglement at finite temperature and chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sandipan; Pedraza, Juan F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of entanglement entropy at finite temperature and chemical potential for strongly coupled large-N gauge theories in d-dimensions ( d ≥ 3) that are dual to Anti-de Sitter-Reissner-Nordstrom geometries in ( d + 1)-dimensions, in the context of gauge-gravity duality. We develop systematic expansions based on the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription that enable us to derive analytic expressions for entanglement entropy and mutual information in different regimes of interest. Consequently, we identify the specific regions of the bulk geometry that contribute most significantly to the entanglement entropy of the boundary theory at different limits. We define a scale, dubbed as the effective temperature, which determines the behavior of entanglement in different regimes. At high effective temperature, entanglement entropy is dominated by the thermodynamic entropy, however, mutual information subtracts out this contribution and measures the actual quantum entanglement. Finally, we study the entanglement/disentanglement transition of mutual information in the presence of chemical potential which shows that the quantum entanglement between two sub-regions decreases with the increase of chemical potential.

  8. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  9. Finite-temperature effects on conductance modulation by local doping in graphene with multiple magnetic barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Nojoon; Lidorikis, Elefterios

    2015-12-01

    The electronic and transport properties of graphene modulated by magnetic barrier arrays are derived at finite temperatures. Prominent conductance gaps, originating from quantum interference effects are found in the periodic array case. When a structural defect is inserted in the array, sharp defect modes of high conductance appear within the conductance gaps. These modes are shifted by local doping in the defect region, resulting in large contrast in the ballistic conductance of graphene sheet. In general it is found that sensitivity is strongly dependent on temperature due to smoothing out of the defect-induced peaks and transport gaps. This temperature dependence, however, offers the added capability for sub-mK temperature sensing resolution, and thus an opportunity towards ultra-sensitive combined electrochemical-calorimetric sensing.

  10. Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.

  11. Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.

  12. PHD TUTORIAL: Finite-temperature models of Bose Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Jackson, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The theoretical description of trapped weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is characterized by a large number of seemingly very different approaches which have been developed over the course of time by researchers with very distinct backgrounds. Newcomers to this field, experimentalists and young researchers all face a considerable challenge in navigating through the 'maze' of abundant theoretical models, and simple correspondences between existing approaches are not always very transparent. This tutorial provides a generic introduction to such theories, in an attempt to single out common features and deficiencies of certain 'classes of approaches' identified by their physical content, rather than their particular mathematical implementation. This tutorial is structured in a manner accessible to a non-specialist with a good working knowledge of quantum mechanics. Although some familiarity with concepts of quantum field theory would be an advantage, key notions, such as the occupation number representation of second quantization, are nonetheless briefly reviewed. Following a general introduction, the complexity of models is gradually built up, starting from the basic zero-temperature formalism of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This structure enables readers to probe different levels of theoretical developments (mean field, number conserving and stochastic) according to their particular needs. In addition to its 'training element', we hope that this tutorial will prove useful to active researchers in this field, both in terms of the correspondences made between different theoretical models, and as a source of reference for existing and developing finite-temperature theoretical models.

  13. Superfluid to Normal Fluid Phase Transition in the Bose Gas Trapped in Two-Dimensional Optical Lattices at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, M. O. C.; de Passos, E. J. V.

    2017-02-01

    We develop the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory at finite temperature for Bose gas trapped in the two-dimensional optical lattice with the on-site energy low enough that the gas presents superfluid properties. We obtain the condensate density as function of the temperature neglecting the anomalous density in the thermodynamics equation. The condensate fraction provides two critical temperature. Below the temperature T_{C1}, there is one condensate fraction. Above two condensate fractions merger up to the critical temperature T_{C2}. At temperatures larger than T_{C2}, the condensate fraction is null and, therefore, the gas is normal fluid. We resume by a finite-temperature phase diagram where three domains can be identified: the normal fluid, the superfluid with one stable condensate fraction and the superfluid with two condensate fractions being unstable one of them.

  14. Finite-element technique applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre-Ramirez, G.; Oden, J. T.

    1969-01-01

    Finite element method applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, using nonlinear constitutive equation for heat ABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGH

  15. (Pseudo)scalar charmonium in finite temperature QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-02-01

    The hadronic parameters of pseudoscalar ({eta}{sub c}) and scalar ({chi}{sub c}) charmonium are determined at finite temperature from Hilbert moment QCD sum rules. These parameters are the hadron mass, leptonic decay constant, total width, and continuum threshold (s{sub 0}). Results for s{sub 0}(T) in both channels indicate that s{sub 0}(T) starts approximately constant, and then it decreases monotonically with increasing T until it reaches the QCD threshold, s{sub th}=4m{sub Q}{sup 2}, at a critical temperature T=T{sub c{approx_equal}}180 MeV interpreted as the deconfinement temperature. The other hadronic parameters behave qualitatively similarly to those of the J/{psi}, as determined in this same framework. The hadron mass is essentially constant, the total width is initially independent of T, and after T/T{sub c{approx_equal}}0.80 it begins to increase with increasing T up to T/T{sub c{approx_equal}}0.90(0.95) for {chi}{sub c} ({eta}{sub c}), and subsequently it decreases sharply up to T{approx_equal}0.94(0.99)T{sub c}, for {chi}{sub c} ({eta}{sub c}), beyond which the sum rules are no longer valid. The decay constant of {chi}{sub c} at first remains basically flat up to T{approx_equal}0.80T{sub c}, then it starts to decrease up to T{approx_equal}0.90T{sub c}, and finally it increases sharply with increasing T. In the case of {eta}{sub c} the decay constant does not change up to T{approx_equal}0.80T{sub c} where it begins a gentle increase up to T{approx_equal}0.95T{sub c} beyond which it increases dramatically with increasing T. This behavior contrasts with that of light-light and heavy-light quark systems, and it suggests the survival of the {eta}{sub c} and the {chi}{sub c} states beyond the critical temperature, as already found for the J/{psi} from similar QCD sum rules. These conclusions are very stable against changes in the critical temperature in the wide range T{sub c}=180-260 MeV.

  16. Feynman parametrization and Mellin summation at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Piccinelli, Gabriella; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2008-11-01

    We show that the Mellin summation technique (MST) is a well-defined and useful tool to compute loop integrals at finite temperature in the imaginary-time formulation of thermal field theory, especially when interested in the infrared limit of such integrals. The method makes use of the Feynman parametrization which has been claimed to have problems when the analytical continuation from discrete to arbitrary complex values of the Matsubara frequency is performed. We show that without the use of the MST, such problems are not intrinsic to the Feynman parametrization but instead, they arise as a result of (a) not implementing the periodicity brought about by the possible values taken by the discrete Matsubara frequencies before the analytical continuation is made and (b) to the changing of the original domain of the Feynman parameter integration, which seemingly simplifies the expression but in practice introduces a spurious end point singularity. Using the MST, there are no problems related to the implementation of the periodicity but instead, care has to be taken when the sum of denominators of the original amplitude vanishes. We apply the method to the computation of loop integrals appearing when the effects of external weak magnetic fields on the propagation of scalar particles is considered.

  17. Equation of State of Structured Matter at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, T.; Yasutake, N.; Tatsumi, T.

    We investigate the properties of nuclear matter at the first-order phase transitions such as liquid-gas phase transition and hadron-quark phase transition. As a general feature of the first-order phase transitions of matter consisting of many species of charged particles, there appears a mixed phases with geometrical structures called ``pasta'' due to the balance of the Coulomb repulsion and the surface tension between two phases [G.~D.~Ravenhall, C.~J.~Pethick and J.~R.~Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 (1983), 2066. M.~Hashimoto, H.~Seki and M.~Yamada, Prog. Theor. Phys. 71 (1984), 320.] The equation of state (EOS) of mixed phase is different from the one obtained by a bulk application of the Gibbs conditions or by the Maxwell construction due to the effects of the non-uniform structure. We show that the charge screening and strong surface tension make the EOS close to that of the Maxwell construction. The thermal effects are elucidated as well as the above finite-size effects.

  18. An atomistic J-integral at finite temperature based on Hardy estimates of continuum fields.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Zimmerman, J A; Oswald, J; Belytschko, T

    2011-01-12

    In this work we apply a material-frame, kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data in order to estimate the J-integral for the analysis of an atomically sharp crack at finite temperatures. Instead of the potential energy appropriate for zero temperature calculations, we employ the quasi-harmonic free energy as an estimator of the Helmholtz free energy required by the Eshelby stress in isothermal conditions. We employ the simplest of the quasi-harmonic models, the local harmonic model of LeSar and co-workers, and verify that it is adequate for correction of the zero temperature J-integral expression for various deformation states for our Lennard-Jones test material. We show that this method has the properties of: consistency among the energy, stress and deformation fields; path independence of the contour integrals of the Eshelby stress; and excellent correlation with linear elastic fracture mechanics theory.

  19. An atomistic J-integral at finite temperature based on Hardy estimates of continuum fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. E.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Oswald, J.; Belytschko, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we apply a material-frame, kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data in order to estimate the J-integral for the analysis of an atomically sharp crack at finite temperatures. Instead of the potential energy appropriate for zero temperature calculations, we employ the quasi-harmonic free energy as an estimator of the Helmholtz free energy required by the Eshelby stress in isothermal conditions. We employ the simplest of the quasi-harmonic models, the local harmonic model of LeSar and co-workers, and verify that it is adequate for correction of the zero temperature J-integral expression for various deformation states for our Lennard-Jones test material. We show that this method has the properties of: consistency among the energy, stress and deformation fields; path independence of the contour integrals of the Eshelby stress; and excellent correlation with linear elastic fracture mechanics theory.

  20. Description of induced nuclear fission with Skyrme energy functionals. II. Finite temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, N.; Duke, D.; Carr, H.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of induced nuclear fission for a broad range of neutron energies could help resolve fundamental science issues, such as the formation of elements in the universe, but could have also a large impact on societal applications in energy production or nuclear waste management. The goal of this paper is to set up the foundations of a microscopic theory to study the static aspects of induced fission as a function of the excitation energy of the incident neutron, from thermal to fast neutrons. To account for the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus, we employ a statistical approach based on finite temperature nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities, which we benchmark on the 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction. We compute the evolution of the least-energy fission pathway across multidimensional potential energy surfaces with up to five collective variables as a function of the nuclear temperature and predict the evolution of both the inner and the outer fission barriers as a function of the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. We show that the coupling to the continuum induced by the finite temperature is negligible in the range of neutron energies relevant for many applications of neutron-induced fission. We prove that the concept of quantum localization introduced recently can be extended to T >0 , and we apply the method to study the interaction energy and total kinetic energy of fission fragments as a function of the temperature for the most probable fission. While large uncertainties in theoretical modeling remain, we conclude that a finite temperature nuclear density functional may provide a useful framework to obtain accurate predictions of fission fragment properties.

  1. Temperature Dependent Frictional Properties of Crustal Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Erica Kate

    In this dissertation, I study the effects of temperature on frictional properties of crustal rocks at conditions relevant to earthquake nucleation. I explore how temperature affects fault healing after an earthquake. I present results from slide-hold-slide experiments on Westerly granite that show that frictional healing rate increases slightly and shear strength increases with temperature. Based on our results, if the effects of temperature are neglected, fault strength could be under-predicted by as much as 10 percent. I use finite element numerical experiments to show that our frictional healing data can be explained by increases in contact area between viscoelastic rough surfaces. I investigate the influence of temperature on the transition from seismogenic slip to aseismic creep with depth in continental crust. I present results from velocity-stepping and constant load-point velocity experiments on Westerly granite conducted at a wide range of temperatures. I construct a numerical model incorporating the rate-state friction equations to estimate the values of (a-b) that provide the best fit to the stick-slip data. I find that sliding becomes more unstable ((a-b) < 0) with temperature up to the maximum temperature tested, 600 ºC. This contradicts a traditional view that the deep limit to seismicity in continental upper crust is caused by a transition to stable creep ((a-b) > 0) in granite at temperatures above ˜350 ºC. These results may help explain the occurrence of anomalously deep earthquakes found in areas of active extension and convergence. I explore the frictional properties of gabbro at conditions corresponding to slow slip events in subduction zones. I present results from experiments on gabbro conducted at low effective normal stress and temperatures between 20-600 ºC. I find that (a-b) decreases with temperature based on direct measurements and numerical modeling. I conclude that the occurrence of slow slip events at the base of the seismogenic

  2. Noninteracting fermions at finite temperature in a d -dimensional trap: Universal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David S.; Le Doussal, Pierre; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-12-01

    We study a system of N noninteracting spinless fermions trapped in a confining potential, in arbitrary dimensions d and arbitrary temperature T . The presence of the confining trap breaks the translational invariance and introduces an edge where the average density of fermions vanishes. Far from the edge, near the center of the trap (the so-called "bulk regime"), where the fermions do not feel the curvature of the trap, physical properties of the fermions have traditionally been understood using the local density (or Thomas-Fermi) approximation. However, these approximations drastically fail near the edge where the density vanishes and thermal and quantum fluctuations are thus enhanced. The main goal of this paper is to show that, even near the edge, novel universal properties emerge, independently of the details of the shape of the confining potential. We present a unified framework to investigate both the bulk and the edge properties of the fermions. We show that for large N , these fermions in a confining trap, in arbitrary dimensions and at finite temperature, form a determinantal point process. As a result, any n -point correlation function, including the average density profile, can be expressed as an n ×n determinant whose entry is called the kernel, a central object for such processes. Near the edge, we derive the large-N scaling form of the kernels, parametrized by d and T . In d =1 and T =0 , this reduces to the so-called Airy kernel, that appears in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) of random matrix theory. In d =1 and T >0 we show a remarkable connection between our kernel and the one appearing in the (1 +1 )-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation at finite time. Consequently, our result provides a finite-T generalization of the Tracy-Widom distribution, that describes the fluctuations of the position of the rightmost fermion at T =0 , or those of the largest single-fermion momentum. In d >1 and T ≥0 , while the connection to GUE no longer holds

  3. Three-loop hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory thermodynamics at finite temperature and finite baryonic and isospin chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Strickland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In a previous paper [N. Haque et al., J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 27], we calculated the three-loop thermodynamic potential of QCD at finite temperature T and quark chemical potentials μq using the hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) reorganization of finite temperature and density QCD. The result allows us to study the thermodynamics of QCD at finite temperature and finite baryon, strangeness, and isospin chemical potentials μB, μS, and μI. We calculate the pressure at nonzero μB and μI with μS=0 , and the energy density, the entropy density, the trace anomaly, and the speed of sound at nonzero μI with μB=μS=0 . The second- and fourth-order isospin susceptibilities are calculated at μB=μS=μI=0 . Our results can be directly compared to lattice QCD without Taylor expansions around μq=0 since QCD has no sign problem at μB=μS=0 and finite isospin chemical potential μI.

  4. Universality of temperature-dependent effects in finite many-fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Dussel, G. G.; Zuker, A. P.

    1989-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the specific heat for a finite system of fermions is investigated for some simple models. It is found that finite-size effects produce a maximum in the specific heat at a temperature Tc that has a universal value when scaled by the appropriate characteristic energy.

  5. Finite-temperature and finite-time scaling of the directed polymer free energy with respect to its geometrical fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Bustingorry, Sebastian; Lecomte, Vivien; Schehr, Grégory; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2012-09-01

    We study the fluctuations of the directed polymer in 1+1 dimensions in a Gaussian random environment with a finite correlation length ξ and at finite temperature. We address the correspondence between the geometrical transverse fluctuations of the directed polymer, described by its roughness, and the fluctuations of its free energy, characterized by its two-point correlator. Analytical arguments are provided in favor of a generic scaling law between those quantities, at finite time, nonvanishing ξ, and explicit temperature dependence. Numerical results are in good agreement both for simulations on the discrete directed polymer and on a continuous directed polymer (with short-range correlated disorder). Applications to recent experiments on liquid crystals are discussed.

  6. Quantitative magneto-optical analysis of the role of finite temperatures on the critical state in YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Joachim; Brück, Sebastian; Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    We use quantitative magneto-optical microscopy to investigate the influence of finite temperatures on the critical state of thin YBCO films. In particular, temperature and time dependence of supercurrents in inhomogeneous and anisotropic films are analyzed to extract the role of temperature on the supercurrents themselves and the influence of thermally activated relaxation. We find that inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the current density distribution correspond to a different temperature dependence of local supercurrents. In addition, the thermally activated decay of supercurrents can be used to extract local vortex pinning energies. With these results the modification of vortex pinning introduced by substrate structures is studied. In summary the local investigation of supercurrent densities allows the full description of the vortex pinning landscape with respect to pinning forces and energies in superconducting films with complex properties under the influence of finite temperatures.

  7. Finite-Temperature Entanglement Dynamics in an Anisotropic Two-Qubit Heisenberg Spin Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Shan, Chuanjia; Li, Jinxing; Liu, Tangkun; Huang, Yanxia; Li, Hong

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of an anisotropic two-qubit Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of decoherence at finite temperature. The time evolution of the concurrence is studied for different initial Werner states. The influences of initial purity, finite temperature, spontaneous decay and Hamiltonian on the entanglement evolution are analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that the finite temperature restricts the evolution of the entanglement all the time when the Hamiltonian improves it and the spontaneous decay to the reservoirs can produce quantum entanglement with the anisotropy of spin-spin interaction. Finally, the steady-state concurrence which may remain non-zero for low temperature is also given.

  8. Critical properties of dissipative quantum spin systems in finite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Kabuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2016-10-01

    We study the critical properties of finite-dimensional dissipative quantum spin systems with uniform ferromagnetic interactions. Starting from the transverse field Ising model coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators with Ohmic spectral density, we generalize its classical representation to classical spin systems with O(n) symmetry and then take the large-n limit to reduce the system to a spherical model. The exact solution to the resulting spherical model with long-range interactions along the imaginary time axis shows a phase transition with static critical exponents coinciding with those of the conventional short-range spherical model in d+2 dimensions, where d is the spatial dimensionality of the original quantum system. This implies that the dynamical exponent is z = 2. These conclusions are consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and renormalization group calculations for dissipative transverse field Ising and O(n) models in one and two dimensions. The present approach therefore serves as a useful tool for analytically investigating the properties of quantum phase transitions of the dissipative transverse field Ising and other related models. Our method may also offer a platform to study more complex phase transitions in dissipative finite-dimensional quantum spin systems, which have recently received renewed interest in the context of quantum annealing in a noisy environment.

  9. Finite-temperature calculations of the Compton profile of Be, Li, and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevak, E.; Vila, F. D.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    High resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiments are widely used to study the electronic and chemical properties of materials under a range of conditions, from ambient temperature to the warm dense matter regime. We use the real-space multiple scattering (RSMS) Green's function formalism coupled with density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) to study thermal effects on the Compton profile (CP) of disordered systems. The RSMS method is advantageous for calculations of highly disordered, aperiodic systems because it places no restriction on symmetry. As a test, we apply our approach to thermally disordered Be, Li, and Si in both liquid and solid phases. We find good agreement with experimental and other theoretical results, showing that the real-space multiple scattering approach coupled with DFT-MD is an efficient and reliable method for calculating the CP of disordered systems at finite temperatures.

  10. Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M; Moldabekov, Zh

    2015-03-01

    The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a/aB--the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius--approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N=33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4, and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs≲1.5, both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem.

  11. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W; Vela, Alberto

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μe) and chemical hardness (ηe) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μe. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (-I), positive (-A), and zero values of the fractional charge (-(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  12. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ{sub e}) and chemical hardness (η{sub e}) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ{sub e}. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  13. Computer simulation of trails on a square lattice. II. Finite temperatures and the collapse transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirovitch, H.; Lim, H. A.

    1989-04-01

    We study by the scanning simulation method trails on a square lattice at finite temperatures. This method constitutes a very efficient tool since it enables one to obtain results at many temperatures from a single sample generated at any given temperature. The tricritical temperature at which the collapse transition occurs is -ɛ/kBTt=1.086+/-0.002. The tricritical exponents of the trail shape and its free energy are, respectively, νt=0.569+/-0.008 and γt=1.133+/-0.024 (95% confidence limits). They are equal within the error bars to the exact values of self-attracting self-avoiding walks (SAW's). However, the crossover exponent φt=0.807+/-0.005 is significantly larger than the exact value 0.423 of SAW's. We also carry out a detailed scaling analysis near Tt and demonstrate that the various properties scale as predicted by theory. At sufficiently low temperatures (T<=Tt) the persistence length appears to be ~1.

  14. Finite difference modelling of the temperature rise in non-linear medical ultrasound fields.

    PubMed

    Divall, S A; Humphrey, V F

    2000-03-01

    Non-linear propagation of ultrasound can lead to increased heat generation in medical diagnostic imaging due to the preferential absorption of harmonics of the original frequency. A numerical model has been developed and tested that is capable of predicting the temperature rise due to a high amplitude ultrasound field. The acoustic field is modelled using a numerical solution to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, known as the Bergen Code, which is implemented in cylindrical symmetric form. A finite difference representation of the thermal equations is used to calculate the resulting temperature rises. The model allows for the inclusion of a number of layers of tissue with different acoustic and thermal properties and accounts for the effects of non-linear propagation, direct heating by the transducer, thermal diffusion and perfusion in different tissues. The effect of temperature-dependent skin perfusion and variation in background temperature between the skin and deeper layers of the body are included. The model has been tested against analytic solutions for simple configurations and then used to estimate temperature rises in realistic obstetric situations. A pulsed 3 MHz transducer operating with an average acoustic power of 200 mW leads to a maximum steady state temperature rise inside the foetus of 1.25 degrees C compared with a 0.6 degree C rise for the same transmitted power under linear propagation conditions. The largest temperature rise occurs at the skin surface, with the temperature rise at the foetus limited to less than 2 degrees C for the range of conditions considered.

  15. REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.

    2005-07-25

    We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.

  16. Finite-temperature decoherence of spin states in a {Cu3} single molecular magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoqun; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Shiqun

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the quantum evolution of spin states of a single molecular magnet in a local electric field. The decoherence of a {Cu3} single molecular magnet weakly coupled to a thermal bosonic environment can be analysed by the spin-boson model. Using the finite-temperature time-convolutionless quantum master equation, we obtain the analytical expression of the reduced density matrix of the system in the secular approximation. The suppressed and revived dynamical behaviour of the spin states are presented by the oscillation of the chirality spin polarization on the time scale of the correlation time of the environment. The quantum decoherence can be effectively restrained with the help of the manipulation of a local electric field and the environment spectral density function. Under the influence of the dissipation, the pointer states measured by the von Neumann entropy are calculated to manifest the entanglement property of the system-environment model.

  17. Finite-temperature phase structure of lattice QCD with Wilson quark action

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Ukawa, A.; Umemura, T.

    1996-02-01

    The long-standing issue of the nature of the critical line of lattice QCD with the Wilson quark action at finite temperatures, defined to be the line of vanishing pion screening mass, and its relation to the line of finite-temperature chiral transition is examined. Presented are both analytical and numerical evidence that the critical line forms a cusp at a finite gauge coupling, and that the line of chiral transition runs past the tip of the cusp without touching the critical line. Implications on the continuum limit and the flavor dependence of chiral transition are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Monte Carlo analysis for finite-temperature magnetism of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toga, Yuta; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Miyashita, Seiji; Akai, Hisazumi; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effects of magnetic inhomogeneities and thermal fluctuations on the magnetic properties of a rare-earth intermetallic compound, Nd2Fe14B . The constrained Monte Carlo method is applied to a Nd2Fe14B bulk system to realize the experimentally observed spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy constants KmA(m =1 ,2 ,4 ) at finite temperatures. Subsequently, it is found that the temperature dependence of K1A deviates from the Callen-Callen law, K1A(T ) ∝M (T) 3 , even above room temperature, TR˜300 K , when the Fe (Nd) anisotropy terms are removed to leave only the Nd (Fe) anisotropy terms. This is because the exchange couplings between Nd moments and Fe spins are much smaller than those between Fe spins. It is also found that the exponent n in the external magnetic field Hext response of barrier height FB=FB0(1-Hext/H0) n is less than 2 in the low-temperature region below TR, whereas n approaches 2 when T >TR , indicating the presence of Stoner-Wohlfarth-type magnetization rotation. This reflects the fact that the magnetic anisotropy is mainly governed by the K1A term in the T >TR region.

  19. The topological susceptibility in finite temperature QCD and axion cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreczky, Peter; Schadler, Hans-Peter; Sharma, Sayantan

    2016-11-01

    We study the topological susceptibility in 2 + 1 flavor QCD above the chiral crossover transition temperature using Highly Improved Staggered Quark action and several lattice spacings corresponding to temporal extent of the lattice, Nτ = 6 , 8 , 10 and 12. We observe very distinct temperature dependences of the topological susceptibility in the ranges above and below 250 MeV. While for temperatures above 250 MeV, the dependence is found to be consistent with dilute instanton gas approximation, at lower temperatures the fall-off of topological susceptibility is milder. We discuss the consequence of our results for cosmology wherein we estimate the bounds on the axion decay constant and the oscillation temperature if indeed the QCD axion is a possible dark matter candidate.

  20. Magnetized liquid 3He at finite temperature: A variational calculation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Gholam Hossein; Mohammadi Sabet, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-08-01

    Using the spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) correlation functions, we have investigated the properties of liquid 3He in the presence of magnetic field at finite temperature. Our calculations have been done using the variational method based on cluster expansion of the energy functional. Our results show that the low field magnetic susceptibility obeys Curie law at high temperatures. This behavior is in a good agreement with the experimental data as well as the molecular field theory results in which the spin dependency has been introduced in correlation function. Reduced susceptibility as a function of temperature as well as reduced temperature has been also investigated, and again we have seen that the spin-dependent correlation function leads to a good agreement with the experimental data. The Landau parameter, F0a, has been calculated, and for this parameter, a value about - 0.75 has been found in the case of spin-spin correlation. In the case of spin-independent correlation function, this value is about - 0.7. Therefore, inclusion of spin dependency in the correlation function leads to a more compatible value of F0a with experimental data. The magnetization and susceptibility of liquid 3He have also been investigated as a function of magnetic field. Our results show a downward curvature in magnetization of system with spin-dependent correlation for all densities and relevant temperatures. A metamagnetic behavior has been observed as a maximum in susceptibility versus magnetic field, when the spin-spin correlation has been considered. This maximum occurs at 45T ≤ B ≤ 100T for all densities and temperatures. This behavior has not been observed in the case of spin-independent correlation function.

  1. How important is thermal expansion for predicting molecular crystal structures and thermochemistry at finite temperatures?

    PubMed

    Heit, Yonaton N; Beran, Gregory J O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular crystals expand appreciably upon heating due to both zero-point and thermal vibrational motion, yet this expansion is often neglected in molecular crystal modeling studies. Here, a quasi-harmonic approximation is coupled with fragment-based hybrid many-body interaction calculations to predict thermal expansion and finite-temperature thermochemical properties in crystalline carbon dioxide, ice Ih, acetic acid and imidazole. Fragment-based second-order Möller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster theory with singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] predict the thermal expansion and the temperature dependence of the enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation in good agreement with experiment. The errors introduced by neglecting thermal expansion in the enthalpy and entropy cancel somewhat in the Gibbs free energy. The resulting ∼ 1-2 kJ mol(-1) errors in the free energy near room temperature are comparable to or smaller than the errors expected from the electronic structure treatment, but they may be sufficiently large to affect free-energy rankings among energetically close polymorphs.

  2. [Dynamics of charge transfer along an oligonucleotide at finite temperature].

    PubMed

    Lakhno, V D; Fialko, N S

    2004-01-01

    The quantum-statistical approach was used to describe the charge transfer in nucleotide sequences. The results of numerical modeling for hole transfer in the GTTGGG sequence with background temperature noise are given. It was shown that, since guanine has an oxidation potential lower than thymine, the hole created at the G donor in this sequence passes through the thymine barrier into the guanine triplet (acceptor) at a time of approximately 10 ps at a temperature of 37 degrees C.

  3. Effects of impurity doping and finite temperature in titanium dioxide: A First-principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yuta; Saito, Susumu

    2012-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most important materials for application to photocatalysts while it is a highly polymorphic material. Therefore, understanding of its fundamental physical properties is essential for improvements of its photocatalytic properties. From this point of view, we study the effects of nitrogen doping and the thermodynamic stability of various TiO2 phases in the framework of the density-functional theory. We use the supercells with various dopant concentrations to reveal the nitrogen-doping effects on the energetics and the electronic properties [1]. It is found that the nitrogen doping into both rutile and anatase phases significantly reduces the minimum photo-excitation energies. On the other hand, it is suggested that the dopants tend to cluster in the TiO2 lattice. This clustering might cancel the above-mentioned doping effects on the photo-excitation energies. Next, we consider the finite-temperature effects by introducing phonons to investigate the thermodynamic phase stability. We compare the free energies of rutile, anatase, brookite, and TiO2-II phases. We will also discuss the importance of treatment of semicore states in generating Ti pseudopotentials.[4pt] [1] Y. Aoki and S. Saito, J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 302, 012034 (2011) .

  4. Quark number fluctuations at finite temperature and finite chemical potential via the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xian-yin; Qin, Si-xue; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quark number fluctuations up to the fourth order in the matter composed of two light flavor quarks with isospin symmetry and at finite temperature and finite chemical potential using the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. In order to solve the quark gap equation, we approximate the dressed quark-gluon vertex with the bare one and adopt both the Maris-Tandy model and the infrared constant (Qin-Chang) model for the dressed gluon propagator. Our results indicate that the second, third, and fourth order fluctuations of net quark number all diverge at the critical endpoint (CEP). Around the CEP, the second order fluctuation possesses obvious pump while the third and fourth order ones exhibit distinct wiggles between positive and negative. For the Maris-Tandy model and the Qin-Chang model, we give the pseudocritical temperature at zero quark chemical potential as Tc=146 MeV and 150 MeV, and locate the CEP at (μEq,TE)=(120,124) MeV and (124,129) MeV, respectively. In addition, our results manifest that the fluctuations are insensitive to the details of the model, but the location of the CEP shifts to low chemical potential and high temperature as the confinement length scale increases.

  5. Decay of a Yukawa fermion at finite temperature and applications to leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiessig, Clemens P.; Pluemacher, Michael; Thoma, Markus H.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate the decay rate of a Yukawa fermion in a thermal bath using finite-temperature cutting rules and effective Green's functions according to the hard thermal loop resummation technique. We apply this result to the decay of a heavy Majorana neutrino in leptogenesis. Compared to the usual approach where thermal masses are inserted into the kinematics of final states, we find that deviations arise through two different leptonic dispersion relations. The decay rate differs from the usual approach by more than 1 order of magnitude in the temperature range which is interesting for the weak washout regime. We discuss how to arrive at consistent finite-temperature treatments of leptogenesis.

  6. Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics at finite temperature: Thermo field dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Gelin, Maxim F

    2016-12-14

    Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics in molecular systems at finite temperature is described using an approach based on the thermo field dynamics theory. This formulation treats temperature effects in the Hilbert space without introducing the Liouville space. A comparison with the theoretically equivalent density matrix formulation shows the key numerical advantages of the present approach. The solution of thermo field dynamics equations with a novel technique for the propagation of tensor trains (matrix product states) is discussed. Numerical applications to model spin-boson systems show that the present approach is a promising tool for the description of quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems at finite temperature.

  7. Finite-temperature magnetism of FeRh compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polesya, S.; Mankovsky, S.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature dependent stability of the magnetic phases of FeRh were investigated by means of total energy calculations with magnetic disorder treated within the uncompensated disordered local moment approach. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations based on the extended Heisenberg model have been performed, using exchange coupling parameters obtained from first principles. The crucial role and interplay of two factors in the metamagnetic transition in FeRh has been revealed, namely the dependence of the Fe-Fe exchange coupling parameters on the temperature-governed degree of magnetic disorder in the system and the stabilizing nature of the induced magnetic moment on Rh-sites. An important observation is the temperature dependence of these two competing factors.

  8. Breakdown of nonlinear elasticity in amorphous solids at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procaccia, Itamar; Rainone, Corrado; Shor, Carmel A. B. Z.; Singh, Murari

    2016-06-01

    It is known [H. G. E. Hentschel et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 061101 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061101] that amorphous solids at zero temperature do not possess a nonlinear elasticity theory: besides the shear modulus, which exists, none of the higher order coefficients exist in the thermodynamic limit. Here we show that the same phenomenon persists up to temperatures comparable to that of the glass transition. The zero-temperature mechanism due to the prevalence of dangerous plastic modes of the Hessian matrix is replaced by anomalous stress fluctuations that lead to the divergence of the variances of the higher order elastic coefficients. The conclusion is that in amorphous solids elasticity can never be decoupled from plasticity: the nonlinear response is very substantially plastic.

  9. Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. J.; Zuccher, S.; Caliari, M.; Proukakis, N. P.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.

    2014-07-01

    The study of vortex reconnections is an essential ingredient of understanding superfluid turbulence, a phenomenon recently also reported in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work we show that, despite the established dependence of vortex motion on temperature in such systems, vortex reconnections are actually temperature independent on the typical length and time scales of atomic condensates. Our work is based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate, coupled to a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud (the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism). Comparison to vortex reconnections in homogeneous condensates further shows reconnections to be insensitive to the inhomogeneity in the background density.

  10. Chemical Relaxation Times in a Hadron Gas at Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goity, Jose

    1993-07-01

    The relaxation time of particle numbers in hot hadronic matter with vanishing baryon number are estimated using the ideal gas approximation and taking into account resonance decays and annihilation processes as the only sources of particle number fluctuations.Near the QCD critical temperature the longest relaxation times turn out to be of the order of 10 fm and grow roughly exponentially to become of the order of 10^3 fm at temperatures around 100 MeV.As a consequence of such long relaxation times, a clear departure from chemical equilibrium must be observed in the momentum distribution of secondary particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions.

  11. Fluctuations of conserved charges at finite temperature from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsányi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltán; Katz, Sándor D.; Krieg, Stefan; Ratti, Claudia; Szabó, Kálman

    2012-01-01

    We present the full results of the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration on flavor diagonal and non-diagonal quark number susceptibilities with 2 + 1 staggered quark flavors, in a temperature range between 125 and 400 MeV. The light and strange quark masses are set to their physical values. Lattices with N t = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 are used. We perform a continuum extrapolation of all observables under study. A Symanzik improved gauge and a stout-link improved staggered fermion action is utilized. All results are compared to the Hadron Resonance Gas model predictions: good agreement is found in the temperature region below the transition.

  12. Surface boiling - an "obvious" explanation for the observed limiting temperature of finite nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõke, J.

    2012-07-01

    Limits of stability of nuclear systems are explored within the framework of a finite-range interacting Fermi gas model and microcanonical thermodynamics in Thomas-Fermi approximation. It is found that with increasing excitation energy, infinite systems become unstable against volume boiling, while finite systems become subject to surface boiling, providing a natural explanation for the observed saturationlike patterns, or limiting temperature, in caloric curves. Boiling patterns of iso-asymmetric matter are discussed.

  13. Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations.

  14. Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations. PMID:28198404

  15. Magnetic Signatures of Quantum Critical Points of the Ferrimagnetic Mixed Spin-(1/2, S) Heisenberg Chains at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.

  16. Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.

  17. Numerical tests of the gauge/gravity duality conjecture for D0-branes at finite temperature and finite N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Masanori; Hyakutake, Yoshifumi; Ishiki, Goro; Nishimura, Jun

    2016-10-01

    According to the gauge/gravity duality conjecture, the thermodynamics of gauge theory describing D-branes corresponds to that of black branes in superstring theory. We test this conjecture directly in the case of D0-branes by applying Monte Carlo methods to the corresponding gauge theory, which takes the form of the Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind (BFSS) matrix quantum mechanics. In particular, we take the continuum limit by extrapolating the UV cutoff to infinity. First we perform simulations at large N so that string loop corrections can be neglected on the gravity side. Our results for the internal energy exhibit the temperature dependence consistent with the prediction including the α' corrections. Next we perform simulations at small N but at lower temperature so that the α' corrections can be neglected on the gravity side. Our results are consistent with the prediction including the leading string loop correction, which suggests that the conjecture holds even at finite N .

  18. Ab-initio structural search in solid oxygen at high pressure: from zero to finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogollo-Olivo, B. H.; Montoya, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structure of solid oxygen in the terapascal (TPa) regime has been investigated with Density Functional Theory and the Random Search algorithm at zero temperature. We also considered the effect of the entropy at finite temperatures using the QuasiHarmonic Approximation, and we found that the regime of stability of solid oxygen differs strongly from the results predicted at zero temperature. Finally, we provide some insights of oxygen as a chalcogen element.

  19. Magnetic field effects on the static quark potential at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the static Q Q ¯ potential at zero and finite temperature in the presence of a constant and uniform external magnetic field B →, for several values of the lattice spacing and for different orientations with respect to B →. As a byproduct, we provide continuum limit extrapolated results for the string tension, the Coulomb coupling and the Sommer parameter at T =0 and B =0 . We confirm the presence in the continuum of a B -induced anisotropy, regarding essentially the string tension, for which it is of the order of 15% at |e |B ˜1 GeV2 and would suggest, if extrapolated to larger fields, a vanishing string tension along the magnetic field for |e |B ≳4 GeV2. The angular dependence for |e |B ≲1 GeV2 can be nicely parametrized by the first allowed term in an angular Fourier expansion, corresponding to a quadrupole deformation. Finally, for T ≠0 , the main effect of the magnetic field is a general suppression of the string tension, leading to a early loss of the confining properties: this happens even before the appearance of inverse magnetic catalysis in the chiral condensate, supporting the idea that the influence of the magnetic field on the confining properties is the leading effect originating the decrease of Tc as a function of B .

  20. Time-dependent correlations in quantum magnets at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauseweh, B.; Groitl, F.; Keller, T.; Rolfs, K.; Tennant, D. A.; Habicht, K.; Uhrig, G. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this Rapid Communication we investigate the time dependence of the gap mode of copper nitrate at various temperatures. We combine state-of-the-art theoretical calculations with high precision neutron resonance spin-echo measurements to understand the anomalous decoherence effects found previously in this material. It is shown that the time domain offers a complementary view on this phenomenon, which allows us to directly compare experimental data and theoretical predictions without the need of further intensive data analysis, such as (de)convolution.

  1. Finite temperature inelastic mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiuzi; Das Sarma, S.

    2013-02-01

    We adopt the GW and random phase approximations to study finite temperature effects on the inelastic mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime by directly calculating the imaginary part of the finite temperature self-energy induced by electron-electron interaction in extrinsic and intrinsic graphene. In particular, we provide the density-dependent leading order temperature correction to the inelastic scattering rate for both single-layer and double-layer graphene systems. We find that the inelastic mean free path is strongly influenced by finite-temperature effects. We present the similarity and the difference between graphene with linear chiral band dispersion and conventional two-dimensional electron systems with parabolic band dispersion. We also compare the calculated finite temperature inelastic scattering length with the elastic scattering length due to Coulomb disorder and comment on the prospects for quantum interference effects showing up in low-density graphene transport. We also carry out inelastic scattering calculation for electron-phonon interaction, which by itself gives rather long carrier mean free paths and lifetimes since the deformation potential coupling is weak in graphene, and therefore electron-phonon interaction contributes significantly to the inelastic scattering only at relatively high temperatures.

  2. Finite-temperature Casimir force between perfectly metallic corrugated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, MirFaez

    2011-09-15

    We study the Casimir force between two corrugated plates due to thermal fluctuations of a scalar field. For arbitrary corrugations and temperature T, we provide an analytical expression for the Casimir force, which is exact to second order in the corrugation amplitude. We study the specific case of two sinusoidally corrugated plates with corrugation wavelength {lambda}, lateral displacement b, and mean separation H. We find that the lateral Casimir force is F{sub l}(T,H)sin(2{pi}b/{lambda}). In other words, at all temperatures, the lateral force is a sinusoidal function of the lateral shift. In the limit {lambda}>>H, F{sub l}(T{yields}{infinity},H){proportional_to}k{sub B}TH{sup -4}{lambda}{sup -1}. In the opposite limit {lambda}<

  3. Importance of finite-temperature exchange correlation for warm dense matter calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasiev, Valentin V.; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S. B.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an explicit temperature dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the warm dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-temperature local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T -dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T =15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-temperature regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the temperature at which the HEG becomes unstable is T ≥7200 K for the T -dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.

  4. Spin transport in the XXZ chain at finite temperature and momentum.

    PubMed

    Steinigeweg, Robin; Brenig, Wolfram

    2011-12-16

    We investigate the role of momentum for the transport of magnetization in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain above the isotropic point at finite temperature and momentum. Using numerical and analytical approaches, we analyze the autocorrelations of density and current and observe a finite region of the Brillouin zone with diffusive dynamics below a cutoff momentum, and a diffusion constant independent of momentum and time, which scales inversely with anisotropy. Lowering the temperature over a wide range, starting from infinity, the diffusion constant is found to increase strongly while the cutoff momentum for diffusion decreases. Above the cutoff momentum diffusion breaks down completely.

  5. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  6. Finite-temperature fluid–insulator transition of strongly interacting 1D disordered bosons

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Vincent P.; Aleiner, Igor L.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Shlyapnikov, Georgy V.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the many-body localization–delocalization transition for strongly interacting one-dimensional disordered bosons and construct the full picture of finite temperature behavior of this system. This picture shows two insulator–fluid transitions at any finite temperature when varying the interaction strength. At weak interactions, an increase in the interaction strength leads to insulator → fluid transition, and, for large interactions, there is a reentrance to the insulator regime. It is feasible to experimentally verify these predictions by tuning the interaction strength with the use of Feshbach or confinement-induced resonances, for example, in 7Li or 39K. PMID:27436894

  7. Standard Model Extension and Casimir effect for fermions at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2016-11-01

    Lorentz and CPT symmetries are foundations for important processes in particle physics. Recent studies in Standard Model Extension (SME) at high energy indicate that these symmetries may be violated. Modifications in the lagrangian are necessary to achieve a hermitian hamiltonian. The fermion sector of the standard model extension is used to calculate the effects of the Lorentz and CPT violation on the Casimir effect at zero and finite temperature. The Casimir effect and Stefan-Boltzmann law at finite temperature are calculated using the thermo field dynamics formalism.

  8. Quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea M.; Parish, Meera M.

    2014-12-01

    We consider a Fermi gas with short-range attractive interactions that is confined along one direction by a tight harmonic potential. For this quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi gas, we compute the pressure equation of state, radiofrequency spectrum, and the superfluid critical temperature Tc using a mean-field theory that accounts for all the energy levels of the harmonic confinement. Our calculation for Tc provides a natural generalization of the Thouless criterion to the quasi-2D geometry, and it correctly reduces to the 3D expression derived from the local density approximation in the limit where the confinement frequency ωz→0 . Furthermore, our results suggest that Tc can be enhanced by relaxing the confinement and perturbing away from the 2D limit.

  9. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  10. A Riemann-Hilbert formulation for the finite temperature Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglià, Andrea; Cornagliotto, Martina; Mattelliano, Massimo; Tateo, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Inspired by recent results in the context of AdS/CFT integrability, we reconsider the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations describing the 1D fermionic Hubbard model at finite temperature. We prove that the infinite set of TBA equations are equivalent to a simple nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem for a finite number of unknown functions. The latter can be transformed into a set of three coupled nonlinear integral equations defined over a finite support, which can be easily solved numerically. We discuss the emergence of an exact Bethe Ansatz and the link between the TBA approach and the results by Jüttner, Klümper and Suzuki based on the Quantum Transfer Matrix method. We also comment on the analytic continuation mechanism leading to excited states and on the mirror equations describing the finite-size Hubbard model with twisted boundary conditions.

  11. A variational approach to coarse-graining of equilibrium and non-equilibrium atomistic description at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Y; Knap, J; Ortiz, M

    2007-04-26

    The aim of this paper is the development of equilibrium and non-equilibrium extensions of the quasicontinuum (QC) method. We first use variational mean-field theory and the maximum-entropy formalism for deriving approximate probability distribution and partition functions for the system. The resulting probability distribution depends locally on atomic temperatures defined for every atom and the corresponding thermodynamic potentials are explicit and local in nature. The method requires an interatomic potential as the sole empirical input. Numerical validation is performed by simulating thermal equilibrium properties of selected materials using the Lennard-Jones pair potential and the EAM potential and comparing with molecular dynamics results as well as experimental data. The max-ent variational approach is then taken as a basis for developing a three-dimensional non-equilibrium finite temperature extension of the quasicontinuum method. This extension is accomplished by coupling the local temperature-dependent free energy furnished by the max-ent approximation scheme to the heat equation in a joint thermo-mechanical variational setting. Results for finite-temperature nanoindentation tests demonstrate the ability of the method to capture non-equilibrium transport properties and differentiate between slow and fast indentation.

  12. Finite-Temperature Hydrogen Adsorption/Desorption Thermodynamics Driven by Soft Vibration Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Sung-Jae; Lee, Eui-Sup; Yoon, Mina; Yong-Hyun, Kim

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that room-temperature hydrogen storage on nanostructured or porous materials requires enhanced dihydrogen adsorption. In this work we reveal that room-temperature hydrogen storage is possible not only by the enhanced adsorption, but also by making use of the vibrational free energy from soft vibration modes. These modes exist for example in the case of metallo-porphyrin-incorporated graphenes (M-PIGs) with out-of-plane ( buckled ) metal centers. There, the in-plane potential surfaces are flat because of multiple-orbital-coupling between hydrogen molecules and the buckled-metal centers. This study investigates the finite-temperature adsorption/desorption thermodynamics of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on M-PIGs by employing first-principles total energy and vibrational spectrum calculations. Our results suggest that the current design strategy for room-temperature hydrogen storage materials should be modified by explicitly taking finite-temperature vibration thermodynamics into account.

  13. Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-09-15

    The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T{sub F}, exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.

  14. A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, Salwa; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Bannuru, Thirumalesh; Rajic, Slobodan; Islam, Syed K; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2011-01-01

    A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy harvester has been modeled using a finite element method. The effect of constituting material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure has been investigated. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature play a key role in dominating the cycling frequency and efficiency of energy recycling. An optimal solution for the most efficient energy scavenging process has been sought by studying the performance trend with different variable parameters such as thermal contact conductance, heat source temperature, device aspect ratio and constituent materials of varying thermal conductivity and expansion coefficients.

  15. Asymmetry of the dimension-two gluon condensate: The finite temperature case

    SciTech Connect

    Vercauteren, David; Verschelde, Henri

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we continue the work begun in a previous article. We compute, in the formalism of local composite operators, the value of the asymmetry in the dimension two condensate for finite temperatures. We find a positive value for the asymmetry, which disappears when the temperature is increased. We also compute the value of the full dimension two condensate for higher temperatures, and we find that it decreases in absolute value, finally disappearing for sufficiently high temperature. We also comment on the temperature dependence of the electric and magnetic components of the condensate separately. We compare our results with the corresponding lattice date found by Chernodub and Ilgenfritz.

  16. BCS instability and finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D1-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu; Sathiapalan, B.

    2014-09-01

    A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in [1]. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass-squared-squared using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the finite temperature mass-squared correction to all the massless fields and use these temperature dependent masses-squared to compute the tachyonic mass-squared correction. We show numerically the existence of a transition temperature at which the effective mass-squared of the tree-level tachyons becomes zero, thereby stabilizing the brane configuration.

  17. Electronic chemical response indexes at finite temperature in the canonical ensemble.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-07-14

    Assuming that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons and within the extension of density functional theory to finite temperature, the first and second order chemical reactivity response functions of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the temperature, the number of electrons, and the external potential are derived. It is found that in all cases related to the first or second derivatives with respect to the number of electrons or the external potential, there is a term given by the average of the corresponding derivative of the electronic energy of each state (ground and excited). For the second derivatives, including those related with the temperature, there is a thermal fluctuation contribution that is zero at zero temperature. Thus, all expressions reduce correctly to their corresponding chemical reactivity expressions at zero temperature and show that, at room temperature, the corrections are very small. When the assumption that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons is replaced by the straight lines behavior connecting integer values, as required by the ensemble theorem, one needs to introduce directional derivatives in most cases, so that the temperature dependent expressions reduce correctly to their zero temperature counterparts. However, the main result holds, namely, at finite temperature the thermal corrections to the chemical reactivity response functions are very small. Consequently, the present work validates the usage of reactivity indexes calculated at zero temperature to infer chemical behavior at room and even higher temperatures.

  18. Electronic chemical response indexes at finite temperature in the canonical ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx Gázquez, José L. E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx

    2015-07-14

    Assuming that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons and within the extension of density functional theory to finite temperature, the first and second order chemical reactivity response functions of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the temperature, the number of electrons, and the external potential are derived. It is found that in all cases related to the first or second derivatives with respect to the number of electrons or the external potential, there is a term given by the average of the corresponding derivative of the electronic energy of each state (ground and excited). For the second derivatives, including those related with the temperature, there is a thermal fluctuation contribution that is zero at zero temperature. Thus, all expressions reduce correctly to their corresponding chemical reactivity expressions at zero temperature and show that, at room temperature, the corrections are very small. When the assumption that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons is replaced by the straight lines behavior connecting integer values, as required by the ensemble theorem, one needs to introduce directional derivatives in most cases, so that the temperature dependent expressions reduce correctly to their zero temperature counterparts. However, the main result holds, namely, at finite temperature the thermal corrections to the chemical reactivity response functions are very small. Consequently, the present work validates the usage of reactivity indexes calculated at zero temperature to infer chemical behavior at room and even higher temperatures.

  19. Finite-temperature behavior of an interspecies fermionic superfluid with population imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Hao; Chien, C.-C.; He Yan; Levin, K.; Chen Qijin

    2009-07-15

    We determine the superfluid transition temperature T{sub c} and related finite temperature phase diagrams for the entire BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover in a three-dimensional homogeneous mixture of {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K atoms with population imbalance. Our work is motivated by the recent observation of an interspecies Feshbach resonance. Pairing fluctuation effects, which significantly reduce T{sub c} from the onset temperature for pairing (T*), provide reasonable estimates of T{sub c} and indicate that the interspecies superfluid phase should be accessible in future experiments. Although a homogeneous polarized superfluid is not stable in the ground state near unitarity, our phase diagrams show that it stabilizes at finite temperature.

  20. Finite-temperature phase transitions in lattice QCD with Langevin simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Ukawa, A.

    1988-09-15

    This article presents the result of Langevin simulation studies of finite-temperature behavior of QCD for a various number of flavor species. Most of the simulations employ an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice. A full description is made of the data and the identification problem of a first-order phase transition. The systematic bias problem is also investigated.

  1. The finite temperature behaviour of lattice QCD with moderate to large quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Simulations of lattice QCD with 4 flavours of staggered quarks were performed using the Hybrid algorithm on a 12/sup 3/ /times/ 4 lattice. For quark masses greater than or equal to.1 (lattice units) the finite temperature transition did not appear to be first order. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. String effects and the distribution of the glue in static mesons at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, A. S.; Leinweber, D. B.; Moran, P. J.; Williams, A. G.; Sternbeck, A.

    2010-11-01

    The distribution of the gluon action density in mesonic systems is investigated at finite temperature. The simulations are performed in quenched QCD for two temperatures below the deconfinement phase. Unlike the gluonic profiles displayed at T=0, the action-density isosurfaces display a prolate-spheroid-like shape. The curved width profile of the flux tube is found to be consistent with the prediction of the free bosonic string model at large distances.

  3. Performance Calculation of High Temperature Superconducting Hysteresis Motor Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, G.; Chakraborty, N.; Das, J.

    Hysteresis motors being capable of producing a steady torque at low speeds and providing good starting properties at loaded condition became popular among different fractional horse power electrical motors. High temperature superconducting materials being intrinsically hysteretic are suitable for this type of motor. In the present work, performance study of a 2-pole, 50 Hz HTS hysteresis motor with conventional stator and HTS rotor has been carried out numerically using finite element method. The simulation results confirm the ability of the segmented HTS rotor with glued circular sectors to trap the magnetic field as high as possible compared to the ferromagnetic rotor. Also the magnetization loops in the HTS hysteresis motor are obtained and the corresponding torque and AC losses are calculated. The motor torque thus obtained is linearly proportional to the current which is the common feature of any hysteresis motor. Calculations of torques, current densities etc are done using MATLAB program developed in-house and validated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation result shows reasonable agreement with the published results.

  4. Finite Element Models and Properties of a Stiffened Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2010-01-01

    Finite element models were developed of a floor-equipped, frame and stringer stiffened composite cylinder including a coarse finite element model of the structural components, a coarse finite element model of the acoustic cavities above and below the beam-supported plywood floor, and two dense models consisting of only the structural components. The report summarizes the geometry, the element properties, the material and mechanical properties, the beam cross-section characteristics, the beam element representations and the boundary conditions of the composite cylinder models. The expressions used to calculate the group speeds for the cylinder components are presented.

  5. Finite-temperature twisted-untwisted transition of the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, Deshpreet; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming

    Mechanical instability governs many fascinating phenomena in nature, including jamming, glass transitions, and structural phase transitions. Although mechanical instability in athermal systems is well understood, how thermal fluctuations modify such transitions remains largely unexplored. Recent studies reveal that, due to the large number of floppy modes that emerge at mechanical instability, intriguing new phenomena occur, such as fluctuation-driven first-order transitions and order-by-disorder. In this talk, we present an analytic study of the finite-temperature rigidity transition for the kagome lattice. Our model exhibits a zero-temperature continuous twisted-untwisted transition as the sign of the next-nearest-neighbor spring constant changes. At finite temperature, we show that the divergent contribution of floppy modes to the vibrational entropy renormalizes this spring constant, resulting in a first-order transition. We also propose an experimental manifestation of this transition in the system of self-assembling triblock Janus particles.

  6. Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian

    2013-03-01

    While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.

  7. Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.

  8. Initial and apparent temperatures of finite nuclear systems - a quantum statistical thermodynamics study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka; Staszel, P.; Natowitz, J. B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Wada, R.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-10-01

    Quantum statistical thermodynamics has been used to calculate the number of available states and their occupation for fermions and bosons at temperature, T_in, of finite nuclear sytems. An apparent temperature of these systems, T_app, has been calculated from double yield ratios of two isotope pairs. The importance of employing the quantum statistics when high densities and/or low temperatures are involved is shown. However, at high temperatures and low densities, the system behaves as a Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Sequental decays of fragments from excited states influence the double yield ratio observable, causing problems with the temperature extraction. The model has been applied to study the high temperature branch of the "caloric curve".

  9. Magnetospheric Whistler Mode Ray Tracing with the Inclusion of Finite Electron and Ion Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ray tracing is an important technique for the study of whistler mode wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere. In numerical ray tracing the trajectory of a wave packet is calculated at each point in space by solving the Haselgrove equations, assuming a smooth, loss-less medium with no mode coupling. Previous work on ray tracing has assumed a cold plasma environment with negligible electron and ion temperatures. In this work we present magnetospheric whistler mode wave ray tracing results with the inclusion of finite ion and electron temperature. The inclusion of finite temperature effects makes the fourth order dispersion relation become sixth order. We compare our results with the work done by previous researchers for cold plasma environments, using two near earth space models (NGO and GCPM). Inclusion of finite temperature closes the otherwise open refractive index surface near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and affects the magnetospheric reflection of whistler waves. We also asses the main changes in the ray trajectory and implications for cyclotron resonance wave particle interactions including energetic particle precipitation.

  10. Statistical physics of elastoplastic steady states in amorphous solids: finite temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    The effect of finite temperature T and finite strain rate γ on the statistical physics of plastic deformations in amorphous solids made of N particles is investigated. We recognize three regimes of temperature where the statistics are qualitatively different. In the first regime the temperature is very low, Ttemperature and increasing strain rate, since the plastic events are still dominated by the mechanical instabilities (seen as an eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix going to zero), and the effect of temperature is only to facilitate the transition. A third regime occurs above the second crossover temperature T(max)(γ) where stress fluctuations become dominated by thermal noise. Throughout the paper we demonstrate that scaling concepts are highly relevant for the problem at hand, and finally we present a scaling theory that is able to collapse the data for all the values of temperatures and strain rates, providing us with a high degree of predictability.

  11. Nucleon spectral function at finite temperature and the onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Schnell, A.; Kwong, N.H.; Koehler, H.S.

    1996-05-01

    Nucleon self-energies and spectral functions are calculated at the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. In particular, the behavior of these quantities at temperatures above and close to the critical temperature for the superfluid phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. It is shown how the singularity in the thermodynamic {ital T} matrix at the critical temperature for superfluidity (Thouless criterion) reflects in the self-energy and correspondingly in the spectral function. The real part of the on-shell self-energy (optical potential) shows an anomalous behavior for momenta near the Fermi momentum and temperatures close to the critical temperature related to the pairing singularity in the imaginary part. For comparison the self-energy derived from the {ital K} matrix of Brueckner theory is also calculated. It is found that there is no pairing singularity in the imaginary part of the self-energy in this case, which is due to the neglect of hole-hole scattering in the {ital K} matrix. From the self-energy the spectral function and the occupation numbers for finite temperatures are calculated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Finite temperature performance of hard-soft composite nanomagnets and its dependence on geometry structure of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    We study with finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation under periodic boundary conditions remanence, coercivity, and energy product behavior of exchanged-coupled hard and soft alternating layers. We compare multilayer properties with that of a composite composed of cube inclusions of hard phase embedded into a soft matrix. The easy axis of the hard (SmCo5) and soft (FeCo) phases is parallel to the layers and the applied magnetic field. We find a significant increase of the energy product for the multilayer structure as compared with that of the cube structure. In the former case, the switching occurs as a result of a two-step demagnetization process, realizing the concept of exchange-spring behavior, when first the soft layers gradually rotate to the direction of applied field, and then the hard phase layers rotate. In the latter case, we find a significant lowering of the remanent magnetization with increasing soft magnet content than anticipated. This is due to the boundary mismatch of magnetization on the hard/soft interface. We investigate this mismatch as a function of the soft phase content and temperature. The boundary mismatch significantly affects the finite temperature energy product of composites.

  13. Proposal for measuring the finite-temperature Drude weight of integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Prosen, T.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2017-02-01

    Integrable models such as the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain, the Lieb-Liniger, or the one-dimensional Hubbard model are known to avoid thermalization, which was also demonstrated in several quantum-quench experiments. Another dramatic consequence of integrability is the zero-frequency anomaly in transport coefficients, which results in ballistic finite-temperature transport, despite the presence of strong interactions. While this aspect of nonergodic dynamics has been known for a long time, there has so far not been any unambiguous experimental realization thereof. We make a concrete proposal for the observation of ballistic transport via local quantum-quench experiments in fermionic quantum-gas microscopes. Such an experiment would also unveil the coexistence of ballistic and diffusive transport channels in one and the same system and provide a means of measuring finite-temperature Drude weights. The connection between local quenches and linear-response functions is established via time-dependent Einstein relations.

  14. Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan P.

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.

  15. Finite-temperature dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, S.; Roy, Arko; Mukerjee, Subroto

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single vortex and a pair of vortices in quasi two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures. To this end, we use the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is the Langevin equation for the Bose-Einstein condensate. For a pair of vortices, we study the dynamics of both the vortex-vortex and vortex-antivortex pairs, which are generated by rotating the trap and moving the Gaussian obstacle potential, respectively. Due to thermal fluctuations, the constituent vortices are not symmetrically generated with respect to each other at finite temperatures. This initial asymmetry coupled with the presence of random thermal fluctuations in the system can lead to different decay rates for the component vortices of the pair, especially in the case of two corotating vortices.

  16. Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah

    2009-04-01

    A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).

  17. Variational tensor network renormalization in imaginary time: Benchmark results in the Hubbard model at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Rams, Marek M.; Dziarmaga, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    A Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a 3D tensor network, with the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension. The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. They are optimized variationally to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO as a representation of the 2D thermal state e-β H. The algorithm is applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model on an infinite square lattice. Benchmark results at finite temperature are obtained that are consistent with the best cluster dynamical mean-field theory and power-series expansion in the regime of parameters where they yield mutually consistent results.

  18. Sequences with M-Bonacci Property and Their Finite Sums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2008-01-01

    The note introduces sequences having M-bonacci property. Two summation formulas for sequences with M-bonacci property are derived. The formulas are generalizations of corresponding summation formulas for both M-bonacci numbers and Fibonacci numbers that have appeared previously in the literature. Applications to the Arithmetic series, "m"th "g -…

  19. Elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, A.; Suga, S.; Okiji, A.

    1997-07-01

    The elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures are studied with the use of the Bethe ansatz solution. The formulation is based on the method of Yang and Yang, which was developed for the one-dimensional boson systems with the 0953-8984/9/27/014/img1-function type interaction. The dispersion relations and the excitation spectrums are obtained numerically for the charge and the spin degrees of freedom.

  20. Electrosurgical vessel sealing tissue temperature: experimental measurement and finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roland K; Chastagner, Matthew W; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J

    2013-02-01

    The temporal and spatial tissue temperature profile in electrosurgical vessel sealing was experimentally measured and modeled using finite element modeling (FEM). Vessel sealing procedures are often performed near the neurovascular bundle and may cause collateral neural thermal damage. Therefore, the heat generated during electrosurgical vessel sealing is of concern among surgeons. Tissue temperature in an in vivo porcine femoral artery sealed using a bipolar electrosurgical device was studied. Three FEM techniques were incorporated to model the tissue evaporation, water loss, and fusion by manipulating the specific heat, electrical conductivity, and electrical contact resistance, respectively. These three techniques enable the FEM to accurately predict the vessel sealing tissue temperature profile. The averaged discrepancy between the experimentally measured temperature and the FEM predicted temperature at three thermistor locations is less than 7%. The maximum error is 23.9%. Effects of the three FEM techniques are also quantified.

  1. Heavy quark potential at finite temperature from gauge-string duality

    SciTech Connect

    Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.; Ferreira, Cristine N.

    2006-10-15

    A static string in an AdS Schwarzschild space is dual to a heavy quark-antiquark pair in a gauge theory at high temperature. This space is nonconfining in the sense that the energy is finite for infinite quark-antiquark separation. We introduce an infrared cutoff in this space and calculate the corresponding string energy. We find a deconfining phase transition at a critical temperature T{sub C}. Above T{sub C}, the string tension vanishes representing the deconfined phase. Below T{sub C}, we find a linear confining behavior for large quark-antiquark separation. This simple phenomenological model leads to the appropriate zero temperature limit, corresponding to the Cornell potential and also describes a thermal deconfining phase transition. However, the temperature corrections to the string tension do not recover the expected results for low temperatures.

  2. Dynamical Simulation of Sound Propagation in a Highly Elongated Trapped Bose Gas at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.

    2013-05-01

    We study sound propagation in a Bose-condensed gas confined in a highly elongated harmonic trap at finite temperatures. Our analysis is based on Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) formalism, which consists of Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate and the kinetic equation for a thermal cloud. We extend ZNG formalism to deal with a highly-anisotropic trap potential, and use it to simulate sound propagation in the two fluid hydrodynamic regime. We use the trap parameters for the experiment that has reported second sound propagation. Our simulation results show that propagation of two sound pulses corresponding to first and second sound can be observed in an intermediate temperature.

  3. Temperature dependence of coulomb drag between finite-length quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Peguiron, J; Bruder, C; Trauzettel, B

    2007-08-24

    We evaluate the Coulomb drag current in two finite-length Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid wires coupled by an electrostatic backscattering interaction. The drag current in one wire shows oscillations as a function of the bias voltage applied to the other wire, reflecting interferences of the plasmon standing waves in the interacting wires. In agreement with this picture, the amplitude of the current oscillations is reduced with increasing temperature. This is a clear signature of non-Fermi-liquid physics because for coupled Fermi liquids the drag resistance is always expected to increase as the temperature is raised.

  4. Symmetry breaking in noncommutative finite temperature λphi4 theory with a nonuniform ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez, C.; Sánchez, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the CJT effective action at finite temperature for a noncommutative real scalar field theory, with noncommutativity among space and time variables. We study the solutions of a stripe type nonuniform background, which depends on space and time. The analysis in the first approximation shows that such solutions appear in the planar limit, but also under normal anisotropic noncommutativity. Further we show that the transition from the uniform ordered phase to the non uniform one is first order and that the critical temperature depends on the nonuniformity of the ground state.

  5. An analysis of temperature effect in a finite journal bearing with spatial tilt and viscous dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis presented herein deals with the evaluation of the pressure, velocity, and temperature profiles in a finite-length plane journal bearing. The geometry of the case under study consists of a spatially tilted shaft. The two-dimensional Reynolds equation accounts for the variation of the clearance gap h with x and z and is used to model the pressure field. The latter is solved for a variety of shaft tilt angles and then used to calculate the two-dimensional flow field. Finally, the flow field is used in the energy equation to solve for the film temperature profile, when the effect of viscous dissipation is taken into account.

  6. Finite-temperature simulations of the scissors mode in Bose-Einstein condensed gases.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B; Zaremba, E

    2001-09-03

    The dynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas at finite temperatures is described by a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate order parameter and a semiclassical kinetic equation for the thermal cloud, solved using N-body simulations. The two components are coupled by mean fields as well as collisional processes that transfer atoms between the two. We use this scheme to investigate scissors modes in anisotropic traps as a function of temperature. Frequency shifts and damping rates of the condensate mode are extracted, and are found to be in good agreement with recent experiments.

  7. Sound propagation in a Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Meppelink, R.; Koller, S. B.; Straten, P. van der

    2009-10-15

    We study the propagation of a density wave in a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures. The thermal cloud is in the hydrodynamic regime and the system is therefore described by the two-fluid model. A phase-contrast imaging technique is used to image the cloud of atoms and allows us to observe small density excitations. The propagation of the density wave in the condensate is used to determine the speed of sound as a function of the temperature. We find the speed of sound to be in good agreement with calculations based on the Landau two-fluid model.

  8. Exact sum rules for vector channel at finite temperature and their application to lattice QCD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satow, Daisuke; Gubler, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    We derive three exact sum rules for the spectral function of the electromagnetic current with zero spatial momentum at finite temperature. Possible applications of the three sum rules to lattice computations of the spectral function and transport coefficients are also discussed: We propose an ansatz for the spectral function that can be applied to all three sum rules and fit it to available lattice data of the Euclidean vector correlator above the critical temperature. As a result, we obtain estimates for both the electrical conductivity σ and the second order transport coefficient τJ.

  9. A study of symmetry restoration at finite temperature in the O(4) model using anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavai, R. V.; Heller, U. M.; Karsch, F.; Plache, B.; Neuhaus, T.

    Results of investigations of the O(4) spin model at finite temperature using anisotropic lattices are presented. In both the large N approximation and the numerical simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm we find that the ratio of the symmetry restoration temperature TSR to the Higgs mass mH is independent of the anisotropy. We obtain a lower bound of 0.59 ± 0.04 for the ratio, T SR/m H, at m H ⋍ 0.5 , which is lowered furhter by about 10% at m Ha ⋍ 1 .

  10. Optical properties of water at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald

    2011-04-15

    We calculate optical properties of water along the principal Hugoniot curve from ambient conditions up to temperatures of 130 000 K with density functional theory (DFT) and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The effect of the exchange correlation functional is examined by comparing the generalized gradient approximation with a hybrid functional that contains Fock exchange. We find noticeable but moderate differences between the respective results which decrease rapidly above 80 000 K. The reflectivity along the principal Hugoniot is calculated and a good qualitative but fair quantitative agreement with available experimental data is found. Our results are of general relevance for calculations of optical properties with DFT at zero and elevated temperature.

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Drut, Joaquín E.; Magierski, Piotr

    2008-08-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo method for spin- (1)/(2) fermions at finite temperature is formulated for dilute systems with an s -wave interaction. The motivation and the formalism are discussed along with descriptions of the algorithm and various numerical issues. We report on results for the energy, entropy, and chemical potential as a function of temperature. We give upper bounds on the critical temperature Tc for the onset of superfluidity, obtained by studying the finite-size scaling of the condensate fraction. All of these quantities were computed for couplings around the unitary regime in the range -0.5⩽(kFa)-1⩽0.2 , where a is the s -wave scattering length and kF is the Fermi momentum of a noninteracting gas at the same density. In all cases our data are consistent with normal Fermi gas behavior above a characteristic temperature T0>Tc , which depends on the coupling and is obtained by studying the deviation of the caloric curve from that of a free Fermi gas. For Tctemperature results for the energy and the pairing gap are shown and compared with Green-function Monte Carlo results by other groups.

  12. Ultrasound simulation of real-time temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation using finite element models.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M J; Jiang, J; Varghese, T

    2008-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is the most common minimally invasive therapy used in the United States to treat hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The ability to perform real-time temperature imaging while a patient is undergoing ablation therapy may help reduce the high recurrence rates following ablation therapy. Ultrasound echo signals undergo time shifts with increasing temperature due to sound speed and thermal expansion, which are tracked using both 1D cross correlation and 2D block matching based speckle tracking methods. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy and precision of temperature estimation using the above algorithms on both simulated and experimental data. A finite element analysis simulation of radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tissue was developed. Finite element analysis provides a method to obtain the exact temperature distribution along with a mapping of the tissue displacement due to thermal expansion. These local displacement maps were combined with the displacement due to speed of sound changes and utilized to generate ultrasound radiofrequency frames at specified time increments over the entire ablation procedure. These echo signals provide an ideal test-bed to evaluate the performance of both speckle tracking methods, since the estimated temperature results can be compared directly to the exact finite element solution. Our results indicate that the 1D cross-correlation (CC) method underestimates the cumulative displacement by 0.20mm, while the underestimation with 2D block matching (BM) is about 0.14 mm after 360 s of ablation. The 1D method also overestimates the size of the ablated region by 5.4% when compared to 2.4% with the 2D method after 720 s of ablation. Hence 2D block matching provides better tracking of temperature variations when compared to the 1D cross-correlation method over the entire duration of the ablation procedure. In addition, results obtained using 1D cross-correlation diverge from

  13. Casimir effect for parallel plates involving massless Majorana fermions at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Hongbo

    2010-08-15

    We study the Casimir effect for parallel plates with massless Majorana fermions obeying the bag boundary conditions at finite temperature. The thermal influence will modify the effect. It is found that the sign of the Casimir energy remains negative if the product of the plate distance and the temperature is larger than a special value, otherwise the energy will change to positive. The Casimir energy rises with the stronger thermal influence. We show that the attractive Casimir force between two parallel plates becomes greater with increasing temperature. In the case of the piston system involving the same Majorana fermions with the same boundary conditions, the attractive force on the piston will be weaker in higher-temperature surroundings.

  14. Finite temperature and the Polyakov loop in the covariant variational approach to Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    We extend the covariant variational approach for Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge to non-zero temperatures. Numerical solutions for the thermal propagators are presented and compared to high-precision lattice data. To study the deconfinement phase transition, we adapt the formalism to background gauge and compute the effective action of the Polyakov loop for the colour groups SU(2) and SU(3). Using the zero-temperature propagators as input, all parameters are fixed at T = 0 and we find a clear signal for a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperatures, which is second order for SU(2) and first order for SU(3). The critical temperatures obtained are in reasonable agreement with lattice data.

  15. A study of frictional property of the human fingertip using three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tada, Mitsunori; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2011-03-01

    Since the tactile perception detects skin deformation due to the contact of an object, it is important to understand contact mechanics, especially, frictional behavior of the human fingertip. The coefficient of friction is recently modeled as a function of the applied normal load in which case the traditional Coulomb's law does not provide a description for the skin surface. When a surface is a rubber-like material, the frictional behavior follows the frictional law of the rubber-like material. Therefore, we developed a three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip and analyzed frictional behavior based on the frictional law of rubber-like material. We proposed a combined technique using both experimental and Finite Element analyses in order to investigate the frictional property of the fingertip. A three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip was developed using MRI images. We hypothesized a frictional equation of the critical shear stress. Squared differences between equivalent coefficient of friction of the FE analysis and the coefficient of kinetic friction of the experiment while sliding was decreased and the Finite Element analysis iterated until the error was minimized, and thus the frictional equation was determined. We obtained the equation of the critical shear stress and simulated kinetic friction of the fingertip while sliding under arbitrary normal loading condition by using the Finite Element analysis. We think this study is an appropriate method for understanding the frictional property of the human fingertip using the Finite Element analysis.

  16. Chiral restoration of strong coupling QCD at finite temperature and baryon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The strong coupling limit (β=0) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (μ,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-μ transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Mütter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.

  17. Finite-temperature Yang-Mills theory in the Hamiltonian approach in Coulomb gauge from a compactified spatial dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, J.; Reinhardt, H.

    2015-04-01

    Yang-Mills theory is studied at finite temperature within the Hamiltonian approach in Coulomb gauge by means of the variational principle using a Gaussian-type Ansatz for the vacuum wave functional. Temperature is introduced by compactifying one spatial dimension. As a consequence the finite-temperature behavior is encoded in the vacuum wave functional calculated on the spatial manifold R2×S1(L ) where L-1 is the temperature. The finite-temperature equations of motion are obtained by minimizing the vacuum energy density to two-loop order. We show analytically that these equations yield the correct zero-temperature limit while at infinite temperature they reduce to the equations of the 2 +1 -dimensional theory in accordance with dimensional reduction. The resulting propagators are compared to those obtained from the grand canonical ensemble where an additional Ansatz for the density matrix is required.

  18. Finite temperature Casimir effect for massless Majorana fermions in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Erdas, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The zeta function regularization technique is used to study the finite temperature Casimir effect for a massless Majorana fermion field confined between parallel plates and satisfying bag boundary conditions. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plates is included. An expression for the zeta function is obtained, which is exact to all orders in the magnetic field strength, temperature and plate distance. The zeta function is used to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of the Majorana field and the pressure on the plates, in the case of weak magnetic field and strong magnetic field. In both cases, simple analytic expressions are obtained for the free energy and pressure which are very accurate and valid for all values of the temperature and plate distance.

  19. Expansion of one-dimensional lattice hard-core bosons at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Rigol, Marcos

    2017-03-01

    We develop an exact approach to study the quench dynamics of hard-core bosons initially in thermal equilibrium in one-dimensional lattices. This approach is used to study the sudden expansion of thermal states after confining potentials are switched off. We find that a dynamical fermionization of the momentum distribution occurs at all temperatures. This phenomenon is studied for low initial site occupations, for which the expansion of the cloud is self-similar. In this regime, the occupation of the natural orbitals allows one to distinguish hard-core bosons from noninteracting fermions. We also study the free expansion of initial Mott insulating domains at finite temperature and show that the emergence of off-diagonal one-body correlations is suppressed gradually with increasing temperature. Surprisingly, the melting of the Mott domain is accompanied by an effective cooling of the system. We explain this phenomenon analytically using an equilibrium description based on an emergent local Hamiltonian.

  20. Dynamics of Nonplanar Quantized Vortex Rings Before Reconnection at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a numerical study of the dynamics of nonplanar quantized vortices at finite temperatures on their route to reconnection. We perform numerical simulations using the vortex filament method, solving the full Biot-Savart equation at a wide range of temperatures and initial conditions. We consider the dynamics of the two rings, lying initially in different planes and at different distances. The angles between planes are taken as equal to 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. It is observed that the temperature and the initial position of the vortices strongly affect the dynamics of the vortices on their route to reconnection. However, when the distances between the vertices of the vortices become smaller than the distances satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, the dynamics of the system change drastically, and this trend is universal. The universality is expressed in the shapes and velocities of the vertices of the vortices.

  1. Emergence of a Fermionic Finite-Temperature Critical Point in a Kondo Lattice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Po-Hao; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Chung, Chung-Hou; Mou, Chung-Yu; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    2016-04-29

    The underlying Dirac point is central to the profound physics manifested in a wide class of materials. However, it is often difficult to drive a system with Dirac points across the massless fermionic critical point. Here by exploiting screening of local moments under spin-orbit interactions in a Kondo lattice, we show that below the Kondo temperature, the Kondo lattice undergoes a topological transition from a strong topological insulator to a weak topological insulator at a finite temperature T_{D}. At T_{D}, massless Dirac points emerge and the Kondo lattice becomes a Dirac semimetal. Our analysis indicates that the emergent relativistic symmetry dictates nontrivial thermal responses over large parameter and temperature regimes. In particular, it yields critical scaling behaviors both in magnetic and transport responses near T_{D}.

  2. [Finite element analysis of temperature field of retina by electrical stimulation with microelectrode array].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Qingli; Gao, Weiping; Wu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    We studied the influence of electrode array parameters on temperature distribution to the retina during the use of retinal prosthesis in order to avoid thermal damage to retina caused by long-term electrical stimulation. Based on real epiretinal prosthesis, a three-dimensional model of electrical stimulation for retina with 4 X 4 microelectrode array had been established using the finite element software (COMSOL Multiphysics). The steady-state temperature field of electrical stimulation of the retina was calculated, and the effects of the electrode parameters such as the distance between the electrode contacts, the materials and area of the electrode contact on temperature field were considered. The maximum increase in the retina steady temperature was about 0. 004 degrees C with practical stimulation current. When the distance between the electrode contacts was changed from 130 microm to 520 microm, the temperature was reduced by about 0.006 microC. When the contact radius was doubled from 130 microm to 260 microm, the temperature decrease was about 0.005 degrees C. It was shown that there were little temperature changes in the retina with a 4 x 4 epiretinal microelectrode array, reflecting the safety of electrical stimulation. It was also shown that the maximum temperature in the retina decreased with increasing the distance between the electrode contacts, as well as increasing the area of electrode contact. However, the change of the maximum temperature was very small when the distance became larger than the diameter of electrode contact. There was no significant difference in the effects of temperature increase among the different electrode materials. Rational selection of the distance between the electrode contacts and their area in electrode design can reduce the temperature rise induced by electrical stimulation.

  3. A finite-temperature Monte Carlo algorithm for network forming materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Richard L. C.

    2014-03-01

    Computer simulations of structure formation in network forming materials (such as amorphous semiconductors, glasses, or fluids containing hydrogen bonds) are challenging. The problem is that large structural changes in the network topology are rare events, making it very difficult to equilibrate these systems. To overcome this problem, Wooten, Winer, and Weaire [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1392 (1985)] proposed a Monte Carlo bond-switch move, constructed to alter the network topology at every step. The resulting algorithm is well suited to study networks at zero temperature. However, since thermal fluctuations are ignored, it cannot be used to probe the phase behavior at finite temperature. In this paper, a modification of the original bond-switch move is proposed, in which detailed balance and ergodicity are both obeyed, thereby facilitating a correct sampling of the Boltzmann distribution for these systems at any finite temperature. The merits of the modified algorithm are demonstrated in a detailed investigation of the melting transition in a two-dimensional 3-fold coordinated network.

  4. Path Integral Monte Carlo finite-temperature electronic structure of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2003-03-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We apply the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in a single and double quantum dots. With this approach we evaluate the electronic distributions and correlations, and finite temperature effects on those. Temperature increase broadens the one-electron distribution as expected. This effect is smaller for correlated electrons than for single ones. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and two coupled quantum dots are also compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. This and other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).

  5. Finite-size effects and percolation properties of Poisson geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmier, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Zoia, A.

    2016-07-01

    Random tessellations of the space represent a class of prototype models of heterogeneous media, which are central in several applications in physics, engineering, and life sciences. In this work, we investigate the statistical properties of d -dimensional isotropic Poisson geometries by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation, with special emphasis on the case d =3 . We first analyze the behavior of the key features of these stochastic geometries as a function of the dimension d and the linear size L of the domain. Then, we consider the case of Poisson binary mixtures, where the polyhedra are assigned two labels with complementary probabilities. For this latter class of random geometries, we numerically characterize the percolation threshold, the strength of the percolating cluster, and the average cluster size.

  6. Computing ferrite core losses at high frequency by finite elements method including temperature influence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Ahmad, J.; Guy, G.

    1994-09-01

    A finite elements method coupled with the Preisach model of hysteresis is used to compute-the ferrite losses in medium power transformers (10--60 kVA) working at relatively high frequencies (20--60 kHz) and with an excitation level of about 0.3 Tesla. The dynamic evolution of the permeability is taken into account. The simple and doubly cubic spline functions are used to account for temperature effects respectively on electric and on magnetic parameters of the ferrite cores. The results are compared with test data obtained with 3C8 and B50 ferrites at different frequencies.

  7. Phase diagrams of the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Mysakovych, T S

    2010-09-08

    The phase transitions at finite temperatures in the systems described by the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model are investigated in this work in the framework of the self-consistent random phase approximation. The case of the hard-core bosons is considered and the pseudospin formalism is used. The density-density correlator is calculated in the random phase approximation and the possibilities of transitions from superfluid to supersolid phases are investigated. It is shown that the transitions between uniform and charge-ordered phases can be of the second or the first order, depending on the system parameters.

  8. Non-analyticity of the induced Carroll-Field-Jackiw term at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assunção, J. F.; Mariz, T.; Petrov, A. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the behavior of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) coefficient kμ arising due to integration over massive fermions, and the modification suffered by its topological structure in the finite-temperature case. Our study is based on the imaginary time formalism and summation over the Matsubara frequencies. We demonstrate that the self-energy of photon is non-analytic for the small-kμ limit, i.e., the static limit (k_0=0,k→ 0) and the long-wavelength limit (k_0→ 0,k= 0) do not commute, while the tensorial structure of the CFJ term holds in both limits.

  9. Microcanonical determination of effective-spin models for finite-temperature QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocksch, A.; Ogilvie, M.

    1985-04-01

    The microcanonical-reorganization-group techniques developed by Creutz, et al. (1984) are applied to computer-simulation effective-spin models for finite-temperature QCD in SU(3) gauge theory. The effective-spin-model coupling coefficient J is plotted against the gauge-field coupling coefficient lambda; the results are compared with the predictions of strong-coupling (Green and Karsch, 1984) and weak-coupling (Kadanoff, 1977) theory; and the implications of the transition to a new phase of deconfined quarks and gluons for cosmology are indicated.

  10. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  11. Finite-temperature scaling at the quantum critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haelg, Manuel; Huvonen, Dan; Guidi, Tatiana; Quintero-Castro, Diana Lucia; Boehm, Martin; Regnault, Louis-Pierre; Zheludev, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to study the finite-temperature scaling behavior of spin correlations at the quantum critical point in an experimental realization of the one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field. The target compound is the well-characterized, anisotropic and bond-alternating Heisenberg spin-1 chain material NTENP. The validity and the limitations of the dynamic structure factor scaling are tested, discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. For this purpose neutron data have been collected on the three-axes spectrometers IN14 at ILL and FLEXX at HZB as well as on the time of flight multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS. In addition to the general statement about quantum criticality and universality, present study also reveals new insight into the properties of the spin chain compound NTENP in particular.

  12. Low-temperature properties of aviation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, C.; Voisey, M.A.; Willcock, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of work on the low-temperature properties of aviation turbine fuels that has been carried out in recent years at Thornton Research Centre. Details of both simulated full-scale aircraft tank tests and laboratory evaluations are included. Zero holdup is considered as a low-temperature specification parameter and a novel method for measuring its value is described. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a change from a freezing point to a flow criterion could provide an increase in fuel availability without prejudicing flight safety.

  13. Finite Volume Dependence of Hadron Properties and Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony W. Thomas; Jonathan D. Ashley; Derek B. Leinweber; Ross D. Young

    2005-02-01

    Because the time needed for a simulation in lattice QCD varies at a rate exceeding the fourth power of the lattice size, it is important to understand how small one can make a lattice without altering the physics beyond recognition. It is common to use a rule of thumb that the pion mass times the lattice size should be greater than (ideally much greater than) four (i.e., m{sub {pi}} L >> 4). By considering a relatively simple chiral quark model we are led to suggest that a more realistic constraint would be m{sub {pi}} (L - 2R) >> 4, where R is the radius of the confinement region, which for these purposes could be taken to be around 0.8-1.0 fm. Within the model we demonstrate that violating the second condition can lead to unphysical behavior of hadronic properties as a function of pion mass. In particular, the axial charge of the nucleon is found to decrease quite rapidly as the chiral limit is approached.

  14. Stability Properties of Underdominance in Finite Subdivided Populations

    PubMed Central

    Altrock, Philipp M.; Traulsen, Arne; Reed, Floyd A.

    2011-01-01

    In isolated populations underdominance leads to bistable evolutionary dynamics: below a certain mutant allele frequency the wildtype succeeds. Above this point, the potentially underdominant mutant allele fixes. In subdivided populations with gene flow there can be stable states with coexistence of wildtypes and mutants: polymorphism can be maintained because of a migration-selection equilibrium, i.e., selection against rare recent immigrant alleles that tend to be heterozygous. We focus on the stochastic evolutionary dynamics of systems where demographic fluctuations in the coupled populations are the main source of internal noise. We discuss the influence of fitness, migration rate, and the relative sizes of two interacting populations on the mean extinction times of a group of potentially underdominant mutant alleles. We classify realistic initial conditions according to their impact on the stochastic extinction process. Even in small populations, where demographic fluctuations are large, stability properties predicted from deterministic dynamics show remarkable robustness. Fixation of the mutant allele becomes unlikely but the time to its extinction can be long. PMID:22072956

  15. Linear and nonlinear finite element analysis of laminated composite structures at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Thomas Edmund

    The use of composite materials in aerospace applications, particularly engine components, is becoming more prevalent due to the materials high strength, yet low weight. In addition to thermomechanical deformation response, life prediction and damage modeling analysis is also required to assess the component's service life. These complex and computationally intensive analyses require the development of simple, efficient and robust finite element analysis capabilities. A simple robust finite element which can effectively model the multi-layer composite material is developed. This will include thermal gradient capabilities necessary for a complete thermomechanical analysis. In order to integrate the numerically stiff rate dependent viscoplastic equations, efficient, stable numerical algorithms are developed. In addition, consistent viscoplastic/plastic tangent matrices will also be formulated. The finite element is formulated based upon a generalized mixed variational principle with independently assumed displacements and layer number independent strains. A unique scheme utilizing nodal temperatures is used to model a linear thermal gradient through the thickness of the composite. The numerical integration algorithms are formulated in the context of a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. The consistent tangent matrices arise directly from the formulation. The multi-layer composite finite element demonstrates good performance in terms of static displacement and stress predictions, and dynamic response. Also, the element appears to be relatively insensitive to mesh distortions. The robustness and efficiency of the fully implicit integration algorithms is effectively demonstrated in the numerical results. That is, large time steps and a significant reduction in global iterations, as a direct result of utilizing the consistent tangent matrices, is shown.

  16. Finite amplitude nonlinear drift waves in a spatially inhomogeneous degenerate plasma with Landau quantization and electron temperature corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaukat, Muzzamal I.; Masood, W.; Shah, H. A.; Iqbal, M. J.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in the presence of trapped electrons with quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects in dense plasmas have been studied. The linear dispersion relation of the ion drift wave has been derived and it has been found that the Landau quantization and finite temperature effects significantly alter the linear propagation characteristics of the wave under consideration. Employing the Sagdeev potential approach, the formation of finite amplitude drift solitary structures has been investigated in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field for both fully and partially degenerate plasmas. Both compressive and rarefactive drift solitary structures have been obtained for different values of quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs.

  17. The use of ultrasonic property measurements as the basis for finite element analysis of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, E. I.; Kline, R. A.; Cruse, G.; Striz, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the use of ultrasonic property measurements as the basis for finite element analysis of full scale composite components is presented. The approach utilizes multiple velocity measurements at oblique angles of incidence and quantitative analysis of radiographic images for the local determination of each of the nine orthotropic moduli in a woven carbon-carbon composite. These values were then used as input into a finite element code (NASTRAN) to analyze the response of the material to load: here, diametric compression. The predicted response was then compared with strain gage results at several locations to validate the approach.

  18. Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.

  19. Magnetovolume effect and finite-temperature theory of magnetism in transition metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the theory of magnetovolume effects based on the Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is presented. The general expression of the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion is shown to cover a wide range of magnetovolume effects from the insulator to the weak ferromagnets. It consists of the positive term proportional to the specific heat and a term proportional to the temperature derivative of the amplitude of the local moment. By using the single-site spin fluctuation theory (SSF) the Fe-Ni as well as Fe3Pt invar alloys are shown to be understood from this viewpoint. The local environment effects and the electron correlations at finite temperatures improve the difficulties in the SSF.

  20. Magnetovolume effect and finite-temperature theory of magnetism in transition metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Y.

    1989-10-01

    A review of recent developments in the theory of magnetovolume effects based on the Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is presented. The general expression of the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion is shown to cover a wide range of magnetovolume effects from the insulator to the weak ferromagnets. It consists of the positive term proportional to the specific heat and a term proportional to the temperature derivative of the amplitude of the local moment. By using the single-site spin fluctuation theory (SSF) the Fe-Ni as well as Fe 3Pt invar alloys are shown to be understood from this viewpoint. The local environment effects and the electron correlations at finite temperatures improve the difficulties in the SSF.

  1. Competition between fermions and bosons in nuclear matter at low densities and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabiala, J.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.; Kohley, Z.; Yennello, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    We derive the free energy for fermions and bosons from fragmentation data. Inspired by the symmetry and pairing energy of the Weizsäcker mass formula, we obtain the free energy of fermions (nucleons) and bosons (alphas and deuterons) using Landau's free-energy approach. We confirm previously obtained results for fermions and show that the free energy for α particles is negative and close to the free energy for ideal Bose gases and in perfect agreement with the free energy of an interacting Bose gas under the repulsive Coulomb force. Deuterons behave more similarly to fermions (positive free energy) rather than bosons, which is probably due to their low binding energy. We show that the α -particle fraction is dominant at all temperatures and densities explored in this work. This is consistent with their negative free energy, which favors clusterization of nuclear matter into α particles at subsaturation densities and finite temperatures.

  2. Bloch-Nordsieck thermometers: one-loop exponentiation in finite temperature QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sourendu; Indumathi, D.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.

    1996-02-01

    We study the scattering of hard external particles in a heat bath in a real-time formalism for finite temperature QED. We investigate the distribution of the 4-momentum difference of initial and final hard particles in a fully covariant manner when the scale of the process, Q, is much larger than the temperature, T. Our computations are valid for all T subject to this constraint. We exponentiate the leading infra-red term at one-loop order through a resummation of soft (thermal) photon emissions and absorptions. For T > 0, we find that tensor structures arise which are not present at T = 0. These cant' thermal signatures. As a result, external particles can serve as thermometers introduced into the heat bath. We investigate the phase space origin of log( Q/ m) and log ( Q/ T) teens.

  3. Finite grid radius and thickness effects on retarding potential analyzer measured suprathermal electron density and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gasses consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor.

  4. Universality in one-dimensional fermions at finite temperature: Density, pressure, compressibility, and contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. D.; Javernick, P. D.; Loheac, A. C.; Porter, W. J.; Anderson, E. R.; Drut, J. E.

    2015-03-01

    We present finite-temperature, lattice Monte Carlo calculations of the particle number density, compressibility, pressure, and Tan's contact of an unpolarized system of short-range, attractively interacting spin-1/2 fermions in one spatial dimension, i.e., the Gaudin-Yang model. In addition, we compute the second-order virial coefficients for the pressure and the contact, both of which are in excellent agreement with the lattice results in the low-fugacity regime. Our calculations yield universal predictions for ultracold atomic systems with broad resonances in highly constrained traps. We cover a wide range of couplings and temperatures and find results that support the existence of a strong-coupling regime in which the thermodynamics of the system is markedly different from the noninteracting case. We compare and contrast our results with identical systems in higher dimensions.

  5. Exact vector channel sum rules at finite temperature and their applications to lattice QCD data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Satow, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    We derive three exact sum rules for the spectral function of the electromagnetic current with zero spatial momentum at finite temperature. Two of them are derived in this paper for the first time. We explicitly check that these sum rules are satisfied in the weak coupling regime and examine which sum rule is sensitive to the transport peak in the spectral function at low energy or the continuum at high energy. Possible applications of the three sum rules to lattice computations of the spectral function and transport coefficients are also discussed: we propose an Ansatz for the spectral function that can be applied to all three sum rules and fit it to available lattice data of the Euclidean vector correlator above the critical temperature. As a result, we obtain estimates for both the electrical conductivity σ and the second-order transport coefficient τJ .

  6. Effects of a finite number of particles on the thermodynamic properties of a harmonically trapped ideal charged Bose gas in a constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan-Liang, Xiao; Meng-Yun, Lai; Xiao-Yin, Pan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of an ideal charged Bose gas confined in an anisotropic harmonic potential and a constant magnetic field. Using an accurate density of states, we calculate analytically the thermodynamic potential and consequently various intriguing thermodynamic properties, including the Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the specific heat, magnetization, and the corrections to these quantities due to the finite number of particles are also given explicitly. In contrast to the infinite number of particles scenarios, we show that those thermodynamic properties, particularly the Bose-Einstein transition temperature depends upon the strength of the magnetic field due to the finiteness of the particle numbers, and the collective effects of a finite number of particles become larger when the particle number decreases. Moreover, the magnetization varies with the temperature due to the finiteness of the particle number while it keeps invariant in the thermodynamic limit N → ∞. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375090), and the K. C. Wong Magna Foundation of Ningbo University, China.

  7. Finite-temperature time-dependent variation with multiple Davydov states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2017-03-28

    The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach with Davydov Ansätze is a sophisticated, yet efficient technique to obtain an accurate solution to many-body Schrödinger equations for energy and charge transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates and light-harvesting complexes. We extend this variational approach to finite temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model by adopting a Monte Carlo importance sampling method. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we compare calculated real-time quantum dynamics of the spin-boson model with that from numerically exact iterative quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) technique. The comparison shows that our variational approach with the single Davydov Ansätze is in excellent agreement with the QUAPI method at high temperatures, while the two differ at low temperatures. Accuracy in dynamics calculations employing a multitude of Davydov trial states is found to improve substantially over the single Davydov Ansatz, especially at low temperatures. At a moderate computational cost, our variational approach with the multiple Davydov Ansatz is shown to provide accurate spin-boson dynamics over a wide range of temperatures and bath spectral densities.

  8. BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature in the broken-symmetry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G. C.

    2004-09-01

    The BCS-BEC crossover is studied in a systematic way in the broken-symmetry phase between zero temperature and the critical temperature. This study bridges two regimes where quantum and thermal fluctuations are, respectively, important. The theory is implemented on physical grounds, by adopting a fermionic self-energy in the broken-symmetry phase that represents fermions coupled to superconducting fluctuations in weak coupling and to bosons described by the Bogoliubov theory in strong coupling. This extension of the theory beyond mean field proves important at finite temperature, to connect with the results in the normal phase. The order parameter, the chemical potential, and the single-particle spectral function are calculated numerically for a wide range of coupling and temperature. This enables us to assess the quantitative importance of superconducting fluctuations in the broken-symmetry phase over the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Our results are relevant to the possible realizations of this crossover with high-temperature cuprate superconductors and with ultracold fermionic atoms in a trap.

  9. Comparison of Experimentally Measured Temperature Gradient and Finite-Element-Method Simulations for Two Continuously Cast Bloom Heating Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvíčala, M.; Frydrýšek, K.; Štamborská, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of experimentally measured temperature gradients and finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of two heating strategies that were used for continuously cast bloom soaking. The temperature gradient between the bloom surface and center was measured by two thermocouples incorporated directly into the bloom. Scanning electron microscopy equipped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, hot tensile tests, and interdendritic solidification software was used for modeling of steel thermophysical properties with respect to the alloying-elements macrosegregation. The model of the bloom was programmed in the Fortran language. The FEM software MARC/MENTAT 2012 was used for simulation of two heating strategies (plane strain formulation). The first heating model was fitted to the commonly used heating strategy when internal defects grew above the critical limit. The second heating model was a newly proposed strategy that consisted of slower heating up to 1073 K when the first warming-through period occurred. The FEM simulations included determinations of the temperature gradient, the equivalent of stress, the equivalent of elastic strain, the equivalent of plastic strain, and the equivalent of total strain. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental observations. The new heating strategy based on the FEM simulations led to significantly lower occurrence of internal defects in hot-rolled billets that are used for cylinder production.

  10. Validation of an efficient method of assigning material properties in finite element analysis of pelvic bone.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Battley, Mark; Anderson, Iain A; Munro, Jacob T

    2015-01-01

    Bone in the pelvis is a composite material with a complex anatomical structure that is difficult to model computationally. Rather than assigning material properties to increasingly smaller elements to capture detail in three-dimensional finite element (FE) models, properties can be assigned to Gauss points within larger elements. As part of a validation process, we compared experimental and analytical results from a composite beam under four-point load to FE models with material properties assigned to refined elements and Gauss points within larger elements. Both FE models accurately predicted deformation and the analytical predictions of internal shear stress.

  11. Topological susceptibility in finite temperature (2 +1 )-flavor QCD using gradient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yusuke; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi; WHOT-QCD Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We compute the topological charge and its susceptibility in finite temperature (2 +1 )-flavor QCD on the lattice applying a gradient flow method. With the Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a ) -improved Wilson quarks, we perform simulations on a fine lattice with a ≃0.07 fm at a heavy u , d quark mass with mπ/mρ≃0.63 , but approximately physical s quark mass with mηss/mϕ≃0.74 . In a temperature range from T ≃174 MeV (Nt=16 ) to 697 MeV (Nt=4 ), we study two topics on the topological susceptibility. One is a comparison of gluonic and fermionic definitions of the topological susceptibility. Because the two definitions are related by chiral Ward-Takahashi identities, their equivalence is not trivial for lattice quarks which violate the chiral symmetry explicitly at finite lattice spacings. The gradient flow method enables us to compute them without being bothered by the chiral violation. We find a good agreement between the two definitions with Wilson quarks. The other is a comparison with a prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation, which is relevant in a study of axions as a candidate of the dark matter in the evolution of the Universe. We find that the topological susceptibility shows a decrease in T which is consistent with the predicted χt(T )∝(T /Tpc)-8 for three-flavor QCD even at low temperature Tpc

  12. An inverse finite element algorithm to identify constitutive properties using dumb-bell miniature specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partheepan, G.; Sehgal, D. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    An inverse finite element algorithm is established to extract the tensile constitutive properties such as Young's modulus, yield strength and true stress-true strain diagram of a material in a virtually non-destructive manner. Standard test methods for predicting mechanical properties require the removal of large size material samples from the in-service component, which is impractical. To circumvent this situation, a new dumb-bell shaped miniature specimen has been designed and fabricated which can be used for evaluation of properties for a material or component. Also test fixtures were developed to perform a tension test on this proposed miniature specimen in a testing machine. The studies have been conducted in low carbon steel, die steel and medium carbon steel. The output from the miniature test, namely, load-elongation diagram, is obtained and used for the proposed inverse finite element algorithm to find the material properties. Inverse finite element modelling is carried out using a 2D plane stress analysis. The predicted results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Effects of {omega} meson self-coupling on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Raj; Dhiman, Shashi K.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2006-09-15

    The effects of {omega} meson self-coupling (OMSC) on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars are investigated within the framework of an effective field theory based relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model that includes the contributions from all possible mixed interactions between the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. For a realistic investigation, several parameter sets corresponding to different values of OMSC are generated by adjusting the remaining parameters of the ERMF model to fit the properties of the finite nuclei. Though all these parameter sets give equally good fit to the properties of the finite nuclei, only moderate values of OMSC are favored from the 'naturalness' point of view. The equations of state for the symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matters resulting from the parameter sets, with the moderate values of OMSC are in close agreement with the ones obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. For such parameter sets, the limiting mass for the neutron stars composed of {beta}-stable matter is {approx}1.9 M{sub {center_dot}}. It is found that the direct Urca process can occur in the neutron stars with 'canonical' mass of 1.4 M{sub {center_dot}} only for the moderate and higher values of OMSC. Some other interesting properties for the neutron stars are also discussed.

  14. Finite Reynolds number properties of a turbulent channel flow similarity solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klewicki, Joseph; Oberlack, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Finite Reynolds number behaviors of the asymptotically logarithmic mean velocity profile in fully developed turbulent channel flow are investigated. This is accomplished by exploiting invariance properties admitted by the appropriately simplified form of the mean momentum equation. These properties underlie the existence of a similarity solution over an interior inertial domain. This similarity solution, which was originally demonstrated by numerically integrating the relevant nonlinear equation, is consistent with the emergence of a logarithmic mean velocity profile as the Reynolds number becomes large. It is now shown that the governing nonlinear equation has an analytical solution that contains both linear and logarithmic terms, but with the coefficient on the linear term decaying to zero with Reynolds number. Existing DNS are used to elucidate Reynolds number dependent properties of this finite Reynolds number form of the similarity solution. Correspondences between these properties and those indicated by finite Reynolds number corrections to the classical overlap layer formulation for the mean velocity profile are described and discussed. Support of the 2014 Mathematics of Turbulence program at the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Finite-temperature electron correlations in the framework of a dynamic local-field correction

    SciTech Connect

    Schweng, H.K.; Boehm, H.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The quantum-mechanical version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation is applied to finite temperatures. This approximation has two main advantages. First, it includes a dynamic local-field correction and second, it gives positive values for the pair-distribution function in the short-range region at zero temperature. This is even valid for rather low densities. After a description of the numerical difficulties arising with the use of a dynamic approximation, the results for the static-structure factor and the pair-distribution function are discussed thoroughly. Detailed work is performed on the static part of the local-field correction, with special emphasis put on the investigation of its structure. A peak is found at a wave vector [ital q][approx]2.8 (in units of the Fermi wave vector) for small temperatures, which tends towards higher values of [ital q] with increasing temperature. This peak causes an attractive particle-hole interaction in a certain [ital q] region and thus gives rise to the appearance of a charge-density wave. A parametric description is given for the static local-field correction in order to simplify further applications. Furthermore, the exchange-and-correlation free energy is considered. The results are compared with the STLS results and with the modified convolution approach.

  16. Finite-temperature hydrodynamics for one-dimensional Bose gases: Breathing-mode oscillations as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoule, I.; Szigeti, S. S.; Davis, M. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a finite-temperature hydrodynamic approach for a harmonically trapped one-dimensional quasicondensate and apply it to describe the phenomenon of frequency doubling in the breathing-mode oscillations of the quasicondensate momentum distribution. The doubling here refers to the oscillation frequency relative to the oscillations of the real-space density distribution, invoked by a sudden confinement quench. By constructing a nonequilibrium phase diagram that characterizes the regime of frequency doubling and its gradual disappearance, we find that this crossover is governed by the quench strength and the initial temperature rather than by the equilibrium-state crossover from the quasicondensate to the ideal Bose gas regime. The hydrodynamic predictions are supported by the results of numerical simulations based on a finite-temperature c -field approach and extend the utility of the hydrodynamic theory for low-dimensional quantum gases to the description of finite-temperature systems and their dynamics in momentum space.

  17. The application of super wavelet finite element on temperature-pressure coupled field simulation of LPG tank under jet fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Temperature-pressure coupled field analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank under jet fire can offer theoretical guidance for preventing the fire accidents of LPG tank, the application of super wavelet finite element on it is studied in depth. First, review of related researches on heat transfer analysis of LPG tank under fire and super wavelet are carried out. Second, basic theory of super wavelet transform is studied. Third, the temperature-pressure coupled model of gas phase and liquid LPG under jet fire is established based on the equation of state, the VOF model and the RNG k-ɛ model. Then the super wavelet finite element formulation is constructed using the super wavelet scale function as interpolating function. Finally, the simulation is carried out, and results show that the super wavelet finite element method has higher computing precision than wavelet finite element method.

  18. Properties of ferrites at low temperatures (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, G.F.

    1997-04-01

    At cryogenic temperatures magnetic properties of ferrites change significantly from their values at room temperature, which has been the main regime for most device applications. Recently, microwave ferrite devices with superconducting microstrip circuits have been demonstrated at a temperature of 77 K with virtually no electrical conduction losses. Conventional ferrimagnetic garnet and spinel compositions, however, are not generally optimized for low temperatures and may require chemical redesign if the full potential of these devices is to be realized. Saturation magnetizations increase according to the Brillouin{endash}Weiss function dependence that is characteristic of all ferromagnetic materials. Increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostriction can have large effects on hysteresis loop squareness and coercive fields that are essential for stable phase shift and efficient switching. Rare-earth impurities and other ions with short spin-lattice relaxation times can cause increased microwave losses. In this article, the basic magnetochemistry pertaining to ferrites will be examined for adaptation of ferrite technology to cryogenic environments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. How to extract information from simulations of coarsening at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.

    1997-03-01

    Certain properties of coarsening phenomena such as the fraction of space which remains always in the same phase are hard to measure in simulations, at nonzero temperature, because one needs to distinguish spin flips due to thermal fluctuations from those due to the motion of interfaces. By comparing the system where coarsening takes place with a fully ordered system submitted to the same thermal noise, one can measure in a simple way the fraction of space which remains in the same phase. Our numerical results indicate a power law decay (of the fraction of persistent spins) in the whole low temperature phase very similar to the zero temperature situation.

  20. Thermal--electrical finite element modelling for radio frequency cardiac ablation: effects of changes in myocardial properties.

    PubMed

    Tungjitkusolmun, S; Woo, E J; Cao, H; Tsai, J Z; Vorperian, V R; Webster, J G

    2000-09-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis has been utilised as a numerical tool to determine the temperature distribution in studies of radio frequency (RF) cardiac ablation. However, none of the previous FE analyses clarified such computational aspects as software requirements, computation time or convergence test. In addition, myocardial properties included in the previous models vary greatly. A process of FE modelling of a system that included blood, myocardium, and an ablation catheter with a thermistor embedded at the tip is described. The bio-heat equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in myocardium using a commercial software application (ABAQUS). A Cauchy convergence test (epsilon = 0.1 degree C) was performed and it is concluded that the optimal number of elements for the proposed system is 24610. The effects of changes in myocardial properties (+/- 50% electric conductivity, +100%/-50% thermal conductivity, and +100%/-50% specific heat capacity) in both power-controlled (PCRFA) and temperature-controlled RF ablation (TCRFA) were studied. Changes in myocardial properties affect the results of the FE analyses of PCRFA more than those of TCRFA, and the maximum changes in lesion volumes were -58.6% (-50% electric conductivity), -60.7% (+100% thermal conductivity), and +43.2% (-50% specific heat).

  1. Properties of finite difference models of non-linear conservative oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Finite-difference (FD) approaches to the numerical solution of the differential equations describing the motion of a nonlinear conservative oscillator are investigated analytically. A generalized formulation of the Duffing and modified Duffing equations is derived and analyzed using several FD techniques, and it is concluded that, although it is always possible to contstruct FD models of conservative oscillators which are themselves conservative, caution is required to avoid numerical solutions which do not accurately reflect the properties of the original equation.

  2. Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.

  3. Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M

    2016-06-21

    We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy.

  4. Induced fermionic current by a magnetic flux in a cosmic string spacetime at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, Eugênio R.; Saharian, Aram A.; Mohammadi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Here we analyze the finite temperature expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic quantum field with nonzero chemical potential μ, induced by a magnetic flux running along the axis of an idealized cosmic string. These densities are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. Specifically the charge density is an even periodic function of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the quantum flux and an odd function of the chemical potential. The only nonzero component of the current density corresponds to the azimuthal current and it is an odd periodic function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. Both analyzed are developed for the cases where |μ| is smaller than the mass of the field quanta m.

  5. Holographic geometry of cMERA for quantum quenches and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollabashi, Ali; Naozaki, Masahiro; Ryu, Shinsei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-03-01

    We study the time evolution of cMERA (continuous MERA) under quantum quenches in free field theories. We calculate the corresponding holographic metric using the proposal in arXiv:1208.3469 and confirm that it qualitatively agrees with its gravity dual given by a half of the AdS black hole spacetime, argued by Hartman and Maldacena in arXiv:1303.1080. By doubling the cMERA for the quantum quench, we give an explicit construction of finite temperature cMERA. We also study cMERA in the presence of chemical potential and show that there is an enhancement of metric in the infrared region corresponding to the Fermi energy.

  6. Finite-temperature phase transitions in lattice QCD for general number of flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Ohta, S.; Ukawa, A.

    1988-01-18

    Finite-temperature transitions in lattice QCD are studied for various numbers of flavors in the range 1less than or equal toN/sub f/less than or equal to18 on an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice by the Langevin simulation technique. It is found that the weakening of the transition at intermediate quark mass is a general feature for N/sub f/greater than or equal to2, but that the smoothing out of the transition observed for N/sub f/ = 2--4 does not occur for large numbers of flavors (N/sub f/greater than or equal to20). For N/sub f/ = 1 the transition weakens toward small quark mass m/sub q/ but remains first order down to m/sub q/a = 0.05.

  7. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Results for the Degenerate Electron Gas at Finite Temperature.

    PubMed

    Schoof, T; Groth, S; Vorberger, J; Bonitz, M

    2015-09-25

    The uniform electron gas at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in dense plasmas, warm dense matter, laser excited solids, and much more. Accurate thermodynamic data for the uniform electron gas are an essential ingredient for many-body theories, in particular, density-functional theory. Recently, first-principles restricted path integral Monte Carlo results became available, which, however, had to be restricted to moderate degeneracy, i.e., low to moderate densities with r_{s}=r[over ¯]/a_{B}≳1. Here we present novel first-principles configuration path integral Monte Carlo results for electrons for r_{s}≤4. We also present quantum statistical data within the e^{4} approximation that are in good agreement with the simulations at small to moderate r_{s}.

  8. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  9. Fatigue life prediction for finite ratchetting of bellows at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Skoczen, B.; Kurtyka, T.; Brunet, J.C.; Poncet, A.

    1997-06-01

    The expansion bellows, used in the magnet interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are designed for severe service conditions (cryogenic temperatures, high internal pressure, large cyclic deflections). According to the results of the material research, a stainless steel of grade AISI 316 exhibits a high ductility at cryogenic temperatures. This results in the development of the plastic strain fields in the bellows wall, subjected to cyclic loadings, and to failure after a comparatively low number of cycles. In the present work the progressive deformation (ratchetting) of bellows subjected to a sustained load (internal pressure) and to a superimposed cyclic deflection programme at cryogenic temperatures is examined. In order to estimate the number of cycles to failure a generalized Manson-Coffin equation was developed. The model is based on two parameters: the ratchetting induced mean plastic strain and the plastic strain amplitude. The material model is based on the bilinear elastic-plastic response with kinematic hardening. The cyclic hardening and the evolution of the material model parameters (yield strength and hardening modulus) are accounted for. The finite element simulation of the initial 20 cycles leads to an estimation of the accumulated plastic strains and enables the calculation of the fatigue life of the bellows. An experimental stand for cryogenic fatigue tests is also presented and the first verification tests are reported.

  10. Topological edge Mott insulating state in two dimensions at finite temperatures: Bulk and edge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio

    2016-08-01

    We study a bilayer Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with lattice distortion and interlayer spin exchange interaction under cylinder geometry. Our analysis based on real-space dynamical mean field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo demonstrates the emergence of a topological edge Mott insulating (TEMI) state which hosts gapless edge modes only in collective spin excitations. This is confirmed by the numerical calculations at finite temperatures for the spin-Hall conductivity and the single-particle excitation spectrum; the spin-Hall conductivity is almost quantized, σspinx y˜2 (e /2 π ) , predicting gapless edge modes carrying the spin current, while the helical edge modes in the single-particle spectrum are gapped out with respecting symmetry. It is clarified how the TEMI state evolves from the ordinary spin-Hall insulating state with increasing the Hubbard interaction at a given temperature and then undergoes a phase transition to a trivial Mott insulating state. With a bosonization approach at zero temperature, we further address which collective modes host gapless edge modes in the TEMI state.

  11. Permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo approach to the uniform electron gas at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael

    2015-11-28

    The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, rs=r¯/aB≳1. These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ≤ 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method-the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (θ = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density.

  12. On a strong dense periodicity property of shifts of finite type

    SciTech Connect

    Dzul-Kifli, Syahida Che; Al-Muttairi, Hassan

    2015-10-22

    There are various definitions of chaotic dynamical systems. The most utilized definition of chaos is Devaney chaos which isolates three components as being the essential features of chaos; transitivity, dense periodic points and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In this paper, we focus on a strong dense periodicity property i.e. the set of points with prime period at least n is dense for each n. On shift of finite type over two symbols Σ{sub 2}, we show that the strong dense periodicity property implies another strong chaotic notions; locally everywhere onto (also called exact) and totally transitive.

  13. Indentation testing and optimized property identification for viscoelastic materials using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resapu, Rajeswara Reddy

    The most common approaches to determining mechanical material properties of materials are tension and compression tests. However, tension and compression testing cannot be implemented under certain loading conditions (immovable object, not enough space to hold object for testing, etc). Similarly, tensile and compression testing cannot be performed on certain types of materials (delicate, bulk, non-machinable, those that cannot be separated from a larger structure, etc). For such cases, other material testing methods need to be implemented. Indentation testing is one such method; this approach is often non-destructive and can be used to characterize regions that are not compatible with other testing methods. However, indentation testing typically leads to force-displacement data as opposed to the direct stress-strain data normally used for the mechanical characterization of materials; this data needs to be analyzed using a suitable approach to determine the associated material properties. As such, methods to establish material properties from force-displacement indentation data need to be identified. In this work, a finite element approach using parameter optimization is developed to determine the mechanical properties from the experimental indentation data. Polymers and tissues tend to have time-dependent mechanical behavior; this means that their mechanical response under load changes with time. This dissertation seeks to characterize the properties of these materials using indentation testing under the assumption that they are linear viscoelastic. An example of a material of interest is the polymer poly vinyl chloride (PVC) that is used as the insulation of some aircraft wiring. Changes in the mechanical properties of this material over years of service can indicate degradation and a potential hazard to continued use. To investigate the validity of using indentation testing to monitor polymer insulation degradation, PVC film and PVC-insulated aircraft wiring are

  14. Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Deformation Due to Ball Indentation and Evaluation of Tensile Properties of Tempered P92 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.

  16. Corneal Viscoelastic Properties from Finite-Element Analysis of In Vivo Air-Puff Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery. PMID:25121496

  17. Modified Spin Wave Analysis of Low Temperature Properties of the Spin-1/2 Frustrated Ferromagnetic Ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo; Iino, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Low temperature properties of the spin-1/2 frustrated ladder with ferromagnetic rungs and legs, and two different antiferromagnetic next nearest neighbor interactions are investigated using the modified spin wave approximation in the region with ferromagnetic ground states. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic structure factors is calculated. The results are consistent with the numerical exact diagonalization results in the intermediate temperature range. Below this temperature range, the finite size effect is significant in the numerical diagonalization results, while the modified spin wave approximation gives more reliable results. The low temperature properties near the limit of the stability of the ferromagnetic ground state are also discussed.

  18. Behavior of bulk high-temperature superconductors of finite thickness subjected to crossed magnetic fields: Experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbemden, Ph.; Hong, Z.; Coombs, T. A.; Denis, S.; Ausloos, M.; Schwartz, J.; Rutel, I. B.; Hari Babu, N.; Cardwell, D. A.; Campbell, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Crossed-magnetic-field effects on bulk high-temperature superconductors have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The sample geometry investigated involves finite-size effects along both (crossed-)magnetic-field directions. The experiments were carried out on bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O single domains that had been premagnetized with the applied field parallel to their shortest direction (i.e., the c axis) and then subjected to several cycles of the application of a transverse magnetic field parallel to the sample ab plane. The magnetic properties were measured using orthogonal pickup coils, a Hall probe placed against the sample surface, and magneto-optical imaging. We show that all principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law and in which the current density flows perpendicularly to the plane within which the two components of magnetic field are varied. The results of this study suggest that the suppression of the magnetic moment under the action of a transverse field can be predicted successfully by ignoring the existence of flux-free configurations or flux-cutting effects. These investigations show that the observed decay in magnetization results from the intricate modification of current distribution within the sample cross section. The current amplitude is altered significantly only if a field-dependent critical current density Jc(B) is assumed. Our model is shown to be quite appropriate to describe the cross-flow effects in bulk superconductors. It is also shown that this model does not predict any saturation of the magnetic induction, even after a large number (˜100) of transverse field cycles. These features are shown to be consistent with the experimental data.

  19. The Master Equation for Two-Level Accelerated Systems at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomazelli, J. L.; Cunha, R. O.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we study the behaviour of two weakly coupled quantum systems, described by a separable density operator; one of them is a single oscillator, representing a microscopic system, while the other is a set of oscillators which perform the role of a reservoir in thermal equilibrium. From the Liouville-Von Neumann equation for the reduced density operator, we devise the master equation that governs the evolution of the microscopic system, incorporating the effects of temperature via Thermofield Dynamics formalism by suitably redefining the vacuum of the macroscopic system. As applications, we initially investigate the behaviour of a Fermi oscillator in the presence of a heat bath consisting of a set of Fermi oscillators and that of an atomic two-level system interacting with a scalar radiation field, considered as a reservoir, by constructing the corresponding master equation which governs the time evolution of both sub-systems at finite temperature. Finally, we calculate the energy variation rates for the atom and the field, as well as the atomic population levels, both in the inertial case and at constant proper acceleration, considering the two-level system as a prototype of an Unruh detector, for admissible couplings of the radiation field.

  20. Weighted reciprocal of temperature, weighted thermal flux, and their applications in finite-time thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are proposed for a heat engine operating between two heat baths and outputting mechanical work. With the aid of these two concepts, the generalized thermodynamic fluxes and forces can be expressed in a consistent way within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Then the efficiency at maximum power output for a heat engine, one of key topics in finite-time thermodynamics, is investigated on the basis of a generic model under the tight-coupling condition. The corresponding results have the same forms as those of low-dissipation heat engines [ M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg and C. Van den Broeck Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603 (2010)]. The mappings from two kinds of typical heat engines, such as the low-dissipation heat engine and the Feynman ratchet, into the present generic model are constructed. The universal efficiency at maximum power output up to the quadratic order is found to be valid for a heat engine coupled symmetrically and tightly with two baths. The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are also transplanted to the optimization of refrigerators.

  1. Application of finite element techniques in predicting the acoustic properties of turbofan inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Sigman, R. K.; Zinn, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed for predicting the acoustic performance of turbofan inlets carrying a subsonic axisymmetric steady flow. The finite element method combined with the method of weighted residuals is used in predicting the acoustic properties of variable area, annular ducts with or without acoustic treatments along their walls. An approximate solution for the steady inviscid flow field is obtained using an integral method for calculating the incompressible potential flow field in the inlet with a correction to account for compressibility effects. The accuracy of the finite element technique was assessed by comparison with available analytical solutions for the problems of plane and spinning wave propagation through a hard walled annular cylinder with a constant mean flow.

  2. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  3. Tomographic reconstruction of tissue properties and temperature increase for high-intensity focused ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E; Deng, Cheri X; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-10-01

    The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography.

  4. TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF TISSUE PROPERTIES AND TEMPERATURE INCREASE FOR HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E.; Deng, Cheri X.; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography. PMID:23849388

  5. A meta-model analysis of a finite element simulation for defining poroelastic properties of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Finite element analysis is an effective tool to evaluate the material properties of living tissue. For an interactive optimization procedure, the finite element analysis usually needs many simulations to reach a reasonable solution. The meta-model analysis of finite element simulation can be used to reduce the computation of a structure with complex geometry or a material with composite constitutive equations. The intervertebral disc is a complex, heterogeneous, and hydrated porous structure. A poroelastic finite element model can be used to observe the fluid transferring, pressure deviation, and other properties within the disc. Defining reasonable poroelastic material properties of the anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus is critical for the quality of the simulation. We developed a material property updating protocol, which is basically a fitting algorithm consisted of finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. This protocol was used to find the material properties, such as the hydraulic permeability, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, of intact and degenerated porcine discs. The results showed that the in vitro disc experimental deformations were well fitted with limited finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. The comparison of material properties of intact and degenerated discs showed that the hydraulic permeability significantly decreased but Poisson's ratio significantly increased for the degenerated discs. This study shows that the developed protocol is efficient and effective in defining material properties of a complex structure such as the intervertebral disc.

  6. Estimating the material properties of heel pad sub-layers using inverse Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahanchian, Nafiseh; Nester, Christopher J; Howard, David; Ren, Lei; Parker, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Detailed information about the biomechanical behaviour of plantar heel pad tissue contributes to our understanding of load transfer when the foot impacts the ground. The objective of this work was to obtain the hyperelastic and viscoelastic material properties of heel pad sub-layers (skin, micro-chamber and macro-chamber layers) in-vivo. An anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the human heel was used to derive the sub-layer material properties. A combined ultrasound imaging and motorised platform system was used to compress heel pad and to create input data for the Finite Element model. The force-strain responses of the heel pad and its sub-layers under slow compression (5mm/s) and rapid loading-hold-unloading cycles (225mm/s), were measured and hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of the three heel pad sub-layers were estimated by the model. The loaded (under ∼315N) thickness of the heel pad was measured from MR images and used for hyperelastic model validation. The capability of the model to predict peak plantar pressure was used for further validation. Experimental responses of the heel pad under different dynamic loading scenarios (loading-hold-unloading cycles at 141mm/s and sinusoidal loading with maximum velocity of 300mm/s) were used to validate the viscoelastic model. Good agreement was achieved between the predicted and experimental results for both hyperelastic (<6.4% unloaded thickness, 4.4% maximum peak plantar pressure) and viscoelastic (Root Mean Square errors for loading and unloading periods <14.7%, 5.8% maximum force) simulations. This paper provides the first definition of material properties for heel pad sub-layers by using in-vivo experimental force-strain data and an anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the heel.

  7. Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poovathingal, Savio

    reaction products because the reaction probabilities were in the diffusion dominant regime. The molecular beam data at different surface temperatures was then used to build a finite rate model. Each reaction mechanism and all rate parameters of the new model were determined individually based on the molecular beam data. Despite the experiments being performed at near vacuum conditions, the finite rate model developed using the data could be used at pressures and temperatures relevant to hypersonic conditions. The new model was implemented in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and flow over a hypersonic vehicle was simulated. The new model predicted similar overall mass loss rates compared to existing models, however, the individual species production rates were completely different. The most notable difference was that the new model (based on molecular beam data) predicts CO as the oxidation reaction product with virtually no CO2 production, whereas existing models predict the exact opposite trend. CO being the dominant oxidation product is consistent with recent high enthalpy wind tunnel experiments. The discovery that measurements taken in molecular beam facilities are able to determine individual reaction mechanisms, including dependence on surface coverage, opens up an entirely new way of constructing ablation models.

  8. Finite element analysis of the meniscus: the influence of geometry and material properties on its behaviour.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Judith R; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A

    2003-03-01

    A finite element model of the knee meniscus was developed to investigate the effects of various geometrical and material properties on the behaviour of the meniscus under compressive load. Factorial methods were used to determine the relative effect of varying the properties by +/-10% of their initial value. It was found that the stresses in the meniscus were more sensitive to geometry (meniscus width and radius of curvature of the femoral surface of the meniscus) than material properties. The model was also used to investigate the effect of incongruency between the radius of curvature of the femur and the femoral surface of the meniscus. It was shown that mismatch between the curvatures of the femur and meniscus has a large effect on the stresses both in the meniscus and in the underlying cartilage. The results from the study have implications for the design and development of meniscal repair devices and replacements.

  9. Evaluation of the parameters affecting bone temperature during drilling using a three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun

    2017-03-28

    A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.

  10. A two-dimensional finite-difference solution for the temperature distribution in a radial gas turbine guide vane blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosny, W. M.; Tabakoff, W.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference numerical technique is presented to determine the temperature distribution in a solid blade of a radial guide vane. A computer program is written in Fortran IV for IBM 370/165 computer. The computer results obtained from these programs have a similar behavior and trend as those obtained by experimental results.

  11. An inverse finite element method for determining the anisotropic properties of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T D; Boyce, B L

    2011-06-01

    An inverse finite element method was developed to determine the anisotropic properties of bovine cornea from an in vitro inflation experiment. The experiment used digital image correlation (DIC) to measure the three-dimensional surface geometry and displacement field of the cornea at multiple pressures. A finite element model of a bovine cornea was developed using the DIC measured surface geometry of the undeformed specimen. The model was applied to determine five parameters of an anisotropic hyperelastic model that minimized the error between the measured and computed surface displacement field and to investigate the sensitivity of the measured bovine inflation response to variations in the anisotropic properties of the cornea. The results of the parameter optimization revealed that the collagen structure of bovine cornea exhibited a high degree of anisotropy in the limbus region, which agreed with recent histological findings, and a transversely isotropic central region. The parameter study showed that the bovine corneal response to the inflation experiment was sensitive to the shear modulus of the matrix at pressures below the intraocular pressure, the properties of the collagen lamella at higher pressures, and the degree of anisotropy in the limbus region. It was not sensitive to a weak collagen anisotropy in the central region.

  12. Finite-temperature behavior of lattice QCD with Wilson fermion action and its implication on spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Ohta, S.; Ukawa, A.

    1986-10-20

    Finite-temperature behavior of lattice QCD is studied with the Wilson fermion action and use of the Langevin technique for treating quarks dynamically. It is found that the transition zone from low- to high-temperature behavior does not cross the line of critical hopping parameter, but rather continues down to the strong-coupling limit. Practical implications for spectroscopic simulations at small quark masses are discussed.

  13. Spin-orbital order in the undoped manganite LaMnO3 at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snamina, Mateusz; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of spin and orbital order in undoped LaMnO3 under increasing temperature with a model including both superexchange and Jahn-Teller interactions. We used several cluster mean field calculation schemes and find coexisting A -type antiferromagnetic and C -type alternating orbital order at low temperature. The value of the Jahn-Teller coupling between strongly correlated eg orbitals is estimated from the orbital transition temperature at TOO≃780 K. By a careful analysis of onsite and on-bond correlations, we demonstrate that spin-orbital entanglement is rather weak. We have verified that the magnetic transition temperature is influenced by entangled spin-orbital operators as well as by entangled orbital operators on the bonds, but the errors introduced by decoupling such operators partly compensate each other. Altogether, these results justify why the commonly used disentangled spin-orbital model is so successful in describing the magnetic properties and the temperature dependence of the optical spectral weights for LaMnO3.

  14. Determination of Mechanical Properties of Porous Silicon with Image Analysis and Finite Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmoun, K.; Faraoun, H. I.; Bassou, G.; Mathieu, C.; Sari, N. E. Chabane

    In order to create equivalent images, a series of SEM micrographs of porous silicon were treated with the image analysis procedure, developed using public domain software "ImageJ". A morphological description was used to reduce the complexity of the microstructure of porous silicon and an image analysis procedure has been established to quantify different geometrical parameters related to the shape, size and orientation distribution. This description allows performing predictive calculation of mechanical properties of porous silicon using finite element analysis. Results are compared with experiment and a good agreement is observed

  15. Structural properties and magic structures in hydrogenated finite and infinite silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdetsis, A. D.; Koukaras, E. N.; Garoufalis, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    Unusual effects such as bending and "canting," related with the stability, have been identified by ab initio real-space calculations for hydrogenated silicon nanowires. We have examined in detail the electronic and structural properties of finite and infinite nanowires as a function of length (and width) and have developed stability and bending rules, demonstrating that "magic" wires do not bend. Reconstructed 2×1 nanowires are practically as stable as the magic ones. Our calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data of Ma et al. [Science 299, 1874 (2003).].

  16. Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peixun; Wong, K Y Michael

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.

  17. Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peixun; Michael Wong, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.

  18. Quantum quench dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. M.; Shen, C.; Liu, W. M.

    2011-06-15

    We study quench dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model by exact diagonalization. Initially, the system is at thermal equilibrium and of a finite temperature. The system is then quenched by changing the on-site interaction strength U suddenly. Both the single-quench and double-quench scenarios are considered. In the former case, the time-averaged density matrix and the real-time evolution are investigated. It is found that though the system thermalizes only in a very narrow range of the quenched value of U, it does equilibrate or relax well into a much larger range. Most importantly, it is proven that this is guaranteed for some typical observables in the thermodynamic limit. In order to test whether it is possible to distinguish the unitarily evolving density matrix from the time-averaged (thus time-independent), fully decohered density matrix, a second quench is considered. It turns out that the answer is affirmative or negative depending on whether the intermediate value of U is zero or not.

  19. Finite-temperature effects in stirred ring Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Lanier, C.; Edwards, M.; Wang, Y.-H.; Clark, C. W.

    2014-05-01

    A ring Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with zero circulation (m = 0) stirred by a barrier will eventually jump to an m = 1 state when stirred faster than a certain critical speed, Ωc+. A ring BEC with m = 1 will drop to m = 0 when stirred at a critical speed, Ωc-, which is lower than Ωc+. The loop areas, Ωc+ -Ωc- , of this hysteretic response of the BEC to stirring predicted by zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) disagreed significantly with the results of a recent experiment. In the work reported here, we simulated this experiment with the phenomenologically damped GPE, [S. Choi, S. A. Morgan, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4057 (1999)], and with the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) theory. The ZNG theory can account for finite-T, non-equilibrium dynamics. We compare the results of these simulations with the experimental data. The simulations show that a vortex/antivortex pair forms in the barrier region during the stirring and that this drives the hysteresis. We also show how the presence of an interacting, thermal cloud affects the dynamics of these pairs. We also simulate a ring condensate stirred by two barriers and find that the GPE matches the data much more closely. Supported in part by NSF grant #1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI.

  20. Finite-temperature effects in rotational hysteresis of ring Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Lanier, C.; Edwards, M.; Wang, Y.-H.; Clark, C. W.; Eckel, S.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Campbell, G. K.

    2014-03-01

    A ring Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with zero circulation (m = 0) stirred by a barrier will eventually jump to an m = 1 state when stirred faster than a certain critical speed, Ωc+. A ring BEC with m = 1 will drop to m = 0 when stirred at a critical speed, Ωc-, which is lower than Ωc+. The loop areas, Ωc+ -Ωc- , of this hysteretic response of the BEC to stirring predicted by zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) disagreed significantly with the results of a recent experiment. In the work reported here, we simulated this experiment with the phenomenologically damped GPE, [S. Choi, S. A. Morgan, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4057 (1999)], and with the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) theory. The ZNG theory can account for finite-T, non-equilibrium dynamics. We compare the results of these simulations with the experimental data. The simulations show that a vortex/antivortex pair forms in the barrier region during the stirring and that this drives the hysteresis. We also show how the presence of an interacting, thermal cloud affects the dynamics of these pairs. Supported in part by NSF grant #1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI

  1. Finite temperature corrections and embedded strings in noncommutative geometry and the standard model with neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, R. A.

    2007-08-15

    The recent extension of the standard model to include massive neutrinos in the framework of noncommutative geometry and the spectral action principle involves new scalar fields and their interactions with the usual complex scalar doublet. After ensuring that they bring no unphysical consequences, we address the question of how these fields affect the physics predicted in the Weinberg-Salam theory, particularly in the context of the electroweak phase transition. Applying the Dolan-Jackiw procedure, we calculate the finite temperature corrections, and find that the phase transition is first order. The new scalar interactions significantly improve the stability of the electroweak Z string, through the 'bag' phenomenon described by Vachaspati and Watkins ['Bound states can stabilize electroweak strings', Phys. Lett. B 318, 163-168 (1993)]. (Recently, cosmic strings have climbed back into interest due to a new evidence.) Sourced by static embedded strings, an internal space analogy of Cartan's torsion is drawn, and a possible Higgs-force-like 'gravitational' effect of this nonpropagating torsion on the fermion masses is described. We also check that the field generating the Majorana mass for the {nu}{sub R} is nonzero in the physical vacuum.

  2. Zero Temperature Limits of Gibbs-Equilibrium States for Countable Alphabet Subshifts of Finite Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, O.; Mauldin, R. D.; Urbański, M.

    2005-05-01

    Let Σ A be a finitely primitive subshift of finite type on a countable alphabet. For appropriate functions f:Σ A → IR, the family of Gibbs-equilibrium states (μ tf ) t⩾1 for the functions tf is shown to be tight. Any weak*-accumulation point as t→∞ is shown to be a maximizing measure for f.

  3. Determination of poroelastic properties of cartilage using constrained optimization coupled with finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Mansour, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of determining biphasic material properties using a finite element model of stress relaxation coupled with two types of constrained optimization to match measured data was investigated. Comparison of these two approaches, a zero-order method and a gradient-based algorithm, validated the predicted material properties. Optimizations were started from multiple different initial guesses of material properties (design variables) to establish the robustness of the optimization. Overall, the optimal values are close to those found by Cohen et al., (1998), but these small differences produced a marked improvement in the fit to the measured stress relaxation. Despite the greater deviation in the optimized values obtained from the zero-order method, both optimization procedures produced material properties that gave equally good overall fits to the measured data. Furthermore, optimized values were all within the expected range of material properties. Modeling stress relaxation using the optimized material properties showed an excellent fit to the entire time history of the measured data. PMID:25460921

  4. Propagation of first and second sound in a highly elongated trapped Bose-condensed gas at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2013-03-01

    We study sound propagation in Bose-condensed gases in a highly elongated harmonic trap at finite temperatures. This problem is studied within the framework of the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) formalism, which consists of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate and a kinetic equation for the thermal cloud. We extend the ZNG formalism to deal with a highly anisotropic trap potential and use it to simulate sound propagation using the trap parameters corresponding to an experiment on sound pulse propagation at finite temperature. We focus on the high-density two-fluid hydrodynamic regime, and explore the possibility of observing first- and second-sound pulse propagation. The results of numerical simulation are compared with analytical results derived from linearized ZNG hydrodynamic equations. We show that the second-sound mode makes the dominant contribution to condensate motion at relatively high temperature, while the first-sound mode makes an appreciable contribution.

  5. Retrieving the ground state of spin glasses using thermal noise: Performance of quantum annealing at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2016-09-01

    We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.

  6. Retrieving the ground state of spin glasses using thermal noise: Performance of quantum annealing at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-09-01

    We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of LaFeAsO1-y at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Miyazawa, K.; Shirage, P. M.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the thermoelectric properties of LaFeAsO1-y in the temperature range 10-300 K. The resistivity decreases with carrier doping induced by oxygen deficiency up to y =0.16. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient shows a maximum absolute value at a finite doping level. The power factor (PF) and the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in y =0.16 are PF=4.1 mW m-1 K-2 at T =75 K and ZT =0.061 at T =125 K. The results indicate that iron pnictides have potential as a good low temperature thermoelectric material.

  8. Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-02-01

    We study finite sample properties of estimators of power-law cross-correlations-detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), height cross-correlation analysis (HXA) and detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA)-with a special focus on short-term memory bias as well as power-law coherency. We present a broad Monte Carlo simulation study that focuses on different time series lengths, specific methods' parameter setting, and memory strength. We find that each method is best suited for different time series dynamics so that there is no clear winner between the three. The method selection should be then made based on observed dynamic properties of the analyzed series.

  9. Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Random Response Suppression of Composite Panels at Elevated Temperatures using Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Zhong, Z. W.; Mei, Chuh

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) for suppression of the random response of composite panels due to acoustic loads at elevated temperatures is presented. The constitutive relations for a composite lamina with embedded SMA fibers are developed. The finite element governing equations and the solution procedures for a composite plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads are presented. Solutions include: 1) Critical buckling temperature; 2) Flat panel random response; 3) Thermal postbuckling deflection; 4) Random response of a thermally buckled panel. The preliminary results demonstrate that the SMA fibers can completely eliminate the thermal postbuckling deflection and significantly reduce the random response at elevated temperatures.

  11. Advancing density functional theory to finite temperatures: methods and applications in steel design.

    PubMed

    Hickel, T; Grabowski, B; Körmann, F; Neugebauer, J

    2012-02-08

    The performance of materials such as steels, their high strength and formability, is based on an impressive variety of competing mechanisms on the microscopic/atomic scale (e.g. dislocation gliding, solid solution hardening, mechanical twinning or structural phase transformations). Whereas many of the currently available concepts to describe these mechanisms are based on empirical and experimental data, it becomes more and more apparent that further improvement of materials needs to be based on a more fundamental level. Recent progress for methods based on density functional theory (DFT) now makes the exploration of chemical trends, the determination of parameters for phenomenological models and the identification of new routes for the optimization of steel properties feasible. A major challenge in applying these methods to a true materials design is, however, the inclusion of temperature-driven effects on the desired properties. Therefore, a large range of computational tools has been developed in order to improve the capability and accuracy of first-principles methods in determining free energies. These combine electronic, vibrational and magnetic effects as well as structural defects in an integrated approach. Based on these simulation tools, one is now able to successfully predict mechanical and thermodynamic properties of metals with a hitherto not achievable accuracy.

  12. Statistical properties of record-breaking temperatures.

    PubMed

    Newman, William I; Malamud, Bruce D; Turcotte, Donald L

    2010-12-01

    A record-breaking temperature is the highest or lowest temperature at a station since the period of time considered began. The temperatures at a station constitute a time series. After the removal of daily and annual periodicities, the primary considerations are trends (i.e., global warming) and long-range correlations. We first carry out Monte Carlo simulations to determine the influence of trends and long-range correlations on record-breaking statistics. We take a time series that is a Gaussian white noise and give the classic record-breaking theory results for an independent and identically distributed process. We then carry out simulations to determine the influence of long-range correlations and linear temperature trends. For the range of fractional Gaussian noises that are observed to be applicable to temperature time series, the influence on the record-breaking statistics is less than 10%. We next superimpose a linear trend on a Gaussian white noise and extend the theory to include the effect of an additive trend. We determine the ratios of the number of maximum to the number of minimum record-breaking temperatures. We find the single governing parameter to be the ratio of the temperature change per year to the standard deviation of the underlying white noise. To test our approach, we consider a 30 yr record of temperatures at the Mauna Loa Observatory for 1977-2006. We determine the temperature trends by direct measurements and use our simulations to infer trends from the number of record-breaking temperatures. The two approaches give values that are in good agreement. We find that the warming trend is primarily due to an increase in the (overnight) minimum temperatures, while the maximum (daytime) temperatures are approximately constant.

  13. Tensile and fatigue properties of Inconel 718 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, C. O.; Schmidt, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Tests to determine the tensile and fatigue properties of Inconel 718 at cryogenic temperatures show that the alloy increases in strength at low temperatures, with very little change in toughness. The effect of surface finish and grain size on the fatigue properties was also determined.

  14. Thermoelectric transport properties of a T-coupled quantum dot: Atomic approach for the finite U case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, E.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Figueira, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    We study thermoelectric transport properties through a gate defined T-coupled quantum dot, describing the system at base with the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), whose corresponding Green's functions are calculated employing the finite correlation U atomic approach. We compute, with the linear approximation for the thermoelectric transport coefficients, the electrical and thermal conductance (G and K), the thermopower S, the product of the thermoelectric figure of merit and the temperature ZT, for all the regimes of the SIAM: empty quantum dot, intermediate valence, Kondo, and double occupation, at different temperatures; the treatment employed extends the results obtained for the limit of infinite U-Coulomb repulsion in the quantum dot, and has a many-body character, which is absent in Green's function descriptions that employ mean field approximations. Our main result connects the ZT behavior with the interplay between the thermopower and the violation of the Wiedemann-Franz relation; the results are in good agreement with other recent theoretical papers that employ the numerical renormalization group (NRG), different Green's function approximations, and some experimental reports.

  15. D* and B* mesons in strange hadronic medium at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the effect of density and temperature of isospin symmetric strange medium on the shift in masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons using chiral SU(3) model and QCD sum rule approach. In the present investigation the values of quark and gluon condensates are calculated from the chiral SU(3) model and these condensatesare further used as input in the QCD Sum rule framework to calculate the in-medium masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons. These in medium properties of vector D and B mesons may be helpful to understand the experimental observables of the experiments like CBM and PANDA under FAIR project at GSI, Germany. The results which are observed in present work are also compared with the previous predictions.

  16. Extending the density functional embedding theory to finite temperature and an efficient iterative method for solving for embedding potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen

    2016-03-01

    A key element in the density functional embedding theory (DFET) is the embedding potential. We discuss two major issues related to the embedding potential: (1) its non-uniqueness and (2) the numerical difficulty for solving for it, especially for the spin-polarized systems. To resolve the first issue, we extend DFET to finite temperature: all quantities, such as the subsystem densities and the total system's density, are calculated at a finite temperature. This is a physical extension since materials work at finite temperatures. We show that the embedding potential is strictly unique at T > 0. To resolve the second issue, we introduce an efficient iterative embedding potential solver. We discuss how to relax the magnetic moments in subsystems and how to equilibrate the chemical potentials across subsystems. The solver is robust and efficient for several non-trivial examples, in all of which good quality spin-polarized embedding potentials were obtained. We also demonstrate the solver on an extended periodic system: iron body-centered cubic (110) surface, which is related to the modeling of the heterogeneous catalysis involving iron, such as the Fischer-Tropsch and the Haber processes. This work would make it efficient and accurate to perform embedding simulations of some challenging material problems, such as the heterogeneous catalysis and the defects of complicated spin configurations in electronic materials.

  17. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davesne, D.; Becker, P.; Pastore, A.; Navarro, J.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin-orbit terms from the spin-isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin-orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  18. Homogenized mechanical properties of auxetic composite materials in finite-strain elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochmann, Dennis M.; Venturini, Gabriela N.

    2013-08-01

    Careful microstructural design can result in materials with counterintuitive effective (macroscale) mechanical properties such as a negative Poisson’s ratio, commonly referred to as auxetic behavior. One specific approach to achieving auxetic behavior is to elastically connect structural elements with rotational degrees of freedom to result in elastic structures that unfold under uniaxial loading in specific directions, thereby giving rise to bi- or triaxial expansion, i.e. auxetic behavior (transverse expansion under uniaxial extension). This concept has been applied successfully to elastically coupled two-dimensional rigid rotational elements (such as rotating rectangles and triangles) which exhibit a negative effective in-plane Poisson’s ratio under uniaxial (ex)tension. Here, we adopt this fundamental design principle but take it to the next level by achieving auxetic behavior in finitely strained composites made of stiff inclusions in a hyperelastic matrix, and we study the resulting elastic properties under in-plane strain by numerical homogenization. Our results highlight the emergence of auxetic behavior based on geometric arrangement and properties of the base material and demonstrate a path towards simple inclusion-matrix composites with auxetic behavior.

  19. The High Temperature Thermochemical Properties of Carbon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-31

    b2 (cos@+ a )z + bZ (22) )2 )2 (c.cos0- a ) + (decos - b,) (CCosa+ aIf )~ z+ (d cos + b1 ) Z (23) 3 2 hlsteller, L. P., and F. Wooten , * Optical Properties and...31. Born, M., and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd Edition, Permagon Press, NY, 1964. 32. Mosteller, L. P., and F. Wooten , " Optical Properties and

  20. The use of finite element methods for determining the cross-sectional temperature distribution in heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, G. P.

    1986-01-01

    A model that is currently used to predict the priming and performance limitations of a monogroove heat pipe is expanded to include the boiling limitation and the cross-sectional temperature distribution as determined from a multidimensional finite element analysis technique. The improved model is verified experimentally and shown to accurately predict the cross-sectional temperature distribution when the heat flux distribution is known. The model provides a way to estimate the level at which nucleate boiling and the associated dryout of the capillary wick occurs.

  1. Deconfining and chiral transitions of finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics in the presence of dynamical quark loops

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Ukawa, A.

    1986-08-04

    Finite-temperature behavior of quantum chromodynamics is investigated with the Langevin technique including the dynamical quark loops. The deconfining and chiral transitions occur at the same temperature. The strength of transition weakens initially as the quark mass decreases from infinity, but at small quark masses it strengthens again and shows the characteristic of a first-order transition. We estimate the inverse coupling constant at zero quark mass to be beta/sub c/ = 6/g/sub c//sup 2/approx. =4.9--5.0 for four flavors on an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice.

  2. Chiral symmetry restoration in (2+1)-dimensional QED with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons term at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenschneider, Raoul; Richert, Jean

    2006-10-01

    We study the role played by a Chern-Simons contribution to the action in the QED{sub 3} formulation of a two-dimensional Heisenberg model of quantum spin systems with a strictly fixed site occupation at finite temperature. We show how this contribution affects the screening of the potential that acts between spinons and contributes to the restoration of chiral symmetry in the spinon sector. The constant that characterizes the Chern-Simons term can be related to the critical temperature T{sub c} above which the dynamical mass goes to zero.

  3. AlN Bandgap Temperature Dependence from its Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-07

    In the present work we report on the AlN gap energy temperature dependence studied through the optical properties of high-quality large bulk AlN...evolution of these features up to room temperature and inferred the gap energy temperature dependence using the exciton binding energy obtained by our group in the past.

  4. Effects of Phase Lags on Three-Dimensional Wave Propagation with Temperature-Dependent Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Deswal, Sunita

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional model of equations for a homogeneous and isotropic medium with temperature-dependent mechanical properties is established under the purview of two-phase-lag thermoelasticity theory. The modulus of elasticity is taken as a linear function of the reference temperature. The resulting non-dimensional coupled equations are applied to a specific problem of a half-space whose surface is traction-free and is subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The analytical expressions for the displacement component, stress, temperature field, and strain are obtained in the physical domain by employing normal mode analysis. These expressions are also calculated numerically for a copper-like material and depicted graphically. Discussions have been made to highlight the joint effects of the temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and time on these physical fields. The phenomenon of a finite speed of propagation is observed graphically for each field.

  5. Experimental Validation of Two-dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating Constitutive Response of Polycrystals During High Temperature Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2007-04-01

    A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.

  6. Finite-Temperature Spin Dynamics in a Perturbed Quantum Critical Ising Chain with an E8 Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianda; Kormos, Márton; Si, Qimiao

    2014-12-01

    A spectrum exhibiting E8 symmetry is expected to arise when a small longitudinal field is introduced in the transverse-field Ising chain at its quantum critical point. Evidence for this spectrum has recently come from neutron scattering measurements in cobalt niobate, a quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Unlike its zero-temperature counterpart, the finite-temperature dynamics of the model has not yet been determined. We study the dynamical spin structure factor of the model at low frequencies and nonzero temperatures, using the form factor method. Its frequency dependence is singular, but differs from the diffusion form. The temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate has an activated form, whose prefactor we also determine. We propose NMR experiments as a means to further test the applicability of the E8 description for CoNb2O6 .

  7. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.

  8. Influence of surface and finite size effects on the structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline lanthanum strontium perovskite manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Žvátora, Pavel; Veverka, Miroslav; Veverka, Pavel; Knížek, Karel; Závěta, Karel; Pollert, Emil; Goglio, Graziella; Duguet, Etienne; Kaman, Ondřej

    2013-08-15

    Syntheses of nanocrystalline perovskite phases of the general formula La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} were carried out employing sol–gel technique followed by thermal treatment at 700–900 °C under oxygen flow. The prepared samples exhibit a rhombohedral structure with space group R3{sup ¯}c in the whole investigated range of composition 0.20≤x≤0.45. The studies were aimed at the chemical composition including oxygen stoichiometry and extrinsic properties, i.e. size of the particles, both influencing the resulting structural and magnetic properties. The oxygen stoichiometry was determined by chemical analysis revealing oxygen excess in most of the studied phases. The excess was particularly high for the samples with the smallest crystallites (12–28 nm) while comparative bulk materials showed moderate non-stoichiometry. These differences are tentatively attributed to the surface effects in view of the volume fraction occupied by the upper layer whose atomic composition does not comply with the ideal bulk stoichiometry. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of the particle size with annealing temperature in the nanocrystalline La{sub 0.70}Sr{sub 0.30}MnO{sub 3+δ} phase. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The magnetic behaviour of nanocrystalline La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} phases was analyzed on the basis of their crystal structure, chemical composition and size of the particles. • Their Curie temperature and magnetization are markedly affected by finite size and surface effects. • The oxygen excess observed in the La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles might be generated by the surface layer with deviated oxygen stoichiometry.

  9. Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.

  10. On the finite-temperature generalization of the C-theorem and the interplay between classical and quantum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchev, Daniel M.; Tonchev, Nicholay S.

    1999-10-01

    The behaviour of the finite-temperature C-function, defined by Neto and Fradkin (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 400 525), is analysed within a d -dimensional exactly solvable lattice model, recently considered by Vojta (1996 Phys. Rev. B 53 710), which is of the same universality class as the quantum nonlinear O(n) sigma model in the limit nicons/Journals/Common/rightarrow" ALT="rightarrow" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/>. The scaling functions of C for the cases d = 1 (absence of long-range order), d = 2 (existence of a quantum critical point), d = 4 (existence of a line of finite-temperature critical points that ends up with a quantum critical point) are derived and analysed. The locations of regions where C is monotonically increasing (which depend significantly on d) are exactly determined. The results are interpreted within the finite-size scaling theory that has to be modified for d = 4.

  11. A density-functional-theory-based finite element model to study the mechanical properties of zigzag phosphorene nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Shahnazari, A.; Rouhi, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the density functional theory calculations are used to obtain the elastic properties of zigzag phosphorene nanotubes. Besides, based on the similarity between phosphorene nanotubes and a space-frame structure, a three-dimensional finite element model is proposed in which the atomic bonds are simulated by beam elements. The results of density functional theory are employed to compute the properties of the beam elements. Finally, using the proposed finite element model, the elastic modulus of the zigzag phosphorene nanotubes is computed. It is shown that phosphorene nanotubes with larger radii have larger Young's modulus. Comparing the results of finite element model with those of density functional theory, it is concluded that the proposed model can predict the elastic modulus of phosphorene nanotubes with a good accuracy.

  12. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Whitley, Von H.; Brown, Kathryn E.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Sorensen, Christian J.; Moore, David S.

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of energetic materials is still a formidable challenge which requires further investigation. The remote standoff detection of explosives using molecular fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range has been an evolving research area for the past two decades. Despite many efforts, identification of a particular explosive remains difficult as the spectral fingerprints often shift due to the working conditions of the sample such as temperature, crystal orientation, presence of binders, etc. In this work, we investigate the vibrational spectrum of energetic materials including RDX, PETN, AN, and 1,3-DNB diluted in a low loss PTFE host medium using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at cryogenic temperatures. The measured absorptions of these materials show spectral shifts of their characteristic peaks while changing their operating temperature from 300 to 7.5 K. We have developed a theoretical model based on first principles methods, which is able to predict most of the measured modes in 1, 3-DNB between 0.3 to 2.50 THz. These findings may further improve the security screening of explosives.

  13. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional XY model at zero temperature.

    PubMed

    Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.

  14. Electrical properties of teflon and ceramic capacitors at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Overton, E.

    1992-01-01

    Space power systems and components are often required to operate efficiently and reliably in harsh environments where stresses, such as high temperature, are encountered. These systems must, therefore, withstand exposure to high temperature while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. Experiments were carried out to evaluate Teflon and ceramic capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature, up to 200 C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 25 to 200 C. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors studied for high temperature applications.

  15. Properties of High-Temperature Ceramics and Cermets. Elasticity and Density at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-01-01

    property character- r. Molybdenum Disilicide -MoSi2 (Tables 24 and 24a) istics; the uniformity of bulk density ap)pea’s to Coode 39: Six groups) of hot...SEP .NBS MONOGAPH 6 AD-A285 483 0 DTIC, I’IELECTE 00 Properties of High-Temperature Ceramics and Cermets Elasticity and Density at Room Temperature...measurements consistent with these standards; the determination of physical constants and properties of materials; the development of methods and

  16. Evaluating mechanical properties of thin layers using nanoindentation and finite-element modeling: Implanted metals and deposited layers

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Barbour, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We present a methodology based on finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data to extract reliable and accurate mechanical properties from thin, hard films and surface-modified layers on softer substrates. The method deduces the yield stress, Young`s modulus, and hardness from indentations as deep as 50% of the layer thickness.

  17. State-Space Modeling of Dynamic Psychological Processes via the Kalman Smoother Algorithm: Rationale, Finite Sample Properties, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a…

  18. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  19. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: a path for the optimization of low-energy many-body basis expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeongnim; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    The self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 136}, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 89}, 6316 (1988)] are blended to obtain a method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric trial wave functions. A statistical method is derived for the calculation of finite temperature properties of many-body systems near the ground state. In the process we also obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes the many-body basis of a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. This small subspace is optimized to have maximum overlap with the one expanded by the lower energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the Helmholtz free energy is minimized within this subspace as the iteration number increases. We show that the subspace expanded by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace expanded by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method to calculate the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can be also used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with Quantum Monte Carlo.

  20. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-09-01

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.

  1. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to −150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed. PMID:26382318

  2. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-09-18

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.

  3. Thermal stresses in a spherical pressure vessel having temperature-dependent, transversely isotropic, elastic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauchert, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    Rayleigh-Ritz and modified Rayleigh-Ritz procedures are used to construct approximate solutions for the response of a thick-walled sphere to uniform pressure loads and an arbitrary radial temperature distribution. The thermoelastic properties of the sphere are assumed to be transversely isotropic and nonhomogeneous; variations in the elastic stiffness and thermal expansion coefficients are taken to be an arbitrary function of the radial coordinate and temperature. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate the effect of the temperature-dependence upon the thermal stress field. A comparison of the approximate solutions with a finite element analysis indicates that Ritz methods offer a simple, efficient, and relatively accurate approach to the problem.

  4. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  5. Neutron-19C scattering: Emergence of universal properties in a finite range potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchi, M. A.; Yamashita, M. T.; Hadizadeh, M. R.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2017-01-01

    The low-energy properties of the elastic s-wave scattering for the n-19C are studied near the critical condition for the occurrence of an excited Efimov state in n-n-18C. It is established to which extent the universal scaling laws, strictly valid in the zero-range limit, survive when finite range potentials are considered. By fixing the two-neutrons separation energy in 20C with available experimental data, it is studied the scaling of the real (δ0R) and imaginary parts of the s-wave phase-shift with the variation of the n-18C binding energy. We obtain some universal characteristics given by the pole-position of kcot ⁡ (δ0R) and effective-range parameters. By increasing the n-18C binding energy, it was verified that the excited state of 20C goes to a virtual state, resembling the neutron-deuteron behavior in the triton. It is confirmed that the analytical structure of the unitary cut is not affected by the range of the potential or mass asymmetry of the three-body system.

  6. Construction and optical properties of infinite Cd and finite Cu molecules stairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Mao, Wutao; Shen, Zhi; Wang, Qinghong; Zhou, Qian

    2017-02-01

    Two coordination complexes, namely [(hpdq)(pta)Cd]n (1) and [(pptp)(pta)Cu2Cl] (2) have been synthesized by solvothermal method based on two polypyridyl ligands, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis- (2-pyridyl)dipyrazino[2,3-f:2‧,3‧-h]quinoxaline) (hpdq), 4‧-(4- (3H-pyrrol-3-yl)phenyl)- 2,2‧:6‧,2″- terpyridine (pptp) and auxiliary ligand p-phthalic acid (pta), respectively. Single crystal x-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complexes 1 and 2 assembled based on distinct asymmetric unit comprising one and two respective polypyridyl ligands but one Cd(II) and two Cu(I)ions, respectively. Among them, The asymmetric units in 1 was extended to one dimensional chain via the link of auxiliary ligand pta, just like infinite layers of stairs that connected by cadmium ions as the node. While that in 2 to Zero dimensional tetranuclear structure via the link of auxiliary ligand pta, just like finite four layers of stairs that Copper ion as the node connection. Furthermore, solid fluorescence spectra properties of two complexes were also investigated, and the result shows the fluorescence intensity of complex 1 is stronger than that of the hpdq ligand, but the fluorescence intensity of complex 2 is weaker than that of the pptp ligand. CCDC number of 1and 2 are 1483301 and 1483302.

  7. Electric near-field enhancing properties of a finite-size metal conical nano-tip.

    PubMed

    Goncharenko, A V; Chang, Hung-Chih; Wang, Juen-Kai

    2007-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique simulations are performed to study the near-field resonance properties of a silver conical nano-tip with a rounded end. Varying the tip geometry, we have computed the electric field distribution, as well as the electric field enhancement factor in the immediate vicinity of the tip apex. The aim of this study is to find optimal geometric parameters of the conical tip, such as its angle and length, in order to maximize the electric field enhancement factor. The increase of the tip length is shown to result in a redshift of the tip resonance wavelength. In addition, some subsidiary (non-dipole) peaks appear for relatively long tips. The peak enhancement values for the small-angle tips increase with the tip length while those for the large-angle ones decrease with it. At the same time, the dependencies of the field enhancement on the cone angle exhibit non-monotonic behavior. In other words, an optimal angle exists allowing one to maximize the electric near field. Finally, the effect of the supporting dielectric medium on the electric field near the tip apex is discussed. In the approximation used, the effect is shown to leave the main conclusions unchanged.

  8. Low temperature properties of the Kondo insulator FeSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, M. S.; Franco, R.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we study the low temperature (T) properties of the Kondo insulator FeSi within the X-boson approach. We show that the ground state of the FeSi is metallic and highly correlated with a large effective mass; the low temperature contributions to the specific heat and the resistivity are of the Fermi-liquid type. The low temperature properties are governed by a reentrant transition into a metallic state, that occurs when the chemical potential crosses the gap and enters the conduction band, generating a metallic ground state. The movement of the chemical potential is due to the strong correlations present in the system. We consider the low temperature regime of the Kondo insulator FeSi, where the hybridization gap is completely open. In this situation we identify the two characteristic temperatures: the coherence temperature T0 and the Kondo temperature TKL. In the range T < T0, we identify a regime characterized by the formation of coherent states and Fermi-liquid behavior of the low temperature properties; in the range TKL > T > T0, we identify a regime characterized by an activation energy. Within the X-boson approach we study those low temperature regimes although we do not try to adjust parameters to recover the experimental energy scales.

  9. Temperature-dependent optical properties of titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Zhao, Yang; Petach, Trevor A.; Sahasrabuddhe, Kunal; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2017-03-01

    The refractory metal titanium nitride is promising for high-temperature nanophotonic and plasmonic applications, but its optical properties have not been studied at temperatures exceeding 400 °C. Here, we perform in-situ high-temperature ellipsometry to quantify the permittivity of TiN films from room temperature to 1258 °C. We find that the material becomes more absorptive at higher temperatures but maintains its metallic character throughout visible and near infrared frequencies. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and mass spectrometry confirm that TiN retains its bulk crystal quality and that thermal cycling increases the surface roughness, reduces the lattice constant, and reduces the carbon and oxygen contaminant concentrations. The changes in the optical properties of the material are highly reproducible upon repeated heating and cooling, and the room-temperature properties are fully recoverable after cooling. Using the measured high-temperature permittivity, we compute the emissivity, surface plasmon polariton propagation length, and two localized surface plasmon resonance figures of merit as functions of temperature. Our results indicate that titanium nitride is a viable plasmonic material throughout the full temperature range explored.

  10. Improved ring potential of QED at finite temperature and in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sadooghi, N.; Anaraki, K. Sohrabi

    2008-12-15

    Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor {pi}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(k{sub 0},k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k{sub 0}{yields}0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k{sub 0}{yields}0, k{yields}0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit, at high temperature and for {alpha}{yields}0, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T{sup 4}{alpha}{sup 5/2}, in addition to the expected T{sup 4}{alpha}{sup 3/2} term arising from the static limit. Here, {alpha} is the fine structure constant. In the limit of the strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level, the ring potential includes a novel term consisting of dilogarithmic function (eB)Li{sub 2}(-(2{alpha}/{pi})(eB/m{sup 2})). Using the ring improved (one-loop) effective potential including the one-loop effective potential and ring potential in the IR limit, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking of QED is studied at finite temperature and in the presence of the strong magnetic field. The gap equation, the dynamical mass and the critical temperature of QED in the regime of the lowest Landau level dominance are determined in the improved IR as well as in the static limit. For a given value of the magnetic field, the improved ring potential is shown to be more efficient in decreasing the critical temperature arising from the one-loop effective potential.

  11. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffman, R. A.; Walker, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties was studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. Included are the development of an apparatus and its use in the studies of (1) chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, tungsten and LaB6 specimens, (2) methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, (3) levitation jet properties and (4) radiative lifetime and collisional energy transfer rates for electronically excited atoms.

  12. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The use of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties is studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in Earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. The work to date includes development of an apparatus and its use in studies of chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, and tungsten specimens, novel methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, and levitation jet properties. Brief summaries of these studies are given. The apparatus is described and detailed results for the current reporting period are presented.

  13. An efficient solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation that is applicable to zero and finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Heng; Chen, GuanHua

    2012-11-28

    Application of quantum dissipation theory to electronic dynamics has been limited to model systems with few energy levels, and its numerical solutions are mostly restricted to high temperatures. A highly accurate and efficient numerical algorithm, which is based on the Chebyshev spectral method, is developed to integrate a single-particle Liouville-von Neumann equation, and the two long-standing limitations of quantum dissipation theory are resolved in the context of quantum transport. Its computational time scales to O(N(3)) with N being the number of orbitals involved, which leads to a reality for the quantum mechanical simulation of real open systems containing hundreds or thousands of atomic orbitals. More importantly, the algorithm spans both finite and zero temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out to simulate the transient current through a metallic wire containing up to 1000 orbitals.

  14. Stationary Measures for Two Dual Families of Finite and Zero Temperature Models of Directed Polymers on the Square Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Thimothée

    2016-10-01

    We study the recently introduced Inverse-Beta (IB) polymer, an exactly solvable, anisotropic finite temperature model of directed polymer on the square lattice, and obtain its stationary measure. In parallel we introduce an anisotropic zero temperature model of directed polymer on the square lattice, the Bernoulli-Geometric polymer, and obtain its stationary measure. This new exactly solvable model is dual to the IB polymer and interpolates between models of first and last passage percolation on the square lattice. Both stationary measures are shown to satisfy detailed balance. We also obtain the asymptotic mean value of (i) the free-energy of the IB polymer; (ii) the optimal energy of the Bernoulli-Geometric polymer. We discuss the convergence of both models to their stationary state. We perform simulations of the Bernoulli-Geometric polymer that confirm our results.

  15. Propulsive performance of a finite-temperature plasma flow in a magnetic nozzle with applied azimuthal current

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrario, Lorenzo; Little, Justin M. Choueiri, Edgar Y.

    2014-11-15

    The plasma flow in a finite-electron-temperature magnetic nozzle, under the influence of an applied azimuthal current at the throat, is modeled analytically to assess its propulsive performance. A correction to the nozzle throat boundary conditions is derived by modifying the radial equilibrium of a magnetized infinite two-population cylindrical plasma column with the insertion of an external azimuthal body force for the electrons. Inclusion of finite-temperature effects, which leads to a modification of the radial density profile, is necessary for calculating the propulsive performance, which is represented by nozzle divergence efficiency and thrust coefficient. The solutions show that the application of the azimuthal current enhances all the calculated performance parameters through the narrowing of the radial density profile at the throat, and that investing power in this beam focusing effect is more effective than using the same power to pre-heat the electrons. The results open the possibility for the design of a focusing stage between the plasma source and the nozzle that can significantly enhance the propulsive performance of electron-driven magnetic nozzles.

  16. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Shiffman, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Containerless high temperature processing and material property measurements are discussed. Researchers developed methods for non-contact suspension, heating, and property measurement for materials at temperatures up to 3,680K, the melting point of tungsten. New, scientifically interesting results were obtained in Earth-based research. These results and the demonstration of new methods and techniques form a basis for further advances under the low gravity environment of space where containerless conditions are more easily achieved. Containerless high temperature material property investigations that have been completed in this and our earlier projects include measurements of fluorine LaB sub 6 reaction kinetics at 1,000 to 1,500K; optical property measurements on sapphire (Al2O3) at temperatures up to the melting point (2,327K); and vapor pressure measurements for LaB sub 6 at 2,000 to 2,500K, for molybdenum up to 2,890K and for tungsten up to 3,680K. Gas jet levitation which is applicable to any solid material, and electromagnetic levitation of electrical conductors were used to suspend the materials of interest. Non-contact heating and property measurements were achieved by optical techniques, i.e., laser heating, laser induced fluorescence measurements of vapor concentrations, and optical pyrometry for specimen temperatures.

  17. Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at finite temperature: Graphene and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klier, N.; Shallcross, S.; Sharma, S.; Pankratov, O.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between magnetic impurities in both single layer and Bernal stacked bilayer graphene, finding a number of striking anomalies in the temperature dependence of this interaction. In undoped single layer graphene the strength of the RKKY interaction for substitutional impurities anomalously increases upon increasing temperature, an effect that persists up to and beyond room temperature. For impurities intercalated in the Bernal stacked bilayer and a doping that places the chemical potential near the antibonding band edge, a qualitative change of the RKKY interaction with temperature occurs: a low-temperature oscillatory interaction develops into a high-temperature antiferromagnetic coupling, accompanied by an overall increase of the interaction strength. The origin of the temperature anomalies can be traced back to specific features of the density of states: the vanishing density of states at the apex of the Dirac cone in single layer graphene, and the "kink" in the density of states at the antibonding band edge in the case of the Bernal bilayer.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-06-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature ( T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  19. Challenges in Characterizing Low-Temperature Regolith Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam Michael; Mantovani, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The success or failure of in-situ resource utilization for planetary surface exploration--be it for scientific, colonization or commercialization purposes--relies heavily on the ability to design and implement systems which effectively process the associated regolith and exploit its benefits. In most cases this challenge necessarily includes the characterization of low-temperature (cryogenic) properties; as many celestial destinations of interest, such as the moon, Mars and asteroids, have little or no atmosphere to help sustain the consistently "high" surface temperatures seen on planets such as Earth, and therefore can experience permanent cryogenic temperatures or dramatic cyclical changes. Characterization of physical properties (such as specific heat, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc.) over the entire temperature profile is undoubtedly an important piece of the puzzle; however, the impact on mechanical properties due to the introduction of icy deposit must also be explored in order to devise effective and robust excavation technologies. Currently the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab and the Cryogenics Test Lab at NASA Kennedy Space Center are developing technologies and experimental methods to address these challenges and aid in the characterization of physical and mechanical properties of regolith at cryogenic temperatures. This presentation will review the current state of knowledge concerning lunar regolith at low temperature including that of icy regolith.

  20. Finite Element Study into the effect of footwear temperature on the Forces transmitted to the foot during quasi- static compression loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatmadari, M. R.; English, R.; Rothwell, G.

    2010-06-01

    The determination of plantar stresses using computational footwear models which include temperature effects are crucial to predict foam performance in service and to aid material development and product design. Finite Element Method (FEM) provides an efficient computational framework to investigate the foot-footwear interaction. The aim of this research is to use FEM to investigate the effect of varying footwear temperature on plantar stresses. The results obtained will provide data which can be used to help optimise shoe design in terms of minimising damaging stresses in the foot particularly for individuals with diabetes who are susceptible to lower extremity complications. The FE simulation results showed significant reductions in foot stresses with the modifications from FE model (1) without footwear to model (2) with midsole only and to model (3) with midsole and insole. In summary, insole and midsole layers made from various foam materials aim to reduce the Ground Reaction Forces (GRF's) and foot stresses considerably and temperature variation can affect their cushioning and consequently the shock attenuation properties. The loss of footwear cushioning effect can have important clinical implications for those individuals with a history of lower limb overuse injuries or diabetes.

  1. High-Temperature Properties of Piezoelectric Langatate Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Klemenz, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Langasite type crystals belong to non-polar point group of 32 and do not show any phase transformations up to the melting temperature. Langatate (La3Ga(5.5)Ta(0.5)O14) demonstrates piezoelectric activity better than quartz and possesses attractive properties for high temperature sensors, resonators and filter applications. High-quality and colorless langatate crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. The electromechanical and electrical properties of langatate crystals in different crystallographic directions were characterized at elevated temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient along x-axis was 7 pC/N as measured by a Berlincourt meter for a plate geometry with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The dielectric constant did not exhibit any significant temperature dependence (K33 approx. 21 at 30 C and K33 approx. 23 at 600 C). Loss tangent at 100 kHz remained <0.003 up to 300 C and <0.65 at 600 C. The dielectric properties along the y-axis were similar and its temperature dependence was analogous to the x-axis. Electromechanically, the inactive z-axis exhibited no resonance with K33 approx. 84 at room temperature, decreasing down to approx. 49 at 600 C. Resistivity of these crystals along x-axis decreased from approx. 6x10(exp 11) omega-cm at room temperature, to approx. 1.6x10(exp 6) omega-cm at 600 C.

  2. A simulation study of finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models.

    PubMed

    Westreich, Daniel; Cole, Stephen R; Schisterman, Enrique F; Platt, Robert W

    2012-08-30

    Motivated by a previously published study of HIV treatment, we simulated data subject to time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment to examine some finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. We compared (a) unadjusted, (b) regression-adjusted, (c) unstabilized, and (d) stabilized marginal structural (inverse probability-of-treatment [IPT] weighted) model estimators of effect in terms of bias, standard error, root mean squared error (MSE), and 95% confidence limit coverage over a range of research scenarios, including relatively small sample sizes and 10 study assessments. In the base-case scenario resembling the motivating example, where the true hazard ratio was 0.5, both IPT-weighted analyses were unbiased, whereas crude and adjusted analyses showed substantial bias towards and across the null. Stabilized IPT-weighted analyses remained unbiased across a range of scenarios, including relatively small sample size; however, the standard error was generally smaller in crude and adjusted models. In many cases, unstabilized weighted analysis showed a substantial increase in standard error compared with other approaches. Root MSE was smallest in the IPT-weighted analyses for the base-case scenario. In situations where time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment was absent, IPT-weighted analyses were less precise and therefore had greater root MSE compared with adjusted analyses. The 95% confidence limit coverage was close to nominal for all stabilized IPT-weighted but poor in crude, adjusted, and unstabilized IPT-weighted analysis. Under realistic scenarios, marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models performed according to expectations based on large-sample theory and provided accurate estimates of the hazard ratio.

  3. Properties and potential of high-temperature niobium beryllides

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Brimhall, J.L.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hirth, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Recent research on the low- and high-temperature properties of two beryllium-niobium intermetallic compounds, Be{sub l2}Nb and Be{sub l7}Nb{sub 2}, is reviewed and discussed. Strength (bend and compression), hardness and fracture toughness has been mapped as a function of test temperature up to 1200C. Results for hot-isostatically-pressed Be{sub 12}Nb and Be{sub l7}Nb{sub 2} are highlighted illustrating the potential for reasonable strength at both low and high temperatures. Limitations for structural use of the beryllides are identified and discussed including low-temperature toughness, intermediate-temperature embrittlement, high-temperature creep strength and composite compatability.

  4. Mixing temperature design and properties evaluation for SMA-13 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. Y.; Li, B. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The mixing temperature of hot asphalt mixture could be reduced by adding WMA additive Sasobit, as well as reducing smoke emissions and energy construction during the mixing construction and paving. The reasonable mixing temperature were investigated in this paper. In addition, high temperature stability, water stability and low-temperature performance of warm asphalt mixture were evaluaterd. The test results indicate that the mixing temperature of SMA-13 with WMA additive Sasobit may reduce 15-20°C at the same energy (compaction times). the dynamic stability were improved after adding WMA additive Sasobit, and the Water stability and low-temperature performance of mixture decreased, while all kinds of asphalt mixture properties can meet the requirements.

  5. Comparison of density functional approximations and the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock approximation in warm dense lithium.

    PubMed

    Karasiev, Valentin V; Sjostrom, Travis; Trickey, S B

    2012-11-01

    We compare the behavior of the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock model with that of thermal density functional theory using both ground-state and temperature-dependent approximate exchange functionals. The test system is bcc Li in the temperature-density regime of warm dense matter (WDM). In this exchange-only case, there are significant qualitative differences in results from the three approaches. Those differences may be important for Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies of WDM with ground-state approximate density functionals and thermal occupancies. Such calculations require reliable regularized potentials over a demanding range of temperatures and densities. By comparison of pseudopotential and all-electron results at T=0 K for small Li clusters of local bcc symmetry and bond lengths equivalent to high density bulk Li, we determine the density ranges for which standard projector augmented wave (PAW) and norm-conserving pseudopotentials are reliable. Then, we construct and use all-electron PAW data sets with a small cutoff radius that are valid for lithium densities up to at least 80 g/cm{3}.

  6. Charmonium in the vector channel at finite temperature from QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Hilbert moment QCD sum rules are used to obtain the temperature dependence of the hadronic parameters of charmonium in the vector channel, i.e. the J/{psi} resonance mass, coupling (leptonic decay constant), total width, and continuum threshold. The continuum threshold s{sub 0}, which signals the end of the resonance region and the onset of perturbative QCD, behaves as in all other hadronic channels, i.e. it decreases with increasing temperature until it reaches the perturbative QCD threshold s{sub 0}=4m{sub Q}{sup 2}, with m{sub Q} the charm quark mass, at T{approx_equal}1.22T{sub c}. The rest of the hadronic parameters behave very differently from those of light-light and heavy-light quark systems. The J/{psi} mass is essentially constant in a wide range of temperatures, while the total width grows with temperature up to T{approx_equal}1.04T{sub c} beyond which it decreases sharply with increasing T. The resonance coupling is also initially constant and then begins to increase monotonically around T{approx_equal}T{sub c}. This behavior of the total width and of the leptonic decay constant provides a strong indication that the J/{psi} resonance might survive beyond the critical temperature for deconfinement.

  7. Finite temperature Casimir effect for a massless fractional Klein-Gordon field with fractional Neumann conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Eab, C. H.; Lim, S. C.; Teo, L. P.

    2007-08-15

    This paper studies the Casimir effect due to fractional massless Klein-Gordon field confined to parallel plates. A new kind of boundary condition called fractional Neumann condition which involves vanishing fractional derivatives of the field is introduced. The fractional Neumann condition allows the interpolation of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions imposed on the two plates. There exists a transition value in the difference between the orders of the fractional Neumann conditions for which the Casimir force changes from attractive to repulsive. Low and high temperature limits of Casimir energy and pressure are obtained. For sufficiently high temperature, these quantities are dominated by terms independent of the boundary conditions. Finally, validity of the temperature inversion symmetry for various boundary conditions is discussed.

  8. Fixed-scale approach to finite-temperature lattice QCD with shifted boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    We study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory using the fixed-scale approach with shifted boundary conditions. The fixed-scale approach can reduce the numerical cost of the zero-temperature part in the equation of state calculations, while the number of possible temperatures is limited by the integer Nt, which represents the temporal lattice extent. The shifted boundary conditions can overcome such a limitation while retaining the advantages of the fixed-scale approach. Therefore, our approach enables the investigation of not only the equation of state in detail but also the calculation of the critical temperature with increased precision even with the fixed-scale approach. We also observe numerically that the boundary conditions suppress the lattice artifact of the equation of state, which has been observed in the noninteracting limit.

  9. Van der Waals interactions between atoms and dispersive surfaces at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorza, M.-P.; Ducloy, M.

    2006-12-01

    The long-range interactions between an atomic system in an arbitrary energy level and dispersive surfaces in thermal equilibrium at non-zero temperature are revisited within the framework of the quantum-mechanical linear response theory, using generalized susceptibilities for both atom and electromagnetic field. After defining the observables of interest, one presents a general analysis of the atomic level shift valid for any number and form of dielectric surfaces. It is shown that, at zero temperature, one recovers well-known results previously obtained in the linear response regime. The case of a plane dispersive surface is elaborated on in the non-retarded regime. Calculations are given in detail for a dielectric surface exhibiting a single polariton resonance. Theoretical predictions are presented within a physical viewpoint allowing one to discriminate between the various interaction processes: on one hand, the level shift induced by non-resonant quantum fluctuations, on the other hand, two potentially resonant atom-surface couplings. The first resonant process appears for excited-state atoms and originates in an atomic de-excitation channel resonantly coupled to the surface polariton mode. It exists also at zero temperature, and has been studied and observed previously. The second physical process, which exists at non-zero temperature only, corresponds to the reverse process in which a thermal quantum excitation of a surface polariton resonantly couples to an atomic absorption channel. This novel phenomenon is predicted as well for a ground state atom, and can turn the ordinary long-range van der Waals attraction of atoms into a surface repulsion at increasing temperatures. This opens the way to the control and engineering of the sign and amplitude of van der Waals forces via surface temperature adjustment.

  10. Finite Element Based Stress Analysis of Graphite Component in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Core Using Linear and Nonlinear Irradiation Creep Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Majumdar, Saurindranath

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation creep plays a major role in the structural integrity of the graphite components in high temperature gas cooled reactors. Finite element procedures combined with a suitable irradiation creep model can be used to simulate the time-integrated structural integrity of complex shapes, such as the reactor core graphite reflector and fuel bricks. In the present work a comparative study was undertaken to understand the effect of linear and nonlinear irradiation creep on results of finite element based stress analysis. Numerical results were generated through finite element simulations of a typical graphite reflector.

  11. EVALUATION OF CONCRETE PROPERTY DATA AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES FOR USE IN THE SAFE-CRACK COMPUTER CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C. H.; Piepel, G. F.; Anderson, W. E.; Koehmstedt, P. L.; Simonen, F. A.

    1986-10-01

    Design and analysis of Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks has made use of the finite element computer code SAFE-CRACK as a check of the concrete portion of the tank design after cmpletion of design. Rockwell Hanford Operations, the site contractor responsible for operation of the tanks, has requested Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate the use of the Hanford concrete property data at elevated temperatures by the SAFE-CRACK code. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the proper use of the mathematical expressions in SAFE-CRACK to best define the physical concrete properties extrapolated from the documented concrete property data when subjected to elevated temperatures and cyclic temperature variations.

  12. Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Paul; Goodell, Jennifer; Molt, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The magnetic properties of ten types of ferritic and martensitic stainless steels have been measured at room temperature and at 77 K. The steel samples studied were in the annealed state as received from the manufacturer. Our room temperature measurements indicate significantly harder magnetic properties than those quoted in the ASM International Handbook, which studied fully annealed stainless steel samples. Despite having harder magnetic properties than fully annealed steels some of the as-received steels still display soft magnetic properties adequate for magnetic applications. The carbon content of the steels was found to affect the permeability and coercive force, with lower-carbon steels displaying significantly higher permeability and lower coercive force. The decrease in coercive force with reduced carbon content is attributed to fewer carbide inclusions which inhibit domain wall motion. Cooling to 77 K resulted in harder magnetic properties. Averaged over the ten steels tested the maximum permeability decreased by 8%, the coercive force increased by 14%, and the residual and saturation flux densities increased by 4% and 3%, respectively. The change in coercive force when cooled is comparable to the theoretical prediction for iron, based on a model of domain wall motion inhibited by inclusions. The modest changes of the magnetic properties indicate that the stainless steels can still be used in magnetic applications at very low temperatures.

  13. Simultaneous Estimation of Electrical and Thermal Properties of Material from the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography (tbet) Time-Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, N.; Ganesan, N.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an inversion method is proposed to determine simultaneously the electrical and thermal properties of a given isotropic material from the time-temperature data obtained from the Tone-Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET). A multi-physics forward model for computing the surface temperature data was used in a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based inversion technique to determine the material properties such as electrical conductivity (σ), thermal conductivity (k), density (ρ), and specific heat (Cp) simultaneously. Different trials were carried out initially with simulated temperature data (with and without noise). A typical case of inversion of anisotropic material properties using a 2D finite element model is also discussed.

  14. End point of a first-order phase transition in many-flavor lattice QCD at finite temperature and density.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Shinji; Yamada, Norikazu

    2013-04-26

    Towards the feasibility study of the electroweak baryogenesis in realistic technicolor scenario, we investigate the phase structure of (2+N(f))-flavor QCD, where the mass of two flavors is fixed to a small value and the others are heavy. For the baryogenesis, an appearance of a first-order phase transition at finite temperature is a necessary condition. Using a set of configurations of two-flavor lattice QCD and applying the reweighting method, the effective potential defined by the probability distribution function of the plaquette is calculated in the presence of additional many heavy flavors. Through the shape of the effective potential, we determine the critical mass of heavy flavors separating the first-order and crossover regions and find it to become larger with N(f). We moreover study the critical line at finite density and the first-order region is found to become wider as increasing the chemical potential. Possible applications to real (2+1)-flavor QCD are discussed.

  15. Projected entangled pair states at finite temperature: Iterative self-consistent bond renormalization for exact imaginary time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    A projected entangled pair state (PEPS) with ancillas can be evolved in imaginary time to obtain thermal states of a strongly correlated quantum system on a two-dimensional lattice. Every application of a Suzuki-Trotter gate multiplies the PEPS bond dimension D by a factor k . It has to be renormalized back to the original D . In order to preserve the accuracy of the Suzuki-Trotter (ST) decomposition, the renormalization in principle has to take into account full environment made of the new tensors with the bond dimension k ×D . Here, we propose a self-consistent renormalization procedure operating with the original bond dimension D , but without compromising the accuracy of the ST decomposition. The iterative procedure renormalizes the bond using full environment made of renormalized tensors with the bond dimension D . After every renormalization, the new renormalized tensors are used to update the environment, and then the renormalization is repeated again and again until convergence. As a benchmark application, we obtain thermal states of the transverse field quantum Ising model on a square lattice, both infinite and finite, evolving the system across a second-order phase transition at finite temperature.

  16. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  17. Role of N defects in paramagnetic CrN at finite temperatures from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, E.; Alling, B.; Steneteg, P.; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2015-03-01

    Simulations of defects in paramagnetic materials at high temperature constitute a formidable challenge to solid-state theory due to the interaction of magnetic disorder, vibrations, and structural relaxations. CrN is a material where these effects are particularly large due to a strong magnetolattice coupling and a tendency for deviations from the nominal 1:1 stoichiometry. In this work, we present a first-principles study of nitrogen vacancies and nitrogen interstitials in CrN at elevated temperature. We report on formation energetics, the geometry of interstitial nitrogen dimers, and the impact on the electronic structure caused by the defects. We find a vacancy formation energy of 2.28 eV with a small effect of temperature, i.e., a formation energy for N interstitial in the form of a <111 > -oriented split bond of 3.77 eV with an increase to 3.97 at 1000 K. Vacancies are found to add three electrons, while split-bond interstitial adds one electron to the conduction band. The band gap of defect-free CrN is smeared out due to vibrations, although it is difficult to draw a conclusion about the exact temperature at which the band gap closes from our calculations. However, it is clear that at 900 K there is a nonzero density of electronic states at the Fermi level. At 300 K, our results indicate a border case where the band gap is about to close.

  18. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  19. Correlation of Critical Temperatures and Electrical Properties in Titanium Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandini, C.; Lacquaniti, V.; Monticone, E.; Portesi, C.; Rajteri, M.; Rastello, M. L.; Pasca, E.; Ventura, G.

    Recently transition-edge sensors (TES) have obtained an increasing interest as light detectors due to their high energy resolution and broadband response. Titanium (Ti), with transition temperature up to 0.5 K, is among the suitable materials for TES application. In this work we investigate Ti films obtained from two materials of different purity deposited by e-gun on silicon nitride. Films with different thickness and deposition substrate temperature have been measured. Critical temperatures, electrical resistivities and structural properties obtained from x-ray are related to each other.

  20. Mechanical properties of polyimide coated optical fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Dyer, Robert S.; Lago, Ralph J.; Stolov, Andrei A.; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    High temperature mechanical strength and reliability of optical fibers have become important subjects as optical fibers are increasingly used for harsher environments. Theories and models of fiber mechanical properties established for traditional telecommunications applications may need to be validated for applications at elevated temperatures. In this paper, we describe the test setup for high temperature tensile strength of fiber and report initial results of dynamic tensile strength of polyimide coated optical fiber at 300 and 350ºC for different heating time intervals. The results are compared with room temperature strength data, data available in the literature, and our earlier work on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) weight loss of the polyimide coating and the observations on surface morphology at elevated temperatures. Interesting observations are discussed and possible explanations are proposed.

  1. Temperature effects on the electrical properties of multiphase polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, Biagio; Guadagno, Liberata; Lamberti, Patrizia; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Vertuccio, Luigi; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2014-05-01

    A study concerning the temperature dependence of some electrical properties of multiphase nanocomposite systems based on epoxy matrix, loaded with a 1% of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and different amounts of Hydrotalcite clay (HT), is presented. An extensive electrical characterization in DC was carried out highlighting that, consistently with the fluctuation-induced tunneling model, the electrical resistivity of the composites are characterized by a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) since it decreases monotonically with increasing temperature in the range 30-110°C. Furthermore, current-voltage (I-V) and temperature-voltage (T-V) characteristics with a perfect linear behavior are detected. The influence of different clay content on the electrical performance of the composites is also investigated. The interesting results open a new routes for such composites due their possible applications in the field of temperature sensor.

  2. Wang-Landau method for calculating Rényi entropies in finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    We implement a Wang-Landau sampling technique in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for the purpose of calculating the Rényi entanglement entropies and associated mutual information. The algorithm converges an estimate for an analog to the density of states for stochastic series expansion QMC, allowing a direct calculation of Rényi entropies without explicit thermodynamic integration. We benchmark results for the mutual information on two-dimensional (2D) isotropic and anisotropic Heisenberg models, a 2D transverse field Ising model, and a three-dimensional Heisenberg model, confirming a critical scaling of the mutual information in cases with a finite-temperature transition. We discuss the benefits and limitations of broad sampling techniques compared to standard importance sampling methods.

  3. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2 +1 flavor QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a )-improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical endline is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multiparameter, multiensemble reweighting method to calculate observables off the SU(3)-symmetric point, at the temporal size NT=6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm . We confirm that the slope of the critical endline takes the value of -2 , and find that the second derivative is positive, at the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point on the Columbia plot parametrized with the strange quark mass ms and degenerated up-down quark mass ml.

  4. Temperature dependence of piezoelectric properties for textured SBN ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masahiko; Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Sawada, Takuya; Higuchi, Yukio; Takagi, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Temperature dependences of piezoelectric properties were studied for h001i textured ceramics of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics, SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) (SBN). The textured ceramics with varied orientation degrees were fabricated by templated, grain-growth method, and the temperature dependences of resonance frequency were estimated. Excellent temperature stability of resonance frequency was obtained for the 76% textured ceramics. The resonance frequency of the 76% textured specimens varied almost linearly over a wide temperature range. Therefore, the variation was slight, even in a high temperature region above 150 degrees C. Temperature stability of a quartz crystal oscillator is generally higher than that of a ceramic resonator around room temperature. The variation of resonance frequency for the 76% textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) was larger than that of oscillation frequency for a typical quartz oscillator below 150 degrees C also in this study. However, the variation of the textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) was smaller than that of the quartz oscillator over a wide temperature range from -50 to 250 degrees C. Therefore, textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) ceramics is a major candidate material for the resonators used within a wide temperature range.

  5. The diagonal and off-diagonal quark number susceptibility of high temperature and finite density QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietanen, A.; Rummukainen, K.

    2008-04-01

    We study the quark number susceptibility of the hot quark-gluon plasma at zero and non-zero quark number density, using lattice Monte Carlo simulations of an effective theory of QCD, electrostatic QCD (EQCD). Analytic continuation is used to obtain results at non-zero quark chemical potential μ. We measure both flavor singlet (diagonal) and non-singlet (off-diagonal) quark number susceptibilities. The diagonal susceptibility approaches the perturbative result above ~ 20Tc, but below that temperature we observe significant deviations. The results agree well with 4d lattice data down to temperatures ~ 2Tc. The off-diagonal susceptibility is more prone to statistical and systematic errors, but the results are consistent with perturbation theory already at 10Tc.

  6. Finite-temperature interatomic exchange and magnon softening in Fe overlayers on Ir(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D. C. M.; Szilva, A.; Klautau, A. B.; Bergman, A.; Eriksson, O.; Etz, C.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluate how thermal effects soften the magnon dispersion in 6 layers of Fe(001) on top of Ir(001). We perform a systematic study considering noncollinear spin arrangement and calculate configuration-dependent exchange parameters Jij n c following the methodology described by Szilva et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 127204 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.127204. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to estimate the noncollinear spin arrangement as a function of temperature. Hence the Jij n c's related to these configurations were calculated and used in an atomistic spin dynamics approach to evaluate the magnon spectra. Our results show good agreement with recent room-temperature measurements, and highlights how thermal effects produce magnon softening in this, and similar, systems.

  7. Finite temperature infrared spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: Path-integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Parneix, P.; Van-Oanh, N.-T.

    2010-03-01

    The vibrational spectra of the naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene molecules have been computed in the 0-3500 cm-1 infrared range using classical and quantum molecular dynamics simulations based on a dedicated tight-binding potential energy surface. The ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) methods have been employed to account for quantum nuclear effects. The contributions of quantum delocalization to the line shift and broadening are significant in the entire spectral range and of comparable magnitude as pure thermal effects. While the two methods generally produce similar results, the CMD method may converge slower at low temperature with increasing Trotter discretization number. However, and contrary to the CMD method, the RPMD approach suffers from serious resonance problems at high frequencies and low temperatures.

  8. Raman scattering in a correlated superconductor II. A finite temperature study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Debanand; Behera, S. N.

    1994-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum of copper oxide superconductors is calculated assuming that the normal state of these systems is a correlated metal and that the superconductivity arises due to the correlation bag mechanism proposed earlier (Debanand Sa, S.N. Behera (1992), here after referred to as I). The correlated metallic state is characterized by the presence of a strong interaction between the doped charge carriers and the quanta of fluctuations of the pre-existing resonating valence bonds in the normal state. It is shown that the presence of such an interaction can give rise to the marginal Fermi liquid behaviour, which follows from the pair polarisability function. The model therefore, successfully explains the constant intensity background observed in the Raman spectrum due to the scattering by the charge carriers. In order to understand the observed temperature dependent shift and change in width of the phonons, their spectral density functions are calculated. Two different kinds of interaction between the charge carriers and phonons were derived in I, i.e. (i) the usual electron-phonon interaction where a phonon decays by exciting an electron-hole pair and (ii) the other where the decay process involves a quasi-particle pair. It was postulated that the localised phonons couple to the charge carrier by the later process whereas the propagating ones interact by the former. The temperature dependence of the phonon self-energies due to the two processes is calculated and the spectral density functions are computed. The calculated temperature dependent shift and change in width of the phonons show qualitative agreement with the observed result.

  9. Finite-temperature transition of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2012-08-03

    Motivated by the recent experiment on kagome-lattice antiferromagnets, we study the zero-field ordering behavior of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a uniaxially distorted kagome lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. A first-order transition, which has no counterpart in the corresponding undistorted model, takes place at a very low temperature. The origin of the transition is ascribed to a cooperative proliferation of topological excitations inherent to the model.

  10. Simulation of temperature and thermally induced stress of human tooth under CO2 pulsed laser beams using finite element method.

    PubMed

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    The authors report the simulation of temperature distribution and thermally induced stresses of human tooth under CO2 pulsed laser beam. A detailed tooth structure comprising enamel, dentin, and pulp with realistic shapes and thicknesses were considered, and a numerical method of finite element was adopted to solve time-dependent bio-heat and stress equations. The realistic boundary conditions of constant temperature for those parts embedded in the gingiva and heat flux condition for those parts out of the gingiva were applied. The results which were achieved as a function of energy density (J/cm(2)) showed when laser beam is irradiated downward (from the top of the tooth), the temperature and thermal stresses decrease quickly as a function of depth that is a result of strong absorption of CO2 beams by enamel. This effect is so influential that one can use CO2 beams to remove micrometer layers while underlying tissues, especially the pulp, are safe from thermal effects.

  11. Finite Element Simulation of Temperature and Strain Distribution during Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rahul; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-02-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and is handy for welding aluminum alloys. Finite Element Method (FEM) is an important tool to predict state variables of the process but numerical simulation of FSW is highly complex due to non-linear contact interactions between tool and work piece and interdependency of displacement and temperature. In the present work, a three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical method based on Lagrangian implicit method is proposed to study the thermal history, strain distribution and thermo-mechanical process in butt welding of Aluminum alloy 2024 using DEFORM-3D software. Workpiece is defined as rigid-visco plastic material and sticking condition between tool and work piece is defined. Adaptive re-meshing is used to tackle high mesh distortion. Effect of tool rotational and welding speed on plastic strain is studied and insight is given on asymmetric nature of FSW process. Temperature distribution on the workpiece and tool is predicted and maximum temperature is found in workpiece top surface.

  12. Finite Element Simulation of Temperature and Strain Distribution during Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rahul; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2016-06-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and is handy for welding aluminum alloys. Finite Element Method (FEM) is an important tool to predict state variables of the process but numerical simulation of FSW is highly complex due to non-linear contact interactions between tool and work piece and interdependency of displacement and temperature. In the present work, a three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical method based on Lagrangian implicit method is proposed to study the thermal history, strain distribution and thermo-mechanical process in butt welding of Aluminum alloy 2024 using DEFORM-3D software. Workpiece is defined as rigid-visco plastic material and sticking condition between tool and work piece is defined. Adaptive re-meshing is used to tackle high mesh distortion. Effect of tool rotational and welding speed on plastic strain is studied and insight is given on asymmetric nature of FSW process. Temperature distribution on the workpiece and tool is predicted and maximum temperature is found in workpiece top surface.

  13. Quantum-annealing correction at finite temperature: Ferromagnetic p -spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Vinci, Walter; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2017-02-01

    The performance of open-system quantum annealing is adversely affected by thermal excitations out of the ground state. While the presence of energy gaps between the ground and excited states suppresses such excitations, error correction techniques are required to ensure full scalability of quantum annealing. Quantum annealing correction (QAC) is a method that aims to improve the performance of quantum annealers when control over only the problem (final) Hamiltonian is possible, along with decoding. Building on our earlier work [S. Matsuura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 220501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.220501], we study QAC using analytical tools of statistical physics by considering the effects of temperature and a transverse field on the penalty qubits in the ferromagnetic p -body infinite-range transverse-field Ising model. We analyze the effect of QAC on second (p =2 ) and first (p ≥3 ) order phase transitions, and construct the phase diagram as a function of temperature and penalty strength. Our analysis reveals that for sufficiently low temperatures and in the absence of a transverse field on the penalty qubit, QAC breaks up a single, large free-energy barrier into multiple smaller ones. We find theoretical evidence for an optimal penalty strength in the case of a transverse field on the penalty qubit, a feature observed in QAC experiments. Our results provide further compelling evidence that QAC provides an advantage over unencoded quantum annealing.

  14. Vestige of T = 0 jamming transition at finite temperature in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, Thomas; Gardel, Margaret; Nagel, Sidney; Zhang, Zexin; Yodh, Arjun

    2012-02-01

    When a random packing of spheres at T = 0 is compressed to the jamming transition, the system becomes rigid and the first peak of the pair-correlation function, g(r), diverges [1]. We study the manifestation of this signature and the associated particle dynamics when the temperature, T, is no longer negligible. To this end, we employ a three-dimensional packing of monodisperse, micron-size, colloids made from n-isopropyl acrylimide (NIPAM). NIPAM particles change size and hence the packing fraction of the system in response to environmental temperature. Thus by changing sample temperature we can probe all packing fractions of interest using a single sample. These particles are compressible so the system can reach packing fractions and configurations inaccessible to hard colloids. We observe a vestige of the T = 0 divergence as a maximum in the first peak of g(r) versus packing fraction coincident with dynamical arrest of the particles. The general features in 3D are in agreement with a previous study in a two-dimensional bi-disperse NIPAM system [2]. We report the dependence of g(r) and particle motion on packing fraction. [1] C. S. O'Hern, et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 011306 (2003). [2] Z. Zhang, N. Xu, et al., Nature 459, 230 (2009).

  15. First principles finite temperature magnetism of defects in Fe using Wang-Landau method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanu, Aurelian; Nicholson, D. M.; Odbadrakh, Kh.; Brown, Gregory; Eisenbach, Markus

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic structure of materials with defects presents a strong dependence on local atomic arrangements. This dependence affects mechanical, magneto-caloric, and magnetization properties. Insights into thermodynamic and magnetic fluctuations at defects in Fe are obtained from first principle analysis by deploying the first principle local self consistent multiple scattering method(LSMS) and Wang-Landau statistical method. The computation of thermodynamic properties requires the sampling of a large number of configurations. To reduce the computational effort a Heisenberg model will be used to speed the configuration sampling procedures. The approach will be demonstrated for Fe systems and will address the magnetic structure of defects. This work was supported by the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DoE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Calculations performed at the National Center for Computational Sciences.

  16. Magnetic excitations in the S =1/2 antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic chain compound BaCu2V2O8 at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyushina, E. S.; Tiegel, A. C.; Fauseweh, B.; Islam, A. T. M. N.; Park, J. T.; Klemke, B.; Honecker, A.; Uhrig, G. S.; Manmana, S. R.; Lake, B.

    2016-06-01

    Unlike most quantum systems which rapidly become incoherent as temperature is raised, strong correlations persist at elevated temperatures in S =1/2 dimer magnets, as revealed by the unusual asymmetric line shape of their excitations at finite temperatures. Here, we quantitatively explore and parametrize the strongly correlated magnetic excitations at finite temperatures using high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering of the model compound BaCu2V2O8 which we show to be an alternating antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic spin -1/2 chain. Comparison to state of the art computational techniques shows excellent agreement over a wide temperature range. Our findings hence demonstrate the possibility to quantitatively predict coherent behavior at elevated temperatures in quantum magnets.

  17. Size effects on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of (5,0) finite-length carbon nanotube: An ab-initio electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarighi Ahmadpour, Mahdi; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Rostamnejadi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    We use density functional computations to study the zero temperature structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of (5,0) finite carbon nanotubes (FCNT), with length in the range of 4-44 Å. It is found that the structural and electronic properties of (5,0) FCNTs, in the ground state, converge at a length of about 30 Å, while the excited state properties exhibit long-range edge effects. We discuss that curvature effects enhance energy gap of FCNTs, in contrast to the known trend in the periodic limit. It is seen that compensation of curvature effects in two special small sizes may give rise to spontaneous magnetization. The obtained cohesive energies provide some insights into the effects of environment on the growth of FCNTs. The second-order difference of the total energies reveals an important magic size of about 15 Å. The optical and dynamical magnetic responses of the FCNTs to polarized electromagnetic pulses are studied by time dependent density functional theory. The results show that the static and dynamic magnetic properties mainly come from the edge carbon atoms. The optical absorption properties are described in terms of local field effects and characterized by Casida linear response method.

  18. Hydrologic property alterations due to elevated temperatures at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Nash, M.H.; Nash, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a high level nuclear waste repository. The pre-emplacement hydrologic properties of the rock are important in determining the suitability of the site; however, post emplacement thermal loads and associated drying may permanently alter the character of the rock. A preliminary study was undertaken to determine the effects of elevated temperatures on hydrologic properties of the welded Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and a zeolitic, nonwelded tuff from the Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Rock outcrop samples were collected and dried in the laboratory at different temperatures (up to 400 degrees C). Hydrologic and physical properties -were tested before and after each of the drying cycles.

  19. Elevated temperature properties of boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature properties of boron/aluminum composites, fabricated by an air diffusion bonding technique utilizing vacuum-bonded monolayer tape are reported. Seventeen different combinations of matrix alloy, reinforcement diameter, reinforcement volume percent, angle-ply and matrix enhancement (i.e. titanium cladding and interleaves) were fabricated, inspected, and tested. It is shown that good to excellent mechanical properties could be obtained for air-bonded boron/aluminum composites and that these properties did not decrease significantly up to a test temperature of at least 260 C. Composites made with 8 mil B/W fiber show a much greater longitudinal strength dependence on volume percent fiber than composites made with 5.6 mil fiber. The addition of titanium caused difficulties in composite bonding and yielded composites with reduced strength.

  20. General polarizability and hyperpolarizability estimators for the path-integral Monte Carlo method applied to small atoms, ions, and molecules at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiihonen, Juha; Kylänpää, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of matter have a broad relevance and many methods have been invented to compute them from first principles. However, the effects of electronic correlation, finite temperature, and breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation have turned out to be challenging and tedious to model. Here we propose a straightforward approach and derive general field-free polarizability and hyperpolarizability estimators for the path-integral Monte Carlo method. The estimators are applied to small atoms, ions, and molecules with one or two electrons. With the adiabatic, i.e., Born-Oppenheimer, approximation we obtain accurate tensorial ground state polarizabilities, while the nonadiabatic simulation adds in considerable rovibrational effects and thermal coupling. In both cases, the 0 K, or ground-state, limit is in excellent agreement with the literature. Furthermore, we report here the internal dipole moment of PsH molecule, the temperature dependence of the polarizabilities of H-, and the average dipole polarizabilities and the ground-state hyperpolarizabilities of HeH+ and H 3 + .

  1. Thermodynamics and Bulk Viscosity of Approximate Black Hole Duals to Finite Temperature Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.; Nellore, Abhinav; Pufu, Silviu S.; Rocha, Fabio D.

    2008-09-26

    We consider classes of translationally invariant black hole solutions whose equations of state closely resemble that of QCD at zero chemical potential. We use these backgrounds to compute the ratio {zeta}/s of bulk viscosity to entropy density. For a class of black holes that exhibits a first-order transition, we observe a sharp rise in {zeta}/s near T{sub c}. For constructions that exhibit a smooth crossover, like QCD does, the rise in {zeta}/s is more modest. We conjecture that divergences in {zeta}/s for black hole horizons are related to extrema of the entropy density as a function of temperature.

  2. Three-body recombination in heteronuclear systems at finite temperature with a large positive scattering length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, Samuel; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    For an ultracold heteronuclear mixture with a large positive interspecies scattering length and negligible intraspecies scattering length, we determine the three-body recombination rate as a function of collision energy using universal functions of a single scaling variable. We use the zero-range approximation and the Skorniakov -Ter-Martirosian equation to calculate these scaling functions for a range of collision energies. Further, we explore the effects that a nonzero temperature has on three-body recombination, as well as the effects of the formation of deep dimers, for experimentally relevant heteronuclear gases such as the 6Li-133Cs mixture. NSF Grant Nos. PHY-1516077 and PHY-1555030.

  3. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  4. Calculation of spin and orbital magnetizations in Fe slab systems at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Garibay-Alonso, R; Reyes-Reyes, M; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; López-Sandoval, R

    2010-02-10

    The temperature dependence of spin and orbital local magnetizations is theoretically determined for the non-bulk atomic region of (001) and (110) Fe slab systems. A d band Hamiltonian, including spin-orbit coupling terms, was used to model the slabs, which were emulated by using Fe films of sufficient thickness to reach a bulk behavior at their most inner atomic layers. The temperature effects were considered within the static approximation and a simple mean field theory was used to integrate the local magnetic moment and charge thermal fluctuations. The results reflect a clear interplay between electronic itinerancy and the local atomic environment and they can be physically interpreted from the local small charge transfers occurring in the superficial region of the slabs. For recovering the experimental behavior on the results for the (001) slab system, the geometrical relaxations at its non-bulk atomic layers and a d band filling variation are required. A study on the magnetic anisotropy aspects in the superficial region of the slabs is additionally performed by analyzing the results for the orbital local magnetization calculated along two different magnetization directions in both slab systems.

  5. Study of the electrical conductivity at finite temperature in 2D Si- MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Limouny, L. Kaaouachi, A. El Tata, O.; Daoudi, E.; Errai, M.; Dlimi, S.; Idrissi, H. El; Zatni, A.

    2014-01-27

    We investigate the low temperature density dependent conductivity of two dimensional electron systems in zero magnetic field for sample Si-15 MOSFETs. The first purpose of this paper is to establish that the knee of the conductivity σ{sub 0} (σ{sub 0} is the T = 0.3 conductivity obtained by linear extrapolation of the curves of σ (T) for different values of electron density, n{sub s}) as a function of the carrier densities n{sub s} for T = 0.3 K, observed by Lai et al. and Limouny et al. in previous work for two different samples, is independent of temperature. The second aim is the determination of the critical density, n{sub c}, of the metal-insulator transition. Many methods are used in this investigation of n{sub c} which have been already used for other samples. The motivation behind this last study is the observation of many values of n{sub c} that have been obtained from different methods and that are slightly different. We will use in this study three methods with the intention to infer which one is more appropriate to obtain n{sub c}.

  6. Finite-Temperature Crossover Phenomenon in the S = 1/2 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model on the Kagome Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Thermal properties of the S = 1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet at low temperatures are investigated by means of the Hams-de Raedt method for clusters of up to 36 sites possessing a full symmetry of the lattice. The specific heat exhibits, in addition to the double peaks, the third and the fourth peaks at lower temperatures. With decreasing the temperature, the type of the magnetic short-range order (SRO) changes around the third-peak temperature from the √{3} × √{3} to the q = 0 states, suggesting that the third peak of the specific heat is associated with a crossover phenomenon between the spin-liquid states with distinct magnetic SRO. Experimental implications are discussed.

  7. Effect of measured material properties on the finite element analysis of an OH-58 composite tail boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    A static and dynamic finite element analysis is conducted on a U.S. Army OH-58 composite tail boom and compared with test data. The tail boom is a filament-wound graphite/epoxy monocoque structure. The structural design of the composite tail boom skin is based on 50-percent graphite fiber volume. However, material tests on representative samples of the tail boom skin reveal that the graphite fiber-volume fraction varied from 44.6 to 49.3 percent. To determine the effect of using measured material properties, static and dynamic finite element analyses are conducted for three fiber-volume conditions of 45, 48, and 50 percent. The static and dynamic model with the 45-percent fiber-volume graphite skins gives the closest agreement with test data.

  8. Role of initial state and final quench temperature on aging properties in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Villavicencio-Sanchez, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved dynamics quenched from an initial equilibrium state at the temperature Ti≥Tc to a final temperature Tf below the critical one. By considering processes initiating both from a disordered state at infinite temperature Ti=∞ and from the critical configurations at Ti=Tc and spanning the range of final temperatures Tf∈[0 ,Tc[ we elucidate the role played by Ti and Tf on the aging properties and, in particular, on the behavior of the autocorrelation C and of the integrated response function χ . Our results show that for any choice of Tf, while the autocorrelation function exponent λC takes a markedly different value for Ti=∞ [λC(Ti=∞ ) ≃5 /4 ] or Ti=Tc [λC(Ti=Tc) ≃1 /8 ] the response function exponents are unchanged. Supported by the outcome of the analytical solution of the solvable spherical model we interpret this fact as due to the different contributions provided to autocorrelation and response by the large-scale properties of the system. As changing Tf is considered, although this is expected to play no role in the large-scale and long-time properties of the system, we show important effects on the quantitative behavior of χ . In particular, data for quenches to Tf=0 are consistent with a value of the response function exponent λχ=1/2 λC(Ti=∞ ) =5 /8 different from the one [λχ∈(0.5 -0.56 ) ] found in a wealth of previous numerical determinations in quenches to finite final temperatures. This is interpreted as due to important preasymptotic corrections associated to Tf>0 .

  9. Numerical investigations of the mechanical properties of a braided non-vascular stent design using finite element method.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Yu; Pan, Chang-Wang; Gangadhara Prusty, B

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses various issues relating to the mechanical properties of a braided non-vascular stent made of a Ni-Ti alloy. The design of the stent is a major factor which determines its reliability after implantation into a stenosed non-vascular cavity. This paper presents the effect of the main structural parameters on the mechanical properties of braided stents. A parametric analysis of a commercial stent model is developed using the commercial finite element code ANSYS. As a consequence of the analytical results that the pitch of wire has a greater effect than other structural parameters, a new design of a variable pitch stent is presented to improve mechanical properties of these braided stents. The effect of structural parameters on mechanical properties is compared for both stent models: constant and variable pitches. When the pitches of the left and right quarters of the stent are 50% larger and 100% larger than that of the central portion, respectively, the radial stiffness in the central portion increases by 10% and 38.8%, while the radial stiffness at the end portions decreases by 128% and 164.7%, the axial elongation by 25.6% and 56.6% and the bending deflection by 3.96% and 10.15%. It has been demonstrated by finite element analysis that the variable pitch stent can better meet the clinical requirements.

  10. Construction of finite difference schemes having special properties for ordinary and partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Work on the construction of finite difference models of differential equations having zero truncation errors is summarized. Both linear and nonlinear unidirectional wave equations are discussed. Results regarding the construction of zero truncation error schemes for the full wave equation and Burger's equation are also briefly reported.

  11. Quark-meson vertices and pion properties at finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Sun, Wei-Min; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2008-08-01

    Based on the rainbow-ladder approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and the assumption of the analyticity of the quark-meson vertex in the neighborhood of zero chemical potential (μ=0) and neglecting the μ-dependence of the dressed gluon propagator, we use the method of studying the dressed quark propagator at finite chemical potential given in [H. S. Zong, L. Chang, F.Y. Hou, W. M. Sun, and Y. X. Liu, Phys. Rev. C 71, 015205 (2005)] to show that the axial-vector quark-meson vertex at finite μ can be obtained from the corresponding one at μ=0 by a shift of variable: Γ5νj[μ](k,p)=Γ5νj(k~,p), where k and p are the relative and total momentum of the quark-antiquark pair, respectively, and k~=(k→,k4+iμ). Similar relations hold for any other type of quark-meson vertex. This feature would facilitate the numerical calculations of the quark-meson vertex function at finite μ considerably. Based on these results and using the dressed quark propagator at μ=0 proposed in [R. Alkofer, W. Detmold, C. S. Fischer, and P. Maris, Phys. Rev. D 70, 014014 (2004)], we calculate the pion decay constant fπ and the pion mass mπ at finite μ and a comparison of our results with those in the literature is made.

  12. Temperature-sensitive hybrid microgels with magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Pich, Andrij; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Lu, Yan; Boyko, Volodymyr; Adler, Hans-Juergen P

    2004-11-23

    In the present paper, we report the preparation of hybrid temperature-sensitive microgels which include magnetite nanoparticles in their structure. Polymeric microgels have been prepared by surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization of acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM) and N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL) in water with a water-soluble azo-initiator. The obtained microgels possess a low critical solution temperature (LCST) in water solutions, with a rapid decrease of the particle size being observed at elevated temperatures. Magnetite was deposited directly into microgels, leading to the formation of composite particles which combine both temperature-sensitive and magnetic properties. The influence of magnetite load on microgel size, morphology, swelling-deswelling behavior, and stability is discussed.

  13. Thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at high pressure and finite temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A technique is reviewed for calculating thermodynamic quantities for mixtures of light elements at high pressure, in the metallic state. Ensemble averages are calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and periodic boundary conditions. Interparticle potentials are assumed to be coulombic, screened by the electrons in dielectric function theory. This method is quantitatively accurate for alloys at pressures above about 10 Mbar. An alloy of equal parts hydrogen and helium by mass appears to remain liquid and mixed for temperatures above about 3000 K, at pressures of about 15 Mbar. The additive volume law is satisfied to within about 10%, but the Gruneisen equation of state gives poor results. A calculation at 1300 K shows evidence of a hydrogen-helium phase separation.

  14. CP asymmetry in heavy Majorana neutrino decays at finite temperature: the hierarchical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondini, S.; Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the simplest realization of leptogenesis with one heavy Majorana neutrino species much lighter than the other ones. In this scenario, when the temperature of the early universe is smaller than the lightest Majorana neutrino mass, we compute at first order in the Standard Model couplings and, for each coupling, at leading order in the termperature the CP asymmetry in the decays of the lightest neutrino into leptons and anti-leptons. We perform the calculation using a hierarchy of two effective field theories organized as expansions in the inverse of the heavy-neutrino masses. In the ultimate effective field theory, leading thermal corrections proportional to the Higgs self coupling and the gauge couplings are encoded in one single operator of dimension five, whereas corrections proportional to the top Yukawa coupling are encoded in four operators of dimension seven, which we compute.

  15. Elevated temperature creep properties of the 54Fe-29Ni-17Co "Kovar" alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, John Joseph, Jr.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Schmale, David T.

    2009-01-22

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Applications of Kovar Alloy in metal/ceramic brazing; (2) Diffusion bonding of precision-photoetched Kovar parts; (3) Sample composition and annealing conditions; (4) Intermediate temperature creep properties (350-650 C); (5) Power law creep correlations--with and without modulus correction; (6) Compressive stress-strain properties (23-900 C); (7) Effect of creep deformation on grain growth; and (8) Application of the power law creep correlation to the diffusion bonding application. The summary and conclusions are: Elevated temperature creep properties of Kovar from 750-900 C obey a power law creep equation with a stress exponent equal to 4.9, modulus compensated activation energy of 47.96 kcal/mole. Grain growth in Kovar creep samples tested at 750 and 800 C is quite sluggish. Significant grain growth occurs at 850 C and above, this is consistent with isothermal grain growth studies performed on Kovar alloy wires. Finite element analysis of the diffusion bonding of Kovar predict that stresses of 30 MPa and higher are needed for good bonding at 850 C, we believe that 'sintering' effects must be accounted for to allow FEA to be predictive of actual processing conditions. Additional creep tests are planned at 250-650 C.

  16. Finite-element analysis of the fluid temperature distribution in double U-tube Borehole Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchini, E.; Jahanbin, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the evaluation of Thermal Response Tests (TRTs) and in the design of Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) fields, the mean temperature of the fluid Tm is usually approximated by the arithmetic mean Tave of inlet and outlet temperatures. This approximation can yield errors in the estimation of the thermal conductivity of the ground, of the BHE thermal resistance, and of the heat pump performance. An expression for the evaluation of Tm has been proposed by Marcotte and Pasquier (Marcotte D, Pasquier P 2008, Renewable Energy, 33 2407) for single U-tube BHEs. In this paper, the difference between Tm and Tave is determined by 3D finite- element simulations for a typical double U-tube BHE in 6 unsteady working conditions. The results are validated qualitatively through an approximate analytical method, and show that the expression proposed by Marcotte and Pasquier underestimates the difference between Tm and Tave when applied to a typical double U-tube BHE. Therefore, new relations to evaluate this difference for double U-tube BHEs would be useful.

  17. Finite temperature application of the corrected propagator method to reactive dynamics in a condensed-phase environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The recently proposed mixed quantum-classical method is extended to applications at finite temperatures. The method is designed to treat complex systems consisting of a low-dimensional quantum part (the primary system) coupled to a dissipative bath described classically. The method is based on a formalism showing how to systematically correct the approximate zeroth-order evolution rule. The corrections are defined in terms of the total quantum Hamiltonian and are taken to the classical limit by introducing the frozen Gaussian approximation for the bath degrees of freedom. The evolution of the primary system is governed by the corrected propagator yielding the exact quantum dynamics. The method has been tested on a standard model system describing proton transfer in a condensed-phase environment: a symmetric double-well potential bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. Flux correlation functions and thermal rate constants have been calculated at two different temperatures for a range of coupling strengths. The results have been compared to the fully quantum simulations of Topaler and Makri [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 7500 (1994)] with the real path integral method.

  18. Finite-temperature phase diagram of the three-dimensional hard-core bosonic t-J model

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Yuki; Matsui, Tetsuo; Ishima, Takumi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ichinose, Ikuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko

    2011-06-15

    We study the three-dimensional bosonic t-J model, that is, the t-J model of 'bosonic electrons' at finite temperatures. This model describes a system of an isotropic antiferromagnet with doped bosonic holes and is closely related to systems of two-component bosons in an optical lattice. The bosonic 'electron' operator B{sub x{sigma}} at the site x with a two-component spin {sigma}(=1,2) is treated as a hard-core boson operator and represented by a composite of two slave particles: a spinon described by a Schwinger boson (CP{sup 1} boson) z{sub x}{sigma} and a holon described by a hard-core-boson field {phi}{sub x} as B{sub x}{sigma}={phi}{sub x}{sup {dagger}}z{sub x}{sigma}. By means of Monte Carlo simulations of this bosonic t-J model, we study its phase structure and the possible phenomena like appearance of antiferromagnetic long-range order, Bose-Einstein condensation, phase separation, etc. Obtained results show that the bosonic t-J model has a phase diagram that suggests some interesting implications for high-temperature superconducting materials.

  19. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Neitzert, Heinz C.; Sorrentino, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The frequency and the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin based bio-material have been investigated. At lower frequencies the dielectric response is strongly affected by charge carrier accumulation at the electrodes which modifies the dominating hopping conduction mechanism. The variation of the ac conductivity with frequency obeys a Jonscher type power law except for a small deviation in the low frequency range due to the electrode polarization effect. The master curve of the ac conductivity data shows that the conductivity relaxation of the gelatin is temperature independent.

  20. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. Anomalous Dynamical Line Shapes in a Quantum Magnet at Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant D. A.; James A.; Lake, B.; Essler, F.H.L.; Notbohm, S.; Mikeska, H.-J.; Fielden, J.; Kogerler,, P.; Canfield, P.C.; Telling, M.T.F.

    2012-01-04

    The effect of thermal fluctuations on the dynamics of a gapped quantum magnet is studied using inelastic neutron scattering on copper nitrate, a model material for the spin-1/2, one-dimensional (1D) bond alternating Heisenberg chain. A large, highly deuterated, single-crystal sample of copper nitrate is produced using a solution growth method and measurements are made using the high-resolution backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS at the ISIS Facility. Theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are combined to interpret the physical origin of the thermal effects observed in the magnetic spectra. The primary observations are (1) a thermally induced central peak due to intraband scattering, which is similar to Villain scattering familiar from soliton systems in 1D, and (2) the one-magnon quasiparticle pole is seen to develop with temperature into an asymmetric continuum of scattering. We relate this asymmetric line broadening to a thermal strongly correlated state caused by hard-core constraints and quasiparticle interactions. These findings are a counter example to recent assertions of the universality of line broadening in 1D systems and are applicable to a broad range of quantum systems.

  2. Does finite-temperature decoding deliver better optima for noisy Hamiltonians?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Andrew J.; Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    The minimization of an Ising spin-glass Hamiltonian is an NP-hard problem. Because many problems across disciplines can be mapped onto this class of Hamiltonian, novel efficient computing techniques are highly sought after. The recent development of quantum annealing machines promises to minimize these difficult problems more efficiently. However, the inherent noise found in these analog devices makes the minimization procedure difficult. While the machine might be working correctly, it might be minimizing a different Hamiltonian due to the inherent noise. This means that, in general, the ground-state configuration that correctly minimizes a noisy Hamiltonian might not minimize the noise-less Hamiltonian. Inspired by rigorous results that the energy of the noise-less ground-state configuration is equal to the expectation value of the energy of the noisy Hamiltonian at the (nonzero) Nishimori temperature [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 62, 40132930 (1993)], we numerically study the decoding probability of the original noise-less ground state with noisy Hamiltonians in two space dimensions, as well as the D-Wave Inc. Chimera topology. Our results suggest that thermal fluctuations might be beneficial during the optimization process in analog quantum annealing machines.

  3. Finite temperature effects and the validity of the Weinberg sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Using resent independent results from QCD sum rules for the thermal evolution of hadronic parameters in the vector and the axial-vector channels, we discuss the saturation of the two Weinberg sum rules. It turn out that both sum rules are quite well satisfied in a wide range from T = 0 up to T/T c ≃ 0.7 — 0.8. At higher temperatures, coming closer to Tc , there is an asymmetry between both channels since in the vector case there is a leading order effect, proportional to T2 , due to a one loop pion contribution in the space-like region, which is absent in the axial-vector case. This leads then to a small deviation. More important, though, in this region the QCD sum rules for the hadronic parameters begin to have no solutions since the widths of the ρ and the a1-mesons diverge signaling the occurrence of deconfinement. Close to and at Tc there are no pions left in the medium and chiral symmetry is restored so that the Weinberg sum rules are trivially satisfied.

  4. A finite element analysis of the effects of geometrical shape on the elastic properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denu, Garuma Abdisa; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Wang, Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    We report the effect of geometrical shape of diamond nanowire on its mechanical properties. Finite element modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to simulate various diamond nanowire with circular, square, rectangular, hexagonal and triangular cross-sections. A bending test under concentrated load applied at one of the free ends is simulated using FEM. The force response of the nanowire under different loading is studied for the various cross-sections. The dimensions of each cross-section is chosen so that material properties such as Young's modulus can be kept constant for comparison in all the cross-sections. It is found out that the bending capability of a triangular nanowire is higher compared to other cross-sections due to its lowest second moment. Circular and hexagonal cross-section show highest stiffness. The study of mechanical property of diamond nanowires is useful for optimal nanomechanical designs where the effect of cross-section has to be taken into account.

  5. Simulating Damage Due to a Lightning Strike Event: Effects of Temperature Dependent Properties on Interlaminar Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghezeljeh, Paria Naghipour; Pineda, Evan Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A multidirectional, carbon fiber-epoxy, composite panel is subjected to a simulated lightning strike, within a finite element method framework, and the effect of material properties on the failure (delamination) response is investigated through a detailed numerical study. The numerical model of the composite panel consists of individual homogenized plies with user-defined, cohesive interface elements between them. Lightning strikes are simulated as an assumed combination of excessive heat and high pressure loadings. It is observed that the initiation and propagation of lightning-induced delamination is a significant function of the temperature dependency of interfacial fracture toughness. This dependency must be defined properly in order to achieve reliable predictions of the present lightning-induced delamination in the composite panel.

  6. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang Hu, Ping Shen, Guozhe

    2013-12-16

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part.

  7. Finite-Temperature Non-equilibrium Quasicontinuum Method based on Langevin Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, J; Venturini, G; Hansen, B; Knap, J; Ortiz, M; Campbell, G

    2009-05-08

    The concurrent bridging of molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics presents a number of challenges, mostly associated with energy transmission and changes in the constitutive description of a material across domain boundaries. In this paper, we propose a framework for simulating coarse dynamic systems in the canonical ensemble using the Quasicontinuum method (QC). The equations of motion are expressed in reduced QC coordinates and are strictly derived from dissipative Lagrangian mechanics. The derivation naturally leads to a classical Langevin implementation where the timescale is governed by vibrations emanating from the finest length scale occurring in the computational cell. The equations of motion are integrated explicitly via Newmark's ({beta} = 0; {gamma} = 1/2) method, leading to a robust numerical behavior and energy conservation. In its current form, the method only allows for wave propagations supported by the less compliant of the two meshes across a heterogeneous boundary, which requires the use of overdamped dynamics to avoid spurious heating due to reflected vibrations. We have applied the method to two independent crystallographic systems characterized by different interatomic potentials (Al and Ta) and have measured thermal expansion in order to quantify the vibrational entropy loss due to homogenization. We rationalize the results in terms of system size, mesh coarseness, and nodal cluster diameter within the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. For Al, we find that the entropy loss introduced by mesh coarsening varies linearly with the element size, and that volumetric effects are not critical in driving the anharmonic behavior of the simulated systems. In Ta, the anomalies of the interatomic potential employed result in negative and zero thermal expansion at low and high temperatures, respectively.

  8. An automatic approach for calibrating dielectric bone properties by combining finite-element and optimization software tools.

    PubMed

    Su, Yukun; Kluess, Daniel; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; van Rienen, Ursula; Bader, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The dielectric properties of human bone are one of the most essential inputs required by electromagnetic stimulation for improved bone regeneration. Measuring the electric properties of bone is a difficult task because of the complexity of the bone structure. Therefore, an automatic approach is presented to calibrate the electric properties of bone. The numerical method consists of three steps: generating input from experimental data, performing the numerical simulation, and calibrating the bone dielectric properties. As an example, the dielectric properties at 20 Hz of a rabbit distal femur were calibrated. The calibration process was considered as an optimization process with the aim of finding the optimum dielectric bone properties that match most of the numerically calculated simulation and experimentally measured data sets. The optimization was carried out automatically by the optimization software tool iSIGHT in combination with the finite-element solver COMSOL Multiphysics. As a result, the optimum conductivity and relative permittivity of the rabbit distal femur at 20 Hz were found to be 0.09615 S/m and 19522 for cortical bone and 0.14913 S/m and 1561507 for cancellous bone, respectively. The proposed method is a potential tool for the identification of realistic dielectric properties of the entire bone volume. The presented approach combining iSIGHT with COMSOL is applicable to, amongst others, designing implantable electro-stimulative devices or the optimization of electrical stimulation parameters for improved bone regeneration.

  9. Some properties of asymmetric Hopfield neural networks with finite time of transition between states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimenov, Ibragim; Mun, Grigoriy; Panchenko, Sergey; Pak, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    There were implemented samples of asymmetric Hopfield neural networks which have finite time of transition from one state to another. It was shown that in such systems, various oscillation modes could occur. It was revealed that the oscillation of the output signal of certain neuron could be treated as extra logical variable, which describes the state of the neuron. Asymmetric Hopfield neural networks are described in terms of ternary logic. Such logic may be employed in image recognition procedure.

  10. Transport properties of high-temperature Jupiter atmosphere components

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Colonna, G.; De Pascale, O.; Laricchiuta, A.; Catalfamo, C.; Diomede, P.; Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Giordano, D.; Pirani, F.

    2010-11-15

    Transport properties of high-temperature helium and hydrogen plasmas as well as Jupiter atmosphere have been calculated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions using higher approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method. A complete database of transport cross sections for relevant interactions has been derived, including minority species, by using both ab initio and phenomenological potentials. Inelastic collision integrals terms, due to resonant charge-exchange channels, have been also considered.

  11. Prediction of hydraulic and electrical transport properties of sandstone with multiscale lattice Boltzmann/finite element simulation on microtomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, T.; Sun, W.

    2012-12-01

    Microcomputed tomography can be used to characterize the geometry of the pore space of a sedimentary rock, with resolution that is sufficiently refined for the realistic simulation of physical properties based on the 3D image. Significant advances have been made on the characterization of pore size distribution and connectivity, development of techniques such as lattice Boltzmann method to simulate permeability, and its upscaling. Sun, Andrade and Rudnicki (2011) recently introduced a multiscale method that dynamically links these three aspects, which were often treated separately in previous computational schemes. In this study, we improve the efficiency of this multiscale method by introducing a flood-fill algorithm to determine connectivity of the pores, followed by a multiscale lattice Boltzmann/finite element calculation to obtain homogenized effective anisotropic permeability. The improved multiscale method also includes new capacity to consistently determine electrical conductivity and formation factor from CT images. Furthermore, we also introduce a level set based method that transforms pore geometry to finite element mesh and thus enables direct simulation of pore-scale flow with finite element method. When applied to the microCT data acquired by Lindquist et al. (2000) for four Fontainebleau sandstone samples with porosities ranging from 7.5% to 22%, this multiscale method has proved to be computationally efficient and our simulations has provided new insights into the relation among permeability, pore geometry and connectivity.

  12. Temperature dependence of the properties of vapor-deposited polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F. Y.; Blanton, T. N.; Harding, D. R.; Chen, S. H.

    2003-04-01

    The Young's modulus and helium gas permeability of vapor-deposited poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylenepyromellitimide) were measured at cryogenic and elevated temperatures (10-573 K). The Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature from 5.5 GPa at 10 K to 1.8 GPa at 573 K. The temperature dependency of the permeability followed the Arrhenius' relationship, with different activation energy for permeation for samples imidized under different conditions. The effect of the imidization conditions on the permeation properties could be explained in terms of morphology/crystallinity as determined by x-ray diffraction techniques. Imidizing in air instead of nitrogen increased the permeability while lowering the activation energy for permeation and crystallinity. Imidizing at higher heating rates (in nitrogen) resulted in higher permeability, lower activation energy for permeation, and larger and fewer crystallites with better-aligned lattice planes.

  13. Role of melting temperature on the properties of displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Smalinskas, K.; Robertson, I.M.; Averback, R.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Kirk, M.A. )

    1990-04-01

    The defect structure produced in Cu-Ni alloys by room temperature heavy-ion irradiation have been investigated by TEM. This system exhibits complete solid solubility over the entire composition range and therefore allows the role of melting temperature on the properties of displacement cascades to be assessed. The probability of a dislocation loop forming in the Cu-Ni alloy system is highest in pure Cu and decreases with increasing Ni content. However, the change in formation probability with melting temperature is not a simple one as it is found that loops form more readily in pure nickel than in Cu-90%Ni. It was also found that the size of the dislocation loops varies markedly with alloy content. The higher the nickel content the smaller the loops. These results will be correlated with ion-beam mixing experiments to assess the role of vacancy mobility in the loop formation process. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The anomalous thermal properties of glasses at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. O.; Salinger, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    While experimentally there is great regularity below 1 deg K in the behavior of a particular thermal property for all amorphous dielectrics it is not understood why these properties should differ from those of crystalline dielectrics, since it would seem that at low temperatures long-wavelength elastic waves, similar in both cases, would determine the thermal properties. A model involving systems having very few levels is used in the present study, although the relation between the model's systems and the nature of the glassy state is not known. It is shown, among other effects, that: specific heat measurements above 0.1 K indicate a distribution of local modes independent of energy; ultrasonic velocity measurements give information about phonon-local mode coupling parameters; and thermal expansion and far infrared experiments indicate a phonon-assisted tunneling model.

  15. Finite element analysis of the temperature field in laser cladding of Ni-based powders on teeth surfaces of the helical gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Liu, S.; Tao, R.; Liu, D.; Lou, D.; Bennett, P.

    2016-09-01

    The temperature field formed in the process of laser cladding of worn teeth surfaces of the gear shaft is simulated by the finite element analysis software. Isothermal lines inside the tooth are obtained. Simulated results are compared with experimental data. Recommendations are given on improvement of the cladding technology to provide a durable continuous coating.

  16. Mechanical properties of high-temperature brazed titanium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Broich, U.; Koetzing, B.

    1994-12-31

    Titanium and its alloys are of main interest for several fields of application. Because of rising demands on permanent structural parts and increasing complexity of components, it is important to obtain an adequate joining technique, which on the one hand does not restrict the mechanical properties of the parent metal too much and on the other hand is inexpensive and flexible. These requirements can be fulfilled best by application of high-temperature brazing technology, employing titanium base filler metals. Among existing joining techniques, the vacuum brazing process conducted in a vacuum furnace and the induction brazing process are of practical relevance. The mechanical properties of high-temperature brazed titanium materials are strongly dependent on process parameters, such as brazing time and brazing temperature and even more crucially on brazing gap size. Under optimized brazing conditions, the tensile strength of high-temperature brazed TiAl6V4-joints, for example, reach about 950 MPa, where the Pd-containing alloy is slightly superior to TiCu20Ni20 filler metal. Most of the tensile specimens break in the base metal at some distance to the brazing zone, indicating that the tensile strength of the joint is comparable to that of the bulk material. The thermal stability of the brazed titanium joints has been investigated by doing tensile tests at elevated temperatures. These experiments have shown that the tensile strength of TiAl6VA- joints for example are going to be reduced by 30% when exposing the brazed samples to 300{degrees}C. However, the tensile specimen broke in the bulk material, indicating that the tensile strength of bulk TiAl6V4 is also reduced at elevated temperatures.

  17. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  18. Finite element modeling of the influence of hand position and bone properties on the Colles' fracture load during a fall.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Drew; Ural, Ani

    2010-08-01

    Distal forearm fracture is one of the most frequently observed osteoporotic fractures, which may occur as a result of low energy falls such as falls from a standing height and may be linked to the osteoporotic nature of the bone, especially in the elderly. In order to prevent the occurrence of radius fractures and their adverse outcomes, understanding the effect of both extrinsic and intrinsic contributors to fracture risk is essential. In this study, a nonlinear fracture mechanics-based finite element model is applied to human radius to assess the influence of extrinsic factors (load orientation and load distribution between scaphoid and lunate) and intrinsic bone properties (age-related changes in fracture properties and bone geometry) on the Colles' fracture load. Seven three-dimensional finite element models of radius were created, and the fracture loads were determined by using cohesive finite element modeling, which explicitly represented the crack and the fracture process zone behavior. The simulation results showed that the load direction with respect to the longitudinal and dorsal axes of the radius influenced the fracture load. The fracture load increased with larger angles between the resultant load and the dorsal axis, and with smaller angles between the resultant load and longitudinal axis. The fracture load also varied as a function of the load ratio between the lunate and scaphoid, however, not as drastically as with the load orientation. The fracture load decreased as the load ratio (lunate/scaphoid) increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that the bone geometry and the load orientation are the most important variables that contribute to the prediction of the fracture load. The findings in this study establish a robust computational fracture risk assessment method that combines the effects of intrinsic properties of bone with extrinsic factors associated with a fall, and may be elemental in the identification of high fracture risk individuals

  19. POPULATION KINETICS MODELING FOR NON-LTE AND NON-MAXWELLIAN PLASMAS GENERATED IN FINITE TEMPERATURE DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS ARISING FROM SHORT PULSE X-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H; Lee, R W; Morgan, W L

    2003-12-23

    The short pulse x-ray sources will provide a major advance in dense matter studies important to understand implosion physics for ICF as a generator of warm dense matter or a probe of finite temperature dense matter. The interaction of such a high-energy photon pulse with the initially solid matter creates highly transient states of plasmas initially whose relaxation processes are of interest to the equation of states or spectral properties of these matter. For these plasmas, assumptions such as LTE population distributions or Maxwellian electron energy distributions should be tested by employing a method that does not make these assumption a priori. Our goal is to present a model that can be used to simulate the electron distributions, the ionization balance and the spectral output of transient systems generated in the future ICF experiments. We report on the progress in developing a non-LTE atomic population kinetics code integrated with Boltzmann equation solver to provide a self-consistent time-dependent solution of the level populations and the particle energy distributions.

  20. Effects of the parallel electron dynamics and finite ion temperature on the plasma blob propagation in the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P. K.; Pegoraro, F.

    2008-11-15

    A new three-dimensional model for the warm-ion turbulence at the tokamak edge plasma and in the scrape-off layer is proposed, and used to study the dynamics of plasma blobs in the scrape-off layer. The model is based on the nonlinear interchange mode, coupled with the nonlinear resistive drift mode, in the presence of the magnetic curvature drive, the density inhomogeneity, the electron dynamics along the open magnetic field lines, and the electron-ion and electron-neutral collisions. Within the present model, the effect of the sheath resistivity decreases with the distance from the wall, resulting in the bending and the break up of the plasma blob structure. Numerical solutions exhibit the coupling of interchange modes with nonlinear drift modes, causing the collapse of the blob in the lateral direction, followed by a clockwise rotation and radial propagation. The symmetry breaking, caused both by the parallel resistivity and the finite ion temperature, introduces a poloidal component in the plasma blob propagation, while the overall stability properties and the speed are not affected qualitatively.

  1. Finite-temperature extension of the quasicontinuum method using Langevin dynamics: entropy losses and analysis of errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, J.; Venturini, G.; Hansen, B. L.; Knap, J.; Ortiz, M.; Campbell, G. H.

    2010-01-01

    The concurrent bridging of molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics presents a number of challenges, mostly associated with energy transmission and changes in the constitutive description of a material across domain boundaries. In this paper, we propose a framework for simulating coarse dynamic systems in the canonical ensemble using the quasicontinuum method (QC). The equations of motion are expressed in reduced QC coordinates and are strictly derived from dissipative Lagrangian mechanics. The derivation naturally leads to a classical Langevin implementation where the timescale is governed by vibrations emanating from the finest length scale occurring in the computational cell. The equations of motion are integrated explicitly via Newmark's (\\beta=0;\\gamma=\\case{1}{2}) method, which is parametrized to ensure overdamped dynamics. In this fashion, spurious heating due to reflected vibrations is suppressed, leading to stable canonical trajectories. To estimate the errors introduced by the QC reduction in the resulting dynamics, we have quantified the vibrational entropy losses in Al uniform meshes by calculating the thermal expansion coefficient for a number of conditions. We find that the entropic depletion introduced by coarsening varies linearly with the element size and is independent of the nodal cluster diameter. We rationalize the results in terms of the system, mesh and cluster sizes within the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. The limitations of the method and alternatives to mitigate the errors introduced by coarsening are discussed. This work represents the first of a series of studies aimed at developing a fully non-equilibrium finite-temperature extension of QC.

  2. Impact of temperature on the biological properties of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Agata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the response of soil microorganisms and enzymes to the temperature of soil. The effect of the temperatures: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on the biological properties of soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The study was performed using four different soils differing in their granulometric composition. It was found that 15°C was the optimal temperature for the development of microorganisms in soil. Typically, in the soil, the highest activity of dehydrogenases was observed at 10-15°C, catalase and acid phosphatase - at 15°C, alkaline phosphatase at 20°C, urease and β-glucosidase at 25°C. The highest colony development index for heterotrophic bacteria was recorded in soils incubated at 25°C, while for actinomycetes and fungi at 15°C. The incubation temperature of soil only slightly changed the ecophysiological variety of the investigated groups of microorganisms. Therefore, the observed climate changes might have a limited impact on the soil microbiological activity, because of the high ability of microorganisms to adopt. The response of soil microorganisms and enzymes was more dependent on the soil granulometric composition, organic carbon, and total nitrogen than on its temperature.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks at Superplastic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Richard W.; Vetrano, John S.; Smith, Mark T.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2002-10-06

    This paper describes an investigation of the mechanical properties of weld material in aluminum tailor welded blanks (TWB) at superplastic temperatures and discusses the potential application of TWBs in superplastic forming operations. Aluminum TWBs consist of multiple sheet materials of different thickness or alloy that are butt-welded together into a single, variable thickness blank. To evaluate the performance of the weld material in TWBs, a series of tensile tests were conducted at superplastic temperatures with specimens that contained weld material in the gage area. The sheet material used in the study was Sky 5083 aluminum alloy, which was joined to produce the TWBs by gas tungsten arc welding using an AA5356 filler wire. The experimental results show that, in the temperature range of 500?C to 550?C and at strain rates ranging from 10-4 sec-1 to 10-2 sec-1, the weld material has a higher flow stress and lower ductility than the monolithic sheet material. The weld material exhibited elongations of 40% to 60% under these conditions, whereas the monolithic sheet achieved 220% to 360% elongation. At the same temperatures and strain rates, the weld material exhibited flow stresses 1.3 to 4 times greater than the flow stress in the monolithic sheet. However, the weld material did show a substantial increase in the strain rate sensitivity and ductility when compared to the same material formed at room temperature.

  4. Second order finite volume scheme for Maxwell's equations with discontinuous electromagnetic properties on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismagilov, Timur Z.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a second order finite volume scheme for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations with discontinuous dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability on unstructured meshes. The scheme is based on Godunov scheme and employs approaches of Van Leer and Lax-Wendroff to increase the order of approximation. To keep the second order of approximation near dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability discontinuities a novel technique for gradient calculation and limitation is applied near discontinuities. Results of test computations for problems with linear and curvilinear discontinuities confirm second order of approximation. The scheme was applied to modelling propagation of electromagnetic waves inside photonic crystal waveguides with a bend.

  5. Characteristic for TNW700 high temperature titanium superplastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baosheng; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    TNW700 is a kind of titanium material with higher temperature serving properties, which can be exposed in 500°C long term working atmosphere. Superplastic forming is an effective way for part forming in aeronautic filed to stratify the demand of light weight. In this work, the superplastic properties of TNW700 was investigated by performing superplastic uniaxial tension at four temperatures of 890°C, 910°C, 930°C and 950°C and five initial strain rates of 2.1 × 10-4s-1, 4.2 × 10-4s-1, 1.0 × 10-3s-1, 2.1 × 10-3s-1, 4.2 × 10-3s-1, and the material parameters K value and m value of Backofen equation were calculated on basis of the obtained true strain-stress curves. The activation energy was also determined. The results show that, the maximum elongation is 550.25% at 930°C and at 1.0 × 10-3s-1, and m values for different temperature is in the extent of 0.324-0.347, and the determined activation energy Q is 593.12 kJ.mol-1.

  6. Investigating Low Temperature Properties of Rubber Seals - 13020

    SciTech Connect

    Jaunich, M.; Wolff, D.; Stark, W.

    2013-07-01

    To achieve the required tightness levels of containers for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes rubbers are widely applied as main sealing materials. The save encapsulation of the radioactive container contents has to be guaranteed according to legislation and appropriate guidelines for long storage periods as well as down to temperatures of -40 deg. C during transportation. Therefore the understanding of failure mechanisms that lead to leakage at low temperatures is of high importance. It is known that the material properties of rubbers are strongly influenced by temperature. At low temperatures this is caused by the rubber-glass transition (abbr. glass transition). During continuous cooling the material changes from rubber-like entropy-elastic to stiff energy-elastic behaviour, that allows nearly no strain or retraction. Therefore, rubbers are normally used above their glass transition but the minimum working temperature limit is not defined precisely, what can cause problems during application. The temperature range where full functionality is possible is strongly dependent on the application conditions and the material. For this investigation mainly ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) and fluorocarbon rubbers (FKM) were selected as they are often used for radioactive waste containers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) are typically used for the determination of the temperature range of the glass transition process. The standardized compression set measurement according to ISO 815 is common for investigation of rubber sealing materials as the test simulates the seal behaviour after release. To reduce the test time of the standard tests a faster technique giving the same information was developed. Additionally, the breakdown temperature of the sealing function of complete O-ring seals is measured in a component test setup to compare it with the results of the other tests. The experimental setup is capable of

  7. Entanglement properties of the Haldane phases: A finite system-size approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakoshi, Shohei; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-12-01

    We study the bond-alternating Heisenberg model using the finite-size density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) technique and analytical arguments based on the matrix product state, where we pay particular attention to the boundary-condition dependence on the entanglement spectrum of the system. We show that, in the antiperiodic boundary condition (APBC), the parity quantum numbers are equivalent to the topological invariants characterizing the topological phases protected by the bond-centered inversion and π rotation about the z axis. We also show that the odd parity in the APBC, which characterizes topologically nontrivial phases, can be extracted as a twofold degeneracy in the entanglement spectrum even with finite system size. We then determine the phase diagram of the model with the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy using the level spectroscopy method in the DMRG technique. These results not only suggest the detectability of the symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases via general twisted boundary conditions but also provide a useful and precise numerical tool for discussing the SPT phases in the exact diagonalization and DMRG techniques.

  8. Mechanical properties of high-temperature brazed titanium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Broich, U.

    1995-05-01

    The mechanical properties of commercial titanium CPTi and Ti-Al6-V4 joints, brazed with Ti-based filler metals in the system Ti(Zr)-Cu-Ni-(Pd) are evaluated by tensile test at various temperatures, as well as by fatigue test at room temperature. The influence of the microstructure in the brazing zone on the mechanical properties of the joints was assessed by conducting metallographic analysis. A vacuum furnace and an induction heating furnace were used for the production of the metallographic and tensile samples. The results from the mechanical and metallographic investigations revealed a strong dependence of the tensile strength of the titanium joints on the microstructure of the brazing zone. The presence of the brittle intermetallic Ti-Cu and Ti-Ni phases in the brazing zone leads to the weakening of the joint. However, for the formation of these intermetallic phases can be avoided by using adequate brazing process parameters and by optimizing the joint clearance. In that case, it is possible to fabricate titanium joints with Ti-based filler metals that have excellent mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal.

  9. Exfoliated black phosphorus gas sensing properties at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarelli, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Giancaterini, L.; Fioravanti, G.; Perrozzi, F.; Cantalini, C.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature gas sensing properties of chemically exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) to oxidizing (NO2, CO2) and reducing (NH3, H2, CO) gases in a dry air carrier have been reported. To study the gas sensing properties of BP, chemically exfoliated BP flakes have been drop casted on Si3N4 substrates provided with Pt comb-type interdigitated electrodes in N2 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations show respectively the occurrence of a mixed structure, composed of BP coarse aggregates dispersed on BP exfoliated few layer flakes bridging the electrodes, and a clear 2p doublet belonging to BP, which excludes the occurrence of surface oxidation. Room temperature electrical tests in dry air show a p-type response of multilayer BP with measured detection limits of 20 ppb and 10 ppm to NO2 and NH3 respectively. No response to CO and CO2 has been detected, while a slight but steady sensitivity to H2 has been recorded. The reported results confirm, on an experimental basis, what was previously theoretically predicted, demonstrating the promising sensing properties of exfoliated BP.

  10. Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Fernandez, Justin W; Gamage, Prasad B; Regnery, Camille; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2014-11-28

    Achilles tendon injuries including rupture are one of the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries, but the mechanisms for these injuries are still not fully understood. Previous in vivo and experimental studies suggest that tendon rupture mainly occurs in the tendon mid-section and predominantly more in men than women due to reasons yet to be identified. Therefore we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms for tendon rupture using finite element (FE) analysis. Specifically, we have developed a framework for generating subject-specific FE models of human Achilles tendon. A total of ten 3D FE models of human Achilles tendon were generated. Subject-specific geometries were obtained using ultrasound images and a mesh morphing technique called Free Form Deformation. Tendon material properties were obtained by performing material optimization that compared and minimized difference in uniaxial tension experimental results with model predictions. Our results showed that both tendon geometry and material properties are highly subject-specific. This subject-specificity was also evident in our rupture predictions as the locations and loads of tendon ruptures were different in all specimens tested. A parametric study was performed to characterize the influence of geometries and material properties on tendon rupture. Our results showed that tendon rupture locations were dependent largely on geometry while rupture loads were more influenced by tendon material properties. Future work will investigate the role of microstructural properties of the tissue on tendon rupture and degeneration by using advanced material descriptions.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of grain boundary structure and properties at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensin, Saryu Jindal

    This thesis reports research involving the development and application of atomistic simulation methods to study the effects of high homologous temperatures on the structural, thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanical properties of grain boundaries in metals. Our interest in these properties is due to the role they play in governing the evolution of microstructure and deformation of metals during solidification processing. The interest in developing more predictive models for the formation of solidification defects highlights a need to better understand the thermodynamic driving forces underlying grain-boundary premelting and the mobility and shear strength of these interfaces at high temperatures. In this work we study two different elemental systems, namely Ni and Cu, and consider a variety of grain boundary structures characterized by different misorientation angles, twist/tilt character and zero-temperature energies. A method to calculate the disjoining potential from molecular dynamics (MD) is developed and applied to grain boundaries in Ni. The disjoining potential characterizes the variation in grain-boundary free energy as a function of the width of a premelted interfacial layer. The MD method for the calculation of this property is applied to grain boundaries that display continuous premelting transitions, as well as a boundary characterized by a disordered atomic structure displaying a finite interfacial width at the melting temperature. The disjoining potential represents an important input property to larger scale models of solidification and grain coalescence. We further develop analysis methods to characterize the change in the atomic structure of an asymmetric tilt grain boundary in elemental Cu as a function of temperature. This boundary is characterized by a potential-energy surface with multiple minima as a function of the relative translation of the grains parallel to the interface plane. The more complex structure of this boundary, relative to the

  12. Excess Thermodynamic Properties of Concentrated Aqueous Solutions at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Guszkiewicz, M.S.

    2001-06-07

    Measurements of the vapor pressure of the solvent in wide ranges of concentration and temperature provide information on solute solvation and ion pairing--the two phenomena most often invoked for description of dilute solutions. Even in moderately concentrated solutions, as interionic distances become comparable to ionic diameters, these simple concepts gradually lose their meaning and solutions behave like molten salts. The usefulness of experimental vapor pressure results increases rapidly with their accuracy, since derived properties, such as solution enthalpies and heat capacities, can be calculated. Very accurate results can be obtained by the isopiestic method, but primary vapor pressure data for standard solutions are needed. In order to obtain vapor pressures at conditions where accurate isopiestic standards are not available and to establish more accurate standards, the ORNL isopiestic apparatus was modified for simultaneous direct vapor pressure measurements and isopiestic comparisons. There are no comprehensive solution theories derived from molecular level models and able to predict thermodynamic properties of various electrolytes as the composition changes from dilute solutions to molten salts in a wide range of temperatures. Empirical and semi-empirical models are useful for representation of experimental results, interpretation of measurements of other properties such as conductance., solubility or liquid-vapor partitioning of solutes, and for verification of theoretical predictions. Vapor pressures for aqueous CaCl{sub 2}, CaBr{sub 2}, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaI were measured at temperatures between 380 and 523 K in the concentration range extended to water activities below 0.2 (over 30 mol/kg for LiCl). General equations based on the modified Pitzer ion-interaction model were used to obtain enthalpy and heat capacity surfaces, which are compared with direct calorimetric measurements.

  13. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  14. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development in necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500-550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  15. Elevated Temperature Compressive Properties of Zr-Modified Nial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Small Zr additions are known to substantially affect the deformation behavior and strength of polycrystalline NiAl, yet little information is currently available regarding the high-temperature properties of such alloys. Utilizing prealloyed powder technology, a series of four NiAl alloys have been produced containing from 0.05 to 0.7 at. pct Zr. The creep behavior of these alloys was characterized in compression between 1000 and 1400 K at strain rates ranging from approx. O.1 to 10(exp -9)/ sec. All the Zr-modified alloys were significantly stronger than binary NiAl under lower temperature and faster strain-rate conditions; however, the single-phase materials (Zr less than or equal to 0.1 at. pct) and binary NiAl had similar strengths at high temperatures and slow strain rates. The two-phase NiAl-Ni, AlZr alloys containing 0.3 and 0.7 at. pct Zr had nearly identical strengths. While the two-phase alloys were stronger than the single-phase materials at all test conditions, the degree of microstructural damage in the two-phase alloys due to internal oxidation during testing appeared to increase with Zr level. Balancing the poor oxidation behavior with the consistent strength advantage of the two-phase alloys, it is concluded that optimum elevated-temperature properties could be obtained in Heusler-strengthened NiAl containing between 0.1 and 0.3 at. pct Zr.

  16. Characterization of High Temperature Mechanical Properties Using Laser Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    David Hurley; Stephen Reese; Farhad Farzbod; Rory Kennedy

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical properties are controlled to a large degree by defect structures such as dislocations and grain boundaries. These microstructural features involve a perturbation of the perfect crystal lattice (i.e. strain fields). Viewed in this context, high frequency strain waves (i.e. ultrasound) provide a natural choice to study microstructure mediated mechanical properties. In this presentation we use laser ultrasound to probe mechanical properties of materials. This approach utilizes lasers to excite and detect ultrasonic waves, and as a consequence has unique advantages over other methods—it is noncontacting, requires no couplant or invasive sample preparation (other than that used in metallurgical analysis), and has the demonstrated capability to probe microstructure on a micron scale. Laser techniques are highly reproducible enabling sophisticated, microstructurally informed data analysis. Since light is being used for generation and detection of the ultrasonic wave, the specimen being examined is not mechanically coupled to the transducer. As a result, laser ultrasound can be carried out remotely, an especially attractive characteristic for in situ measurements in severe environments. Several examples involving laser ultrasound to measure mechanical properties in high temperature environments will be presented. Emphasis will be place on understanding the role of grain microstructure.

  17. Measurement of the properties of lossy materials inside a finite conducting cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A.; Park, A.; Caldecott, R.

    1988-01-01

    Broadband, swept frequency measurement techniques were investigated for the evaluation of the electrical performance of thin, high temperature material coatings. Reflections and transmission measurements using an HP8510B Network Analyzer were developed for an existing high temperature test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Reflection measurements will be the initial approach used due to fixture simplicity even though surface wave transmission measurements would be more sensitive. The minimum goal is to monitor the electrical change of the material's performance as a function of temperature. If possible, the materials constitutive parameters, epsilon and muon will be found.

  18. The Measurement of Temperature Gradients in a Soft Tissue Phantom using PVDF arrays: A Simulation Case Using the Finite Element Method (FEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Pedro; Vázquez, Mónica; Durán, Joel; Petrearce, Rodolfo

    A simulation case is presented using the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate the performance of PVDF arrays to measure temperature gradients through the determination of phase shifts, i.e. time shifts of the waveform of the echo due to a change in the speed of propagation of ultrasound as a result of a change in temperature, they can be interpreted as phase shifts in the frequency domain. Making it possible to determine the change in temperature from the phase shifts; in a medium of propagation previously characterized.

  19. Nanomechanical properties of mineralised collagen microfibrils based on finite elements method: biomechanical role of cross-links.

    PubMed

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical structures in bio-composites such as bone tissue have many scales or levels and synergic interactions between the different levels. They also have a highly complex architecture in order to fulfil their biological and mechanical functions. In this study, a new three-dimensional (3D) model based on the finite elements (FEs) method was used to model the relationship between the hierarchical structure and the properties of the constituents at the sub-structure scale (mineralised collagen microfibrils) and to investigate their apparent nanomechanical properties. The results of the proposed FE simulations show that the elastic properties of microfibrils depend on different factors such as the number of cross-links, the mechanical properties and the volume fraction of phases. The results obtained under compression loading at a small deformation < 2% show that the microfibrils have a Young's modulus (Ef) ranging from 0.4 to 1.16 GPa and a Poisson's ratio ranging from 0.26 to 0.3. These results are in excellent agreement with experimental data (X-ray, AFM and MEMS) and molecular simulations.

  20. Calibration of the mechanical properties in a finite element model of a lumbar vertebra under dynamic compression up to failure.

    PubMed

    Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Wagnac, Eric; Aubin, Carl Eric

    2011-12-01

    Finite element models (FEM) dedicated to vertebral fracture simulations rarely take into account the rate dependency of the bone material properties due to limited available data. This study aims to calibrate the mechanical properties of a vertebral body FEM using an inverse method based on experiments performed at slow and fast dynamic loading conditions. A detailed FEM of a human lumbar vertebral body (23,394 elements) was developed and tested under compression at 2,500 and 10 mm s⁻¹. A central composite design was used to adjust the mechanical properties (Young modulus, yield stress, and yield strain) while optimizing four criteria (ultimate strain and stress of cortical and trabecular bone) until the failure load and energy at failure reached experimental results from the literature. At 2,500 mm s⁻¹, results from the calibrated simulation were in good agreement with the average experimental data (1.5% difference for the failure load and 0.1% for the energy). At 10 mm s⁻¹, they were in good agreement with the average experimental failure load (0.6% difference), and within one standard deviation of the reported range of energy to failure. The proposed method provides a relevant mean to identify the mechanical properties of the vertebral body in dynamic loadings.

  1. Harmonic Models in Cartesian and Internal Coordinates to Simulate the Absorption Spectra of Carotenoids at Finite Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Javier; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto; Ávila Ferrer, Francisco J; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2013-11-12

    When large structural displacements take place between the ground state (GS) and excited state (ES) minima of polyatomic molecules, the choice of a proper set of coordinates can be crucial for a reliable simulation of the vibrationally resolved absorption spectrum. In this work, we study two carotenoids that undergo structural displacements from GS to ES minima of different magnitude, from small displacements for violaxanthin to rather large ones for β-carotene isomers. Their finite-temperature (77 and 300 K) spectra are simulated at the harmonic level, including Duschinsky effect, by time-dependent (TD) and time-independent (TI) approaches, using (TD)DFT computed potential energy surfaces (PES). We adopted two approaches to construct the harmonic PES, the Adiabatic (AH) and Vertical Hessian (VH) models and, for AH, two reference coordinate frames: Cartesian and valence internal coordinates. Our results show that when large displacements take place, Cartesian coordinates dramatically fail to describe curvilinear displacements and to account for the Duschinsky matrix, preventing a realistic simulation of the spectra within the AH model, where the GS and ES PESs are quadratically expanded around their own equilibrium geometry. In contrast, internal coordinates largely amend such deficiencies and deliver reasonable spectral widths. As expected, both coordinate frames give similar results when small displacements occur. The good agreement between VH and experimental line shapes indicates that VH model, in which GS and ES normal modes are both evaluated at the GS equilibrium geometry, is a good alternative to deal with systems exhibiting large displacements. The use of this model can be, however, problematic when imaginary frequencies arise. The extent of the nonorthogonality of the Dushinsky matrix in internal coordinates and its correlation with the magnitude of the displacement of the GS and ES geometries is analyzed in detail.

  2. Investigations of α-helix↔β-sheet transition pathways in a miniprotein using the finite-temperature string method

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Karplus, Martin

    2014-05-07

    A parallel implementation of the finite-temperature string method is described, which takes into account the invariance of coordinates with respect to rigid-body motions. The method is applied to the complex α-helix↔β-sheet transition in a β-hairpin miniprotein in implicit solvent, which exhibits much of the complexity of conformational changes in proteins. Two transition paths are considered, one derived from a linear interpolant between the endpoint structures and the other derived from a targeted dynamics simulation. Two methods for computing the conformational free energy (FE) along the string are compared, a restrained method, and a tessellation method introduced by E. Vanden-Eijnden and M. Venturoli [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194103 (2009)]. It is found that obtaining meaningful free energy profiles using the present atom-based coordinates requires restricting sampling to a vicinity of the converged path, where the hyperplanar approximation to the isocommittor surface is sufficiently accurate. This sampling restriction can be easily achieved using restraints or constraints. The endpoint FE differences computed from the FE profiles are validated by comparison with previous calculations using a path-independent confinement method. The FE profiles are decomposed into the enthalpic and entropic contributions, and it is shown that the entropy difference contribution can be as large as 10 kcal/mol for intermediate regions along the path, compared to 15–20 kcal/mol for the enthalpy contribution. This result demonstrates that enthalpic barriers for transitions are offset by entropic contributions arising from the existence of different paths across a barrier. The possibility of using systematically coarse-grained representations of amino acids, in the spirit of multiple interaction site residue models, is proposed as a means to avoid ad hoc sampling restrictions to narrow transition tubes.

  3. Investigations of α-helix↔β-sheet transition pathways in a miniprotein using the finite-temperature string method

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Karplus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A parallel implementation of the finite-temperature string method is described, which takes into account the invariance of coordinates with respect to rigid-body motions. The method is applied to the complex α-helix↔β-sheet transition in a β-hairpin miniprotein in implicit solvent, which exhibits much of the complexity of conformational changes in proteins. Two transition paths are considered, one derived from a linear interpolant between the endpoint structures and the other derived from a targeted dynamics simulation. Two methods for computing the conformational free energy (FE) along the string are compared, a restrained method, and a tessellation method introduced by E. Vanden-Eijnden and M. Venturoli [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194103 (2009)]. It is found that obtaining meaningful free energy profiles using the present atom-based coordinates requires restricting sampling to a vicinity of the converged path, where the hyperplanar approximation to the isocommittor surface is sufficiently accurate. This sampling restriction can be easily achieved using restraints or constraints. The endpoint FE differences computed from the FE profiles are validated by comparison with previous calculations using a path-independent confinement method. The FE profiles are decomposed into the enthalpic and entropic contributions, and it is shown that the entropy difference contribution can be as large as 10 kcal/mol for intermediate regions along the path, compared to 15–20 kcal/mol for the enthalpy contribution. This result demonstrates that enthalpic barriers for transitions are offset by entropic contributions arising from the existence of different paths across a barrier. The possibility of using systematically coarse-grained representations of amino acids, in the spirit of multiple interaction site residue models, is proposed as a means to avoid ad hoc sampling restrictions to narrow transition tubes. PMID:24811667

  4. Linking membrane physical properties and low temperature tolerance in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Waagner, Dorthe; Bouvrais, Hélène; Ipsen, John H; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Maintenance of membrane fluidity is of crucial importance in ectotherms experiencing thermal changes. This maintenance has in ectotherms most often been indicated using indirect measures of biochemical changes of phospholipid membranes, which is then assumed to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane. Here, we measure bending rigidity characterizing the membrane flexibility of re-constituted membrane vesicles to provide a more direct link between membrane physical characteristics and low temperature tolerance. Bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was measured in vitro using Giant Unilamellar Vesicles formed from phospholipid extracts of the springtail, Folsomia candida. The bending rigidity of these membranes decreased when exposed to 0.4 vol% ethanol (0.23 mM/L). Springtails exposed to ethanol for 24h significantly increased their cold shock tolerance. Thus, by chemically inducing decreased membrane rigidity, we have shown a direct link between the physico-chemical properties of the membranes and the capacity to tolerate low temperature in a chill-susceptible arthropod.

  5. Scattering Properties and Brightness Temperatures Associated with Solid Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, early solid precipitation detection and retrieval algorithms have been developed and shown to be applicable for snowing clouds and blizzards. NOAA has an operational snow versus rain classifier based on AMSU-B observations. Solid precipitation retrieval algorithms reported in the literature over the past two years include those that rely on neural nets, statistics, or physical relationships. All of the algorithms require the use of millimeter-wave radiometer observations. The millimeter-wave frequencies are especially sensitive to the scattering and emission properties of frozen particles due to the ice particle refractive index. Passive radiometric channels respond to both the integrated particle mass throughout the volume and field of view, and to the amount, location, and size distribution of the frozen (and liquid) particles with the sensitivity varying for different frequencies and hydrometeor types. This investigation probes the sensitivity of scattering and absorption coefficients, and hence computed brightness temperatures, resulting from variations in solid precipitation cloud profiles. The first study compares the single scattering, absorption, and asymmetry parameters associated with snow particles in clouds. Several methodologies are used to convert the physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size distributions, ice-air-water ratios) of ice particles to electromagnetic properties (e.g., absorption, scattering, and asymmetry factors). These methodologies include: conversion to solid ice particles, homogeneous dielectric mixing, or discrete dipole approximation. Changes in the conversion methodology can produce computed brightness temperature differences greater than 50 Kelvin.

  6. Research on the acoustic scattering function and coherence properties from rough seafloor based on finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bo; Yang, Yi-Xin; Ma, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Dong-Xu

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic scattering from a rough sea bottom is recognized as a main source of reverberation. In this study, scattering properties from a layered bottom were exploited based on the finite element model. The scattering strength and loss from the layered rough seabed were investigated by ensembling the realizations of rough interface. They were found to be dependent on the thickness of sediment, and interference was significant in the case of thin sediment. Through verification of the finite element model, the scattering loss could be evaluated using the Eckart model with a proper sound speed in the thick sediment. The multiple scattering effect on the sound field was also exploited. It revealed that the effect depended strongly on the bottom type. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61571366), the Natural Science Basic Research in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2015JQ5199), and the Fund of Science and Technology from the Underwater Test and Control Laboratory (Grant No. 9140c260201130c26096).

  7. Finite element analysis and experimental study on dynamic properties of a composite beam with viscoelastic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the frequency dependent viscoelastic dynamics of a multifunctional composite structure from finite element analysis and experimental validation. The frequency-dependent behavior of the stiffness and damping of a viscoelastic material directly affects the system's modal frequencies and damping, and results in complex vibration modes and differences in the relative phase of vibration. A second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method and a second order three fields Anelastic Displacement Fields (ADF) approach are used to implement the viscoelastic material model, enabling the straightforward development of time domain and frequency domain finite elements, and describing the frequency dependent viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. Agreement between the curve fits using both the GHM and ADF and experiment is within 0.001 percent error. Continuing efforts are addressing the material modulus comparison of the GHM and the ADF model. There may be a theoretical difference between viscoelastic degrees of freedom at nodes and elements, but their numerical results are very close to each other in the specific frequency range of interest. With identified model parameters, numerical simulation is carried out to predict the damping behavior in its first two vibration modes. The experimental testing on the layered composite beam validates the numerical predication. Experimental results also show that elastic modulus measured from dynamic response yields more accurate results than static measurement, such as tensile testing, especially for elastomers. The viscoelatic layer is augmented with the inclusion of a shear angle associated with transverse shear in addition to Euler-Bernoulli hypotheses. >The other four layers are assumed to be elastic; Euler-Bernoulli bending assumption applies; Transverse and rotatory

  8. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  9. Spectral properties of gaseous uranium hexafluoride at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krascella, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to determine relative spectral emission and spectral absorption data for UF6-argon mixtures at elevated temperatures is discussed. These spectral data are required to assist in the theoretical analysis of radiation transport in the nuclear fuel-buffer gas region of a plasma core reactor. Relative emission measurements were made for UF6-argon mixtures over a range of temperatures from 650 to 1900 K and in the wavelength range from 600 to 5000 nanometers. All emission results were determined for a total pressure of 1.0 atm. Uranium hexafluoride partial pressures varied from about 3.5 to 12.7 mm Hg. Absorption measurements were attempted at 600, 625, 650 and 675 nanometers for a temperature of 1000 K. The uranium partial pressure for these determinations was 25 mm Hg. The results exhibit appreciable emission for hot UF6-argon mixtures at wavelengths between 600 and 1800 nanometers and no measurable absorption. The equipment used to evaluate the spectral properties of the UF6-argon mixtures included a plasma torch-optical plenum assembly, the monochromator, and the UF6 transfer system. Each is described.

  10. Low temperature property of Metaphosphatecopper(II/I) salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Trilochan; Brahma, Gouri Sankhar

    2016-04-01

    An inorganically template metaphosphoric acid containing copper salt, nanomaterial, has been synthesized and characterized with different measurement techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), UV-Vis-NIR, HRTEM, VSM, PPMS and X-RD. The thermal property of this salt has been studied at a low temperature up to 223 K from 298 K with DSC. The specific heat capacity of this complex has been measured in atmospheric O2 at a rate of 10 K min-1 from 298 K to 223 K and vice versa in two thermal cycles. The net specific heat capacity of this salt is found -88.28 J/gm.K and - 86.56 J/gm.K in first and second thermal cycles, respectively. There is a discontinuity in the specific heat at 106 s while measuring the specific heat capacity of the above nanomaterial at constant temperature 283 K. This particle size of this nanomaterial is ˜ 10 nm. The paramagnetic Curie temperature (θP) and Curie constant (C) are 18.29 K and 1.35x10-3 respectively. This material founds insulator from PPMS and UV-Vis-NIR measurements. So, it can be used as thermal interface material as a composite component with some organic polymers such as paraffin wax, ethylene-vinyl acetate etc.

  11. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  12. An asymptotically exact, pointwise, a posteriori error estimator for the finite element method with super convergence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hugger, J.

    1995-12-31

    When the finite element solution of a variational problem possesses certain super convergence properties, it is possible very inexpensively to obtain a correction term providing an additional order of approximation of the solution. The correction can be used for error estimation locally or globally in whatever norm is preferred, or if no error estimation is wanted it can be used for postprocessing of the solution to improve the quality. In this paper such a correction term is described for the general case of n dimensional, linear or nonlinear problems. Computational evidence of the performance in one space dimension is given with special attention to the effects of the appearance of singularities and zeros of derivatives in the exact solution.

  13. On improving the iterative convergence properties of an implicit approximate-factorization finite difference algorithm. [considering transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desideri, J. A.; Steger, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The iterative convergence properties of an approximate-factorization implicit finite-difference algorithm are analyzed both theoretically and numerically. Modifications to the base algorithm were made to remove the inconsistency in the original implementation of artificial dissipation. In this way, the steady-state solution became independent of the time-step, and much larger time-steps can be used stably. To accelerate the iterative convergence, large time-steps and a cyclic sequence of time-steps were used. For a model transonic flow problem governed by the Euler equations, convergence was achieved with 10 times fewer time-steps using the modified differencing scheme. A particular form of instability due to variable coefficients is also analyzed.

  14. Finite-time Properties of the Navier-Stokes Equations Under Lebesque Space Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobba, Kumar

    2006-11-01

    A complete understanding of the stability characteristics of the Navier-Stokes equations involve understanding both the transient response and the steady state response. The steady state (or infinite-time) response of the Navier-Stokes equations is characterized by the point spectrum and has been well studied. In this work, we study the transient (or finite-time) response of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations linearized about plane Couette base flow under spatial and temporal varying disturbance forcing. The forcing and response are assumed to belong to infinite-dimensional Lebesque function spaces, L2 and L∞. An analytical characterization is given for the induced norms that characterize the response. It is shown that the L2 induced norm is tightly bounded by the H∞ norm of the transfer function operator and the L∞ induced norm is upper bounded by the L1 norm of the impulse response operator. The structure of the worst case disturbances and their amplification rates are computed using spectral methods---with Fourier modes in homogeneous direction and Chebyshev collocation in non-homogeneous direction. The relevance of the present results to the channel flow laminar-turbulent transition experiments will be discussed.

  15. Finite difference time domain modeling of dispersion from heterogeneous ground properties in ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jennifer Jane

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a common technique for locating buried objects in the near surface. The near surface is never perfectly homogeneous due to different moisture levels, grain packing, and types of material that influence the properties in the subsurface. This dissertation examines the influence of heterogeneity on GPR measurements, its influence on spatial dispersion, and defining the GPR response from a range of standard deviations of different numerical models. Most modeling in GPR concentrates on antenna patterns or dispersion caused by complex permittivity in homogeneous blocks of material. The forward model developed in this dissertation incorporates heterogeneity by replacing the traditional homogenous spatial regions with a distribution of physical properties. The models in this dissertation maintain the major spatial model boundaries, but the physical model values within each boundary are determined by a statistical distribution. Statistical approximations of heterogeneity of the physical property distributions can provide an approximation of the geologic noise that influences GPR measurements. This dissertation presents a numerical modeling analysis of random property variation, where the variations occur in one, two, and three directions. The models are developed for a half space and a two layered earth model where the input is a Ricker wavelet. Most of the visible spatial dispersion of the electrical field in both the half space and the layered earth models studied in this dissertation, occurred in the near region of the electromagnetic field. However, the largest average dispersion occurred in the far field at 1.0 m distance from a dipole source. The presence of horizontal layers increased the dispersive effects of the random distribution of electrical property values. There was also a measurable change in the dispersed field when the layers were vertical. There was more change with thin horizontal layers than with tubes or three

  16. Unsteady MHD Heat Transfer in Couette Flow of Water at 4°C in a Rotating System with Ramped Temperature via Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, G. J.; Raju, R. S.; Rao, J. A.; Gorla, R. S. R.

    2017-02-01

    An unsteady magnetohydromagnetic natural convection on the Couette flow of electrically conducting water at 4°C (Pr = 11.40) in a rotating system has been considered. A Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed to find the numerical solutions of the dimensionless governing coupled boundary layer partial differential equations. The primary velocity, secondary velocity and temperature of water at 4°C as well as shear stresses and rate of heat transfer have been obtained for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates. The results are independent of the mesh (grid) size and the present numerical solutions through the Finite Element Method (FEM) are in good agreement with the existing analytical solutions by the Laplace Transform Technique (LTT). These are shown in tabular and graphical forms.

  17. Temperature-dependent elastic properties of Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Rogström, Lina; Raza, Zamaan; Tasnádi, Ferenc; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2015-12-07

    Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N is a technologically important alloy that undergoes a process of high temperature age-hardening that is strongly influenced by its elastic properties. We have performed first principles calculations of the elastic constants and anisotropy using the symmetry imposed force constant temperature dependent effective potential method, which include lattice vibrations and therefore the effects of temperature, including thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity. These are compared with in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction measurements of the lattice parameter. We show that anharmonic effects are crucial to the recovery of finite temperature elasticity. The effects of thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity on the elastic constants are of the same order, and cannot be considered separately. Furthermore, the effect of thermal expansion on elastic constants is such that the volume change induced by zero point motion has a significant effect. For TiAlN, the elastic constants soften non-uniformly with temperature: C{sub 11} decreases substantially when the temperature increases for all compositions, resulting in an increased anisotropy. These findings suggest that an increased Al content and annealing at higher temperatures will result in a harder alloy.

  18. Electrical properties of rat muscle after sciatic nerve injury: Impact on surface impedance measurements assessed via finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, M. A.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods are sensitive to changes in muscle status and can therefore provide a means for studying neuromuscular disease noninvasively. In order to better understand the relationship between surface impedance measurements and the actual muscle electrical properties, we performed measurements on 20 adult Wistar rats, 8 of which underwent sciatic nerve crush. Surface impedance measurements were performed on the left hind limb both before injury and out to 2 weeks after injury. In addition, both normal and sciatic crush animals were sacrificed and the dielectric properties of the extracted gastrocnemius muscle measured. We found that 50 kHz conductivities were greater in the animals that underwent crush than in the animals that did not. The permittivities in both directions, however, showed non-significant differences. In order to analyze the effect of these changes as well as the accompanying reduction in muscle volume, a finite element model of the hind limb was developed based on computerized tomographic imaging. The model successfully predicted the surface impedance values in the animals after crush injury and, by its inverse application, may be used to help determine the underlying electrical properties of muscle in various neuromuscular diseases based on surface impedance data.

  19. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, P. C.; Schiffman, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence techniques were developed for the containerless study of high temperature processes, material properties, levitation, and heating techniques for containerless earth-based experimentation. Experiments were performed in which fluorescence of atomic aluminum, mercury, or tungsten were studied. These experiments include measurements of: (1) Al atom evaporation from CW CO2 laser heated and aerodynamically levitated sapphire and alumina spheres, and self-supported sapphire filaments, (2) Al atom reaction with ambient oxygen in the wake of a levitated specimen, (3) Hg atom concentrations in the wake of levitated alumina and sapphire spheres, relative to the ambient Hg atom concentration, (4) Hg atom concentrations in supersonic levitation jets, and (5) metastable, electronically excited W atom concentrations produced by evaporation of an electrically heated tungsten filament.

  20. Measurement of the properties of lossy materials inside a finite conducting cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldecott, R.; Dominek, A.; Park, A.

    1988-01-01

    A computer code was developed to automatically perform swept frequency reflection and transmission measurements using a HP5510B Network Analyzer and computer. This software is used in conjunction with a modified high temperature test rig to obtain reflection measurements from a flat material sample. The software allows data processing to eliminate measurement errors and to obtain a reflection coefficient in the frequency or time domain. A description of the program is presented.

  1. Finite-size effect on magnetic properties in iron sulfide nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Yue, G H; Yan, P X; Wang, L S; Wang, W; Chen, Y Z; Peng, D L

    2008-05-14

    We report the size effect on the magnetic properties in Fe(7)S(8) nanowire arrays. Samples with diameters in the range of 50-200 nm have been prepared by electrodeposition with AAO films. The Mössbauer measurement results show that four parameters (hyperfine fields, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, full width at half-maximum) increased with decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. The magnetic properties were investigated. The hysteresis loop shape and the magnetization are dependent on the diameter of the nanowires. The thermomagnetic measurements on the as-synthesized nanowire samples and the corresponding bulk display a mixed-type curve and a Weiss-type curve, respectively.

  2. THE STABILITY AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-07-06

    The morphological and electrical properties of Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Ce{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} with x varying from 0 to 1 prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors. Dense microstructures were achieved for all the samples upon sintering at 1500 C for 5 h. The phase structure analysis indicated that perovskite phase was formed for 0 {le} x {le} 0.2, while for x larger than 0.5, impurity phases of Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} appeared. The tolerance to H{sub 2}O for the samples improved with the increase in Sr content when exposed to boiling water, while the electrical conductivity decreased from x = 0 to 1. However, the resistance to CO{sub 2} attack at elevated temperatures was not improved within the whole x range studied.

  3. Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties at High Temperatures: A Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond F.

    1961-01-01

    This book contains the program and all available abstracts of the 90' invited and contributed papers to be presented at the TUPAC Symposium on Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties at High Temperatures. The Symposium will be held in conjunction with the XVIIIth IUPAC Congress, Montreal, August 6 - 12, 1961. It has been organized, by the Subcommissions on Condensed States and on Gaseous States of the Commission on High Temperatures and Refractories and by the Subcommission on Experimental Thermodynamics of the Commission on Chemical Thermodynamics, acting in conjunction with the Organizing Committee of the IUPAC Congress. All inquiries concerning participation In the Symposium should be directed to: Secretary, XVIIIth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, National Research Council, Ottawa, 'Canada. Owing to the limited time and facilities available for the preparation and printing of the book, it has not been possible to refer the proofs of the abstracts to the authors for checking. Furthermore, it has not been possible to subject the manuscripts to a very thorough editorial examination. Some obvious errors in the manuscripts have been corrected; other errors undoubtedly have been introduced. Figures have been redrawn only when such a step was essential for reproduction purposes. Sincere apologies are offered to authors and readers for any errors which remain; however, in the circumstances neither the IUPAC Commissions who organized the Symposium, nor the U. S. Government Agencies who assisted in the preparation of this book can accept responsibility for the errors.

  4. Temperature dependent rheological property of copper oxide nanoparticles suspension (nanofluid).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Devdatta P; Das, Debendra K; Chukwu, Godwin A

    2006-04-01

    A nanofluid is the dispersion of metallic solid particles of nanometer size in a base fluid such as water or ethylene glycol. The presence of these nanoparticles affects the physical properties of a nanofluid via various factors including shear stress, particle loading, and temperature. In this paper the rheological behavior of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles of 29 nm average diameter dispersed in deionized (DI) water is investigated over a range of volumetric solids concentrations of 5 to 15% and various temperatures varying from 278-323 degrees K. These experiments showed that these nanofluids exhibited time-independent pseudoplastic and shear-thinning behavior. The suspension viscosities of nanofluids decrease exponentially with respect to the shear rate. Suspension viscosity follows the correlation in the form ln(mus) = A(1/T)-B, where constants A and B are the functions of volumetric concentrations. The calculated viscosities from the developed correlations and experimental values were found to be within +/- 10% of their values.

  5. Temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen titanate nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Diego C. B.; Brandão, Frederico D.; Krambrock, Klaus; Ferlauto, Andre S.; Fonseca, Fabio C.

    2014-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen-rich titanate nanotubes (H-TNTs) in the 90–270 °C range was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Three types of dominant conduction were found which depend on the previous thermal treatment of the samples. For untreated samples, at low temperatures (T < 100 °C), electrical conductivity is relatively high (>10{sup −4} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and is dominated by protonic transport within structural water molecules. For thermal annealing in inert atmosphere up to 150 °C, water molecules are released from the nanotube structure resulting in a dehydrated H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} phase. Such phase has a low, thermally-dependent, electrical conductivity (10{sup −8} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) with activation energy of 0.68 eV. For samples annealed up to 260 °C, loss of OH groups, and consequent generation of oxygen vacancies, occurs that result in the non-stoichiometric H{sub 2(1−z)}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} phase. This phase has much higher conductivity (10{sup −5} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and lower associated activation energy (0.40 eV). The generation of oxygen vacancies is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at room temperature, which revealed the presence of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies. The activation energy value found is consistent with the thermal ionization energy of the oxygen vacancies. Such defect formation represents the initial stage of the phase transformation from titanate to TiO{sub 2} (B). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements also support such interpretation.

  6. Sensitivity to temperature and material properties of hydrogen concentration at a crack tip in austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schembri, Philip E

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that dissolved hydrogen interacts with the stress field at a crack tip, with one result being an intensification of the hydrogen concentration in the region of maximum crack tip stress. The current paper presents recent calculations in ongoing efforts to use coupled stress-diffusion finite element analyses to aid in the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels containing tritium. The focus of the current work is quantification of the effect of material properties (structural and diffusion) and temperature on the values of maximum stress and hydrogen concentration at the tip of a crack. A one-way-coupled finite element model of a compact tension specimen is used in which the effect of stress and trapping on the hydrogen diffusion is accounted for. Results show that, within the ranges of inputs considered, maximum stress varies approximately linearly with a material's room temperature yield stress but nonlinearly with temperature. Also, peak lattice hydrogen is shown to be a strong function of solubility parameters, a moderate function of yield stress, but only a weak function of trap binding energy and density when trap density is relatively low.

  7. Biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor muscles of continent and incontinent women using an inverse finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, M E T; Brandão, S; Parente, M P L; Mascarenhas, T; Natal Jorge, R M

    2017-03-17

    Pelvic disorders can be associated with changes in the biomechanical properties in the muscle, ligaments and/or connective tissue form fascia and ligaments. In this sense, the study of their mechanical behavior is important to understand the structure and function of these biological soft tissues. The aim of this study was to establish the biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor muscles of continent and incontinent women, using an inverse finite element analysis (FEA). The numerical models, including the pubovisceral muscle and pelvic bones were built from magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired at rest. The numerical simulation of Valsalva maneuver was based on the finite element method and the material constants were determined for different constitutive models (Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and Yeoh) using an iterative process. The material constants (MPa) for Neo-Hookean (c1) were 0.039 ± 0.022 and 0.024 ± 0.004 for continent vs. incontinent women. For Mooney-Rivlin (c1) the values obtained were 0.026 ± 0.010 vs. 0.016 ± 0.003, and for Yeoh (c1) the values obtained were 0.031 ± 0.023 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002, (p < 0.05). Muscle displacements obtained in the numerical simulations of Valsalva maneuver were compared with the muscle displacements obtained through additional dynamic MRI. Incontinent women presented a higher antero-posterior displacement than the continent women. The results were also similar between MRI and numerical simulations (40.27% vs. 42.17% for Neo-Hookean, 39.87% for Mooney-Rivlin and 41.61% for Yeoh). Using an inverse FEA coupled with MR images allowed to obtain the in vivo biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor muscles, leading to a relationship between them for the continent and incontinent women in a non-invasive manner.

  8. Effect of specimen-specific anisotropic material properties in quantitative computed tomography-based finite element analysis of the vertebra.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Barest, Glenn D; Berry, David B; Hussein, Amira I; Morgan, Elise F

    2013-10-01

    Intra- and inter-specimen variations in trabecular anisotropy are often ignored in quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element (FE) models of the vertebra. The material properties are typically estimated solely from local variations in bone mineral density (BMD), and a fixed representation of elastic anisotropy ("generic anisotropy") is assumed. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating specimen-specific, trabecular anisotropy on QCT-based FE predictions of vertebral stiffness and deformation patterns. Orthotropic material properties estimated from microcomputed tomography data ("specimen-specific anisotropy"), were assigned to a large, columnar region of the L1 centrum (n = 12), and generic-anisotropic material properties were assigned to the remainder of the vertebral body. Results were compared to FE analyses in which generic-anisotropic properties were used throughout. FE analyses were also performed on only the columnar regions. For the columnar regions, the axial stiffnesses obtained from the two categories of material properties were uncorrelated with each other (p = 0.604), and the distributions of minimum principal strain were distinctly different (p ≤ 0.022). In contrast, for the whole vertebral bodies in both axial and flexural loading, the stiffnesses obtained using the two categories of material properties were highly correlated (R2 > 0.82, p < 0.001) with, and were no different (p > 0.359) from, each other. Only moderate variations in strain distributions were observed between the two categories of material properties. The contrasting results for the columns versus vertebrae indicate a large contribution of the peripheral regions of the vertebral body to the mechanical behavior of this bone. In companion analyses on the effect of the degree of anisotropy (DA), the axial stiffnesses of the trabecular column (p < 0.001) and vertebra (p = 0.007) increased with increasing DA. These findings

  9. Magnetic and mechanical properties of a finite-thickness superconducting strip with a cavity in oblique magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the mechanical response of a finite-thickness superconducting strip containing an elliptical cavity in oblique magnetic fields. After the Bean critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy variation procedure are employed, the dependency of the magnetic and mechanical properties on the aspect ratio of the strip and the tilt angles of the applied field and elliptical cavity is discussed. The results show that for a strip in an oblique magnetic field, the current front penetrates non-monotonically from the surface inwards in the initial stage. The magnetization of the strip and the applied field are not collinear, and the angle between them becomes smaller with increasing field. Simultaneously, the strip suffers from a torque produced by the electromagnetic force and then has a tendency to rotate. Compared with the defect-free case, the appearance of the elliptical cavity affects the magnetic property of the strip and further causes significant stress concentration. If the tilt angle of the elliptical cavity is small, a position of stable mechanical equilibrium will exist for the strip. It is interesting that due to the elliptical cavity effect, an oblique magnetization and a non-zero torque are generated even if the applied field is perpendicular or parallel to the strip.

  10. An open source software tool to assign the material properties of bone for ABAQUS finite element simulations.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Elise C; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2016-09-06

    A new software tool to assign the material properties of bone to an ABAQUS finite element mesh was created and compared with Bonemat, a similar tool originally designed to work with Ansys finite element models. Our software tool (py_bonemat_abaqus) was written in Python, which is the chosen scripting language for ABAQUS. The purpose of this study was to compare the software packages in terms of the material assignment calculation and processing speed. Three element types were compared (linear hexahedral (C3D8), linear tetrahedral (C3D4) and quadratic tetrahedral elements (C3D10)), both individually and as part of a mesh. Comparisons were made using a CT scan of a hemi-pelvis as a test case. A small difference, of -0.05kPa on average, was found between Bonemat version 3.1 (the current version) and our Python package. Errors were found in the previous release of Bonemat (version 3.0 downloaded from www.biomedtown.org) during calculation of the quadratic tetrahedron Jacobian, and conversion of the apparent density to modulus when integrating over the Young׳s modulus field. These issues caused up to 2GPa error in the modulus assignment. For these reasons, we recommend users upgrade to the most recent release of Bonemat. Processing speeds were assessed for the three different element types. Our Python package took significantly longer (110s on average) to perform the calculations compared with the Bonemat software (10s). Nevertheless, the workflow advantages of the package and added functionality makes 'py_bonemat_abaqus' a useful tool for ABAQUS users.

  11. Elastic properties of amorphous Si and derived Debye temperatures and Grüneisen parameters: Model calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, J. L.; Broughton, J. Q.; Wooten, F.

    1991-01-01

    Calculations, based on the Stillinger-Weber (SW) interatomic-potential model and the method of long waves, are presented for the elastic properties of amorphous Si (a-Si) and for pressure derivatives of the elastic constants of crystalline Si. Several models of a-Si, relaxed on the basis of the SW potential, are considered, and the external stresses that are associated with these models are evaluated using the Born-Huang relations. The elastic constants appear to obey the isotropy conditions to within a reasonable accuracy and are also consistent with other predictions based on the SW potential at finite temperature obtained by Kluge and Ray. Estimates of the pressure dependence of the elastic constants, Debye temperature, and Grüeisen parameter for a-Si are also provided on the basis of these calculations.

  12. Modeling Upper Airway Collapse by a Finite Element Model with Regional Tissue Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun; Brennick, Michael J.; Dougherty, Lawrence; Wootton, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a new computational system for modeling the upper airway in rats that combines tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tissue material properties to predict three-dimensional (3D) airway motion. The model is capable of predicting airway wall and tissue deformation under airway pressure loading up to airway collapse. The model demonstrates that oropharynx collapse pressure depends primarily on ventral wall (tongue muscle) elastic modulus and airway architecture. An iterative approach that involves substituting alternative possible tissue elastic moduli was used to improve model precision. The proposed 3D model accounts for stress-strain relationships in the complex upper airway that should present new opportunities for understanding pathogenesis of airway collapse, improving diagnosis and developing treatments. PMID:19747871

  13. Effect of quenching temperature on structure and properties of titanium alloy: Physicomechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Illarionov, A. G.; Stepanov, S. I.; Ivasishin, O. M.

    2014-05-01

    Regularities of the formation of physicomechanical properties of the VT16 alloy (Ti-3.33Al-5.18Mo-4.57V, wt %) quenched after furnace and rapid heating have been established using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic mechanical analysis. It has been shown that changes in the modulus of elasticity of the VT16 alloy correlate with a decrease in the volume fraction of the α phase in the structure, except for a slight increase in the modulus of elasticity (related to the presence of the ω phase) in the case when quenching temperatures of 800-825°C were used. It has been found that the use of rapid heating to the quenching temperature leads to an increase in the temperature of the alloy transition into the single-phase β state, hampers grain growth during heating for quenching at temperatures close to the polymorphic-transition temperature, and creates conditions for more efficient strengthening in the course of subsequent aging.

  14. High-temperature phase transitions, spectroscopic properties, and dimensionality reduction in rubidium thorium molybdate family.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Gesing, Thorsten M; Kegler, Philip; Modolo, Giuseppe; Bosbach, Dirk; Schlenz, Hartmut; Suleimanov, Evgeny V; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2014-03-17

    Four new rubidium thorium molybdates have been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reactions. The crystal structures of Rb8Th(MoO4)6, Rb2Th(MoO4)3, Rb4Th(MoO4)4, and Rb4Th5(MoO4)12 were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All these compounds construct from MoO4 tetrahedra and ThO8 square antiprisms. The studied compounds adopt the whole range of possible structure dimensionalities from zero-dimensional (0D) to three-dimensional (3D): finite clusters, chains, sheets, and frameworks. Rb8Th(MoO4)6 crystallizes in 0D containing clusters of [Th(MoO4)6](8-). The crystal structure of Rb2Th(MoO4)3 is based upon one-dimensional chains with configuration units of [Th(MoO4)3](2-). Two-dimensional sheets occur in compound Rb4Th(MoO4)4, and a 3D framework with channels formed by thorium and molybdate polyhedra has been observed in Rb4Th5(MoO4)12. The Raman and IR spectroscopic properties of these compounds are reported. Temperature-depended phase transition effects were observed in Rb2Th(MoO4)3 and Rb4Th(MoO4)4 using thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry analysis and high-temperature powder diffraction methods.

  15. Nonlinear acoustic properties of ex vivo bovine liver and the effects of temperature and denaturation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E J; Coussios, C-C; Cleveland, R O

    2014-06-21

    Thermal ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has a great potential for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumours. Due to the high pressure amplitudes involved, nonlinear acoustic effects must be understood and the relevant medium property is the parameter of nonlinearity B/A. Here, B/A was measured in ex vivo bovine liver, over a heating/cooling cycle replicating temperatures reached during HIFU ablation, adapting a finite amplitude insertion technique, which also allowed for measurement of sound-speed and attenuation. The method measures the nonlinear progression of a plane wave through liver and B/A was chosen so that numerical simulations matched the measured waveforms. To create plane-wave conditions, sinusoidal bursts were transmitted by a 100 mm diameter 1.125 MHz unfocused transducer and measured using a 15 mm diameter 2.25 MHz broadband transducer in the near field. Attenuation and sound-speed were calculated using a reflected pulse from the smaller transducer using the larger transducer as the reflecting interface. Results showed that attenuation initially decreased with heating then increased after denaturation, the sound-speed initially increased with temperature and then decreased, and B/A showed an increase with temperature but no significant post-heating change. The B/A data disagree with other reports that show a significant change and we suggest that any nonlinear enhancement in the received ultrasound signal post-treatment is likely due to acoustic cavitation rather than changes in tissue nonlinearity.

  16. Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmer, Ronald

    1997-04-01

    Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied within linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). This linear response method is applied to partially ionized systems such as dense, low-temperature plasmas. Here, the conductivity changes from nonmetallic values up to those typical for

  17. Inverse finite element methods for extracting elastic-poroviscoelastic properties of cartilage and other soft tissues from indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namani, Ravi

    Mechanical properties are essential for understanding diseases that afflict various soft tissues, such as osteoarthritic cartilage and hypertension which alters cardiovascular arteries. Although the linear elastic modulus is routinely measured for hard materials, standard methods are not available for extracting the nonlinear elastic, linear elastic and time-dependent properties of soft tissues. Consequently, the focus of this work is to develop indentation methods for soft biological tissues; since analytical solutions are not available for the general context, finite element simulations are used. First, parametric studies of finite indentation of hyperelastic layers are performed to examine if indentation has the potential to identify nonlinear elastic behavior. To answer this, spherical, flat-ended conical and cylindrical tips are examined and the influence of thickness is exploited. Also the influence of the specimen/substrate boundary condition (slip or non-slip) is clarified. Second, a new inverse method---the hyperelastic extraction algorithm (HPE)---was developed to extract two nonlinear elastic parameters from the indentation force-depth data, which is the basic measurement in an indentation test. The accuracy of the extracted parameters and the influence of noise in measurements on this accuracy were obtained. This showed that the standard Berkovitch tip could only extract one parameter with sufficient accuracy, since the indentation force-depth curve has limited sensitivity to both nonlinear elastic parameters. Third, indentation methods for testing tissues from small animals were explored. New methods for flat-ended conical tips are derived. These account for practical test issues like the difficulty in locating the surface or soft specimens. Also, finite element simulations are explored to elucidate the influence of specimen curvature on the indentation force-depth curve. Fourth, the influence of inhomogeneity and material anisotropy on the extracted

  18. Influence of Temperature on Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticle-Transparent Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, A. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Nikitin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Individual optical properties of silver nanoparticles and their composites with transparent matrices were calculated at wavelength 1060 nm and various temperatures. It was shown that the absorption coefficient of the nanoparticles depended almost linearly on temperature whereas the scattering efficiency and anisotropy depended weakly on temperature. The coefficients of reflectance and transmission of a slab decreased and the effective absorption coefficient increased as the temperature increased. The studied trends could be used to obtain temperature dependences of metal optical properties.

  19. The impact of hierarchically constrained dynamics with a finite mean of cluster sizes on relaxation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Weron, Karina; Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Patyk, Michał; Stanislavsky, Aleksander

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, a stochastic scenario of relaxation underlying the generalization (Kahlau et al., 2010) [15] of the Cole–Davidson (CD) and Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts (KWW) functions is proposed. As it has been shown (Kahlau et al., 2010) [15], the new three-parameter time-domain fitting function provides a very flexible description of the dielectric spectroscopy data for viscous glass-forming liquids. In relation to that result we discuss a hierarchically-constrained model yielding the proposed relaxation fitting function. Within the “exponentially decaying relaxation contributions” framework we show origins of the high-frequency (short-time, respectively) fractional power law, i.e., the characteristic feature of the new, as well as, of both CD and KWW response functions. We also bring into light a reason for which their common behavior in the opposite frequency limit is linear on external field frequency. Finally, we relate the new relaxation pattern (Kahlau et al., 2010) [15] with the Generalized Gamma (GG) survival probability of an imposed, non-equilibrium initial state in a relaxing system. -- Highlights: ► Combine the empirical Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts and Cole–Davidson laws of relaxation. ► Establish a microscopic stochastic scenario explaining the generalized law. ► Derive a frequency-domain relaxation function fitting the dielectric spectroscopy data. ► Find the low- and high-frequency properties for the relaxation pattern.

  20. Statistical properties of the Green function in finite size for Anderson localization models with multifractal eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-03-01

    For Anderson localization models with multifractal eigenvectors on disordered samples containing N sites, we analyze in a unified framework the consequences for the statistical properties of the Green function. We focus in particular on the imaginary part of the Green function at coinciding points GxxI≤ft(E-\\text{i}η \\right) and study the scaling with the size N of the moments of arbitrary indices q when the broadening follows the scaling η =\\frac{c}{{{N}δ}} . For the standard scaling regime δ =1 , we find in the two limits c\\ll 1 and c\\gg 1 that the moments are governed by the anomalous exponents Δ (q) of individual eigenfunctions, without the assumption of strong correlations between the weights of consecutive eigenstates at the same point. For the non-standard scaling regimes 0<δ <1 , we obtain that the imaginary Green function follows some Fréchet distribution in the typical region, while rare events are important to obtain the scaling of the moments. We describe the application to the case of Gaussian multifractality and to the case of linear multifractality.