Physical properties of a soliton black hole at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Rong-Shi; Su, Ru-Keng
1992-03-01
It is shown that the nontopological scalar black hole suggested by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang is dynamically stable at finite temperature. The heat capacity of a scalar soliton black hole is positive. The physical properties of a scalar black hole at finite temperature are discussed.
Thermophysical properties of iridium at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.
2016-11-01
The bulk properties of materials in an extreme environment such as high temperature and high pressure can be understood by studying anharmonic effects due to the vibration of lattice ions and thermally excited electrons. In this spirit, in the present paper, anharmonic effects are studied by using the recently proposed mean-field potential (MFP) approach and Mermin functional which arise due to the vibration of lattice ions and thermally excited electrons, respectively. The MFP experienced by a wanderer atom in the presence of surrounding atoms is constructed in terms of cold energy using the local form of the pseudopotential. We have calculated the temperature variation of several thermophysical properties in an extreme environment up to melting temperature. The results of our calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental findings as well as the theoretical results obtained by using first principle methods. We conclude that presently used conjunction scheme (MFP+pseudopotential) is simple computationally, transparent physically, and accurate in the sense that the results generated are comparable and sometimes better than the results obtained by first principle methods. Local pseudopotential used is transferable to extreme environment without adjusting its parameters. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Fund for Improvement of Science and Technology Infrastructure Project (DST-FIST) (Level 1) of Department of Sciences and Technology (DST), New Delhi (Grant No. SR/FST/PST-001/2006).
Finite-Temperature Properties of Three-Dimensional Chiral Helimagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinozaki, Misako; Hoshino, Shintaro; Masaki, Yusuke; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Yusuke
2016-07-01
We study a three-dimensional (3d) classical chiral helimagnet at finite temperatures through analysis of a spin Hamiltonian, which is defined on a simple cubic lattice and consists of the Heisenberg exchange, monoaxial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, and the Zeeman energy due to a magnetic field applied in the plane perpendicular to the helical axis. We take account of the quasi-two-dimensionality of the known monoaxial chiral helimagnet CrNb3S6 and we adopt three methods: (i) a conventional mean-field (MF) analysis, which we call the 3dMF method, (ii) a hybrid method called the 2dMC-1dMF method, which is composed of a classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a MF approximation applied respectively to the intra- and interlayer interactions, and (iii) a simple-MC simulation (3dMC) at zero field. The temperature dependence of the magnetization calculated by the 3dMF method shows a cusp-like structure similar to that observed in experiments. In the absence of a magnetic field, both 2dMC-1dMF and 3dMC yield similar values of the transition temperature. The 2dMC-1dMF method provides a quantitative description of the thermodynamic properties, even under an external field, at an accessible numerical cost.
Properties of the sigma meson at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibarra, J. R. Morones; Aguirre, A. J. Garza; Flores-Baez, Francisco V.
2015-12-01
We study the changes of the mass and width of the sigma meson in the framework of the Linear Sigma Model at finite temperature, in the one-loop approximation. We have found that as the temperature increases, the mass of sigma shifts down. We have also analyzed the σ-spectral function and we observe an enhancement at the threshold which is a signature of partial restoration of chiral symmetry, also interpreted as a tendency to chiral phase transition. Additionally, we studied the width of the sigma, when the threshold enhancement takes place, for different values of the sigma mass. We found that there is a brief enlargement followed by an abrupt fall in the width as the temperature increases, which is also related with the restoration of chiral symmetry and an indication that the sigma is a bound state of two pions.
Meson properties in a nonlocal SU(3) chiral quark model at finite temperature
Contrera, G. A.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Scoccola, N. N.
2010-11-12
Finite temperature meson properties are studied in the context of a nonlocal SU(3) quark model which includes flavor mixing and the coupling of quarks to the Polyakov loop (PL). We analyze the behavior of scalar and pseudoscalar meson masses and mixing angles, as well as quark-meson couplings and pseudoscalar meson decay constants.
Finite Temperature Properties of Mixed Diamond Chain with Spins 1 and 1/2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Kazuo; Takano, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Hidenori
2009-08-01
We formulate statistical mechanics for a mixed diamond chain with spins 1 and 1/2. Owing to a series of conservation laws, any eigenstate of this system is decomposed into eigenstates of finite odd-length spin-1 chains. The ground state undergoes five quantum phase transitions with varying λ, a parameter that controls frustration. We evaluated the residual entropy and Curie constant which characterize each phase and phase boundary at low temperatures. We further find various characteristic finite-temperature properties such as the nonmonotonic temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility, the multipeak structure in the λ-dependence of entropy, the plateau-like temperature dependence of entropy and the multipeak structure of specific heat.
Finite temperature effect on mechanical properties of graphene sheets with various grain boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Ge; Hong-Xiang, Sun; Yi-Jun, Guan; Gan-He, Zeng
2016-06-01
The mechanical properties of graphene sheets with various grain boundaries are studied by molecular dynamics method at finite temperatures. The finite temperature reduces the ultimate strengths of the graphenes with different types of grain boundaries. More interestingly, at high temperatures, the ultimate strengths of the graphene with the zigzag-orientation grain boundaries at low tilt angles exhibit different behaviors from those at lower temperatures, which is determined by inner initial stress in grain boundaries. The results indicate that the finite temperature, especially the high one, has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of graphene with grain boundaries, which gives a more in-depth understanding of their mechanical properties and could be useful for potential graphene applications. Project supported by the Nation Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347219 and 11404147), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20140519), the Training Project of Young Backbone Teacher of Jiangsu University, the Advanced Talents of Jiangsu University, China (Grant No. 11JDG118), the Practice Innovation Training Program Projects for Industrial Center of Jiangsu University, China, and the State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLOA201308).
Impact of finite temperatures on the transport properties of Gd from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chadova, K.; Mankovsky, S.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.
2017-03-01
Finite-temperature effects have a pronounced impact on the transport properties of solids. In magnetic systems, besides the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons, an additional scattering source coming from the magnetic degrees of freedom must be taken into account. A first-principle scheme which treats all these scattering effects on equal footing was recently suggested within the framework of the multiple scattering formalism. Employing the alloy analogy model treated by means of the CPA, thermal lattice vibrations and spin fluctuations are effectively taken into account. In the present work the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity and the anomalous Hall effect in the strongly correlated metal Gd is considered. The comparison with experiments demonstrates that the proposed numerical scheme does provide an adequate description of the electronic transport at finite temperatures.
QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
UMEDA, T.
2006-06-09
Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.
Gaussian fluctuations in the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover: finite temperature properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.
2016-02-01
The role of fluctuations is enhanced in lower dimensionality systems: in a two dimensions off- diagonal long-range order is destroyed by the fluctuations at any finite temperature, drastically modifying the critical properties with respect to the three-dimensional counterpart. Recently two-dimensional systems of interacting fermions have been the subject of Montecarlo studies and experimental investigations, in particular an ultracold gas of attractive fermions with a widely tunable interaction due to a Feshbach resonance has been realized and the Berezinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition has been observed. The present work deals with the theoretical description of an ultracold Fermi gas: we discuss the role of Gaussian fluctuations of the order parameter in the equation of state, in particular we take into account the first sound velocity, showing that the inclusion of order parameter fluctuations is needed in order to get the correct composite-boson limit in the strong-coupling regime. The theory is also compared with experimental data. Finally we focus on the superfluid density in the weak-coupling, intermediate and strong-coupling regimes at finite temperature, through which the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature is obtained.
Properties of the t 1 - t 2 one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, SungKun; Lee, Hunpyo
2017-08-01
The one-dimensional t 1 - t 2 half-filled Hubbard model is considered at finite temperatures T within a dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) with N c = 24 in combination with a semiclassical approximation (SCA) impurity solver. The SCA approach accounts for long-range spatial fluctuations, where exact numerical impurity solvers can not capture due to computational expense, even though dynamical fluctuations are freezing. Therefore, it can consider both frequency- and momentum-resolved physical properties beyond the DCA with small cluster in combination with exact impurity solvers. By the computation of the static spin-spin correlation, the density of states, and the double occupancy, we examine the description of the frustrated one-dimensional systems at finite T within given approximations. We confirm not only the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition in the regions of t 2/ t 1 > 0.5, but also the commensurate-incommensurate transition by tunning t 2/ t 1 in the strong interaction region. We also observe finite T-driven metal-insulator transition.
Length and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of finite-size carbyne
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xueming; Huang, Yanhui; Cao, Bingyang; To, Albert C.
2017-09-01
Carbyne is an ideal one-dimensional conductor and the thinnest interconnection in an ultimate nano-device and it requires an understanding of the mechanical properties that affect device performance and reliability. Here, we report the mechanical properties of finite-size carbyne, obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation study based on the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order potential. To avoid confusion in assigning the effective cross-sectional area of carbyne, the value of the effective cross-sectional area of carbyne (4.148 Å2) was deduced via experiment and adopted in our study. Ends-constraints effects on the ultimate stress (maximum force) of the carbyne chains are investigated, revealing that the molecular dynamics simulation results agree very well with the experimental results. The ultimate strength, Young's Modulus and maximum strain of carbyne are rather sensitive to the temperature and all decrease with the temperature. Opposite tendencies of the length dependence of the overall ultimate strength and maximum strain of carbyne at room temperature and very low temperature have been found, and analyses show that this originates in the ends effect of carbyne.
Contrera, G. A.; Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, Norberto N.
2010-03-01
We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with the Polyakov loop. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles and decay constants. The critical temperature is found to be T{sub c{approx_equal}}202 MeV, in better agreement with lattice results than the value recently obtained in the local SU(3) PNJL model. It is seen that above T{sub c} pseudoscalar meson masses get increased, becoming degenerate with the masses of their chiral partners. The temperatures at which this matching occurs depend on the strange quark composition of the corresponding mesons. The topological susceptibility shows a sharp decrease after the chiral transition, signalling the vanishing of the U(1){sub A} anomaly for large temperatures.
Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism
Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ
2013-07-01
It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.
Confinement at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco
2017-05-01
We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed on the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the squared strengths of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the critical temperature. Our results are for pure gauge SU(3) gauge theory, they are invariant and all computations are done with GPUs using CUDA.
LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
PETRECZKY, P.
2005-03-12
I review recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature. Results on the transition temperature will be summarized. Recent progress in understanding in-medium modifications of interquark forces and quarkonia spectral functions at finite temperatures is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Shigenori
2016-12-01
Correlational and thermodynamic properties of homogeneous electron liquids at finite temperatures are theoretically analyzed in terms of dielectric response formalism with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation and its modified version. The static structure factor and the local-field correction to describe the strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are self-consistently calculated through solution to integral equations in the paramagnetic (spin unpolarized) and ferromagnetic (spin polarized) states. In the ground state with the normalized temperature θ =0 , the present HNC scheme well reproduces the exchange-correlation energies obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations over the whole fluid phase (the coupling constant rs≤100 ), i.e., within 1% and 2% deviations from putative best QMC values in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, respectively. As compared with earlier studies based on the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander and modified convolution approximations, some improvements on the correlation energies and the correlation functions including the compressibility sum rule are found in the intermediate to strong coupling regimes. When applied to the electron fluids at intermediate Fermi degeneracies (θ ≈1 ), the static structure factors calculated in the HNC scheme show good agreements with the results obtained by the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation, while a small negative region in the radial distribution function is observed near the origin, which may be associated with a slight overestimation for the exchange-correlation hole in the HNC approximation. The interaction energies are calculated for various combinations of density and temperature parameters ranging from strong to weak degeneracy and from weak to strong coupling, and the HNC values are then parametrized as functions of rs and θ. The HNC exchange-correlation free energies obtained through the coupling-constant integration show reasonable
Low-temperature study of the magnetic properties of finite atomic chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, S. V.
2016-05-01
A simple method for the calculation of the spontaneous remagnetization time and magnetization curves of atomic finite-length ferromagnetic chains at a low temperature within the Heisenberg model has been proposed. The applicability limits of the method have been studied. It has been shown that the proposed method gives results being in good agreement with the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results. Formulas obtained within our model can also be used to determine the lower bound for the Curie temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-Shady, M.; Abu-Nab, A.
2015-12-01
The logarithmic quark sigma model is applied to study the nucleon properties at finite temperature and chemical potential. The field equations have been solved numerically in the mean-field approximation by using the extended iteration method at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. Baryon properties are investigated, such as the hedgehog mass, the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron, and the pion-nucleon coupling constant. We find that the hedgehog mass and the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron increase with increasing temperature and chemical potential, while the pion-nucleon coupling constant decreases. A comparison with the original sigma model and QCD sum rules is presented. We conclude that the logarithmic quark sigma model successfully describes baryon properties of a hot and dense medium.
Beran, Gregory J O; Hartman, Joshua D; Heit, Yonaton N
2016-11-15
Molecular crystals occur widely in pharmaceuticals, foods, explosives, organic semiconductors, and many other applications. Thanks to substantial progress in electronic structure modeling of molecular crystals, attention is now shifting from basic crystal structure prediction and lattice energy modeling toward the accurate prediction of experimentally observable properties at finite temperatures and pressures. This Account discusses how fragment-based electronic structure methods can be used to model a variety of experimentally relevant molecular crystal properties. First, it describes the coupling of fragment electronic structure models with quasi-harmonic techniques for modeling the thermal expansion of molecular crystals, and what effects this expansion has on thermochemical and mechanical properties. Excellent agreement with experiment is demonstrated for the molar volume, sublimation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy, and the bulk modulus of phase I carbon dioxide when large basis second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) or coupled cluster theories (CCSD(T)) are used. In addition, physical insight is offered into how neglect of thermal expansion affects these properties. Zero-point vibrational motion leads to an appreciable expansion in the molar volume; in carbon dioxide, it accounts for around 30% of the overall volume expansion between the electronic structure energy minimum and the molar volume at the sublimation point. In addition, because thermal expansion typically weakens the intermolecular interactions, neglecting thermal expansion artificially stabilizes the solid and causes the sublimation enthalpy to be too large at higher temperatures. Thermal expansion also frequently weakens the lower-frequency lattice phonon modes; neglecting thermal expansion causes the entropy of sublimation to be overestimated. Interestingly, the sublimation free energy is less significantly affected by neglecting thermal expansion because the systematic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yajiang; Song, Yafei; Fu, Xiaochen
2016-08-01
In the present paper, we investigate the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas confined in a harmonic trap at finite temperature with thermal Bose-Fermi mapping method. The pair distribution, density distribution, reduced one-body density matrix (ROBDM), the first-order correlation function, the occupations number of natural orbitals and momentum distribution are evaluated. In the whole temperature regime, the pair distribution and density distribution exhibit the same properties as those of spin-polarized fermions because both of them depend on the modulus of wavefunction rather than wavefunction. While the ROBDM, the first-order correlation function, the natural orbital occupation, momentum distribution, which depend on wavefunction, of Tonks gas displays Bose properties different from spin-polarized fermions at low temperature. At high temperature we cannot distinguish Tonks gas from the spin-polarized Fermi gas qualitatively by all properties.
Lu Xiancong; Yu Yue; Li Jinbin
2006-04-15
By using slave particle (slave boson and slave fermion) techniques on the Bose-Hubbard model, we study the finite temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices. The phase diagrams at finite temperature are depicted by including different types of slave particles and the effect of the finite types of slave particles is estimated. The superfluid density is evaluated using the Landau second order phase transition theory. The atom density, excitation spectrum, and dispersion curve are also computed at various temperatures, and how the Mott-insulator evolves as the temperature increases is demonstrated. For most quantities to be calculated, we find that there are no qualitative differences in using the slave boson or the slave fermion approaches. However, when studying the stability of the mean field state, we find that in contrast to the slave fermion approach, the slave boson mean field state is not stable. Although the slave boson mean field theory gives a qualitatively correct phase boundary, it corresponds to a local maximum of Landau free energy and cannot describe the second order phase transition because the coefficient a{sub 4} of the fourth order term is always negative in the free energy expansion.
Finite-temperature properties of ultra-thin lead films on gold (110) surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De'Bell, K.; Imeson, D.
1997-07-01
At low coverages, lead adatoms form a single layer on the gold (110) surface. However, if a critical coverage 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1 is exceeded, a second adlayer forms. At zero temperature, various properties such as the energy and atomic spacing of atoms in the first adlayer are discontinuous at 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1. The effects of temperature on the discontinuities and location of 0953-8984/9/27/005/img1 are reported. Results for clean Au(110) and Pb(110) surfaces are also reported.
Browning, R.V.; Anderson, C.A.
1982-02-01
The finite element method is used to determine the temperatures, displacements, stresses, and strains in axisymmetric solids with orthotropic, temperature-dependent material properties under axisymmetric thermal and mechanical loads. The mechanical loads can be surface pressures, surface shears, and nodal point forces as well as an axial or centripetal acceleration. The continuous solid is replaced by a system of ring elements with triangular or quadrilateral cross sections. Accordingly, the method is valid for solids that are composed of many different materials and that have complex geometry. Nonlinear mechanical behavior as typified by plastic, locking, or creeping materials can be approximated. Two dimensional mesh generation, plotting, and editing features allow the computer program to be readily used. In addition to a stress analysis program that is based on a modified version of the SAAS code, TSAAS can carry out a transient thermal analysis with the finite element mesh used in stress analysis. An implicit time differencing scheme allows the use of arbitrary time steps with consequent fast running times. At specified times, the program will return to SAAS for thermal stress analysis. Nonlinear thermal properties and Arrhenius reaction kinetics are also incorporated into TSAAS. Several versions of TSAAS are in use at Los Alamos, running on CDC-7600, CRAY-1 and VAX 11/780 computers. This report describes the nominal TSAAS; other versions may have some unique features.
Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.
1985-12-15
We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.
Ryabov, E.G.; Adeev, G.D.
2005-09-01
A macroscopic temperature-dependent model that takes into account nuclear forces of finite range is used to calculate the static and statistical properties of hot rotating compound nuclei. The level-density parameter is approximated by an expression of the leptodermous type. The resulting expansion coefficients are in good agreement with their counterparts proposed previously by A.V. Ignatyuk and his colleagues. The effect of taking simultaneously into account the temperature of a nucleus and its angular momentum on the quantities under study, such as the heights and positions of fission barriers and the effective moments of inertia of nuclei at the barrier, is considered, and the importance of doing this is demonstrated. The fissility parameter (Z{sup 2}/A){sub crit} and the position of the Businaro-Gallone point are studied versus temperature. It is found that, with increasing temperature, both parameters are shifted to the region of lighter nuclei. It is shown that the inclusion of temperature leads to qualitatively the same effects as the inclusion of the angular momentum of a nucleus, but, quantitatively, thermal excitation leads to smaller effects than rotational excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, A. V.; Dehghani, M.
2016-09-01
High-temperature atomic configurations of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with alloy composition close to austenitic steel are studied in statistical thermodynamic simulations with effective interactions obtained in ab initio calculations. The latter are done taking longitudinal spin fluctuations (LSF) into consideration within a quasiclassical phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic state affects greatly the alloy properties, and in particular, it is shown that the LSF substantially modify the bonding and interatomic interactions of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys even at ambient conditions. The calculated atomic short-range order is in reasonable agreement with existing experimental data for Fe0.56Cr0.21Ni0.23 , which has strong preference for the (001)-type ordering between Ni and Cr atoms. A similar ordering tendency is found for the Fe0.75Cr0.17Ni0.08 alloy composition, which approximately corresponds to the widely used 304 and 316 austenitic steel grades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Fan; Chico, Jonathan; Hellsvik, Johan; Delin, Anna; Bergman, Anders; Bergqvist, Lars
2016-12-01
By means of first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated how the magnetodynamic properties Gilbert damping, magnetization, and exchange stiffness are affected when permalloy (Py) (Fe0.19Ni0.81 ) is doped with 4 d or 5 d transition metal impurities. We find that the trends in the Gilbert damping can be understood from relatively few basic parameters such as the density of states at the Fermi level, the spin-orbit coupling, and the impurity concentration. The temperature dependence of the Gilbert damping is found to be very weak which we relate to the lack of intraband transitions in alloys. Doping with 4 d elements has no major impact on the studied Gilbert damping, apart from diluting the host. However, the 5 d elements have a profound effect on the damping and allow it to be tuned over a large interval while maintaining the magnetization and exchange stiffness. As regards the spin stiffness, doping with early transition metals results in considerable softening, whereas late transition metals have a minor impact. Our result agree well with earlier calculations where available. In comparison to experiments, the computed Gilbert damping appears slightly underestimated, whereas the spin stiffness shows a general good agreement.
Finite temperature instability for compactification
Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.
1986-03-01
We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lecheng; Xie, Daiqian
2012-08-01
We report finite temperature quantum mechanical simulations of structural and dynamical properties of ArN-CO2 clusters using a path integral Monte Carlo algorithm. The simulations are based on a newly developed analytical Ar-CO2 interaction potential obtained by fitting ab initio results to an anisotropic two-dimensional Morse/Long-range function. The calculated distributions of argon atoms around the CO2 molecule in ArN-CO2 clusters with different sizes are consistent to the previous studies of the configurations of the clusters. A first-order perturbation theory is used to quantitatively predict the CO2 vibrational frequency shift in different clusters. The first-solvation shell is completed at N = 17. Interestingly, our simulations for larger ArN-CO2 clusters showed several different structures of the argon shell around the doped CO2 molecule. The observed two distinct peaks (2338.8 and 2344.5 cm-1) in the υ3 band of CO2 may be due to the different arrangements of argon atoms around the dopant molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul; Hyldgaard, Per
2017-02-01
We assess the performance of nonempirical, truly nonlocal, and semilocal functionals with regard to structural and thermal properties of 3 d ,4 d , and 5 d nonmagnetic transition metals. We focus on constraint- based functionals and consider the consistent-exchange van der Waals density-functional version vdW-DF-cx [Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.035412], the semilocal PBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865], and the PBEsol functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 136406 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.136406], as well as the AM05 metafunctional [Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.085108]. Using the quasiharmonic approximation, the structural parameters, elastic response, and thermal expansion at finite temperatures are computed and compared to experimental data. We also compute cohesive energies explicitly including zero-point vibrations. It is shown that overall vdW-DF-cx provides an accurate description of thermal properties and retains a level of transferability and accuracy that is comparable to or better than some of the best constraint-based semilocal functionals. Especially, with regard to the cohesive energies, the consistent inclusion of spin-polarization effects in the atoms turns out to be crucial, and it is important to use the rigorous spin-vdW-DF-cx formulation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 136402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.136402]. This demonstrates that vdW-DF-cx has general-purpose character and can be used to study systems that have both sparse and dense electron distributions.
Mechanical instability at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Xiaoming; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Souslov, Anton; Lubensky, Tom C.
2013-03-01
Rigidity transitions have been well studied in a wide range of athermal systems such as jammed packings and diluted lattices, in which the balance between the number of degrees of freedom and constraints generally determines the onset of mechanical instability, as predicted by Maxwell. The effects of thermal fluctuations on these transitions, however, have not yet been systematically studied. Characterizing rigidity transitions at finite temperature is very important to the understanding of fundamental problems such as the relation between the glass transition and jamming. We report an analytic study of a finite-temperature rigidity transition in the square lattice. At zero temperature, this lattice exhibits a continuous transition between the square phase and a phase composed of rhombic cells as the nonlinear potential connecting next-nearest-neighbors vary. At nonzero-temperature, diverging vibrational entropy associated with the floppy modes play a very important role in selecting the phase and determining the order of the transition. We calculate the phase diagram of this system and identify interesting behaviors such as negative thermal expansion. This work was supported in part by the NSF under Grants DMR-0804900, DMR-1104707
Electroweak relaxation from finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, Edward
2015-11-01
We study theories which naturally select a vacuum with parametrically small Electroweak Scale due to finite temperature effects in the early universe. In particular, there is a scalar with an approximate shift symmetry broken by a technically natural small coupling to the Higgs, and a temperature dependent potential. As the temperature of the universe drops, the scalar follows the minimum of its potential altering the Higgs mass squared parameter. The scalar also has a periodic potential with amplitude proportional to the Higgs expectation value, which traps it in a vacuum with a small Electroweak Scale. The required temperature dependence of the potential can occur through strong coupling effects in a hidden sector that are suppressed at high temperatures. Alternatively, it can be generated perturbatively from a one-loop thermal potential. In both cases, for the scalar to be displaced, a hidden sector must be reheated to temperatures significantly higher than the visible sector. However this does not violate observational constraints provided the hidden sector energy density is transferred to the visible sector without disrupting big bang nucleosynthesis. We also study how the mechanism can be implemented when the visible sector is completed to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at a high scale. Models with a UV cutoff of 10 TeV and no fields taking values over a range greater than 1012 GeV are possible, although the scalar must have a range of order 108 times the effective decay constant in the periodic part of its potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zhichao; Wang, Da; Wu, Congjun; Wang, Yu
2017-02-01
We investigate the SU (2 N ) symmetry effects with 2 N >2 on the two-dimensional interacting Dirac fermions at finite temperatures, including the valence-bond-solid transition, the Pomeranchuk effect, the compressibility, and the uniform spin susceptibility, by performing the determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the half-filled SU (2 N ) Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice. The columnar valence-bond-solid (cVBS) phase only breaks the threefold discrete symmetry and thus can survive at finite temperatures. The disordered phase in the weak coupling regime is the thermal Dirac semi-metal state, while in the strong coupling regime it is largely a Mott state in which the cVBS order is thermally melted. The calculated entropy-temperature relations for various values of the Hubbard interaction U show that the Pomeranchuk effect occurs when the specific entropy is below a characteristic value of S*—the maximal entropy per particle from the spin channel of local moments. The SU (2 N ) symmetry enhances the Pomeranchuk effect, which facilitates the interaction-induced adiabatic cooling. Our work sheds light on future explorations of novel states of matter with ultracold large-spin alkaline fermions.
Quantum memories at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Benjamin J.; Loss, Daniel; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Self, Chris N.; Wootton, James R.
2016-10-01
To use quantum systems for technological applications one first needs to preserve their coherence for macroscopic time scales, even at finite temperature. Quantum error correction has made it possible to actively correct errors that affect a quantum memory. An attractive scenario is the construction of passive storage of quantum information with minimal active support. Indeed, passive protection is the basis of robust and scalable classical technology, physically realized in the form of the transistor and the ferromagnetic hard disk. The discovery of an analogous quantum system is a challenging open problem, plagued with a variety of no-go theorems. Several approaches have been devised to overcome these theorems by taking advantage of their loopholes. The state-of-the-art developments in this field are reviewed in an informative and pedagogical way. The main principles of self-correcting quantum memories are given and several milestone examples from the literature of two-, three- and higher-dimensional quantum memories are analyzed.
Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature
Boschi-Filho, H. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Guaratingueta, 12500 Guaratingueta, Caixa Postal 205 Sao Paulo ); Natividade, C.P. )
1992-12-15
We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved-spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual, in order to have a well-defined quantum field theory at finite temperature. We obtain the expressions for Seeley's coefficients and the heat-kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting [lambda][phi][sup 4] and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature.
Frontiers of finite temperature lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsányi, Szabolcs
2017-03-01
I review a selection of recent finite temperature lattice results of the past years. First I discuss the extension of the equation of state towards high temperatures and finite densities, then I show recent results on the QCD topological susceptibility at high temperatures and highlight its relevance for dark matter search.
Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.
2010-05-21
We study the nuclear matter properties in the regime of high temperatures using a relativistic mean-field theory. Contrasting with the usual linear Walecka model, we include the sigma-omega meson coupling in order to investigate the role of this interaction in the nucleon effective mass behavior. Some numerical results are presented and discussed.
Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.
2016-03-01
The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.
Strange stars at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Subharthi; Bagchi, Manjari; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira
2006-03-01
We calculate strange star properties, using large Nc approximation with built-in chiral symmetry restoration (CSM). We used a relativistic Hartree Fock meanfield approximation method, using a modi.ed Richardson potential with two scale parameters Λ and Λ', to find a new set of equation of state (EOS) for strange quark matter. We take the effect of temperature (T) on gluon mass, in addition to the usual density dependence, and find that the transition T from hadronic matter to strange matter is 80 MeV. Therefore formation of strange stars may be the only signal for formation of QGP with asymptotic freedom (AF) and CSM.
Costa, R. S.; Cortes, M. R.; Nunes, D. R.; Batista, A. S. A.
2014-11-11
In this work in contrast to the usual Walecka model [1] we include the interaction between the σ – ω mesons [2,3] with the aim of studying the nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory in the regime of high temperatures. Therefore in our work we use the non-linear Walecka model. We investigate whether the phase transition characteristic of other models without these interactions vanishes for a given value of chemical potential μ and baryon density ρ{sub N}.
LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.
BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.
2004-02-24
temperature for three different lattice spacings and performed a continuum extrapolation of T{sub tr} for the first time. Lattice calculations of the meson spectral functions were presented by M. Asakawa, S. Datta, E. Laermann and H. Matsufuru. These show that charmonia ground states ({eta}{sub c} and J/{psi}) continue to exist in the plasma at least up to a temperature of 1.7 T{sub tr}. At what temperature charmonia states cease to exist is not yet clear. Calculations presented by M. Asakawa show dissolution of the J/{psi} at T = 1.7 T{sub tr}, while the analysis presented H. Matsufuru provided evidence that ground state charmonia still exist at this temperature. S. Datta argued that the ground state charmonia is likely to dissolve only for temperatures T > 2.25 T{sub tr}, while the P-states are dissociated at, 1.1 T{sub tr}. It is also very interesting that, even in the case of light quarks, meson spectral functions show a resonance-like structure in the plasma phase (talk by E. Laermann). Finally attempts to calculate transport properties in the Quark Gluon Plasma were presented by S. Gupta. The workshop devoted special attention to the finite temperature modification of inter-quark forces and color screening, another area where considerable progress has been made in recent years (talks by 0. Kaczmarek, K. Petrov, O. Philipsen and F. Zantow). Many other new theoretical developments which cannot be discussed here were also presented on the workshop. Altogether the workshop was a great success, for which we thank all the participants.
Antioscillons from bubble collisions at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mersini-Houghton, Laura
2014-04-01
We study the role of the topology of bubbles at finite temperatures plays on collisions and the existence of new field configurations. We show that in the case of false vacuum decay at finite temperature, the cylindrical symmetry of bubbles admits a new exotic field with negative energies, the antiperiodic "twisted" field. New field configurations arise generically, not only at finite temperatures but whenever a cluster of bubbles resulting from collisions form nontrivial topologies. The interaction of both configurations induces instabilites on the bubble. Collisions of bubbles occupied by the new fields can lead to the emergence of new structures, named antioscillons.
PROGRESS IN LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
PETRECZKY,P.
2007-02-11
I review recent developments in lattice QCD at finite temperature, including the determination of the transition temperature T{sub c}, equation of state and different static screening lengths. The lattice data suggest that at temperatures above 1.5T{sub c} the quark gluon plasma can be considered as gas consisting of quarks and gluons.
Holographic trace anomaly at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Park, Chanyong
2017-01-01
Using the holographic renormalization, we investigate the finite temperature and size effect to the energy-momentum tensor of the dual field theory and its renormalization group (RG) flow. Following the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, the dual field theory of the AdS space is well known to be a conformal field theory that has no nontrivial RG flow. Holographically, that theory can be lifted to a finite temperature version by considering a AdS black hole solution. Because the black hole horizon associated with temperature is dimensionful, it breaks the boundary conformal symmetry and leads to a nontrivial RG flow. In this work, we investigate the finite temperature and size correction to a strongly interacting conformal field theory along the Wisonian renormalization group flow.
Evidence for a Finite-Temperature Insulator.
Ovadia, M; Kalok, D; Tamir, I; Mitra, S; Sacépé, B; Shahar, D
2015-08-27
In superconductors the zero-resistance current-flow is protected from dissipation at finite temperatures (T) by virtue of the short-circuit condition maintained by the electrons that remain in the condensed state. The recently suggested finite-T insulator and the "superinsulating" phase are different because any residual mechanism of conduction will eventually become dominant as the finite-T insulator sets-in. If the residual conduction is small it may be possible to observe the transition to these intriguing states. We show that the conductivity of the high magnetic-field insulator terminating superconductivity in amorphous indium-oxide exhibits an abrupt drop, and seem to approach a zero conductance at T < 0.04 K. We discuss our results in the light of theories that lead to a finite-T insulator.
Schwinger pair production at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medina, Leandro; Ogilvie, Michael C.
2017-03-01
Thermal corrections to Schwinger pair production are potentially important in particle physics, nuclear physics and cosmology. However, the lowest-order contribution, arising at one loop, has proved difficult to calculate unambiguously. We show that this thermal correction may be calculated for charged scalars using the worldline formalism, where each term in the decay rate is associated with a worldline instanton. We calculate all finite-temperature worldline instantons, their actions and fluctuation prefactors, thus determining the complete one-loop decay rate at finite temperature. The thermal contribution to the decay rate becomes nonzero at a threshold temperature T =e E /2 m , above which it dominates the zero-temperature result. This is the lowest of an infinite set of thresholds at T =n e E /2 m . The decay rate is singular at each threshold as a consequence of the failure of the quadratic approximation to the worldline path integral. We argue that higher-order effects will make the decay rates finite everywhere and model those effects by the inclusion of hard thermal loop damping rates. We also demonstrate that the formalism developed here generalizes to the case of finite-temperature pair production in inhomogeneous fields.
Emergent kink statistics at finite temperature
Lopez-Ruiz, Miguel Angel; Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam; ...
2017-07-25
In this paper we use 1D quantum mechanical systems with Higgs-like interaction potential to study the emergence of topological objects at finite temperature. Two different model systems are studied, the standard double-well potential model and a newly introduced discrete kink model. Using Monte-Carlo simulations as well as analytic methods, we demonstrate how kinks become abundant at low temperatures. These results may shed useful insights on how topological phenomena may occur in QCD.
Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature
Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.
2009-08-26
The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.
Theories with Extra Dimensions at Finite Temperature
Gruzza, Alessia
2005-10-12
In 5-dimensional theories on multiply-connected manifolds the fifth component of the gauge fields can be identified with the Higgs field. We consider the Hosotani mechanism on S1/Z2 orbifold with an SU(2) gauge group. When A5 gets a VEV the gauge symmetry is completely broken. The VEV is undetermined at the tree level but a potential is generated at one loop. Finite temperature effects on the effective potential are studied.
Finite-temperature magnetism in bcc Fe under compression.
Sha, Xianwei; Cohen, R E
2010-09-22
We investigate the contributions of finite-temperature magnetic fluctuations to the thermodynamic properties of bcc Fe as functions of pressure. First, we apply a tight-binding total-energy model parameterized to first-principles linearized augmented plane-wave computations to examine various ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and noncollinear spin spiral states at zero temperature. The tight-binding data are fit to a generalized Heisenberg Hamiltonian to describe the magnetic energy functional based on local moments. We then use Monte Carlo simulations to compute the magnetic susceptibility, the Curie temperature, heat capacity, and magnetic free energy. Including the finite-temperature magnetism improves the agreement with experiment for the calculated thermal expansion coefficients.
Finite temperature mechanical instability in disordered lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Leyou; Mao, Xiaoming
Mechanical instability takes different forms in various ordered and disordered systems, and little is known about how thermal fluctuations affect different classes of mechanical instabilities. We develop an analytic theory involving renormalization of rigidity and coherent potential approximation that can be used to understand finite-temperature mechanical stabilities in various disordered systems. We used this theory to study two disordered lattices: randomly diluted triangular lattice and randomly braced square lattice. These two lattices belong to two different universality classes as they approach mechanical instability at T = 0 . We show that thermal fluctuations stabilize both lattices. In particular, the triangular lattice displays a critical regime in which the shear modulus scales as G ~T 1 / 2 , whereas the square lattice shows G ~T 2 / 3 . We discuss generic scaling laws for finite T mechanical instabilities and relate to experimental systems including jamming and glass transitions.
Finite Temperature Quasicontinuum: Molecular Dynamics without all the Atoms
Dupuy, L; Tadmor, E B; Miller, R E; Phillips, R
2005-02-02
Using a combination of statistical mechanics and finite-element interpolation, the authors develop a coarse-grained (CG) alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) for crystalline solids at constant temperature. The new approach is significantly more efficient than MD and generalizes earlier work on the quasi-continuum method. The method is validated by recovering equilibrium properties of single crystal Ni as a function of temperature. CG dynamical simulations of nanoindentation reveal a strong dependence on temperature of the critical stress to nucleate dislocations under the indenter.
Skyrmion Approach to Finite Density and Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Byung-Yoon; Riska, D. O.
We review an approach, developed over the past few years, to describe hadronic matter at finite density and temperature, whose underlying theoretical framework is the Skyrme model, an effective low energy theory rooted in large Nc QCD. In this approach matter is described by various crystal structures of skyrmions, classical topological solitons carrying baryon number, from which conventional baryons appear by quantization. Chiral and scale symmetries play a crucial role in the dynamics as described by pion, dilaton and vector meson degrees of freedom. When compressed or heated skyrmion matter describes a rich phase diagram which has strong connections with the confinement/deconfinement phase transition.
Ferromagnetism in metals at finite temperatures
Gyorffy, B.L.; Staunton, J.B.; Stocks, G.M.
1984-01-01
The conventional spin-polarized band theory is well known to give a reasonable description of the magnetic ground states of metals. Here it is generalized to finite temperatures. The resulting theory is the first first-principles theory of the ferromagnetic phase transition in metals. It is a mean-field theory. For iron we find T/sub c/ = 1250 K and chi/sup -1/(q = 0) follows a Curie-Weiss law. We also report on our results for the wave-vector dependent susceptibility chi(q) which is a measure of magnetic short-range order above T/sub c/.
LARGE volume string compactifications at finite temperature
Anguelova, Lilia; Calò, Vincenzo; Cicoli, Michele E-mail: v.calo@qmul.ac.uk
2009-10-01
We present a detailed study of the finite-temperature behaviour of the LARGE Volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that certain moduli can thermalise at high temperatures. Despite that, their contribution to the finite-temperature effective potential is always negligible and the latter has a runaway behaviour. We compute the maximal temperature T{sub max}, above which the internal space decompactifies, as well as the temperature T{sub *}, that is reached after the decay of the heaviest moduli. The natural constraint T{sub *} < T{sub max} implies a lower bound on the allowed values of the internal volume V. We find that this restriction rules out a significant range of values corresponding to smaller volumes of the order V ∼ 10{sup 4}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to standard GUT theories. Instead, the bound favours values of the order V ∼ 10{sup 15}l{sub s}{sup 6}, which lead to TeV scale SUSY desirable for solving the hierarchy problem. Moreover, our result favours low-energy inflationary scenarios with density perturbations generated by a field, which is not the inflaton. In such a scenario, one could achieve both inflation and TeV-scale SUSY, although gravity waves would not be observable. Finally, we pose a two-fold challenge for the solution of the cosmological moduli problem. First, we show that the heavy moduli decay before they can begin to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Hence they are not able to dilute any unwanted relics. And second, we argue that, in order to obtain thermal inflation in the closed string moduli sector, one needs to go beyond the present EFT description.
A Theory of the Magnetovolume Effect at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro
1981-06-01
The Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is extended to the finite temperatures, and the expressions for the spontaneous volume magnetostriction and the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion coefficient are given by using the functional integral method within the static approximation. The temperature variations of these quantities are determined mainly by the amplitude of the local magnetic moment and the s-d charge transfer. Two types of the thermal expansion, the αFe type and the Weiss model type, appear within the CPA-LSA and their properties are examined and discussed.
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.
2005-08-01
We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.
Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ely, Robert
2011-01-01
We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…
Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ely, Robert
2011-01-01
We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…
Entropic uncertainty relation at finite temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu
1992-01-01
We discussed how much information is lost when a particle is in equilibrium with the thermal reservoir of temperature T = 1/beta. The universal temperature correction to the r.h.s. of U(X,P:psi) greater than or = 1 + ln(pi) is determined. For this purpose, it is convenient to employ the framework of thermo-field dynamics (TFD). This formulation of finite-temperature (T not = 0) quantum theory utilizes the doubled Hilbert space, the normal operator (A) acting on the objective space, and its corresponding tildian operator on the fictitious space. The physical probability density associated with the measurement of the normal operator, A, is given, and the information entropy at T not = 0 is defined. The results describe how the thermal disturbance effects in S sub X or S sub P (delta X or delta P) can be suppressed by squeezing with keeping U = S sub X + S sub P (delta X x delta P) its minimum value.
Finite temperature static charge screening in quantum plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliasson, B.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2016-07-01
The shielding potential around a test charge is calculated, using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic formulation with the statistical pressure and Bohm potential derived from finite temperature kinetic theory, and the temperature effects on the force between ions is assessed. The derived screening potential covers the full range of electron degeneracy in the equation of state of the plasma electrons. An attractive force between shielded ions in an arbitrary degenerate plasma exists below a critical temperature and density. The effect of the temperature on the screening potential profile qualitatively describes the ion-ion bound interaction strength and length variations. This may be used to investigate physical properties of plasmas and in molecular-dynamics simulations of fermion plasma. It is further shown that the Bohm potential including the kinetic corrections has a profound effect on the Thomson scattering cross section in quantum plasmas with arbitrary degeneracy.
Instability of flat space at finite temperature
Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.
1982-01-15
The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature.
Finite size and finite temperature studies of the osp(1|2) spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavares, T. S.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.
2017-08-01
We studied a quantum spin chain invariant by the superalgebra osp (1 | 2). We derived non-linear integral equations for the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvalue in order to analyze its finite size scaling behavior and we determined its central charge. We also studied the thermodynamical properties of the spin chain via non-linear integral equations for the quantum transfer matrix eigenvalue. We numerically solved these NLIE and evaluated the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. The analytical low temperature analysis was performed providing the effective central charge. The computed values are in agreement with the numerical predictions in the literature.
Nonlinear temperature dependent failure analysis of finite width composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagarkar, A. P.; Herakovich, C. T.
1979-01-01
A quasi-three dimensional, nonlinear elastic finite element stress analysis of finite width composite laminates including curing stresses is presented. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and two quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates are studied. Curing stresses are calculated using temperature dependent elastic properties that are input as percent retention curves, and stresses due to mechanical loading in the form of an axial strain are calculated using tangent modulii obtained by Ramberg-Osgood parameters. It is shown that curing stresses and stresses due to tensile loading are significant as edge effects in all types of laminate studies. The tensor polynomial failure criterion is used to predict the initiation of failure. The mode of failure is predicted by examining individual stress contributions to the tensor polynomial.
Finite element wavelets with improved quantitative properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hoang; Stevenson, Rob
2009-08-01
In [W. Dahmen, R. Stevenson, Element-by-element construction of wavelets satisfying stability and moment conditions, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (1) (1999) 319-352 (electronic)], finite element wavelets were constructed on polygonal domains or Lipschitz manifolds that are piecewise parametrized by mappings with constant Jacobian determinants. The wavelets could be arranged to have any desired order of cancellation properties, and they generated stable bases for the Sobolev spaces Hs for (or s<=1 on manifolds). Unfortunately, it appears that the quantitative properties of these wavelets are rather disappointing. In this paper, we modify the construction from the above-mentioned work to obtain finite element wavelets which are much better conditioned.
Wave dispersion properties of compound finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melvin, Thomas; Thuburn, John
2017-06-01
Mixed finite elements use different approximation spaces for different dependent variables. Certain classes of mixed finite elements, called compatible finite elements, have been shown to exhibit a number of desirable properties for a numerical weather prediction model. In two-dimensions the lowest order element of the Raviart-Thomas based mixed element is the finite element equivalent of the widely used C-grid staggering, which is known to possess good wave dispersion properties, at least for quadrilateral grids. It has recently been proposed that building compound elements from a number of triangular Raviart-Thomas sub-elements, such that both the primal and (implied) dual grid are constructed from the same sub-elements, would allow greater flexibility in the use of different advection schemes along with the ability to build arbitrary polygonal elements. Although the wave dispersion properties of the triangular sub-elements are well understood, those of the compound elements are unknown. It would be useful to know how they compare with the non-compound elements and what properties of the triangular sub-grid elements are inherited? Here a numerical dispersion analysis is presented for the linear shallow water equations in two dimensions discretised using the lowest order compound Raviart-Thomas finite elements on regular quadrilateral and hexagonal grids. It is found that, in comparison with the well known C-grid scheme, the compound elements exhibit a more isotropic dispersion relation, with a small over estimation of the frequency for short waves compared with the relatively large underestimation for the C-grid. On a quadrilateral grid the compound elements are found to differ from the non-compound Raviart-Thomas quadrilateral elements even for uniform elements, exhibiting the influence of the underlying sub-elements. This is shown to lead to small improvements in the accuracy of the dispersion relation: the compound quadrilateral element is slightly better for
Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.
Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
2015-06-01
It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamidreza, Emamipour; M. R., Abolhassani
2011-01-01
In this study, we investigate the tunneling conductance at a finite temperature in a normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor nano-junction where the ferromagnetic superconductor (FS) is in three different cooper pairing states: spin singlet s-wave pairing (SWP), spin triplet opposite spin pairing (OSP), and spin triplet equal spin pairing (ESP) while including Fermi wave mismatch (FWM) and effective mass mismatch (EMM) in two sides of the nano-junction. We find that the conductance shows clearly different behaviors all depending on the symmetries of cooper pairing in a manner that the conductance spectra shows a gap-like structure, two interior dips structure and zero bias peak for SWP, OSP, and ESP, respectively. Also, the effective FS gap (Δeff) is a linear and decreasing function of exchange field. The slope of (Δeff) versus exchange field for OSP is twice the SWP. Thus, we can determine the spin polarization of N/FS nano-junction based on the dependence of (Δeff) to exchange field.
Chelikowsky, J.R.; Oeguet, S.; Jing, X.; Wu, K.; Stathopoulos, A.; Saad, Y.
1996-12-31
Determining the electronic and structural properties of semiconductor clusters is one of the outstanding problems in materials science. The existence of numerous structures with nearly identical energies makes it very difficult to determine a realistic ground state structure. Moreover, even if an effective procedure can be devised to predict the ground state structure, questions can arise about the relevancy of the structure at finite temperatures. Kinetic effects and non-equilibrium structures may dominate the structural configurations present in clusters created under laboratory conditions. The authors illustrate theoretical techniques for predicting the structure and electronic properties of small germanium clusters. Specifically, they illustrate that the detailed agreement between theoretical and experimental features can be exploited to identify the relevant isomers present under experimental conditions.
Baryon number fluctuations at finite temperature and density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Wei-jie; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Rennecke, Fabian; Schaefer, Bernd-Jochen
2016-12-01
We investigate baryon number fluctuations for finite temperature and density in two-flavor QCD. This is done within a QCD-improved low-energy effective theory in an extension of the approach put forward by Fu and Pawlowski [Phys. Rev. D 92, 116006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.116006 and Phys. Rev. D 93, 091501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.091501]. In the present work, we aim to improve the predictive power of this approach for large temperatures and, in partitular, large densities, that is, for small collision energies. This is achieved by taking into account the full frequency dependence of the quark dispersion. This ensures the necessary Silver Blaze property of finite density QCD for the first time, which so far was only implemented approximately. Moreover, we show that Polyakov-loop fluctuations have a sizeable impact at large temperatures and density. The results for the kurtosis of baryon number fluctuations are compared to previous effective theory results, lattice results, and recent experimental data from STAR.
Correlation effects on a topological insulator at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Tsuneya; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norio
2012-03-01
We analyze the effects of the local Coulomb interaction on a topological band insulator (TBI) by applying the dynamical mean-field theory to a generalized Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model having electron correlations. It is elucidated how the correlation effects modify electronic properties in the TBI phase at finite temperatures. In particular, the band inversion character of the TBI inevitably leads to the large reduction of the spectral gap via the renormalization effect, which results in the strong temperature dependence of the spin Hall conductivity. We clarify that a quantum phase transition from the TBI to a trivial Mott insulator, if it is nonmagnetic, is of first order with a hysteresis. This is confirmed via the interaction dependence of the double occupancy and the spectral function. A magnetic instability is also addressed. All these results imply that the spectral gap does not close at the transition.
Lorentz violation in Bhabha scattering at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2017-06-01
Corrections to the Bhabha scattering cross section, due to Lorentz violation, at finite temperature are calculated. The vertex interaction between fermions and photons is modified by introducing the Lorentz violation, for the Standard Model extension, from C P T odd nonminimal coupling. The finite temperature corrections are calculated using the thermo field dynamics formalism. The Lorentz violation corrections are presented for zero to high temperatures.
Jamming of soft spheres at finite temperature : a granular experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Dauchot, Olivier; Behringer, Robert
2012-02-01
At large packing fraction, disordered packings of particles with repulsive contact interactions jam into a rigid state where they withstand finite shear stresses before yielding. For frictionless particles and at zero temperature, the jamming transition coincides with the onset of iso-staticity and many geometrical and mechanical properties scale with the distance to the jamming point. What are the vestige of jamming at finite temperature and how jamming impacts the thermodynamics of glasses remain open issues. We address these questions experimentally by investigating the dynamics of both the density field and the force network of an horizontally shaken bi-disperse packing of photo-elastic disks. The average number of contact clearly displays an abrupt transition which we interpret as the jamming transition. Besides, dynamical heterogeneities are observed and their amplitude exhibits a maximum, which, in turn, signs a dynamical transition. We discuss in detail the interplay between these two transitions and how they depend on the particle softness and amplitude of the horizontal vibration.
Damping of Ultrasoft Fermions in Finite Temperature QED
Bouakaz, K.; Abada, A.
2008-04-21
We calculate the fermion damping rates to second order in powers of the external momentum in the context of QED at finite temperature using the hard-thermal-loop summation scheme. We find the coefficients of zeroth and first orders finite whereas that of second order logarithmically infrared sensitive. The calculation is done in covariant gauge and the result is independent of gauge fixing.
Finite ion temperature effects on scrape-off layer turbulence
Mosetto, Annamaria Halpern, Federico D.; Jolliet, Sébastien; Loizu, Joaquim; Ricci, Paolo
2015-01-15
Ion temperature has been measured to be of the same order, or higher, than the electron temperature in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamak machines, questioning its importance in determining the SOL turbulent dynamics. Here, we present a detailed analysis of finite ion temperature effects on the linear SOL instabilities, such as the resistive and inertial branches of drift waves and ballooning modes, and a discussion of the properties of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability in the SOL, identifying the η{sub i}=L{sub n}/L{sub T{sub i}} threshold necessary to drive the mode unstable. The non-linear analysis of the SOL turbulent regimes by means of the gradient removal theory is performed, revealing that the ITG plays a negligible role in limited SOL discharges, since the ion temperature gradient is generally below the threshold for driving the mode unstable. It follows that the resistive ballooning mode is the prevailing turbulence regime for typical limited SOL parameters. The theoretical estimates are confirmed by non-linear flux-driven simulations of SOL plasma dynamics.
Reprint of : Single-electron coherence: Finite temperature versus pure dephasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moskalets, Michael; Haack, Géraldine
2016-08-01
We analyze a coherent injection of single electrons on top of the Fermi sea in two situations, at finite-temperature and in the presence of pure dephasing. Both finite-temperature and pure dephasing change the property of the injected quantum states from pure to mixed. However, we show that the temperature-induced mixedness does not alter the coherence properties of these single-electron states. In particular two such mixed states exhibit perfect antibunching while colliding at an electronic wave splitter. This is in striking difference with the dephasing-induced mixedness which suppresses antibunching. On the contrary, a single-particle shot noise is suppressed at finite temperatures but is not affected by pure dephasing. This work therefore extends the investigation of the coherence properties of single-electron states to the case of mixed states and clarifies the difference between different types of mixedness.
Finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model
Kim, Y.; Lee, Hyun Kyu |; Rho, M. |
1995-03-01
We calculate the finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model using the effective potential formalism. Assuming that the dilaton limit is applicable at some short length scale, we interpret the results to represent the behavior of hadrons in dense and hot matter. We obtain the scaling law, f{sub {pi}}(T)/f{sub {pi}} = m{sub Q}(T)/m{sub Q} {approx_equal} m{sub {sigma}}(T)/m{sub {sigma}}while we argue, using PCAC, that pion mass does not scale within the temperature range involved in our Lagrangian. It is found that the hadron masses and the pion decay constant drop faster with temperature in the dilated chiral quark model than in the conventional linear sigma model that does not take into account the QCD scale anomaly. We attribute the difference in scaling in heat bath to the effect of baryonic medium on thermal properties of the hadrons. Our finding would imply that the AGS experiments (dense and hot matter) and the RHIC experiments (hot and dilute matter) will ``see`` different hadron properties in the hadronization exit phase.
QED effective action at finite temperature and density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmfors, Per; Persson, David; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture
1993-07-01
Results are presented of calculations of the QED effective action at finite temperature and density to all orders in an external homogeneous and time-independent magnetic field, in the weak coupling limit. The free energy, obtained explicitly, exhibits the expected de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. An effective coupling at finite temperature and density is derived in a closed form and is compared with renormalization group results.
THE TWO-LEVEL MODEL AT FINITE-TEMPERATURE
Goodman, A.L.
1980-07-01
The finite-temperature HFB cranking equations are solved for the two-level model. The pair gap, moment of inertia and internal energy are determined as functions of spin and temperature. Thermal excitations and rotations collaborate to destroy the pair correlations. Raising the temperature eliminates the backbending effect and improves the HFB approximation.
Parity-Violating in e - e + Scattering at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chekerker, M.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.; Ladrem, M.
2017-09-01
Parity violation implies that physics laws are not invariant under spatial coordinate reversal. Electron-positron scattering is a process that displays parity violation. Using the Thermo Field Dynamics formalism this scattering at finite temperature is analyzed. The transition amplitude is calculated as a function of temperature. The parity violation at very high temperatures tend to go to zero.
Dynamics of a finite temperature Bose gas in atomtronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colussi, Victor; Holland, Murray; Anderson, Dana Z.
2014-05-01
We investigate the problem of modeling atomtronic devices that utilize the nonequilibrium dynamics of a finite temperature Bose-condensed gas placed underneath an atom chip to mimic the properties of classical circuit elements. Our model consists of the full dynamics of the condensate and thermal cloud. The thermal cloud is treated semiclassically, in the spirit of the ZNG method (Zaremba, Nikuni and Griffin.) However, we develop a novel procedure to account for collisions between the condensate and thermal cloud which evaluates collision rates directly. We present the results of this model compared to two experiments: the atomtronic battery and transistor [arXiv:1208.3109v2]. Also presented are predictions for more complex circuit elements. This work is funded by the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JILA and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics: Nonlinear finite elements and finite temperature
Rudd, R E; Broughton, J Q
2005-05-30
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a technique developed as a concurrent multiscale model that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) to a more coarse-grained description of the periphery. The coarse-grained regions are modeled on a mesh in a formulation that generalizes conventional finite element modeling (FEM) of continuum elasticity. CGMD is derived solely from the MD model, however, and has no continuum parameters. As a result, it provides a coupling that is smooth and provides control of errors that arise at the coupling between the atomistic and coarse-grained regions. In this article, we elaborate on the formulation of CGMD, describing in detail how CGMD is applied to anharmonic solids and finite temperature simulations. As tests of CGMD, we present in detail the calculation of the phonon spectra for solid argon and tantalum in 3D, demonstrating how CGMD provides a better description of the elastic waves than that provided by FEM. We also present elastic wave scattering calculations that show the elastic wave scattering is more benign in CGMD than FEM. We also discuss the dependence of scattering on the properties of the mesh. We introduce a rigid approximation to CGMD that eliminates internal relaxation, similar to the Quasicontinuum technique, and compare it to the full CGMD.
SU (N ) Fermi liquid at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chi-Ho; Yip, S.-K.
2017-03-01
We consider the thermodynamic potential Ω of an N component Fermi gas with a short-range interaction obeying SU (N ) symmetry. We analyze especially the nonanalytic part of Ω in the temperature T at low T . We examine the temperature range where one can observe this T4lnT contribution and discuss how it can be extracted experimentally.
Finite-size test for the finite-temperature chiral phase transition in lattice QCD
Fukugita, M.; Mino, H.; Okawa, M.; Ukawa, A. Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University, Kofu National Laboratory for High Energy Physics , Ibaraki Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki )
1990-08-13
A finite-size test was carried out for the finite-temperature chiral phase transition in QCD for flavor number {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=4 and 2 on a lattice with four time slices using the Kogut-Susskind quark action at quark mass of 0.025 in lattice units. All the evidence supports a first-order transition for {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=4. For {ital N}{sub {ital f}}=2, however, the data on spatial lattice up to 12{sup 3} fail to yield convincing finite-size signatures for a first-order transition at this quark mass.
Finite temperature effective potential in a Kaluza-Klein universe
Roy, P. )
1990-01-20
The authors evaluate the finite temperature one-loop effective potential for scalar fields in Kaluza-Klein universe consisting of the product of a space with open Robertson-Walker metric and the N sphere S{sup N}. The one-loop effective potential has been computed in both high and low temperature limits.
GENERAL: Fluctuation of Mesoscopic RLC Circuit at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ji-Suo; Fan, Hong-Yi
2008-09-01
We consider the fluctuation of mesoscopic RLC circuit at finite temperature since a resistance always produces Joule heat when the circuit is working. By virtue of the thermo Geld dynamics and the coherent thermo state representation we show that the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuations of both charge and current increase with the rising temperature and the resistance value.
Two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate of a finite number of particles
Idziaszek, Z.; Rzazewski, K.
2003-09-01
We consider two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate, which are related to certain properties of the condensate statistics. We calculate them for an ideal gas confined in power-law traps and show that they approach the critical temperature in the limit of large number of particles. The considered characteristic temperatures can be useful in the studies of Bose-Einstein condensates of a finite number of atoms indicating the point of a phase transition.
Variational Equation for Quantum Number Projection at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Kosai; Nakada, Hitoshi
2008-04-01
To describe phase transitions in a finite system at finite temperature, we develop a formalism of the variation-after-projection (VAP) of quantum numbers based on the thermofield dynamics (TFD). We derive a new Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type equation by variating the free energy with approximate entropy without violating Peierls inequality. The solution to the new BCS equation describes the S-shape in the specific heat curve and the superfluid-to-normal phase transition caused by the temperature effect. It simulates the exact quantum Monte Carlo results well.
Quantum fields versus strings at finite temperature
Osorio, M.A.R. . Lyman Lab. of Physics)
1992-07-20
In this paper, the authors study some aspects of the relationship between the one-loop free energy of closed superstrings computed as a sum over the free energies of the quantum field present in the string (the analog model) and the modular invariant expression of the same quantity. In particular, by getting a generalized duality relation for the integrand of the modular invariant expression for the free energy of closed superstrings and using a regularization procedure, the authors connect the contribution to the vacuum energy from the bosonic degrees of freedom in the analog model (one half of the total number) with the coefficient governing the high temperature behavior of the free energy. The authors also study the physical meaning of this regularization and the role played by the left-right constraint defining the physical fields in the light-cone gauge.
Kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature
Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Van Long; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa
2008-11-15
Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.
Enforcing causality in nonrelativistic equations of state at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantinou, Constantinos; Prakash, Madappa
2017-05-01
We present a thermodynamically consistent method by which equations of state based on nonrelativistic potential models can be modified so that they respect causality at high densities, both at zero and finite temperature (entropy). We illustrate the application of the method by using the high-density phase parametrization of the well-known Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall model in its pure neutron matter configuration as an example. We also show that, for models with only contact interactions, the adiabatic speed of sound is independent of the temperature in the limit of very large temperature. This feature is approximately valid for models with finite-range interactions as well, insofar as the temperature dependence they introduce to the Landau effective mass is weak. In addition, our study reveals that in first-principle nonrelativistic models of hot and dense matter, contributions from higher-than-two-body interactions must be screened at high density to preserve causality.
Lee-Wick standard model at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebed, Richard F.; Long, Andrew J.; TerBeek, Russell H.
2013-10-01
The Lee-Wick Standard Model at temperatures near the electroweak scale is considered, with the aim of studying the electroweak phase transition. While Lee-Wick theories possess states of negative norm, they are not pathological but instead are treated by imposing particular boundary conditions and using particular integration contours in the calculation of S-matrix elements. It is not immediately clear how to extend this prescription to formulate the theory at finite temperature; we explore two different pictures of finite-temperature Lee-Wick theories, and calculate the thermodynamic variables and the (one-loop) thermal effective potential. We apply these results to study the Lee-Wick Standard Model and find that the electroweak phase transition is a continuous crossover, much like in the Standard Model. However, the high-temperature behavior is modified due to cancellations between thermal corrections arising from the negative- and positive-norm states.
Electromagnetic field at finite temperature: A first order approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valverde, J. S.
2006-10-01
In this work we study the electromagnetic field at finite temperature via the massless DKP formalism. The constraint analysis is performed and the partition function for the theory is constructed and computed. When it is specialized to the spin 1 sector we obtain the well-known result for the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetic field.
Spinor field theory at finite temperature in the early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, N.; Mallik, S.
1992-01-01
We consider the Dirac field on a spatially flat Robertson-Walker space-time. We find the exact expression for the Dirac propagator for an arbitrary scale factor in the real-time formulation of finite-temperature field theory. The mode functions used in the construction satisfy uncoupled ordinary differential equations.
Quantum Monte Carlo finite temperature electronic structure of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.
2002-08-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We test the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in one and three dimensional harmonic oscillator potentials and apply it in evaluation of finite temperature effects of single and coupled quantum dots. Our simulations show the correct finite temperature excited state populations including degeneracy in cases of one and three dimensional harmonic oscillators. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and coupled quantum dots are compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Distributions are shown to agree and the finite temperature effects are discussed. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. Other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).
Charmed mesons at finite temperature and chemical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão
2017-03-01
We compute the masses of the pseudoscalar mesons π+, K0 and D+ at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. The computations are based on a symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector four quark contact interaction. The results found for the temperature dependence of the meson masses are in qualitative agreement with lattice QCD data and QCD sum rules calculations. The chemical potential dependence of the masses provide a novel prediction of the present computation.
Schwinger pair production at finite temperature in QED
Kim, Sang Pyo; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Yoon, Yongsung
2009-02-15
We use the evolution operator method to find the Schwinger pair-production rate at finite temperature in scalar and spinor QED by counting the vacuum production, the induced production, and the stimulated annihilation from the initial ensemble. It is shown that the pair-production rate for each state is factorized into the mean number at zero temperature and the initial thermal distribution for bosons and fermions.
Surface temperatures in sliding systems - A finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, F. E., Jr.
1980-01-01
Finite element equations are developed for studying surface temperatures resulting from frictional heating in sliding systems. The equations include the effect of velocity of moving components, an effect which is found to be quite significant, even at low sliding velocities. A program was written using the equations and it was applied to the study of surface temperatures in two different sliding systems: dry or boundary lubricated sleeve bearings and a labyrinth gas path seal configuration. Very good agreement was achieved between analytical predictions using the program and experimental temperature measurements. The program was used to study the influence of various material parameters on surface temperatures in the two sliding systems.
Equation of state for QCD at finite temperature and density. Resummation versus lattice data
Andersen, Jens O.; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Su, Nan
2016-01-22
The perturbative series for finite-temperature field theories has very poor convergence properties and one needs a way to reorganize it. In this talk, I review two ways of reorganizing the perturbative series for field theories at finite temperature and chemical potential, namely hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) and dimensional reduction (DR). I will present results for the pressure, trace anomaly, speed of sound, and the quark susceptibilities from a 3-loop HTLpt calculation and for the quark susceptibilities using DR at four loops. A careful comparison with available lattice data shows good agreement for a number of physical quantities.
Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Hong; Yao, Minjie; Zhao, Wei-Qin
2008-06-01
The Friedberg-Lee model is studied at finite temperature and density. By using the finite temperature field theory, the effective potential of the Friedberg-Lee model and the bag constant B(T) and B(T,μ) have been calculated at different temperatures and densities. It is shown that there is a critical temperature TC≃106.6 MeV when μ=0 MeV and a critical chemical potential μ≃223.1 MeV for fixing the temperature at T=50 MeV. We also calculate the soliton solutions of the Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density. It turns out that when T⩽TC (or μ⩽μC), there is a bag constant B(T) [or B(T,μ)] and the soliton solutions are stable. However, when T>TC (or μ>μC) the bag constant B(T)=0 MeV [or B(T,μ)=0 MeV] and there is no soliton solution anymore, therefore, the confinement of quarks disappears quickly.
A truncated quasiharmonic method for free energy calculations and finite-temperature applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yan Yu; Chen, Chuin Shan
2012-12-01
Harmonic-based finite-temperature calculation methods play an important role in the study of thermodynamic properties of materials. In this study, we propose a truncated quasiharmonic (TQH) method to approximate the Helmholtz free energy by truncating the high-order terms of finite-temperature vibrational energy. To evaluate the efficacy of the TQH method against other established finite-temperature methods, i.e. the quasiharmonic (QH), the modified local harmonic (MLH) and the local quasiharmonic (LQH) methods, analysis of a homogeneous and vacancy-containing atomic system is performed with each method and compared. We found that the TQH method provides improved accuracy over the MLH and LQH methods for a system containing defects while requiring less computational time than the QH method to achieve convergence.
A note on the pulay force at finite temperatures
Niklasson, Anders M N
2008-01-01
Pulay's original expression for the basis-set dependent adjustment term to the Hellmann-Feynman force in electronic structure theory, which occurs for nonorthogonal local basis-set representations, is based on the idempotency condition of a pure ensemble. At finite electronic temperatures with a fractional occupation of the states, the conventional expression of the Pulay force is therefore no longer valid. Here we derive a simple and computationally efficient expression for a generalized Pulay force, which is suitable for large-scale ab initio simulations at finite electronic temperatures using local nonorthogonal basis-set representations. The generalized Pulay force expression is given in terms of the temperature-dependent density matrix. For the construction of the density matrix, we propose a recursive Fermi operator expansion algorithm that automatically converges to the correct chemical potential.
Phase transition in finite density and temperature lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Bo
2015-06-01
We investigate the behavior of the chiral condensate in lattice QCD at finite temperature and finite chemical potential. The study was done using two flavors of light quarks and with a series of β and ma at the lattice size 24 × 122 × 6. The calculation was done in the Taylor expansion formalism. We are able to calculate the first and second order derivatives of ≤ft< {\\bar{\\psi} \\psi } \\right> in both isoscalar and isovector channels. With the first derivatives being small, we find that the second derivatives are sizable close to the phase transition and that the magnitude of \\bar{\\psi} \\psi decreases under the influence of finite chemical potential in both channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335001, 11105153, 11405178), Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges NSFC (11261130311)
Huge Casimir effect at finite temperature in electromagnetic Rindler space.
Zhao, Tian-Ming; Miao, Rong-Xin
2011-12-01
We investigate the Casimir effect at a finite temperature in the electromagnetic Rindler space, and we find that the Casimir energy is proportional to T(4)/d(2) in the high-temperature limit, where T ≈ 27 °C is the temperature and d ≈ 100 nm is a small cutoff. We propose to make metamaterials to mimic the Rindler space and measure the predicted Casimir effect. Because the parameters of metamaterials we proposed are quite simple, this experiment would be easily implemented in the laboratory. © 2011 Optical Society of America
B to D(D*)e{nu}{sub e} transitions at finite temperature in QCD
Azizi, K.; Er, N.
2010-05-01
In this article, we work out the properties of the B, D, and D* mesons as well as the B{yields}D(D*)e{nu}{sub e} decay properties at finite temperature QCD. The behavior of the masses, decay constants and widths of the B, D, and D* mesons in terms of the temperature is studied. The temperature dependency of the form factors responsible for such decays are also obtained. These temperature-dependent form factors are used to investigate the variation of the branching ratios with respect to the temperature. It is shown that the branching ratios do not change up to T/T{sub c}=0.3, however they start to diminish with increasing the temperature after this region and vanish at the critical or deconfinement temperature.
Ab Initio Finite-Temperature Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Formamide.
Besley, Nicholas A; Doltsinis, Nikos L
2006-11-01
A combination of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CP-MD) and high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations has been used to calculate the electronic absorption spectrum of formamide at finite temperatures. Thermally broadened spectra have been obtained by averaging over a large number of single-point multireference configuration interaction excitation energies calculated for geometries sampled from a CP-MD simulation. Electronic excitation spectra of possible contaminants ammonia and formamidic acid have also been computed. Ammonia exhibits a strong peak in the shoulder region of the experimental formamide spectrum at 6.5 eV, and formamidic acid has a strong absorption above 7.5 eV. The calculations reproduce the shape of the experimental absorption spectrum, in particular, the low-energy shoulder of the main peak, and demonstrate how finite-temperature electronic absorption spectra can be computed from first principles.
Spin-polarised band theory at finite temperatures
Gyorffy, B.L.; Kollar, J.; Pindor, A.J.; Staunton, J.; Stocks, G.M.; Winter, H.
1983-01-01
Starting from a Spin-Density functional description of electrons in a potentially ferromagnetic metal and the notion of temporarily broken ergodicity, a method is derived for performing finite temperature spin-polarized band theory with random local moment orientations. Formally, it is based on the KKR-CPA theory for randomly distributed spin-polarized scattering centers on a regular lattice. It is shown how the theory can lead to finite moments above the transition temperature, T/sub c/, and a Curie-Weiss law. We discuss the results of self-consistent spin-polarized KKR-CPA calculations in the disordered local moment (DLM) state for Fe, Co, Ni, and Cr.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, C. C.
1990-01-01
A finite-element formulation is developed for the free vibration of rectangular plates which are under the influence of moderately large stress-free initial deflections and large thermal deflections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used to account for the thermal deflections. The plates are thin, isotropic, and Hookean in nature. The temperature imposed on the plate is assumed to be constant through the thickness of the plate. Uniform and sinusoidal temperature distributions are studied. The material properties of the plates are temperature-dependent due to the relatively high temperatures imposed on the plates.
Zhao, Junhua; Yang, Zhaoyao; Wei, Ning; Kou, Liangzhi
2016-01-01
Two dimensional (2D) gamma-boron (γ-B28) thin films have been firstly reported by the experiments of the chemical vapor deposition in the latest study. However, their mechanical properties are still not clear. Here we predict the superhigh moduli (785 ± 42 GPa at 300 K) and the tension-induced phase transition of monolayer γ-B28 along a zigzag direction for large deformations at finite temperatures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The new phase can be kept stable after unloading process at these temperatures. The predicted mechanical properties are reasonable when compared with our results from density functional theory. This study provides physical insights into the origins of the new phase transition of monolayer γ-B28 at finite temperatures. PMID:26979283
Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent
2015-03-01
We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.
On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-05-01
In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 1018 GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M t ≳ 173 .6 GeV, with M h ≃ 125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.
QCD nature of dark energy at finite temperature: Cosmological implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizi, K.; Katırcı, N.
2016-05-01
The Veneziano ghost field has been proposed as an alternative source of dark energy, whose energy density is consistent with the cosmological observations. In this model, the energy density of the QCD ghost field is expressed in terms of QCD degrees of freedom at zero temperature. We extend this model to finite temperature to search the model predictions from late time to early universe. We depict the variations of QCD parameters entering the calculations, dark energy density, equation of state, Hubble and deceleration parameters on temperature from zero to a critical temperature. We compare our results with the observations and theoretical predictions existing at different eras. It is found that this model safely defines the universe from quark condensation up to now and its predictions are not in tension with those of the standard cosmology. The EoS parameter of dark energy is dynamical and evolves from -1/3 in the presence of radiation to -1 at late time. The finite temperature ghost dark energy predictions on the Hubble parameter well fit to those of Λ CDM and observations at late time.
Occupation number and fluctuations in the finite-temperature Bose-Hubbard model
Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.
2004-07-01
We study the occupation numbers and number fluctuations of ultracold atoms in deep optical lattices for finite-temperatures within the Bose-Hubbard model. Simple analytical expressions for the mean occupation number and number fluctuations are obtained in the weak-hopping regime using an interpolation between results from different perturbation approaches in the Mott-insulator and superfluid phases. With this approach the magnitude of number fluctuations under a wide range of experimental conditions can be estimated and the properties of the finite-temperature phase diagram can be studied. These analytical results are compared to exact one-dimensional numerical calculations using a finite temperature variant of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and found to have a high degree of accuracy. We find very good agreement, also in the crossover 'thermal' region. We also analyze the influence of finite temperature on the behavior of the system in the vicinity of the zero-temperature phase transition, in one, two, and three dimensions.
Finite-temperature phase transitions in the ionic Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Aaram J.; Choi, M. Y.; Jeon, Gun Sang
2014-04-01
We investigate paramagnetic metal-insulator transitions in the infinite-dimensional ionic Hubbard model at finite temperatures. By means of the dynamical mean-field theory with an impurity solver of the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, we show that an increase in the interaction strength brings about a crossover from a band insulating phase to a metallic one, followed by a first-order transition to a Mott insulating phase. The first-order transition turns into a crossover above a certain critical temperature, which becomes higher as the staggered lattice potential is increased. Further, analysis of the temperature dependence of the energy density discloses that the intermediate metallic phase is a Fermi liquid. It is also found that the metallic phase is stable against strong staggered potentials even at very low temperatures.
Quantum coherence of spin-boson model at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2017-02-01
We investigate the dynamical behavior of quantum coherence in spin-boson model, which consists of a qubit coupled to a finite-temperature bosonic bath with power-law spectral density beyond rotating wave approximation, by employing l1-norm as well as quantum relative entropy. It is shown that the temperature of bosonic bath and counter-rotating terms significantly affect the decoherence rate in sub-Ohmic, Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths. At high temperature, we find the counter-rotating terms of spin-boson model are able to increase the decoherence rate for sub-Ohmic baths, however, for Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths, the counter-rotating terms tend to decrease the value of decoherence rate. At low temperature, we find the counter-rotating terms always play a positive role in preserving the qubit's quantum coherence regardless of sub-Ohmic, Ohmic and super-Ohmic baths.
Chaotic dynamics of a magnetic particle at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez, O. J.; Laroze, D.; Martínez-Mardones, J.; Altbir, D.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.
2017-01-01
In this work, we study nonlinear aspects of the deterministic spin dynamics of an anisotropic single-domain magnetic particle at finite temperature modeled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The magnetic field has two components: a constant term and a term involving a harmonic time modulation. The dynamical behavior of the system is characterized with the Lyapunov exponents and by means of bifurcation diagrams and Fourier spectra. In particular, we explore the effects of the magnitude and frequency of the applied magnetic field, finding that the system presents multiple transitions between regular and chaotic states when varying the control parameters. We also address the temperature dependence and evidence that it plays an important role in these transitions, almost suppressing the chaotic behavior close to the Curie temperature. Finally, we find that the system has hyperchaotic states for specific values of field and temperature.
Finite-temperature mechanical instability in disordered lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Leyou; Mao, Xiaoming
2016-02-01
Mechanical instability takes different forms in various ordered and disordered systems and little is known about how thermal fluctuations affect different classes of mechanical instabilities. We develop an analytic theory involving renormalization of rigidity and coherent potential approximation that can be used to understand finite-temperature mechanical stabilities in various disordered systems. We use this theory to study two disordered lattices: a randomly diluted triangular lattice and a randomly braced square lattice. These two lattices belong to two different universality classes as they approach mechanical instability at T =0 . We show that thermal fluctuations stabilize both lattices. In particular, the triangular lattice displays a critical regime in which the shear modulus scales as G ˜T1 /2 , whereas the square lattice shows G ˜T2 /3 . We discuss generic scaling laws for finite-T mechanical instabilities and relate them to experimental systems.
Finite-temperature spin polarization in half-metallic ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowben, P. A.; Skomski, R.
2003-05-01
The temperature dependence of the spin polarization of half-metallic ferromagnets is investigated. A unitary spinor transformation shows that the corresponding spin mixing goes beyond finite-temperature smearing of the Fermi level, leading to a nonzero density of states in the gap of the insulating spin channel. As a consequence, the resistance ratio of the two spin channels changes from infinity to some finite value and, in a strict sense, half-metallic ferromagnetism is limited to zero temperature. Bloch-type spin waves and crystal imperfections contribute to the density of states in the gap but only partly explain the pronounced changes at about 0.2TC observed in various half-metallic magnets. In the case of NiMnSb, the spin structure depends on a nearly dispersionless transverse optical mode that occurs at about 28 meV. In terms of 3kBT, this corresponds to 103 K—very close to the temperature at which there is a dramatic loss in the Ni and Mn magnetization in NiMnSb. Similar modes exist in other potential half-metallic systems.
Finite-temperature screening of U (1) fractons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretko, Michael
2017-09-01
We investigate the finite-temperature screening behavior of three-dimensional U (1 ) spin-liquid phases with fracton excitations. Several features are shared with the conventional U (1 ) spin liquid. The system can exhibit spin-liquid physics over macroscopic length scales at low temperatures, but screening effects eventually lead to a smooth finite-temperature crossover to a trivial phase at sufficiently large distances. However, unlike more conventional U (1 ) spin liquids, we find that complete low-temperature screening of fractons requires not only very large distances, but also very long time scales. At the longest time scales, a charged disturbance (fracton) will acquire a screening cloud of other fractons, resulting in only short-range correlations in the system. At intermediate time scales, on the other hand, a fracton can only be partially screened by a cloud of mobile excitations, leaving weak power-law correlations in the system. Such residual power-law correlations may be a useful diagnostic in an experimental search for U (1 ) fracton phases.
An improved classical mapping method for homogeneous electron gases at finite temperature
Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong
2014-08-14
We introduce a modified classical mapping method to predict the exchange-correlation free energy and the structure of homogeneous electron gases (HEG) at finite temperature. With the classical map temperature parameterized on the basis of the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data for the correlation energy and exact results at high and low temperature limits, the new theoretical procedure greatly improves the classical mapping method for correlating the energetic properties HEG over a broad range of thermodynamic conditions. Improvement can also be identified in predicting the long-range components of the spin-averaged pair correlation functions.
Finite Element Estimation of Meteorite Structural Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, Kenneth Arthur
2015-01-01
The goal of the project titled Asteroid Threat Assessment at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop risk assessment tools. The expertise in atmospheric entry in the Entry Systems and Technology Division is being used to describe the complex physics of meteor breakup in the atmosphere. The breakup of a meteor is dependent on its structural properties, including homogeneity of the material. The present work describes an 11-week effort in which a literature survey was carried for structural properties of meteoritic material. In addition, the effect of scale on homogeneity isotropy was studied using a Monte Carlo approach in Nastran. The properties were then in a static structural response simulation of an irregularly-shape meteor (138-scale version of Asteroid Itokawa). Finally, an early plan was developed for doctoral research work at Georgia Tech. in the structural failure fragmentation of meteors.
Sideband Rabi spectroscopy of finite-temperature trapped Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Schmied, Roman; Treutlein, Philipp
2016-04-01
We use Rabi spectroscopy to explore the low-energy excitation spectrum of a finite-temperature Bose gas of rubidium atoms across the phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). To record this spectrum, we coherently drive the atomic population between two spin states. A small relative displacement of the spin-specific trapping potentials enables sideband transitions between different motional states. The intrinsic nonlinearity of the motional spectrum, mainly originating from two-body interactions, makes it possible to resolve and address individual excitation lines. Together with sensitive atom counting, this constitutes a feasible technique to count single excited atoms of a BEC and to determine the temperature of nearly pure condensates. As an example, we show that for a nearly pure BEC of N =800 atoms the first excited state has a population of less than five atoms, corresponding to an upper bound on the temperature of 30 nK .
Analysis of temperature rise for piezoelectric transformer using finite-element method.
Joo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Jong-Seok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo
2006-08-01
Analysis of heat problem and temperature field of a piezoelectric transformer, operated at steady-state conditions, is described. The resonance frequency of the transformer is calculated from impedance and electrical gain analysis using a finite-element method. Mechanical displacement and electric potential of the transformer at the calculated resonance frequency are used to calculate the loss distribution of the transformer. Temperature distribution using discretized heat transfer equation is calculated from the obtained losses of the transformer. Properties of the piezoelectric material, dependent on the temperature field, are measured to recalculate the losses, temperature distribution, and new resonance characteristics of the transformer. Iterative method is adopted to recalculate the losses and resonance frequency due to the changes of the material constants from temperature increase. Computed temperature distributions and new resonance characteristics of the transformer at steady-state temperature are verified by comparison with experimental results.
Engineering autonomous error correction in stabilizer codes at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, C. Daniel; Herdman, C. M.; Whaley, K. B.
2017-07-01
We present an error-correcting protocol that enhances the lifetime of stabilizer code-based qubits which are susceptible to the creation of pairs of localized defects (due to stringlike error operators) at finite temperature, such as the toric code. The primary tool employed is periodic application of a local, unitary operator, which exchanges defects and thereby translates localized excitations. Crucially, the protocol does not require any measurements of stabilizer operators and therefore can be used to enhance the lifetime of a qubit in the absence of such experimental resources.
Achieving sub-shot-noise sensing at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehboudi, Mohammad; Correa, Luis A.; Sanpera, Anna
2016-10-01
We investigate sensing of magnetic fields using quantum spin chains at finite temperature and exploit quantum phase crossovers to improve metrological bounds on the estimation of the chain parameters. In particular, we start by analyzing the X X spin chain. The magnetic sensitivity of this system is dictated by its magnetic susceptibility, which scales extensively (linearly) in the number of spins N . We introduce an iterative feed-forward protocol that actively exploits features of quantum phase crossovers to enable superextensive scaling of the magnetic sensitivity. Furthermore, we provide experimentally realistic observables to saturate the quantum metrological bounds. Finally, we extend our analysis on magnetic sensing to the Heisenberg X Y spin chain.
Nonlocal microscopic theory of Casimir forces at finite temperature
Despoja, V.; Marusic, L.
2011-04-15
The interaction energy between two metallic slabs in the retarded limit at finite temperature is expressed in terms of surface polariton propagators for separate slabs, avoiding the usual matching procedure, with both diamagnetic and paramagnetic excitations included correctly. This enables appropriate treatment of arbitrary electron density profiles and fully nonlocal electronic response, including both collective and single-particle excitations. The results are verified by performing the nonretarded and long-wavelength (local) limits and showing that they reduce to the previously obtained expressions. Possibilities for practical use of the theory are explored by applying it to calculation of various contributions to the Casimir energy between two silver slabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.
1989-01-01
The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.
Prediction of the bulk temperature in spur gears based on finite element temperature analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patir, N.; Cheng, H. S.
1977-01-01
The temperature distribution in spur gears operating in a state of thermal equilibrium is solved by using a finite element method. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on bulk temperature are shown. A table is provided which can be used to predict the bulk temperature on gear teeth, once the heat transfer coefficients and frictional heat input is estimated. Theoretical results for estimating heat transfer coefficients and frictional heat are also summarized.
Macroscopic quantum entanglement of a Kondo cloud at finite temperature.
Lee, S-S B; Park, Jinhong; Sim, H-S
2015-02-06
We propose a variational approach for computing the macroscopic entanglement in a many-body mixed state, based on entanglement witness operators, and compute the entanglement of formation (EoF), a mixed-state generalization of the entanglement entropy, in single- and two-channel Kondo systems at finite temperature. The thermal suppression of the EoF obeys power-law scaling at low temperature. The scaling exponent is halved from the single- to the two-channel system, which is attributed, using a bosonization method, to the non-Fermi liquid behavior of a Majorana fermion, a "half" of a complex fermion, emerging in the two-channel system. Moreover, the EoF characterizes the size and power-law tail of the Kondo screening cloud of the single-channel system.
Topological order, entanglement, and quantum memory at finite temperature
Mazac, Dalimil Hamma, Alioscia
2012-09-15
We compute the topological entropy of the toric code models in arbitrary dimension at finite temperature. We find that the critical temperatures for the existence of full quantum (classical) topological entropy correspond to the confinement-deconfinement transitions in the corresponding Z{sub 2} gauge theories. This implies that the thermal stability of topological entropy corresponds to the stability of quantum (classical) memory. The implications for the understanding of ergodicity breaking in topological phases are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculate the topological entropy of a general toric code in any dimension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find phase transitions in the topological entropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transitions coincide with the appearance of quantum/classical memory.
Finite-temperature vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates
Jackson, B.; Proukakis, N. P.; Barenghi, C. F.; Zaremba, E.
2009-05-15
We study the dynamics of a vortex in an atomic Bose-condensed gas at finite temperature within the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism. In a harmonically trapped pancake-shaped condensate, an off-centered vortex is known to decay by spiraling out toward the edge of the condensate. We quantify the dependence of this decay on temperature, atomic collisions, and thermal cloud rotation. Near the trap center where the density varies slowly, we show that our numerical results agree with the predictions of the Hall-Vinen phenomenological friction force model used to describe quantized vorticity in superfluid systems. Our result thus clarifies the microscopic origin of the friction and provides an ab initio determination of its value.
Baryon number dissipation at finite temperature in the standard model
Mottola, E. ); Raby, S. . Dept. of Physics); Starkman, G. . Dept. of Astronomy)
1990-01-01
We analyze the phenomenon of baryon number violation at finite temperature in the standard model, and derive the relaxation rate for the baryon density in the high temperature electroweak plasma. The relaxation rate, {gamma} is given in terms of real time correlation functions of the operator E{center dot}B, and is directly proportional to the sphaleron transition rate, {Gamma}: {gamma} {preceq} n{sub f}{Gamma}/T{sup 3}. Hence it is not instanton suppressed, as claimed by Cohen, Dugan and Manohar (CDM). We show explicitly how this result is consistent with the methods of CDM, once it is recognized that a new anomalous commutator is required in their approach. 19 refs., 2 figs.
Electronic structure of 3d metals at finite temperatures
Delgadillo, I.; Gollisch, H.; Feder, R.
1996-07-01
A theoretical approach to the electronic structure of crystalline solids at finite temperature has been developed on the basis of the adiabatic approximation. For any given temperature, correlated ion core displacement configurations on large clusters with periodic boundary conditions are determined such that they are consistent with experimental phonon dispersion relations. Total and {ital k}{searrow}-resolved densities of states are obtained by a tight-binding recursion method for each configuration followed by a configurational average. In the case of ferromagnetic crystals, the above treatment is augmented by including the influence of spin fluctuations. The local magnetic moments associated with the atomic sites are assumed to fluctuate subject to an average magnetization and a short-range order specific for the given temperature. The spin-resolved electronic structure for temperatures up to the Curie temperature and beyond can thus be obtained. Numerical calculations are performed on Cu and Ni and the results compared to experimental photoemission data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
A finite-temperature Hartree-Fock code for shell-model Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertsch, G. F.; Mehlhaff, J. M.
2016-10-01
The codes HFgradZ.py and HFgradT.py find axially symmetric minima of a Hartree-Fock energy functional for a Hamiltonian supplied in a shell model basis. The functional to be minimized is the Hartree-Fock energy for zero-temperature properties or the Hartree-Fock grand potential for finite-temperature properties (thermal energy, entropy). The minimization may be subjected to additional constraints besides axial symmetry and nucleon numbers. A single-particle operator can be used to constrain the minimization by adding it to the single-particle Hamiltonian with a Lagrange multiplier. One can also constrain its expectation value in the zero-temperature code. Also the orbital filling can be constrained in the zero-temperature code, fixing the number of nucleons having given Kπ quantum numbers. This is particularly useful to resolve near-degeneracies among distinct minima.
Energy spectra of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 turbulence
Kivotides, Demosthenes
2014-10-15
A mesoscopic model of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 based on coupled Langevin-Navier-Stokes dynamics is proposed. Drawing upon scaling arguments and available numerical results, a numerical method for designing well resolved, mesoscopic calculations of finite temperature superfluid turbulence is developed. The application of model and numerical method to the problem of fully developed turbulence decay in helium II, indicates that the spectral structure of normal-fluid and superfluid turbulence is significantly more complex than that of turbulence in simple-fluids. Analysis based on a forced flow of helium-4 at 1.3 K, where viscous dissipation in the normal-fluid is compensated by the Lundgren force, indicate three scaling regimes in the normal-fluid, that include the inertial, low wavenumber, Kolmogorov k{sup −5/3} regime, a sub-turbulence, low Reynolds number, fluctuating k{sup −2.2} regime, and an intermediate, viscous k{sup −6} range that connects the two. The k{sup −2.2} regime is due to normal-fluid forcing by superfluid vortices at high wavenumbers. There are also three scaling regimes in the superfluid, that include a k{sup −3} range that corresponds to the growth of superfluid vortex instabilities due to mutual-friction action, and an adjacent, low wavenumber, k{sup −5/3} regime that emerges during the termination of this growth, as superfluid vortices agglomerate between intense normal-fluid vorticity regions, and weakly polarized bundles are formed. There is also evidence of a high wavenumber k{sup −1} range that corresponds to the probing of individual-vortex velocity fields. The Kelvin waves cascade (the main dynamical effect in zero temperature superfluids) appears to be damped at the intervortex space scale.
Finite Larmor radius effects on the coupled trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes
Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.
2007-09-15
The properties of the coupled trapped electron and toroidal ion temperature gradient modes are investigated using the standard reactive fluid model and taking rigorously into account the effects attributed to the ion polarization drift and to the drifts associated with the lowest-order finite ion Larmor radius effects. In the flat density regime, where the coupling between the modes is relatively weak, the properties of the unstable modes are slightly modified through these effects. For the peak density regions, where the coupling of the modes is rather strong, these second-order drifts determine the spectra of the unstable modes near the marginal conditions.
Electrostatic attraction of coupled Wigner crystals: finite temperature effects.
Lau, A W; Pincus, P; Levine, D; Fertig, H A
2001-05-01
In this paper we present a unified physical picture for the electrostatic attraction between two coupled planar Wigner crystals at finite temperature. This model may facilitate our conceptual understanding of counterion-mediated attractions between (highly) similarly charged planes. By adopting an elastic theory, we show that the total attractive force between them can be (approximately) decomposed into a short-ranged and a long-ranged component. They are evaluated below the melting temperature of the Wigner crystals. In particular, we analyze the temperature dependence of the short-ranged attraction, arising from ground-state configuration, and we argue that thermal fluctuations may drastically reduce its strength. Also, the long-range force agrees exactly with that based on the charge-fluctuation approach. Furthermore, we take quantum contributions to the long-ranged (fluctuation-induced) attraction into account and show how the fractional power law, which scales as d(-7/2) for large interplanar distance d at zero temperature, crosses over to the classical regime d(-3) via an intermediate regime of d(-2).
Higher-derivative Lorentz-breaking terms in extended QED at the finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celeste, A.; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.
2016-03-01
In this paper we discuss finiteness and ambiguities of the higher-derivative Lorentz-breaking terms in extended QED with a magnetic coupling at the finite temperature. We find that, besides the higher-derivative Carroll-Field-Jackiw-like term and Myers-Pospelov term, many extra terms arise in a finite temperature case but these terms vanish in high temperature limit. Moreover, the contributions for the nonminimal coupling will dominate at large temperatures.
Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punk, Matthias
2016-11-01
We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.
Finite-temperature Dicke phase transition of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuanwei; Lian, Jinling; Liang, J.-Q.; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Jia, Suotang
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate the finite-temperature properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-cavity system with a strong nonlinear atom-photon interaction by means of a functional path-integral approach. It is shown that the experimentally observed phase diagram [Baumann, Guerlin, Brennecke, and Esslinger, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09009 464, 1301 (2010)] can be better explained in our finite-temperature theory. More importantly, we identify a new dynamical unstable phase in this experiment. By tuning various experimental parameters, we reveal some rich temperature-driven phase diagrams and, in particular, predict a four-phase coexistence point. Finally, we find analytically that the specific heat in the superradiant phase increases exponentially at lower temperatures. Moreover, it has a large jump at the temperature-driven critical point where the superradiant-normal phase transition occurs. As a result, we argue that the specific heat can serve as a powerful tool to probe the thermodynamic properties of the BEC-cavity system.
Kinetic model of trapped finite-temperature binary condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmonds, M. J.; Lee, K. L.; Proukakis, N. P.
2015-01-01
We construct a nonequilibrium theory for the dynamics of two interacting finite-temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and use it to numerically estimate the relative rates of the arising collisional processes near equilbrium. The condensates are described by dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equations, coupled to quantum Boltzmann equations for the thermal atoms. The density-density interactions between atoms in different components facilitate a number of transport processes of relevance to sympathetic cooling: in particular, considering realistic miscible and immiscible trapped atomic 87Rb-41K and 87Rb-85Rb condensate mixtures, we highlight the dominance of an intercomponent scattering process associated with collisional "exchange" of condensed and thermal atoms between the components close to equilibrium.
Lattice QCD at finite temperature and density from Taylor expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbrecher, Patrick
2017-01-01
In the first part, I present an overview of recent Lattice QCD simulations at finite temperature and density. In particular, we discuss fluctuations of conserved charges: baryon number, electric charge and strangeness. These can be obtained from Taylor expanding the QCD pressure as a function of corresponding chemical potentials. Our simulations were performed using quark masses corresponding to physical pion mass of about 140 MeV and allow a direct comparison to experimental data from ultra-relativistic heavy ion beams at hadron colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In the second part, we discuss computational challenges for current and future exascale Lattice simulations with a focus on new silicon developments from Intel and NVIDIA.
Exciton-polariton Josephson junctions at finite temperatures.
Lebedev, M E; Dolinina, D A; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Lu, Tien-Chang; Kavokin, A V; Alodjants, A P
2017-08-25
We consider finite temperature effects in a non-standard Bose-Hubbard model for an exciton- polariton Josephson junction (JJ) that is characterised by complicated potential energy landscapes (PEL) consisting of sets of barriers and wells. We show that the transition between thermal activation (classical) and tunneling (quantum) regimes exhibits universal features of the first and second order phase transition (PT) depending on the PEL for two polariton condensates that might be described as transition from the thermal to the quantum annealing regime. In the presence of dissipation the relative phase of two condensates exhibits non-equilibrium PT from the quantum regime characterized by efficient tunneling of polaritons to the regime of permanent Josephson or Rabi oscillations, where the tunneling is suppressed, respectively. This analysis paves the way for the application of coupled polariton condensates for the realisation of a quantum annealing algorithm in presently experimentally accessible semiconductor microcavities possessing high (10(5) and more) Q-factors.
Finite Temperature Deconfining Transition in the BRST Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hata, H.; Taniguchi, Y.
1995-04-01
We present a toy model study of the high temperature deconfining transition in Yang-Mills theory as a breakdown of the confinement condition proposed y Kugo and Ojima. Our toy model is a kind of topological field theory obtained from the Yang-Mills theory by taking the limit of vanishing gauge coupling constant gYM --> 0, and therefore the gauge field Aμ is constrained to the pure-gauge configuration Aμ = g†partialμg. At zero temperature this model has been known to satisfy the confinement condition of Kugo and Ojima which requires the absence of the massless Nambu-Goldstone-like mode coupled to the BRST-exact color current. In the finite temperature case based on the real-time formalism, our model in 3 + 1 dimensions is reduced, by the Parisi-Sourlas mechanism, the the ``sum'' of chiral models in 1 + 1 dimensions with various boundary conditions of the group element g(t, x) at the ends of the time contour. We analyze the effective potential of the SU(2) model and find that the deconfining transition in fact occurs due to the contribution of the sectors with non-periodic boundary conditions.
Separation of finite electron temperature effect on plasma polarimetry.
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Kusama, Yoshinori
2012-12-01
This study demonstrates the separation of the finite electron temperature on the plasma polarimetry in the magnetic confined fusion plasma for the first time. Approximate solutions of the transformed Stokes equation, including the relativistic effect, suggest that the orientation angle, θ, and ellipticity angle, ε, of polarization state have different dependency on the electron density, n(e), and the electron temperature, T(e), and that the separation of n(e) and T(e) from θ and ε is possible in principle. We carry out the equilibrium and kinetic reconstruction of tokamak plasma when the central electron density was 10(20) m(-3), and the central electron temperatures were 5, 10, 20, and 30 keV. For both cases when a total plasma current, I(p), is known and when I(p) is unknown, the profiles of plasma current density, j(φ), n(e), and T(e) are successfully reconstructed. The reconstruction of j(φ) without the information of I(p) indicates the new method of I(p) measurement applicable to steady state operation of tokamak.
Separation of finite electron temperature effect on plasma polarimetry
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Kusama, Yoshinori
2012-12-15
This study demonstrates the separation of the finite electron temperature on the plasma polarimetry in the magnetic confined fusion plasma for the first time. Approximate solutions of the transformed Stokes equation, including the relativistic effect, suggest that the orientation angle, {theta}, and ellipticity angle, {epsilon}, of polarization state have different dependency on the electron density, n{sub e}, and the electron temperature, T{sub e}, and that the separation of n{sub e} and T{sub e} from {theta} and {epsilon} is possible in principle. We carry out the equilibrium and kinetic reconstruction of tokamak plasma when the central electron density was 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, and the central electron temperatures were 5, 10, 20, and 30 keV. For both cases when a total plasma current, I{sub p}, is known and when I{sub p} is unknown, the profiles of plasma current density, j{sub {phi}}, n{sub e}, and T{sub e} are successfully reconstructed. The reconstruction of j{sub {phi}} without the information of I{sub p} indicates the new method of I{sub p} measurement applicable to steady state operation of tokamak.
Containerless high temperature property measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.
1991-01-01
Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myoung, Nojoon; Lidorikis, Elefterios
2015-12-01
The electronic and transport properties of graphene modulated by magnetic barrier arrays are derived at finite temperatures. Prominent conductance gaps, originating from quantum interference effects are found in the periodic array case. When a structural defect is inserted in the array, sharp defect modes of high conductance appear within the conductance gaps. These modes are shifted by local doping in the defect region, resulting in large contrast in the ballistic conductance of graphene sheet. In general it is found that sensitivity is strongly dependent on temperature due to smoothing out of the defect-induced peaks and transport gaps. This temperature dependence, however, offers the added capability for sub-mK temperature sensing resolution, and thus an opportunity towards ultra-sensitive combined electrochemical-calorimetric sensing.
Stretching helical nano-springs at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, H.; Netz, R. R.
2007-03-01
Using dynamic simulations and analytic methods, we study the elastic response of a helical filament subject to uniaxial tension over a wide range of bend and twist persistence length. A low-pitch helix at low temperatures exhibits a stretching instability and the force-extension curve consists of a sequence of spikes. At elevated temperature (i.e. small persistence lengths) the helix melts and a pronounced force plateau is obtained in the fixed-extension ensemble. The torque boundary condition significantly affects the resulting elastic properties.
PHD TUTORIAL: Finite-temperature models of Bose Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proukakis, Nick P.; Jackson, Brian
2008-10-01
The theoretical description of trapped weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is characterized by a large number of seemingly very different approaches which have been developed over the course of time by researchers with very distinct backgrounds. Newcomers to this field, experimentalists and young researchers all face a considerable challenge in navigating through the 'maze' of abundant theoretical models, and simple correspondences between existing approaches are not always very transparent. This tutorial provides a generic introduction to such theories, in an attempt to single out common features and deficiencies of certain 'classes of approaches' identified by their physical content, rather than their particular mathematical implementation. This tutorial is structured in a manner accessible to a non-specialist with a good working knowledge of quantum mechanics. Although some familiarity with concepts of quantum field theory would be an advantage, key notions, such as the occupation number representation of second quantization, are nonetheless briefly reviewed. Following a general introduction, the complexity of models is gradually built up, starting from the basic zero-temperature formalism of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This structure enables readers to probe different levels of theoretical developments (mean field, number conserving and stochastic) according to their particular needs. In addition to its 'training element', we hope that this tutorial will prove useful to active researchers in this field, both in terms of the correspondences made between different theoretical models, and as a source of reference for existing and developing finite-temperature theoretical models.
Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.
2014-01-01
We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.
Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains.
Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A
2014-01-01
We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, M. O. C.; de Passos, E. J. V.
2017-02-01
We develop the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory at finite temperature for Bose gas trapped in the two-dimensional optical lattice with the on-site energy low enough that the gas presents superfluid properties. We obtain the condensate density as function of the temperature neglecting the anomalous density in the thermodynamics equation. The condensate fraction provides two critical temperature. Below the temperature T_{C1}, there is one condensate fraction. Above two condensate fractions merger up to the critical temperature T_{C2}. At temperatures larger than T_{C2}, the condensate fraction is null and, therefore, the gas is normal fluid. We resume by a finite-temperature phase diagram where three domains can be identified: the normal fluid, the superfluid with one stable condensate fraction and the superfluid with two condensate fractions being unstable one of them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aguirre-Ramirez, G.; Oden, J. T.
1969-01-01
Finite element method applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, using nonlinear constitutive equation for heat ABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGH
(Pseudo)scalar charmonium in finite temperature QCD
Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.; Zhang, Y.
2011-02-01
The hadronic parameters of pseudoscalar ({eta}{sub c}) and scalar ({chi}{sub c}) charmonium are determined at finite temperature from Hilbert moment QCD sum rules. These parameters are the hadron mass, leptonic decay constant, total width, and continuum threshold (s{sub 0}). Results for s{sub 0}(T) in both channels indicate that s{sub 0}(T) starts approximately constant, and then it decreases monotonically with increasing T until it reaches the QCD threshold, s{sub th}=4m{sub Q}{sup 2}, at a critical temperature T=T{sub c{approx_equal}}180 MeV interpreted as the deconfinement temperature. The other hadronic parameters behave qualitatively similarly to those of the J/{psi}, as determined in this same framework. The hadron mass is essentially constant, the total width is initially independent of T, and after T/T{sub c{approx_equal}}0.80 it begins to increase with increasing T up to T/T{sub c{approx_equal}}0.90(0.95) for {chi}{sub c} ({eta}{sub c}), and subsequently it decreases sharply up to T{approx_equal}0.94(0.99)T{sub c}, for {chi}{sub c} ({eta}{sub c}), beyond which the sum rules are no longer valid. The decay constant of {chi}{sub c} at first remains basically flat up to T{approx_equal}0.80T{sub c}, then it starts to decrease up to T{approx_equal}0.90T{sub c}, and finally it increases sharply with increasing T. In the case of {eta}{sub c} the decay constant does not change up to T{approx_equal}0.80T{sub c} where it begins a gentle increase up to T{approx_equal}0.95T{sub c} beyond which it increases dramatically with increasing T. This behavior contrasts with that of light-light and heavy-light quark systems, and it suggests the survival of the {eta}{sub c} and the {chi}{sub c} states beyond the critical temperature, as already found for the J/{psi} from similar QCD sum rules. These conclusions are very stable against changes in the critical temperature in the wide range T{sub c}=180-260 MeV.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caruso, J. J.; Trowbridge, D.; Chamis, C. C.
1989-01-01
The mechanics of materials approach (definition of E, G, Nu, and Alpha) and the finite element method are used to explore the effects of partial bonding and fiber fracture on the behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites. Composite ply properties are calculated for various degrees of disbonding to evaluate the sensitivity of these properties to the presence of fiber/matrix disbonding and fiber fracture. The mechanics of materials approach allows for the determination of the basic ply material properties needed for design/analysis of composites. The finite element method provides the necessary structural response (forces and displacements) for the mechanics of materials equations. Results show that disbonding of fractured fibers affect only E sub (111) and alpha sub (111) significantly.
(H2O)20 Water Clusters at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkkinen, P.; Riikonen, S.; Halonen, L.
2013-10-01
We have performed an exhaustive study of energetics of (H2O)20 clusters. Our goal is to study the role that various free-energy terms play in this popular model system and see their effects on the distribution of the (H2O)20 clusters and in the infrared spectrum at finite temperatures. In more detail, we have studied the electronic ground-state structure energy and its long-range correlation (dispersion) part, vibrational zero-point corrections, vibrational entropy, and proton configurational entropy. Our results indicate a delicate competition between the energy terms; polyhedral water clusters are destabilized by dispersion interaction, while vibrational terms (zero-point and entropic) together with proton disorder entropy favor them against compact structural motifs, such as the pentagonal edge- or face-sharing prisms. Apart from small water clusters, our results can be used to understand the influence of these energy terms in water/ice systems in general. We have also developed energy expressions as a function of both earlier proposed and novel hydrogen-bond connectivity parameters for prismatic water clusters.
Feynman parametrization and Mellin summation at finite temperature
Ayala, Alejandro; Piccinelli, Gabriella; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena
2008-11-01
We show that the Mellin summation technique (MST) is a well-defined and useful tool to compute loop integrals at finite temperature in the imaginary-time formulation of thermal field theory, especially when interested in the infrared limit of such integrals. The method makes use of the Feynman parametrization which has been claimed to have problems when the analytical continuation from discrete to arbitrary complex values of the Matsubara frequency is performed. We show that without the use of the MST, such problems are not intrinsic to the Feynman parametrization but instead, they arise as a result of (a) not implementing the periodicity brought about by the possible values taken by the discrete Matsubara frequencies before the analytical continuation is made and (b) to the changing of the original domain of the Feynman parameter integration, which seemingly simplifies the expression but in practice introduces a spurious end point singularity. Using the MST, there are no problems related to the implementation of the periodicity but instead, care has to be taken when the sum of denominators of the original amplitude vanishes. We apply the method to the computation of loop integrals appearing when the effects of external weak magnetic fields on the propagation of scalar particles is considered.
Equation of State of Structured Matter at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, T.; Yasutake, N.; Tatsumi, T.
We investigate the properties of nuclear matter at the first-order phase transitions such as liquid-gas phase transition and hadron-quark phase transition. As a general feature of the first-order phase transitions of matter consisting of many species of charged particles, there appears a mixed phases with geometrical structures called ``pasta'' due to the balance of the Coulomb repulsion and the surface tension between two phases [G.~D.~Ravenhall, C.~J.~Pethick and J.~R.~Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 (1983), 2066. M.~Hashimoto, H.~Seki and M.~Yamada, Prog. Theor. Phys. 71 (1984), 320.] The equation of state (EOS) of mixed phase is different from the one obtained by a bulk application of the Gibbs conditions or by the Maxwell construction due to the effects of the non-uniform structure. We show that the charge screening and strong surface tension make the EOS close to that of the Maxwell construction. The thermal effects are elucidated as well as the above finite-size effects.
Finite temperature spin-dynamics and phase transitions in spin-orbital models
Chen, C.-C.
2010-04-29
We study finite temperature properties of a generic spin-orbital model relevant to transition metal compounds, having coupled quantum Heisenberg-spin and Ising-orbital degrees of freedom. The model system undergoes a phase transition, consistent with that of a 2D Ising model, to an orbitally ordered state at a temperature set by short-range magnetic order. At low temperatures the orbital degrees of freedom freeze-out and the model maps onto a quantum Heisenberg model. The onset of orbital excitations causes a rapid scrambling of the spin spectral weight away from coherent spin-waves, which leads to a sharp increase in uniform magnetic susceptibility just below the phase transition, reminiscent of the observed behavior in the Fe-pnictide materials.
An atomistic J-integral at finite temperature based on Hardy estimates of continuum fields.
Jones, R E; Zimmerman, J A; Oswald, J; Belytschko, T
2011-01-12
In this work we apply a material-frame, kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data in order to estimate the J-integral for the analysis of an atomically sharp crack at finite temperatures. Instead of the potential energy appropriate for zero temperature calculations, we employ the quasi-harmonic free energy as an estimator of the Helmholtz free energy required by the Eshelby stress in isothermal conditions. We employ the simplest of the quasi-harmonic models, the local harmonic model of LeSar and co-workers, and verify that it is adequate for correction of the zero temperature J-integral expression for various deformation states for our Lennard-Jones test material. We show that this method has the properties of: consistency among the energy, stress and deformation fields; path independence of the contour integrals of the Eshelby stress; and excellent correlation with linear elastic fracture mechanics theory.
An atomistic J-integral at finite temperature based on Hardy estimates of continuum fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, R. E.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Oswald, J.; Belytschko, T.
2011-01-01
In this work we apply a material-frame, kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data in order to estimate the J-integral for the analysis of an atomically sharp crack at finite temperatures. Instead of the potential energy appropriate for zero temperature calculations, we employ the quasi-harmonic free energy as an estimator of the Helmholtz free energy required by the Eshelby stress in isothermal conditions. We employ the simplest of the quasi-harmonic models, the local harmonic model of LeSar and co-workers, and verify that it is adequate for correction of the zero temperature J-integral expression for various deformation states for our Lennard-Jones test material. We show that this method has the properties of: consistency among the energy, stress and deformation fields; path independence of the contour integrals of the Eshelby stress; and excellent correlation with linear elastic fracture mechanics theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schunck, N.; Duke, D.; Carr, H.
2015-03-01
Understanding the mechanisms of induced nuclear fission for a broad range of neutron energies could help resolve fundamental science issues, such as the formation of elements in the universe, but could have also a large impact on societal applications in energy production or nuclear waste management. The goal of this paper is to set up the foundations of a microscopic theory to study the static aspects of induced fission as a function of the excitation energy of the incident neutron, from thermal to fast neutrons. To account for the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus, we employ a statistical approach based on finite temperature nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities, which we benchmark on the 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction. We compute the evolution of the least-energy fission pathway across multidimensional potential energy surfaces with up to five collective variables as a function of the nuclear temperature and predict the evolution of both the inner and the outer fission barriers as a function of the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. We show that the coupling to the continuum induced by the finite temperature is negligible in the range of neutron energies relevant for many applications of neutron-induced fission. We prove that the concept of quantum localization introduced recently can be extended to T >0 , and we apply the method to study the interaction energy and total kinetic energy of fission fragments as a function of the temperature for the most probable fission. While large uncertainties in theoretical modeling remain, we conclude that a finite temperature nuclear density functional may provide a useful framework to obtain accurate predictions of fission fragment properties.
Temperature Dependent Frictional Properties of Crustal Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Erica Kate
In this dissertation, I study the effects of temperature on frictional properties of crustal rocks at conditions relevant to earthquake nucleation. I explore how temperature affects fault healing after an earthquake. I present results from slide-hold-slide experiments on Westerly granite that show that frictional healing rate increases slightly and shear strength increases with temperature. Based on our results, if the effects of temperature are neglected, fault strength could be under-predicted by as much as 10 percent. I use finite element numerical experiments to show that our frictional healing data can be explained by increases in contact area between viscoelastic rough surfaces. I investigate the influence of temperature on the transition from seismogenic slip to aseismic creep with depth in continental crust. I present results from velocity-stepping and constant load-point velocity experiments on Westerly granite conducted at a wide range of temperatures. I construct a numerical model incorporating the rate-state friction equations to estimate the values of (a-b) that provide the best fit to the stick-slip data. I find that sliding becomes more unstable ((a-b) < 0) with temperature up to the maximum temperature tested, 600 ºC. This contradicts a traditional view that the deep limit to seismicity in continental upper crust is caused by a transition to stable creep ((a-b) > 0) in granite at temperatures above ˜350 ºC. These results may help explain the occurrence of anomalously deep earthquakes found in areas of active extension and convergence. I explore the frictional properties of gabbro at conditions corresponding to slow slip events in subduction zones. I present results from experiments on gabbro conducted at low effective normal stress and temperatures between 20-600 ºC. I find that (a-b) decreases with temperature based on direct measurements and numerical modeling. I conclude that the occurrence of slow slip events at the base of the seismogenic
Noninteracting fermions at finite temperature in a d -dimensional trap: Universal correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dean, David S.; Le Doussal, Pierre; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2016-12-01
We study a system of N noninteracting spinless fermions trapped in a confining potential, in arbitrary dimensions d and arbitrary temperature T . The presence of the confining trap breaks the translational invariance and introduces an edge where the average density of fermions vanishes. Far from the edge, near the center of the trap (the so-called "bulk regime"), where the fermions do not feel the curvature of the trap, physical properties of the fermions have traditionally been understood using the local density (or Thomas-Fermi) approximation. However, these approximations drastically fail near the edge where the density vanishes and thermal and quantum fluctuations are thus enhanced. The main goal of this paper is to show that, even near the edge, novel universal properties emerge, independently of the details of the shape of the confining potential. We present a unified framework to investigate both the bulk and the edge properties of the fermions. We show that for large N , these fermions in a confining trap, in arbitrary dimensions and at finite temperature, form a determinantal point process. As a result, any n -point correlation function, including the average density profile, can be expressed as an n ×n determinant whose entry is called the kernel, a central object for such processes. Near the edge, we derive the large-N scaling form of the kernels, parametrized by d and T . In d =1 and T =0 , this reduces to the so-called Airy kernel, that appears in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) of random matrix theory. In d =1 and T >0 we show a remarkable connection between our kernel and the one appearing in the (1 +1 )-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation at finite time. Consequently, our result provides a finite-T generalization of the Tracy-Widom distribution, that describes the fluctuations of the position of the rightmost fermion at T =0 , or those of the largest single-fermion momentum. In d >1 and T ≥0 , while the connection to GUE no longer holds
Finite element simulation of mechanical properties of graphene sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandoker, N.; Islam, S.; Hiung, Y. S.
2017-06-01
Graphene is the material for the twenty first century applications. In this paper, the elastic properties of monolayer and double layer Graphene sheets, typically less than 10nm in size are investigated through linear finite element simulations. The effect of aspect ratio, sizes and chirality of the Graphene sheet on the Young’s modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio are studied. By using structural mechanics approach combining atomistic and equivalent continuum techniques, the Young’s modulus, shear modulus and the Poisson ratio were found and they slightly increase with the aspect ratio but decrease with the size of the Graphene sheet. These simulated properties compliment the mechanical properties of Graphene found in literature.
Finite temperature quantum critical transport near the Mott transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terletska, Hanna; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir
2010-03-01
We use Dynamical Mean-Field Theory to study incoherent transport above the critical end-point temperature Tc of the single band Hubbard model at half-filling. By employing an eigenvalue analysis for the free energy functional, we are able to precisely identify the crossover temperature T*(U) separating the Fermi liquid and the Mott insulating regimes. Our calculations demonstrate that a broad parameter range exist around the crossover line, where the family of resistivity curves displays simple scaling behavior. This is interpreted as a manifestation of quantum criticality controlled by the T=0 Mott transition, which is ``interrupted'' by the emergence of the coexistence dome at T < Tc . We argue that in situations where the critical temperature Tc is significantly reduced, so that the coexistence region is reduced or even absent (as in two-band, particle-hole asymmetric models, where this is found even in the clean d->∞ limit [1, 2]), similar critical scaling properties should persist down to much lower temperatures, resembling quantum critical transport similar to that found in a number of experiments [2]. [1] A. Amaricci, G. Sordi, and M. J. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 146403 (2008) [2] A. Camjayi, K. Haule, V. Dobrosavljevic, and G. Kotliar, Nature Physics, 4, 932 (2008)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Jens O.; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Strickland, Michael
2016-03-01
In a previous paper [N. Haque et al., J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 27], we calculated the three-loop thermodynamic potential of QCD at finite temperature T and quark chemical potentials μq using the hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) reorganization of finite temperature and density QCD. The result allows us to study the thermodynamics of QCD at finite temperature and finite baryon, strangeness, and isospin chemical potentials μB, μS, and μI. We calculate the pressure at nonzero μB and μI with μS=0 , and the energy density, the entropy density, the trace anomaly, and the speed of sound at nonzero μI with μB=μS=0 . The second- and fourth-order isospin susceptibilities are calculated at μB=μS=μI=0 . Our results can be directly compared to lattice QCD without Taylor expansions around μq=0 since QCD has no sign problem at μB=μS=0 and finite isospin chemical potential μI.
Finite temperature effects on the neutrino decoupling in the early Universe
Fornengo, N. |; Kim, C.W. |; Song, J.
1997-10-01
Leading finite temperature effects on the neutrino decoupling temperature in the early Universe have been studied. We have incorporated modifications of the dispersion relation and the phase space distribution due to the presence of particles in the heat bath at a temperature of around 1 MeV. Since both the expansion rate of the Universe and the interaction rate of a neutrino are reduced by finite temperature effects, it is necessary to calculate thermal corrections as precisely as possible in order to find the net effect on the neutrino decoupling temperature. We have performed such a calculation by using finite temperature field theory. It has been shown that the finite temperature effects increase the neutrino decoupling temperature by 4.4{percent}, the largest contribution coming from the modification of the phase space due to the thermal bath. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Universality of temperature-dependent effects in finite many-fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civitarese, O.; Dussel, G. G.; Zuker, A. P.
1989-12-01
The temperature dependence of the specific heat for a finite system of fermions is investigated for some simple models. It is found that finite-size effects produce a maximum in the specific heat at a temperature Tc that has a universal value when scaled by the appropriate characteristic energy.
Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Bustingorry, Sebastian; Lecomte, Vivien; Schehr, Grégory; Giamarchi, Thierry
2012-09-01
We study the fluctuations of the directed polymer in 1+1 dimensions in a Gaussian random environment with a finite correlation length ξ and at finite temperature. We address the correspondence between the geometrical transverse fluctuations of the directed polymer, described by its roughness, and the fluctuations of its free energy, characterized by its two-point correlator. Analytical arguments are provided in favor of a generic scaling law between those quantities, at finite time, nonvanishing ξ, and explicit temperature dependence. Numerical results are in good agreement both for simulations on the discrete directed polymer and on a continuous directed polymer (with short-range correlated disorder). Applications to recent experiments on liquid crystals are discussed.
The new finite temperature Schrödinger equations with strong or weak interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heling; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun
2017-07-01
Implanting the thoughtway of thermostatistics into quantum mechanics, we formulate new Schrödinger equations of multi-particle and single-particle respectively at finite temperature. To get it, the pure-state free energies and the microscopic entropy operators are introduced and meantime the pure-state free energies take the places of mechanical energies at finite temperature. The definition of microscopic entropy introduced by Wu was also revised, and the strong or weak interactions dependent on temperature are considered in multi-particle Schrödinger Equations. Based on the new Schrödinger equation at finite temperature, two simple cases were analyzed. The first one is concerning some identical harmonic oscillators in N lattice points and the other one is about N unrelated particles in three dimensional in finite potential well. From the results gotten, we conclude that the finite temperature Schrödinger equation is particularly important for mesoscopic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, Joachim; Brück, Sebastian; Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen
2016-11-01
We use quantitative magneto-optical microscopy to investigate the influence of finite temperatures on the critical state of thin YBCO films. In particular, temperature and time dependence of supercurrents in inhomogeneous and anisotropic films are analyzed to extract the role of temperature on the supercurrents themselves and the influence of thermally activated relaxation. We find that inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the current density distribution correspond to a different temperature dependence of local supercurrents. In addition, the thermally activated decay of supercurrents can be used to extract local vortex pinning energies. With these results the modification of vortex pinning introduced by substrate structures is studied. In summary the local investigation of supercurrent densities allows the full description of the vortex pinning landscape with respect to pinning forces and energies in superconducting films with complex properties under the influence of finite temperatures.
Critical properties of dissipative quantum spin systems in finite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, Kabuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi
2016-10-01
We study the critical properties of finite-dimensional dissipative quantum spin systems with uniform ferromagnetic interactions. Starting from the transverse field Ising model coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators with Ohmic spectral density, we generalize its classical representation to classical spin systems with O(n) symmetry and then take the large-n limit to reduce the system to a spherical model. The exact solution to the resulting spherical model with long-range interactions along the imaginary time axis shows a phase transition with static critical exponents coinciding with those of the conventional short-range spherical model in d+2 dimensions, where d is the spatial dimensionality of the original quantum system. This implies that the dynamical exponent is z = 2. These conclusions are consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and renormalization group calculations for dissipative transverse field Ising and O(n) models in one and two dimensions. The present approach therefore serves as a useful tool for analytically investigating the properties of quantum phase transitions of the dissipative transverse field Ising and other related models. Our method may also offer a platform to study more complex phase transitions in dissipative finite-dimensional quantum spin systems, which have recently received renewed interest in the context of quantum annealing in a noisy environment.
Finite-Temperature Entanglement Dynamics in an Anisotropic Two-Qubit Heisenberg Spin Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tao; Shan, Chuanjia; Li, Jinxing; Liu, Tangkun; Huang, Yanxia; Li, Hong
2010-07-01
This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of an anisotropic two-qubit Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of decoherence at finite temperature. The time evolution of the concurrence is studied for different initial Werner states. The influences of initial purity, finite temperature, spontaneous decay and Hamiltonian on the entanglement evolution are analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that the finite temperature restricts the evolution of the entanglement all the time when the Hamiltonian improves it and the spontaneous decay to the reservoirs can produce quantum entanglement with the anisotropy of spin-spin interaction. Finally, the steady-state concurrence which may remain non-zero for low temperature is also given.
Finite temperature QCD with two flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions
Bornyakov, V.G.; Chernodub, M.N.; Ichie, H.; Mori, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Koma, Y.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Uvarov, P.V.; Veselov, A.I.; Schierholz, G.; Slavnov, A. A.; Stueben, H.
2005-06-01
We study QCD with two flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions at finite temperature on the 16{sup 3}8 lattice. We determine the transition temperature at lattice spacing as small as a{approx}0.12 fm, and study string breaking below the finite temperature transition. We find that the static potential can be fitted by a two-state ansatz, including a string state and a two-meson state. We investigate the role of Abelian monopoles at finite temperature.
Transport properties of two finite armchair graphene nanoribbons
2013-01-01
In this work, we present a theoretical study of the transport properties of two finite and parallel armchair graphene nanoribbons connected to two semi-infinite leads of the same material. Using a single Π-band tight binding Hamiltonian and based on Green’s function formalisms within a real space renormalization techniques, we have calculated the density of states and the conductance of these systems considering the effects of the geometric confinement and the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the heterostructure. Our results exhibit a resonant tunneling behaviour and periodic modulations of the transport properties as a function of the geometry of the considered conductors and as a function of the magnetic flux that crosses the heterostructure. We have observed Aharonov-Bohm type of interference representing by periodic metal-semiconductor transitions in the DOS and conductance curves of the nanostructures. PMID:23279756
Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn
2017-05-01
The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.
Finite-temperature calculations of the Compton profile of Be, Li, and Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klevak, E.; Vila, F. D.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.
2016-12-01
High resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiments are widely used to study the electronic and chemical properties of materials under a range of conditions, from ambient temperature to the warm dense matter regime. We use the real-space multiple scattering (RSMS) Green's function formalism coupled with density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) to study thermal effects on the Compton profile (CP) of disordered systems. The RSMS method is advantageous for calculations of highly disordered, aperiodic systems because it places no restriction on symmetry. As a test, we apply our approach to thermally disordered Be, Li, and Si in both liquid and solid phases. We find good agreement with experimental and other theoretical results, showing that the real-space multiple scattering approach coupled with DFT-MD is an efficient and reliable method for calculating the CP of disordered systems at finite temperatures.
Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature.
Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M; Moldabekov, Zh
2015-03-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a/aB--the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius--approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N=33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4, and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs≲1.5, both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem.
Prediction of high temperature metal matrix composite ply properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.
1988-01-01
The application of the finite element method (superelement technique) in conjunction with basic concepts from mechanics of materials theory is demonstrated to predict the thermomechanical behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HTMMC). The simulated behavior is used as a basis to establish characteristic properties of a unidirectional composite idealized an as equivalent homogeneous material. The ply properties predicted include: thermal properties (thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients) and mechanical properties (moduli and Poisson's ratio). These properties are compared with those predicted by a simplified, analytical composite micromechanics model. The predictive capabilities of the finite element method and the simplified model are illustrated through the simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of a P100-graphite/copper unidirectional composite at room temperature and near matrix melting temperature. The advantage of the finite element analysis approach is its ability to more precisely represent the composite local geometry and hence capture the subtle effects that are dependent on this. The closed form micromechanics model does a good job at representing the average behavior of the constituents to predict composite behavior.
QCD phase structure at finite temperature in three-flavor random matrix theory
Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshinaga, Naotaka
2009-07-01
The QCD phase structure is studied at finite temperature in a three-flavor random matrix model formulated with nonzero quark chemical potentials. In the case of no flavor mixing, we analytically obtain temperature dependent critical chemical potentials for finite quark masses. Numerical results show that the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature is qualitatively in agreement with the prediction of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.
Characterizing the temperature dependence of electronic packaging-material properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chia-Yu; Ume, Charles
1995-06-01
A computer-controlled, temperature-dependent material characterization system has been developed for thermal deformation analysis in electronic packaging applications, especially for printed wiring assembly warpage study. For fiberglass-reinforced epoxy (FR-4 type) material, the Young's moduli decrease to as low as 20-30% of the room-temperature values, while the shear moduli decrease to as low as 60-70% of the room-temperature values. The electrical resistance strain gage technique was used in this research. The test results produced overestimated values in property measurements, and this was shown in a case study. A noncontact strau]n measurement technique (laser extensometer) is now being used to measure these properties. Discrepancies of finite-element warpage predictions using different property values increase as the temperature increases from the stress-free temperature.
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W; Vela, Alberto
2015-10-21
We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μe) and chemical hardness (ηe) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μe. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (-I), positive (-A), and zero values of the fractional charge (-(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.
Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2015-10-21
We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ{sub e}) and chemical hardness (η{sub e}) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ{sub e}. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meirovitch, H.; Lim, H. A.
1989-04-01
We study by the scanning simulation method trails on a square lattice at finite temperatures. This method constitutes a very efficient tool since it enables one to obtain results at many temperatures from a single sample generated at any given temperature. The tricritical temperature at which the collapse transition occurs is -ɛ/kBTt=1.086+/-0.002. The tricritical exponents of the trail shape and its free energy are, respectively, νt=0.569+/-0.008 and γt=1.133+/-0.024 (95% confidence limits). They are equal within the error bars to the exact values of self-attracting self-avoiding walks (SAW's). However, the crossover exponent φt=0.807+/-0.005 is significantly larger than the exact value 0.423 of SAW's. We also carry out a detailed scaling analysis near Tt and demonstrate that the various properties scale as predicted by theory. At sufficiently low temperatures (T<=Tt) the persistence length appears to be ~1.
Finite difference modelling of the temperature rise in non-linear medical ultrasound fields.
Divall, S A; Humphrey, V F
2000-03-01
Non-linear propagation of ultrasound can lead to increased heat generation in medical diagnostic imaging due to the preferential absorption of harmonics of the original frequency. A numerical model has been developed and tested that is capable of predicting the temperature rise due to a high amplitude ultrasound field. The acoustic field is modelled using a numerical solution to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, known as the Bergen Code, which is implemented in cylindrical symmetric form. A finite difference representation of the thermal equations is used to calculate the resulting temperature rises. The model allows for the inclusion of a number of layers of tissue with different acoustic and thermal properties and accounts for the effects of non-linear propagation, direct heating by the transducer, thermal diffusion and perfusion in different tissues. The effect of temperature-dependent skin perfusion and variation in background temperature between the skin and deeper layers of the body are included. The model has been tested against analytic solutions for simple configurations and then used to estimate temperature rises in realistic obstetric situations. A pulsed 3 MHz transducer operating with an average acoustic power of 200 mW leads to a maximum steady state temperature rise inside the foetus of 1.25 degrees C compared with a 0.6 degree C rise for the same transmitted power under linear propagation conditions. The largest temperature rise occurs at the skin surface, with the temperature rise at the foetus limited to less than 2 degrees C for the range of conditions considered.
Galilean covariance, Casimir effect and Stefan-Boltzmann law at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulhoa, S. C.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2017-06-01
The Galilean covariance, formulated in 5-dimensions space, describes the nonrelativistic physics in a way similar to a Lorentz covariant quantum field theory being considered for relativistic physics. Using a nonrelativistic approach the Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Casimir effect at finite temperature for a particle with spin zero and 1/2 are calculated. The thermo field dynamics is used to include the finite temperature effects.
REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.
UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.
2005-07-25
We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.
Self-consistent theory of a Bose-Einstein condensate with impurity at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjemâa, Abdelâali
2015-01-01
We study the properties of Bose-Einstein condensate-impurity mixtures at finite temperatures employing the Balian-Vénéroni variational principle. The method leads to a set of coupled nonlinear equations of motion for the condensate and its normal and anomalous fluctuations on the one hand, and for the impurity on the other. We show that the obtained equations satisfy the energy and number conserving laws. Useful analytic expressions for the chemical potential and the radius of both the condensate and anomalous components are derived in the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation in a d-dimensional regime. The effects of the impurity on these quantities are discussed.
Finite-temperature decoherence of spin states in a {Cu3} single molecular magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoqun; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Shiqun
2013-01-01
We investigate the quantum evolution of spin states of a single molecular magnet in a local electric field. The decoherence of a {Cu3} single molecular magnet weakly coupled to a thermal bosonic environment can be analysed by the spin-boson model. Using the finite-temperature time-convolutionless quantum master equation, we obtain the analytical expression of the reduced density matrix of the system in the secular approximation. The suppressed and revived dynamical behaviour of the spin states are presented by the oscillation of the chirality spin polarization on the time scale of the correlation time of the environment. The quantum decoherence can be effectively restrained with the help of the manipulation of a local electric field and the environment spectral density function. Under the influence of the dissipation, the pointer states measured by the von Neumann entropy are calculated to manifest the entanglement property of the system-environment model.
Finite-temperature phase structure of lattice QCD with Wilson quark action
Aoki, S.; Ukawa, A.; Umemura, T.
1996-02-01
The long-standing issue of the nature of the critical line of lattice QCD with the Wilson quark action at finite temperatures, defined to be the line of vanishing pion screening mass, and its relation to the line of finite-temperature chiral transition is examined. Presented are both analytical and numerical evidence that the critical line forms a cusp at a finite gauge coupling, and that the line of chiral transition runs past the tip of the cusp without touching the critical line. Implications on the continuum limit and the flavor dependence of chiral transition are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Monte Carlo analysis for finite-temperature magnetism of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toga, Yuta; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Miyashita, Seiji; Akai, Hisazumi; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi; Sakuma, Akimasa
2016-11-01
We investigate the effects of magnetic inhomogeneities and thermal fluctuations on the magnetic properties of a rare-earth intermetallic compound, Nd2Fe14B . The constrained Monte Carlo method is applied to a Nd2Fe14B bulk system to realize the experimentally observed spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy constants KmA(m =1 ,2 ,4 ) at finite temperatures. Subsequently, it is found that the temperature dependence of K1A deviates from the Callen-Callen law, K1A(T ) ∝M (T) 3 , even above room temperature, TR˜300 K , when the Fe (Nd) anisotropy terms are removed to leave only the Nd (Fe) anisotropy terms. This is because the exchange couplings between Nd moments and Fe spins are much smaller than those between Fe spins. It is also found that the exponent n in the external magnetic field Hext response of barrier height FB=FB0(1-Hext/H0) n is less than 2 in the low-temperature region below TR, whereas n approaches 2 when T >TR , indicating the presence of Stoner-Wohlfarth-type magnetization rotation. This reflects the fact that the magnetic anisotropy is mainly governed by the K1A term in the T >TR region.
Determination of the temperature distribution in skin using a finite element model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Thim N.; Jessen, Niels-Christian; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
2000-06-01
When applying noxious heat stimuli to human skin in the study of the pain system, one of the main problems is not to cause permanent damage. A better understanding of the temperature distribution and the propagation of heat, i.e. heat flux, in human skin is thus needed. In order to investigate these problems thoroughly, we have developed a 3-dimensional finite element model (FEM) 4-layer of human skin. The model is kept simple for better understanding of the boundary problems. The water content in each layer is used for determining the thermal properties. It is therefore not a homogenous structure. In this model the stratum corneum has been included with lower water content than in the epidermis. Simulations shows that the surface temperature reaches high levels whereas the temperature in the deeper structure is much lower. Thermal and optical constants found in the literature was applied. Heat propagation downwards and outwards from the source has been investigated to understand of the accumulation of energy in the boundary between two layers. Prediction of the heat flux at boundary between the epidermis and dermis shows that for repetitive stimulation there is a risk of exceeding the threshold temperature of 65 degrees Celsius for irreversible damage.
Infrared features of unquenched finite temperature lattice Landau gauge QCD
Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo
2007-09-01
The color diagonal and color antisymmetric ghost propagators slightly above T{sub c} of N{sub f}=2 MILC 24{sup 3}x12 lattices are measured and compared with zero-temperature unquenched N{sub f}=2+1 MILC{sub c} 20{sup 3}x64 and MILC{sub f} 28{sup 3}x96 lattices and zero-temperature quenched 56{sup 4} {beta}=6.4 and 6.45 lattices. The expectation value of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator {phi}{sup c}(q) is zero, but its Binder cumulant, which is consistent with that of N{sub c}{sup 2}-1 dimensional Gaussian distribution below T{sub c}, decreases above T{sub c}. Although the color diagonal ghost propagator is temperature independent, the l{sup 1} norm of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator is temperature dependent. The expectation value of the ghost condensate observed at zero-temperature unquenched configuration is consistent with 0 in T>T{sub c}. We also measure transverse, magnetic, and electric gluon propagator and extract gluon screening masses. The running coupling measured from the product of the gluon dressing function and the ghost dressing function are almost temperature independent, but the effect of A{sup 2} condensate observed at zero temperature is consistent with 0 in T>T{sub c}. The transverse gluon dressing function at low temperature has a peak in the infrared at low temperature, but it becomes flatter at high temperature. The magnetic gluon propagator at high momentum depends on the temperature. These data imply that the magnetic gluon propagator and the color antisymmetric ghost propagator are affected by the presence of dynamical quarks, and there are strong nonperturbative effects through the temperature-dependent color antisymmetric ghost propagator.
The topological susceptibility in finite temperature QCD and axion cosmology
Petreczky, Peter; Schadler, Hans-Peter; Sharma, Sayantan
2016-10-06
We study the topological susceptibility in 2+1 flavor QCD above the chiral crossover transition temperature using Highly Improved Staggered Quark action and several lattice spacings corresponding to temporal extent of the lattice, Nτ=6,8,10 and 12. We observe very distinct temperature dependences of the topological susceptibility in the ranges above and below 250MeV. While for temperatures above 250MeV, the dependence is found to be consistent with dilute instanton gas approximation, at lower temperatures the fall-off of topological susceptibility is milder. We discuss the consequence of our results for cosmology wherein we estimate the bounds on the axion decay constant and themore » oscillation temperature if indeed the QCD axion is a possible dark matter candidate.« less
The topological susceptibility in finite temperature QCD and axion cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreczky, Peter; Schadler, Hans-Peter; Sharma, Sayantan
2016-11-01
We study the topological susceptibility in 2 + 1 flavor QCD above the chiral crossover transition temperature using Highly Improved Staggered Quark action and several lattice spacings corresponding to temporal extent of the lattice, Nτ = 6 , 8 , 10 and 12. We observe very distinct temperature dependences of the topological susceptibility in the ranges above and below 250 MeV. While for temperatures above 250 MeV, the dependence is found to be consistent with dilute instanton gas approximation, at lower temperatures the fall-off of topological susceptibility is milder. We discuss the consequence of our results for cosmology wherein we estimate the bounds on the axion decay constant and the oscillation temperature if indeed the QCD axion is a possible dark matter candidate.
Magnetized liquid 3He at finite temperature: A variational calculation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordbar, Gholam Hossein; Mohammadi Sabet, Mohammad Taghi
2016-08-01
Using the spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) correlation functions, we have investigated the properties of liquid 3He in the presence of magnetic field at finite temperature. Our calculations have been done using the variational method based on cluster expansion of the energy functional. Our results show that the low field magnetic susceptibility obeys Curie law at high temperatures. This behavior is in a good agreement with the experimental data as well as the molecular field theory results in which the spin dependency has been introduced in correlation function. Reduced susceptibility as a function of temperature as well as reduced temperature has been also investigated, and again we have seen that the spin-dependent correlation function leads to a good agreement with the experimental data. The Landau parameter, F0a, has been calculated, and for this parameter, a value about - 0.75 has been found in the case of spin-spin correlation. In the case of spin-independent correlation function, this value is about - 0.7. Therefore, inclusion of spin dependency in the correlation function leads to a more compatible value of F0a with experimental data. The magnetization and susceptibility of liquid 3He have also been investigated as a function of magnetic field. Our results show a downward curvature in magnetization of system with spin-dependent correlation for all densities and relevant temperatures. A metamagnetic behavior has been observed as a maximum in susceptibility versus magnetic field, when the spin-spin correlation has been considered. This maximum occurs at 45T ≤ B ≤ 100T for all densities and temperatures. This behavior has not been observed in the case of spin-independent correlation function.
Heit, Yonaton N; Beran, Gregory J O
2016-08-01
Molecular crystals expand appreciably upon heating due to both zero-point and thermal vibrational motion, yet this expansion is often neglected in molecular crystal modeling studies. Here, a quasi-harmonic approximation is coupled with fragment-based hybrid many-body interaction calculations to predict thermal expansion and finite-temperature thermochemical properties in crystalline carbon dioxide, ice Ih, acetic acid and imidazole. Fragment-based second-order Möller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster theory with singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] predict the thermal expansion and the temperature dependence of the enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation in good agreement with experiment. The errors introduced by neglecting thermal expansion in the enthalpy and entropy cancel somewhat in the Gibbs free energy. The resulting ∼ 1-2 kJ mol(-1) errors in the free energy near room temperature are comparable to or smaller than the errors expected from the electronic structure treatment, but they may be sufficiently large to affect free-energy rankings among energetically close polymorphs.
Effects of impurity doping and finite temperature in titanium dioxide: A First-principles Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Yuta; Saito, Susumu
2012-02-01
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most important materials for application to photocatalysts while it is a highly polymorphic material. Therefore, understanding of its fundamental physical properties is essential for improvements of its photocatalytic properties. From this point of view, we study the effects of nitrogen doping and the thermodynamic stability of various TiO2 phases in the framework of the density-functional theory. We use the supercells with various dopant concentrations to reveal the nitrogen-doping effects on the energetics and the electronic properties [1]. It is found that the nitrogen doping into both rutile and anatase phases significantly reduces the minimum photo-excitation energies. On the other hand, it is suggested that the dopants tend to cluster in the TiO2 lattice. This clustering might cancel the above-mentioned doping effects on the photo-excitation energies. Next, we consider the finite-temperature effects by introducing phonons to investigate the thermodynamic phase stability. We compare the free energies of rutile, anatase, brookite, and TiO2-II phases. We will also discuss the importance of treatment of semicore states in generating Ti pseudopotentials.[4pt] [1] Y. Aoki and S. Saito, J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 302, 012034 (2011) .
[Dynamics of charge transfer along an oligonucleotide at finite temperature].
Lakhno, V D; Fialko, N S
2004-01-01
The quantum-statistical approach was used to describe the charge transfer in nucleotide sequences. The results of numerical modeling for hole transfer in the GTTGGG sequence with background temperature noise are given. It was shown that, since guanine has an oxidation potential lower than thymine, the hole created at the G donor in this sequence passes through the thymine barrier into the guanine triplet (acceptor) at a time of approximately 10 ps at a temperature of 37 degrees C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Xian-yin; Qin, Si-xue; Liu, Yu-xin
2014-10-01
We investigate the quark number fluctuations up to the fourth order in the matter composed of two light flavor quarks with isospin symmetry and at finite temperature and finite chemical potential using the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. In order to solve the quark gap equation, we approximate the dressed quark-gluon vertex with the bare one and adopt both the Maris-Tandy model and the infrared constant (Qin-Chang) model for the dressed gluon propagator. Our results indicate that the second, third, and fourth order fluctuations of net quark number all diverge at the critical endpoint (CEP). Around the CEP, the second order fluctuation possesses obvious pump while the third and fourth order ones exhibit distinct wiggles between positive and negative. For the Maris-Tandy model and the Qin-Chang model, we give the pseudocritical temperature at zero quark chemical potential as Tc=146 MeV and 150 MeV, and locate the CEP at (μEq,TE)=(120,124) MeV and (124,129) MeV, respectively. In addition, our results manifest that the fluctuations are insensitive to the details of the model, but the location of the CEP shifts to low chemical potential and high temperature as the confinement length scale increases.
Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics at finite temperature: Thermo field dynamics approach.
Borrelli, Raffaele; Gelin, Maxim F
2016-12-14
Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics in molecular systems at finite temperature is described using an approach based on the thermo field dynamics theory. This formulation treats temperature effects in the Hilbert space without introducing the Liouville space. A comparison with the theoretically equivalent density matrix formulation shows the key numerical advantages of the present approach. The solution of thermo field dynamics equations with a novel technique for the propagation of tensor trains (matrix product states) is discussed. Numerical applications to model spin-boson systems show that the present approach is a promising tool for the description of quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems at finite temperature.
Decay of a Yukawa fermion at finite temperature and applications to leptogenesis
Kiessig, Clemens P.; Pluemacher, Michael; Thoma, Markus H.
2010-08-01
We calculate the decay rate of a Yukawa fermion in a thermal bath using finite-temperature cutting rules and effective Green's functions according to the hard thermal loop resummation technique. We apply this result to the decay of a heavy Majorana neutrino in leptogenesis. Compared to the usual approach where thermal masses are inserted into the kinematics of final states, we find that deviations arise through two different leptonic dispersion relations. The decay rate differs from the usual approach by more than 1 order of magnitude in the temperature range which is interesting for the weak washout regime. We discuss how to arrive at consistent finite-temperature treatments of leptogenesis.
Variational calculation for the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanzawa, H.; Oyamatsu, K.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.
2007-07-01
An equation of state (EOS) for uniform nuclear matter is constructed at zero and finite temperatures with the variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne V18 and UIX potentials. The energy is evaluated in the two-body cluster approximation with the three-body-force contribution treated phenomenologically so as to reproduce the empirical saturation conditions. The obtained energies for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter at zero temperature are in fair agreement with those by Akmal, Pandharipande and Ravenhall, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is 2.2M. At finite temperatures, a variational method by Schmidt and Pandharipande is employed to evaluate the free energy, which is used to derive various thermodynamic quantities of nuclear matter necessary for supernova simulations. The result of this variational method at finite temperatures is found to be self-consistent.
Finite-temperature magnetism of FeRh compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polesya, S.; Mankovsky, S.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.
2016-01-01
The temperature dependent stability of the magnetic phases of FeRh were investigated by means of total energy calculations with magnetic disorder treated within the uncompensated disordered local moment approach. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations based on the extended Heisenberg model have been performed, using exchange coupling parameters obtained from first principles. The crucial role and interplay of two factors in the metamagnetic transition in FeRh has been revealed, namely the dependence of the Fe-Fe exchange coupling parameters on the temperature-governed degree of magnetic disorder in the system and the stabilizing nature of the induced magnetic moment on Rh-sites. An important observation is the temperature dependence of these two competing factors.
Breakdown of nonlinear elasticity in amorphous solids at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procaccia, Itamar; Rainone, Corrado; Shor, Carmel A. B. Z.; Singh, Murari
2016-06-01
It is known [H. G. E. Hentschel et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 061101 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061101] that amorphous solids at zero temperature do not possess a nonlinear elasticity theory: besides the shear modulus, which exists, none of the higher order coefficients exist in the thermodynamic limit. Here we show that the same phenomenon persists up to temperatures comparable to that of the glass transition. The zero-temperature mechanism due to the prevalence of dangerous plastic modes of the Hessian matrix is replaced by anomalous stress fluctuations that lead to the divergence of the variances of the higher order elastic coefficients. The conclusion is that in amorphous solids elasticity can never be decoupled from plasticity: the nonlinear response is very substantially plastic.
Finite-Temperature Conductivity and Magnetoconductivity of Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2014-04-01
The electronic transport experiments on topological insulators exhibit a dilemma. A negative cusp in magnetoconductivity is widely believed as a quantum transport signature of the topological surface states, which are immune from localization and exhibit the weak antilocalization. However, the measured conductivity drops logarithmically when lowering temperature, showing a typical feature of the weak localization as in ordinary disordered metals. Here, we present a conductivity formula for massless and massive Dirac fermions as a function of magnetic field and temperature, by taking into account the electron-electron interaction and quantum interference simultaneously. The formula reconciles the dilemma by explicitly clarifying that the temperature dependence of the conductivity is dominated by the interaction, while the magnetoconductivity is mainly contributed by the quantum interference. The theory paves the road to quantitatively study the transport in topological insulators, and can be extended to other two-dimensional Dirac-like systems, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and silicene.
Surface boiling - an "obvious" explanation for the observed limiting temperature of finite nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tõke, J.
2012-07-01
Limits of stability of nuclear systems are explored within the framework of a finite-range interacting Fermi gas model and microcanonical thermodynamics in Thomas-Fermi approximation. It is found that with increasing excitation energy, infinite systems become unstable against volume boiling, while finite systems become subject to surface boiling, providing a natural explanation for the observed saturationlike patterns, or limiting temperature, in caloric curves. Boiling patterns of iso-asymmetric matter are discussed.
Chemical Relaxation Times in a Hadron Gas at Finite Temperature
Goity, Jose
1993-07-01
The relaxation time of particle numbers in hot hadronic matter with vanishing baryon number are estimated using the ideal gas approximation and taking into account resonance decays and annihilation processes as the only sources of particle number fluctuations.Near the QCD critical temperature the longest relaxation times turn out to be of the order of 10 fm and grow roughly exponentially to become of the order of 10^3 fm at temperatures around 100 MeV.As a consequence of such long relaxation times, a clear departure from chemical equilibrium must be observed in the momentum distribution of secondary particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions.
Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, A. J.; Zuccher, S.; Caliari, M.; Proukakis, N. P.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.
2014-07-01
The study of vortex reconnections is an essential ingredient of understanding superfluid turbulence, a phenomenon recently also reported in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work we show that, despite the established dependence of vortex motion on temperature in such systems, vortex reconnections are actually temperature independent on the typical length and time scales of atomic condensates. Our work is based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate, coupled to a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud (the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism). Comparison to vortex reconnections in homogeneous condensates further shows reconnections to be insensitive to the inhomogeneity in the background density.
Fluctuations of conserved charges at finite temperature from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsányi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltán; Katz, Sándor D.; Krieg, Stefan; Ratti, Claudia; Szabó, Kálman
2012-01-01
We present the full results of the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration on flavor diagonal and non-diagonal quark number susceptibilities with 2 + 1 staggered quark flavors, in a temperature range between 125 and 400 MeV. The light and strange quark masses are set to their physical values. Lattices with N t = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 are used. We perform a continuum extrapolation of all observables under study. A Symanzik improved gauge and a stout-link improved staggered fermion action is utilized. All results are compared to the Hadron Resonance Gas model predictions: good agreement is found in the temperature region below the transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras
2016-10-01
Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras
2017-06-01
Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2, S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.
Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure
Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.
2017-01-01
In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations. PMID:28198404
Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.
2017-02-01
In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations.
Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a Stoner behavior.
Maiti, K; Malagoli, M C; Dallmeyer, A; Carbone, C
2002-04-22
The temperature dependence of the rare-earth valence bands has been regarded as a realization of the Stoner behavior. The exchange splitting of the electronic states appears to scale as the magnetic order parameter for T
Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-12-01
In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.
Casimir effect for the Higgs field at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2017-08-01
In early 1970, it was postulated that there exists a zero spin quantum field, called Higgs field, that is present in all universe. The potential energy of the Higgs field is transferred to particles. Hence they acquire mass. These ideas were essential in fulfilling the basic need for a particle, called Higgs, with mass. These particles are called Higgs particles with spin zero with its mass to be ˜125 GeV. This raises the question as to its physical effects. If these particles are present, will they exhibit a Casimir effect and also obey the Stefan-Boltzmann Law? Assuming the dynamics of this field, will these effects change with temperature. The present calculation uses thermo field dynamics formalism to calculate temperature effects.
Isospin Mixing in 80Zr: From Finite to Zero Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceruti, S.; Camera, F.; Bracco, A.; Avigo, R.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Bocchi, G.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Giaz, A.; Leoni, S.; Mentana, A.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Nicolini, R.; Pellegri, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.; Birkenbach, B.; Bazzacco, D.; Ciemala, M.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hess, H.; Judson, D. S.; Jungclaus, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Korten, W.; Maj, A.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Modamio, V.; Montanari, D.; Myalski, S.; Napoli, D.; Quintana, B.; Reiter, P.; Recchia, F.; Rosso, D.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stezowski, O.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Zieblinski, M.
2015-11-01
The isospin mixing was deduced in the compound nucleus 80Zr at an excitation energy of E*=54 MeV from the γ decay of the giant dipole resonance. The reaction 40Ca + 40Ca at Ebeam=136 MeV was used to form the compound nucleus in the isospin I =0 channel, while the reaction 37Cl + 44Ca at Ebeam=95 MeV was used as the reference reaction. The γ rays were detected with the AGATA demonstrator array coupled with LaBr3 :Ce detectors. The temperature dependence of the isospin mixing was obtained and the zero-temperature value deduced. The isospin-symmetry-breaking correction δC used for the Fermi superallowed transitions was extracted and found to be consistent with β -decay data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanada, Masanori; Hyakutake, Yoshifumi; Ishiki, Goro; Nishimura, Jun
2016-10-01
According to the gauge/gravity duality conjecture, the thermodynamics of gauge theory describing D-branes corresponds to that of black branes in superstring theory. We test this conjecture directly in the case of D0-branes by applying Monte Carlo methods to the corresponding gauge theory, which takes the form of the Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind (BFSS) matrix quantum mechanics. In particular, we take the continuum limit by extrapolating the UV cutoff to infinity. First we perform simulations at large N so that string loop corrections can be neglected on the gravity side. Our results for the internal energy exhibit the temperature dependence consistent with the prediction including the α' corrections. Next we perform simulations at small N but at lower temperature so that the α' corrections can be neglected on the gravity side. Our results are consistent with the prediction including the leading string loop correction, which suggests that the conjecture holds even at finite N .
Ab-initio structural search in solid oxygen at high pressure: from zero to finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cogollo-Olivo, B. H.; Montoya, J. A.
2016-08-01
The crystal structure of solid oxygen in the terapascal (TPa) regime has been investigated with Density Functional Theory and the Random Search algorithm at zero temperature. We also considered the effect of the entropy at finite temperatures using the QuasiHarmonic Approximation, and we found that the regime of stability of solid oxygen differs strongly from the results predicted at zero temperature. Finally, we provide some insights of oxygen as a chalcogen element.
Magnetic field effects on the static quark potential at zero and finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco
2016-11-01
We investigate the static Q Q ¯ potential at zero and finite temperature in the presence of a constant and uniform external magnetic field B →, for several values of the lattice spacing and for different orientations with respect to B →. As a byproduct, we provide continuum limit extrapolated results for the string tension, the Coulomb coupling and the Sommer parameter at T =0 and B =0 . We confirm the presence in the continuum of a B -induced anisotropy, regarding essentially the string tension, for which it is of the order of 15% at |e |B ˜1 GeV2 and would suggest, if extrapolated to larger fields, a vanishing string tension along the magnetic field for |e |B ≳4 GeV2. The angular dependence for |e |B ≲1 GeV2 can be nicely parametrized by the first allowed term in an angular Fourier expansion, corresponding to a quadrupole deformation. Finally, for T ≠0 , the main effect of the magnetic field is a general suppression of the string tension, leading to a early loss of the confining properties: this happens even before the appearance of inverse magnetic catalysis in the chiral condensate, supporting the idea that the influence of the magnetic field on the confining properties is the leading effect originating the decrease of Tc as a function of B .
Finite temperature inelastic mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiuzi; Das Sarma, S.
2013-02-01
We adopt the GW and random phase approximations to study finite temperature effects on the inelastic mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime by directly calculating the imaginary part of the finite temperature self-energy induced by electron-electron interaction in extrinsic and intrinsic graphene. In particular, we provide the density-dependent leading order temperature correction to the inelastic scattering rate for both single-layer and double-layer graphene systems. We find that the inelastic mean free path is strongly influenced by finite-temperature effects. We present the similarity and the difference between graphene with linear chiral band dispersion and conventional two-dimensional electron systems with parabolic band dispersion. We also compare the calculated finite temperature inelastic scattering length with the elastic scattering length due to Coulomb disorder and comment on the prospects for quantum interference effects showing up in low-density graphene transport. We also carry out inelastic scattering calculation for electron-phonon interaction, which by itself gives rather long carrier mean free paths and lifetimes since the deformation potential coupling is weak in graphene, and therefore electron-phonon interaction contributes significantly to the inelastic scattering only at relatively high temperatures.
Time-dependent correlations in quantum magnets at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fauseweh, B.; Groitl, F.; Keller, T.; Rolfs, K.; Tennant, D. A.; Habicht, K.; Uhrig, G. S.
2016-11-01
In this Rapid Communication we investigate the time dependence of the gap mode of copper nitrate at various temperatures. We combine state-of-the-art theoretical calculations with high precision neutron resonance spin-echo measurements to understand the anomalous decoherence effects found previously in this material. It is shown that the time domain offers a complementary view on this phenomenon, which allows us to directly compare experimental data and theoretical predictions without the need of further intensive data analysis, such as (de)convolution.
Importance of finite-temperature exchange correlation for warm dense matter calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasiev, Valentin V.; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S. B.
2016-06-01
The effects of an explicit temperature dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the warm dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-temperature local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T -dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T =15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-temperature regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the temperature at which the HEG becomes unstable is T ≥7200 K for the T -dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.
Finite-temperature Casimir force between perfectly metallic corrugated surfaces
Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, MirFaez
2011-09-15
We study the Casimir force between two corrugated plates due to thermal fluctuations of a scalar field. For arbitrary corrugations and temperature T, we provide an analytical expression for the Casimir force, which is exact to second order in the corrugation amplitude. We study the specific case of two sinusoidally corrugated plates with corrugation wavelength {lambda}, lateral displacement b, and mean separation H. We find that the lateral Casimir force is F{sub l}(T,H)sin(2{pi}b/{lambda}). In other words, at all temperatures, the lateral force is a sinusoidal function of the lateral shift. In the limit {lambda}>>H, F{sub l}(T{yields}{infinity},H){proportional_to}k{sub B}TH{sup -4}{lambda}{sup -1}. In the opposite limit {lambda}<
Finite-temperature fluid–insulator transition of strongly interacting 1D disordered bosons
Michal, Vincent P.; Aleiner, Igor L.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Shlyapnikov, Georgy V.
2016-01-01
We consider the many-body localization–delocalization transition for strongly interacting one-dimensional disordered bosons and construct the full picture of finite temperature behavior of this system. This picture shows two insulator–fluid transitions at any finite temperature when varying the interaction strength. At weak interactions, an increase in the interaction strength leads to insulator → fluid transition, and, for large interactions, there is a reentrance to the insulator regime. It is feasible to experimentally verify these predictions by tuning the interaction strength with the use of Feshbach or confinement-induced resonances, for example, in 7Li or 39K. PMID:27436894
Spin transport in the XXZ chain at finite temperature and momentum.
Steinigeweg, Robin; Brenig, Wolfram
2011-12-16
We investigate the role of momentum for the transport of magnetization in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain above the isotropic point at finite temperature and momentum. Using numerical and analytical approaches, we analyze the autocorrelations of density and current and observe a finite region of the Brillouin zone with diffusive dynamics below a cutoff momentum, and a diffusion constant independent of momentum and time, which scales inversely with anisotropy. Lowering the temperature over a wide range, starting from infinity, the diffusion constant is found to increase strongly while the cutoff momentum for diffusion decreases. Above the cutoff momentum diffusion breaks down completely.
Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.
2016-05-01
We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.
Standard Model Extension and Casimir effect for fermions at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2016-11-01
Lorentz and CPT symmetries are foundations for important processes in particle physics. Recent studies in Standard Model Extension (SME) at high energy indicate that these symmetries may be violated. Modifications in the lagrangian are necessary to achieve a hermitian hamiltonian. The fermion sector of the standard model extension is used to calculate the effects of the Lorentz and CPT violation on the Casimir effect at zero and finite temperature. The Casimir effect and Stefan-Boltzmann law at finite temperature are calculated using the thermo field dynamics formalism.
Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna
2015-01-01
Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495
A Riemann-Hilbert formulation for the finite temperature Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Andrea; Cornagliotto, Martina; Mattelliano, Massimo; Tateo, Roberto
2015-06-01
Inspired by recent results in the context of AdS/CFT integrability, we reconsider the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations describing the 1D fermionic Hubbard model at finite temperature. We prove that the infinite set of TBA equations are equivalent to a simple nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem for a finite number of unknown functions. The latter can be transformed into a set of three coupled nonlinear integral equations defined over a finite support, which can be easily solved numerically. We discuss the emergence of an exact Bethe Ansatz and the link between the TBA approach and the results by Jüttner, Klümper and Suzuki based on the Quantum Transfer Matrix method. We also comment on the analytic continuation mechanism leading to excited states and on the mirror equations describing the finite-size Hubbard model with twisted boundary conditions.
Kulkarni, Y; Knap, J; Ortiz, M
2007-04-26
The aim of this paper is the development of equilibrium and non-equilibrium extensions of the quasicontinuum (QC) method. We first use variational mean-field theory and the maximum-entropy formalism for deriving approximate probability distribution and partition functions for the system. The resulting probability distribution depends locally on atomic temperatures defined for every atom and the corresponding thermodynamic potentials are explicit and local in nature. The method requires an interatomic potential as the sole empirical input. Numerical validation is performed by simulating thermal equilibrium properties of selected materials using the Lennard-Jones pair potential and the EAM potential and comparing with molecular dynamics results as well as experimental data. The max-ent variational approach is then taken as a basis for developing a three-dimensional non-equilibrium finite temperature extension of the quasicontinuum method. This extension is accomplished by coupling the local temperature-dependent free energy furnished by the max-ent approximation scheme to the heat equation in a joint thermo-mechanical variational setting. Results for finite-temperature nanoindentation tests demonstrate the ability of the method to capture non-equilibrium transport properties and differentiate between slow and fast indentation.
Single-bubble sonoluminescence as Dicke superradiance at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aparicio Alcalde, M.; Quevedo, H.; Svaiter, N. F.
2014-12-01
Sonoluminescence is a process in which a strong sound field is used to produce light in liquids. We explain sonoluminescence as a phase transition from ordinary fluorescence to a superradiant phase. We consider a spin-boson model composed of a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms. We assume that the whole system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature β-1. We show that, in a ultrastrong-coupling regime, between the two-level atoms and the electromagnetic field it is possible to have a cooperative interaction of the molecules of the gas in the interior of the bubble with the field, generating sonoluminescence.
Quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Andrea M.; Parish, Meera M.
2014-12-01
We consider a Fermi gas with short-range attractive interactions that is confined along one direction by a tight harmonic potential. For this quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi gas, we compute the pressure equation of state, radiofrequency spectrum, and the superfluid critical temperature Tc using a mean-field theory that accounts for all the energy levels of the harmonic confinement. Our calculation for Tc provides a natural generalization of the Thouless criterion to the quasi-2D geometry, and it correctly reduces to the 3D expression derived from the local density approximation in the limit where the confinement frequency ωz→0 . Furthermore, our results suggest that Tc can be enhanced by relaxing the confinement and perturbing away from the 2D limit.
Mostafa, Salwa; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Bannuru, Thirumalesh; Rajic, Slobodan; Islam, Syed K; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert
2011-01-01
A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy harvester has been modeled using a finite element method. The effect of constituting material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure has been investigated. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature play a key role in dominating the cycling frequency and efficiency of energy recycling. An optimal solution for the most efficient energy scavenging process has been sought by studying the performance trend with different variable parameters such as thermal contact conductance, heat source temperature, device aspect ratio and constituent materials of varying thermal conductivity and expansion coefficients.
Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature
Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.
2010-09-15
The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T{sub F}, exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.
Finite element study of plate buckling induced by spatial temperature gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Earl A.; Kolenski, James D.; Marino, Robert P.
1993-01-01
Finite element analyses of thermal buckling of thin metallic plates with prescribed spatial temperature distributions are described. Thermally induced compressive membrane stresses and transverse plate displacement imperfections initiate plates buckling. A finite element formulation based on von Karman plate theory is presented. The resulting nonlinear equations are solved for incremental temperature increases by Newton-Raphson iteration. The computational method is used to investigate the buckling response of rectangular plates with steady and unsteady spatially varying temperature distributions. The role of initial plate imperfections and temperature distributions on the nonlinear response of plate displacements and stresses is described. The relatively high levels of stress induced by spatial temperature gradients should be considered carefully in the postbuckling design of panels for aerospace vehicles subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads.
Finite element study of plate buckling induced by spatial temperature gradients
Thornton, E.A.; Kolenski, J.D.; Marino, R.P.
1993-01-01
Finite element analyses of thermal buckling of thin metallic plates with prescribed spatial temperature distributions are described. Thermally induced compressive membrane stresses and transverse plate displacement imperfections initiate plates buckling. A finite element formulation based on von Karman plate theory is presented. The resulting nonlinear equations are solved for incremental temperature increases by Newton-Raphson iteration. The computational method is used to investigate the buckling response of rectangular plates with steady and unsteady spatially varying temperature distributions. The role of initial plate imperfections and temperature distributions on the nonlinear response of plate displacements and stresses is described. The relatively high levels of stress induced by spatial temperature gradients should be considered carefully in the postbuckling design of panels for aerospace vehicles subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. 31 refs.
Finite-Temperature Hydrogen Adsorption/Desorption Thermodynamics Driven by Soft Vibration Modes
Woo, Sung-Jae; Lee, Eui-Sup; Yoon, Mina; Yong-Hyun, Kim
2013-01-01
It is widely accepted that room-temperature hydrogen storage on nanostructured or porous materials requires enhanced dihydrogen adsorption. In this work we reveal that room-temperature hydrogen storage is possible not only by the enhanced adsorption, but also by making use of the vibrational free energy from soft vibration modes. These modes exist for example in the case of metallo-porphyrin-incorporated graphenes (M-PIGs) with out-of-plane ( buckled ) metal centers. There, the in-plane potential surfaces are flat because of multiple-orbital-coupling between hydrogen molecules and the buckled-metal centers. This study investigates the finite-temperature adsorption/desorption thermodynamics of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on M-PIGs by employing first-principles total energy and vibrational spectrum calculations. Our results suggest that the current design strategy for room-temperature hydrogen storage materials should be modified by explicitly taking finite-temperature vibration thermodynamics into account.
Asymmetry of the dimension-two gluon condensate: The finite temperature case
Vercauteren, David; Verschelde, Henri
2010-10-15
In this paper, we continue the work begun in a previous article. We compute, in the formalism of local composite operators, the value of the asymmetry in the dimension two condensate for finite temperatures. We find a positive value for the asymmetry, which disappears when the temperature is increased. We also compute the value of the full dimension two condensate for higher temperatures, and we find that it decreases in absolute value, finally disappearing for sufficiently high temperature. We also comment on the temperature dependence of the electric and magnetic components of the condensate separately. We compare our results with the corresponding lattice date found by Chernodub and Ilgenfritz.
Chang, Isaac
2003-05-08
Few finite element models (FEM) have been developed to describe the electric field, specific absorption rate (SAR), and the temperature distribution surrounding hepatic radiofrequency ablation probes. To date, a coupled finite element model that accounts for the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity changes has not been developed for ablation type devices. While it is widely acknowledged that accounting for temperature dependent phenomena may affect the outcome of these models, the effect has not been assessed. The results of four finite element models are compared: constant electrical conductivity without tissue perfusion, temperature-dependent conductivity without tissue perfusion, constant electrical conductivity with tissue perfusion, and temperature-dependent conductivity with tissue perfusion. The data demonstrate that significant errors are generated when constant electrical conductivity is assumed in coupled electrical-heat transfer problems that operate at high temperatures. These errors appear to be closely related to the temperature at which the ablation device operates and not to the amount of power applied by the device or the state of tissue perfusion. Accounting for temperature-dependent phenomena may be critically important in the safe operation of radiofrequency ablation device that operate near 100 degrees C.
BCS instability and finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D1-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu; Sathiapalan, B.
2014-09-01
A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in [1]. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass-squared-squared using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the finite temperature mass-squared correction to all the massless fields and use these temperature dependent masses-squared to compute the tachyonic mass-squared correction. We show numerically the existence of a transition temperature at which the effective mass-squared of the tree-level tachyons becomes zero, thereby stabilizing the brane configuration.
Dissipative soliton protocols in semiconductor microcavities at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpov, D. V.; Savenko, I. G.; Flayac, H.; Rosanov, N. N.
2015-08-01
We consider exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity with a saturable absorber in the growth direction of the heterostructure. This feature promotes additional nonlinear losses of the system with the emergence of bistability of the condensate particles number on the nonresonant (electrical or optical) excitation intensity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new type of bright spatial dissipative exciton-polariton soliton which emerges in the equilibrium between the regions with different particle density. We develop protocols of soliton creation and destruction. The switch to a solitonlike behavior occurs if the cavity is exposed by a short strong laser pulse with certain energy and duration. We estimate the characteristic times of soliton switch on and off and the time of return to the initial cycle. In particular, we demonstrate surprising narrowing of the spatial profile of the soliton and its vanishing at certain temperature due to interaction of the system with the thermal bath of acoustic phonons. We also address the role of polariton-polariton interaction (Kerr-like nonlinearity) on formation of dissipative solitons and show that the soliton may exist both in its presence and its absence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksel, E.; Colò, G.; Khan, E.; Niu, Y. F.; Bozkurt, K.
2017-08-01
The effect of temperature on the evolution of the isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole excitations in 68Ni and 120Sn nuclei is studied within the fully self-consistent finite temperature quasiparticle random phase approximation framework, based on the Skyrme-type SLy5 energy density functional. The new low-energy excitations emerge due to the transitions from thermally occupied states to the discretized continuum at finite temperatures, whereas the isovector giant dipole resonance is not strongly impacted by the increase of temperature. The radiative dipole strength at low energies is also investigated for the 122Sn nucleus, becoming compatible with the available experimental data when the temperature is included. In addition, both the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and low-energy quadrupole states are sensitive to the temperature effect: while the centroid energies decrease in the case of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance, the collectivity of the first 2+ state is quenched and the opening of new excitation channels fragments the low-energy strength at finite temperatures.
Electronic chemical response indexes at finite temperature in the canonical ensemble
Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx Gázquez, José L. E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx
2015-07-14
Assuming that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons and within the extension of density functional theory to finite temperature, the first and second order chemical reactivity response functions of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the temperature, the number of electrons, and the external potential are derived. It is found that in all cases related to the first or second derivatives with respect to the number of electrons or the external potential, there is a term given by the average of the corresponding derivative of the electronic energy of each state (ground and excited). For the second derivatives, including those related with the temperature, there is a thermal fluctuation contribution that is zero at zero temperature. Thus, all expressions reduce correctly to their corresponding chemical reactivity expressions at zero temperature and show that, at room temperature, the corrections are very small. When the assumption that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons is replaced by the straight lines behavior connecting integer values, as required by the ensemble theorem, one needs to introduce directional derivatives in most cases, so that the temperature dependent expressions reduce correctly to their zero temperature counterparts. However, the main result holds, namely, at finite temperature the thermal corrections to the chemical reactivity response functions are very small. Consequently, the present work validates the usage of reactivity indexes calculated at zero temperature to infer chemical behavior at room and even higher temperatures.
Electronic chemical response indexes at finite temperature in the canonical ensemble.
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto
2015-07-14
Assuming that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons and within the extension of density functional theory to finite temperature, the first and second order chemical reactivity response functions of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the temperature, the number of electrons, and the external potential are derived. It is found that in all cases related to the first or second derivatives with respect to the number of electrons or the external potential, there is a term given by the average of the corresponding derivative of the electronic energy of each state (ground and excited). For the second derivatives, including those related with the temperature, there is a thermal fluctuation contribution that is zero at zero temperature. Thus, all expressions reduce correctly to their corresponding chemical reactivity expressions at zero temperature and show that, at room temperature, the corrections are very small. When the assumption that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons is replaced by the straight lines behavior connecting integer values, as required by the ensemble theorem, one needs to introduce directional derivatives in most cases, so that the temperature dependent expressions reduce correctly to their zero temperature counterparts. However, the main result holds, namely, at finite temperature the thermal corrections to the chemical reactivity response functions are very small. Consequently, the present work validates the usage of reactivity indexes calculated at zero temperature to infer chemical behavior at room and even higher temperatures.
Finite-temperature behavior of an interspecies fermionic superfluid with population imbalance
Guo Hao; Chien, C.-C.; He Yan; Levin, K.; Chen Qijin
2009-07-15
We determine the superfluid transition temperature T{sub c} and related finite temperature phase diagrams for the entire BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover in a three-dimensional homogeneous mixture of {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K atoms with population imbalance. Our work is motivated by the recent observation of an interspecies Feshbach resonance. Pairing fluctuation effects, which significantly reduce T{sub c} from the onset temperature for pairing (T*), provide reasonable estimates of T{sub c} and indicate that the interspecies superfluid phase should be accessible in future experiments. Although a homogeneous polarized superfluid is not stable in the ground state near unitarity, our phase diagrams show that it stabilizes at finite temperature.
Finite-temperature phase transitions in lattice QCD with Langevin simulation
Fukugita, M.; Ukawa, A.
1988-09-15
This article presents the result of Langevin simulation studies of finite-temperature behavior of QCD for a various number of flavor species. Most of the simulations employ an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice. A full description is made of the data and the identification problem of a first-order phase transition. The systematic bias problem is also investigated.
The finite temperature behaviour of lattice QCD with moderate to large quark masses
Sinclair, D.K.
1988-01-01
Simulations of lattice QCD with 4 flavours of staggered quarks were performed using the Hybrid algorithm on a 12/sup 3/ /times/ 4 lattice. For quark masses greater than or equal to.1 (lattice units) the finite temperature transition did not appear to be first order. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Finite-temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics
Kheirandish, Fardin; Soltani, Morteza; Amooghorban, Ehsan
2011-03-15
Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations to coupling functions are determined. Finally, the Casimir energy and force in the presence of a nonlinear medium at finite temperature are calculated.
String effects and the distribution of the glue in static mesons at finite temperature
Bakry, A. S.; Leinweber, D. B.; Moran, P. J.; Williams, A. G.; Sternbeck, A.
2010-11-01
The distribution of the gluon action density in mesonic systems is investigated at finite temperature. The simulations are performed in quenched QCD for two temperatures below the deconfinement phase. Unlike the gluonic profiles displayed at T=0, the action-density isosurfaces display a prolate-spheroid-like shape. The curved width profile of the flux tube is found to be consistent with the prediction of the free bosonic string model at large distances.
Finite Element Models and Properties of a Stiffened Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.
2010-01-01
Finite element models were developed of a floor-equipped, frame and stringer stiffened composite cylinder including a coarse finite element model of the structural components, a coarse finite element model of the acoustic cavities above and below the beam-supported plywood floor, and two dense models consisting of only the structural components. The report summarizes the geometry, the element properties, the material and mechanical properties, the beam cross-section characteristics, the beam element representations and the boundary conditions of the composite cylinder models. The expressions used to calculate the group speeds for the cylinder components are presented.
Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2010-05-01
This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (kF)ανρφ [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 085026 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.085026]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (kF)ανρφ for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck’s radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.
Particle-number projection in the finite-temperature mean-field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fanto, P.; Alhassid, Y.; Bertsch, G. F.
2017-07-01
Finite-temperature mean-field theories, such as the Hartree-Fock (HF) and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theories, are formulated in the grand-canonical ensemble, and their applications to the calculation of statistical properties of nuclei such as level densities require a reduction to the canonical ensemble. In a previous publication [Y. Alhassid et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 044320 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.044320], it was found that ensemble-reduction methods based on the saddle-point approximation are not reliable in cases in which rotational symmetry or particle-number conservation is broken. In particular, the calculated HFB canonical entropy can be unphysical as a result of the inherent violation of particle-number conservation. In this work, we derive a general formula for exact particle-number projection after variation in the HFB approximation, assuming that the HFB Hamiltonian preserves time-reversal symmetry. This formula reduces to simpler known expressions in the HF and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limits of the HFB. We apply this formula to calculate the thermodynamic quantities needed for level densities in the heavy nuclei 162Dy, 148Sm, and 150Sm. We find that the exact particle-number projection gives better physical results and is significantly more computationally efficient than the saddle-point methods. However, the fundamental limitations caused by broken symmetries in the mean-field approximation are still present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, G.; Chakraborty, N.; Das, J.
Hysteresis motors being capable of producing a steady torque at low speeds and providing good starting properties at loaded condition became popular among different fractional horse power electrical motors. High temperature superconducting materials being intrinsically hysteretic are suitable for this type of motor. In the present work, performance study of a 2-pole, 50 Hz HTS hysteresis motor with conventional stator and HTS rotor has been carried out numerically using finite element method. The simulation results confirm the ability of the segmented HTS rotor with glued circular sectors to trap the magnetic field as high as possible compared to the ferromagnetic rotor. Also the magnetization loops in the HTS hysteresis motor are obtained and the corresponding torque and AC losses are calculated. The motor torque thus obtained is linearly proportional to the current which is the common feature of any hysteresis motor. Calculations of torques, current densities etc are done using MATLAB program developed in-house and validated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation result shows reasonable agreement with the published results.
High-temperature property data: Ferrous alloys
Rothman, M.F.
1987-01-01
In this book over 250 alloys are organized by AISI number into 10 major sections: Irons, Carbon Steels, Alloy Steels, Low Alloy Constructional Steels, Ultra High Strength Steels, Tool Steels, Maraging Steels, Wrought Stainless Steels, Heat Resistnat Casting Alloys, and Iron Based Rought Superalloys. Each alloy record lists the designation, specifications, UNS number, composition, product forms and a comment on the high-temperature properties and applications. Referenced data is then given for physical properties such as density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity, Poisson's ratio, moduli of elasticity and rigidity, etc. Mechanical properties follow, and include tensile properties, shearing and bearing properties, impact properties, creep, stress rupture and stress relaxation and fatigue properties. The last part of the alloy record gives other effects of temperature, such as hot hardness, corrosion, and growth.
Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian
2013-03-01
While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.
Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian
2012-02-01
While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.
Finite-temperature pairing re-entrance in the drip-line nucleus 48Ni
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belabbas, Mohamed; Li, Jia Jie; Margueron, Jérôme
2017-08-01
Finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory using Skyrme interactions and relativistic Hartree-Fock effective Lagrangians predicts 48Ni as being a possible candidate for the finite-temperature pairing re-entrance phenomenon. For this proton-drip-line nucleus, proton resonant states are expected to contribute substantially to pairing correlations and the two predicted critical temperatures are Tc 1˜0.08 -0.2 MeV and Tc 2˜0.7 -0.9 MeV. It is also shown that pairing re-entrance modifies the proton single-particle energies around the Fermi level, as well as occupation numbers and quasiparticle levels. The understanding of pairing re-entrance in 48Ni presently challenges our understanding of exotic matter under extreme conditions.
Finite temperature expansion dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in ring traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arko; Angom, D.
2017-08-01
We explore the effects of finite temperature on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) after it is released from the confining potential. In addition, we examine the variation in the expansion dynamics of the BECs as the confining potential is transformed from a multiply to a simply connected geometry. To include the effects of finite temperatures we use the frozen thermal cloud approximation, and observe unique features of the condensate density distribution when released from the confining potential. We find that at T ≠ 0, during the initial stages of expansion, the multiply connected condensate has more pronounced interference rings compared to the case of zero temperature. Such difference in the dynamical evolution is also evident for simply connected condensates.
Effects of interactions on dynamic correlations of hard-core bosons at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.
2017-09-01
We investigate how dynamic correlations of hard-core bosonic excitation at finite temperature are affected by additional interactions besides the hard-core repulsion which prevents them from occupying the same site. We focus especially on dimerized spin systems, where these additional interactions between the elementary excitations, triplons, lead to the formation of bound states, relevant for the correct description of scattering processes. In order to include these effects quantitatively, we extend the previously developed Brückner approach to include also nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions correctly in a low-temperature expansion. This leads to the extension of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation to a matrix-valued equation. As an example, we consider the Heisenberg spin ladder to illustrate the significance of the additional interactions on the spectral functions at finite temperature, which are proportional to inelastic neutron scattering rates.
Finite-temperature twisted-untwisted transition of the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedi, Deshpreet; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming
Mechanical instability governs many fascinating phenomena in nature, including jamming, glass transitions, and structural phase transitions. Although mechanical instability in athermal systems is well understood, how thermal fluctuations modify such transitions remains largely unexplored. Recent studies reveal that, due to the large number of floppy modes that emerge at mechanical instability, intriguing new phenomena occur, such as fluctuation-driven first-order transitions and order-by-disorder. In this talk, we present an analytic study of the finite-temperature rigidity transition for the kagome lattice. Our model exhibits a zero-temperature continuous twisted-untwisted transition as the sign of the next-nearest-neighbor spring constant changes. At finite temperature, we show that the divergent contribution of floppy modes to the vibrational entropy renormalizes this spring constant, resulting in a first-order transition. We also propose an experimental manifestation of this transition in the system of self-assembling triblock Janus particles.
Fermionic spectral functions in backreacting p-wave superconductors at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, G. L.; Grandi, N. E.; Lugo, A. R.
2017-04-01
We investigate the spectral function of fermions in a p-wave superconducting state, at finite both temperature and gravitational coupling, using the AdS/CF T correspondence and extending previous research. We found that, for any coupling below a critical value, the system behaves as its zero temperature limit. By increasing the coupling, the "peak-dip-hump" structure that characterizes the spectral function at fixed momenta disappears. In the region where the normal/superconductor phase transition is first order, the presence of a non-zero order parameter is reflected in the absence of rotational symmetry in the fermionic spectral function at the critical temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ziyue; Zhuang, Pengfei
2017-07-01
The pion superfluid and the corresponding Goldstone and soft modes are investigated in a two-flavor quark-meson model with a functional renormalization group. By solving the flow equations for the effective potential and the meson two-point functions at finite temperature and isospin density, the critical temperature for the superfluid increases sizeably in comparison with solving the flow equation for the potential only. The spectral function for the soft mode shows clearly a transition from meson gas to quark gas with increasing temperature and a crossover from Bose-Einstein condensation to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of quarks with increasing isospin density.
Butz, Kent D; Chan, Deva D; Nauman, Eric A; Neu, Corey P
2011-10-13
The noninvasive measurement of finite strains in biomaterials and tissues by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables mathematical estimates of stress distributions and material properties. Such methods allow for non-contact and patient-specific modeling in a manner not possible with traditional mechanical testing or finite element techniques. Here, we employed three constitutive (i.e. linear Hookean, and nonlinear Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin) relations with known loading conditions and MRI-based finite strains to estimate stress patterns and material properties in the articular cartilage of tibiofemoral joints. Displacement-encoded MRI was used to determine two-dimensional finite strains in juvenile porcine joints, and an iterative technique estimated stress distributions and material properties with defined constitutive relations. Stress distributions were consistent across all relations, although the stress magnitudes varied. Material properties for femoral and tibial cartilage were found to be consistent with those reported in literature. Further, the stress estimates from Hookean and Neo-Hookean, but not Mooney-Rivlin, relations agreed with finite element-based simulations. A nonlinear Neo-Hookean relation provided the most appropriate model for the characterization of complex and spatially dependent stresses using two-dimensional MRI-based finite strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a new and computationally efficient technique incorporating MRI-based deformation with mathematical modeling to non-invasively evaluate the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Towards the Finite Temperature Gluon Propagator in Landau Gauge Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, A.
2003-12-01
Yang-Mills theories undergo a deconfining phase transition at a critical temperature. In lattice calculations the temporal Wilson loop and. Z3 order parameter show above this temperature a behavior typical of deconfinement. A quantity of interest in the study of this transition is the gluon propagator and its evolution with temperature. This contribution describes the current status of an investigation of the finite temperature gluon propagator in Landau gauge. It analyzes the high temperature case. The resulting equations are compared to the corresponding ones of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Under certain assumptions it is found that a kind of spatial "confinement" is still present, even at very high temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majka; Staszel, P.; Natowitz, J. B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Wada, R.; Zhao, Y.
1996-10-01
Quantum statistical thermodynamics has been used to calculate the number of available states and their occupation for fermions and bosons at temperature, T_in, of finite nuclear sytems. An apparent temperature of these systems, T_app, has been calculated from double yield ratios of two isotope pairs. The importance of employing the quantum statistics when high densities and/or low temperatures are involved is shown. However, at high temperatures and low densities, the system behaves as a Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Sequental decays of fragments from excited states influence the double yield ratio observable, causing problems with the temperature extraction. The model has been applied to study the high temperature branch of the "caloric curve".
Magnetospheric Whistler Mode Ray Tracing with the Inclusion of Finite Electron and Ion Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.
2015-12-01
Ray tracing is an important technique for the study of whistler mode wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere. In numerical ray tracing the trajectory of a wave packet is calculated at each point in space by solving the Haselgrove equations, assuming a smooth, loss-less medium with no mode coupling. Previous work on ray tracing has assumed a cold plasma environment with negligible electron and ion temperatures. In this work we present magnetospheric whistler mode wave ray tracing results with the inclusion of finite ion and electron temperature. The inclusion of finite temperature effects makes the fourth order dispersion relation become sixth order. We compare our results with the work done by previous researchers for cold plasma environments, using two near earth space models (NGO and GCPM). Inclusion of finite temperature closes the otherwise open refractive index surface near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and affects the magnetospheric reflection of whistler waves. We also asses the main changes in the ray trajectory and implications for cyclotron resonance wave particle interactions including energetic particle precipitation.
Nucleon spectral function at finite temperature and the onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter
Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Schnell, A.; Kwong, N.H.; Koehler, H.S.
1996-05-01
Nucleon self-energies and spectral functions are calculated at the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. In particular, the behavior of these quantities at temperatures above and close to the critical temperature for the superfluid phase transition in nuclear matter is discussed. It is shown how the singularity in the thermodynamic {ital T} matrix at the critical temperature for superfluidity (Thouless criterion) reflects in the self-energy and correspondingly in the spectral function. The real part of the on-shell self-energy (optical potential) shows an anomalous behavior for momenta near the Fermi momentum and temperatures close to the critical temperature related to the pairing singularity in the imaginary part. For comparison the self-energy derived from the {ital K} matrix of Brueckner theory is also calculated. It is found that there is no pairing singularity in the imaginary part of the self-energy in this case, which is due to the neglect of hole-hole scattering in the {ital K} matrix. From the self-energy the spectral function and the occupation numbers for finite temperatures are calculated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques
2010-09-01
The effect of finite temperature T and finite strain rate γ on the statistical physics of plastic deformations in amorphous solids made of N particles is investigated. We recognize three regimes of temperature where the statistics are qualitatively different. In the first regime the temperature is very low, T
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.
2013-01-01
We study with finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation under periodic boundary conditions remanence, coercivity, and energy product behavior of exchanged-coupled hard and soft alternating layers. We compare multilayer properties with that of a composite composed of cube inclusions of hard phase embedded into a soft matrix. The easy axis of the hard (SmCo5) and soft (FeCo) phases is parallel to the layers and the applied magnetic field. We find a significant increase of the energy product for the multilayer structure as compared with that of the cube structure. In the former case, the switching occurs as a result of a two-step demagnetization process, realizing the concept of exchange-spring behavior, when first the soft layers gradually rotate to the direction of applied field, and then the hard phase layers rotate. In the latter case, we find a significant lowering of the remanent magnetization with increasing soft magnet content than anticipated. This is due to the boundary mismatch of magnetization on the hard/soft interface. We investigate this mismatch as a function of the soft phase content and temperature. The boundary mismatch significantly affects the finite temperature energy product of composites.
Li, Jianying; Li, Haiyan; Fok, Alex S L; Watts, David C
2012-09-01
The aim of this study was to numerically evaluate the effects of filler contents and resin properties on the material properties of dental composites utilizing realistic 3D micromechanical finite element models. 3D micromechanical finite element models of dental composites containing irregular fillers with non-uniform sizes were created based on a large-scale, surrogate mixture fabricated from irregularly shaped stones and casting resin. The surrogate mixture was first scanned with a micro-CT scanner, and the images reassembled to produce a 3D finite element model. Different filler fractions were achieved by adjusting the matrix volume while keeping the fillers unchanged. Polymerization shrinkage, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and viscosity of the model composites were predicted using the finite element models, and their dependence on the filler fraction and material properties of the resin matrix were considered. Comparison of the numerical predictions with available experimental data and analytical models from the literature was performed. Increased filler fraction resulted in lower material shrinkage, higher Young's modulus, lower Poisson's ratio and higher viscosity in the composite. Predicted shrinkage and Young's modulus agreed well with the experimental data and analytical predictions. The McGee-McCullough model best fit the shrinkage and Young's modulus predicted by the finite element method. However, a new parameter, used as the exponent of the filler fraction, had to be introduced to the McGee-McCullough model to better match the predicted viscosity and Poisson's ratio with those from the finite element analysis. Realistic micro-structural finite element models were successfully applied to study the effects of filler fraction and matrix properties on a wide range of mechanical properties of dental composites with irregular fillers. The results can be used to direct the design of such materials to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Published by
Finite-temperature dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautam, S.; Roy, Arko; Mukerjee, Subroto
2014-01-01
We study the dynamics of a single vortex and a pair of vortices in quasi two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures. To this end, we use the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is the Langevin equation for the Bose-Einstein condensate. For a pair of vortices, we study the dynamics of both the vortex-vortex and vortex-antivortex pairs, which are generated by rotating the trap and moving the Gaussian obstacle potential, respectively. Due to thermal fluctuations, the constituent vortices are not symmetrically generated with respect to each other at finite temperatures. This initial asymmetry coupled with the presence of random thermal fluctuations in the system can lead to different decay rates for the component vortices of the pair, especially in the case of two corotating vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnik, Piotr; Rams, Marek M.; Dziarmaga, Jacek
2016-12-01
A Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a 3D tensor network, with the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension. The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. They are optimized variationally to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO as a representation of the 2D thermal state e-β H. The algorithm is applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model on an infinite square lattice. Benchmark results at finite temperature are obtained that are consistent with the best cluster dynamical mean-field theory and power-series expansion in the regime of parameters where they yield mutually consistent results.
Proposal for measuring the finite-temperature Drude weight of integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karrasch, C.; Prosen, T.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.
2017-02-01
Integrable models such as the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain, the Lieb-Liniger, or the one-dimensional Hubbard model are known to avoid thermalization, which was also demonstrated in several quantum-quench experiments. Another dramatic consequence of integrability is the zero-frequency anomaly in transport coefficients, which results in ballistic finite-temperature transport, despite the presence of strong interactions. While this aspect of nonergodic dynamics has been known for a long time, there has so far not been any unambiguous experimental realization thereof. We make a concrete proposal for the observation of ballistic transport via local quantum-quench experiments in fermionic quantum-gas microscopes. Such an experiment would also unveil the coexistence of ballistic and diffusive transport channels in one and the same system and provide a means of measuring finite-temperature Drude weights. The connection between local quenches and linear-response functions is established via time-dependent Einstein relations.
Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah
2009-04-01
A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).
Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study
Christov, Ivan P.
2016-08-15
In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.
Exact nonequilibrium dynamics of finite-temperature Tonks-Girardeau gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atas, Y. Y.; Gangardt, D. M.; Bouchoule, I.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2017-04-01
Describing finite-temperature nonequilibrium dynamics of interacting many-particle systems is a notoriously challenging problem in quantum many-body physics. Here we provide an exact solution to this problem for a system of strongly interacting bosons in one dimension in the Tonks-Girardeau regime of infinitely strong repulsive interactions. Using the Fredholm determinant approach and the Bose-Fermi mapping, we show how the problem can be reduced to a single-particle basis, wherein the finite-temperature effects enter the solution via an effective "dressing" of the single-particle wave functions by the Fermi-Dirac occupation factors. We demonstrate the utility of our approach and its computational efficiency in two nontrivial out-of-equilibrium scenarios: collective breathing-mode oscillations in a harmonic trap and collisional dynamics in the Newton's cradle setting involving real-time evolution in a periodic Bragg potential.
Finite temperature dynamics of spin-1/2 chains with symmetry breaking interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manmana, Salvatore R.; Tiegel, Alexander C.; Pruschke, Thomas; Honecker, Andreas
I will discuss recent developments for flexible matrix product state (MPS) approaches to calculate finite-temperature spectral functions of low-dimensional strongly correlated quantum systems. The main focus will be on a Liouvillian formulation. The resulting algorithm does not specifically depend on the MPS formulation, but is applicable for any wave function based approach which can provide a purification of the density matrix, opening the way for further developments of numerical methods. Based on MPS results for various spin chains, in particular systems with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions caused by spin-orbit coupling and dimerized chains, I will discuss how symmetry breaking interactions change the nature of the finite-temperature dynamic spin structure factor obtained in ESR and neutron scattering experiments. We acknowledge funding by the Helmholtz Virtual Institute ``New States of Matter and Their Excitations''.
Sequences with M-Bonacci Property and Their Finite Sums
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2008-01-01
The note introduces sequences having M-bonacci property. Two summation formulas for sequences with M-bonacci property are derived. The formulas are generalizations of corresponding summation formulas for both M-bonacci numbers and Fibonacci numbers that have appeared previously in the literature. Applications to the Arithmetic series, "m"th "g -…
Sequences with M-Bonacci Property and Their Finite Sums
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2008-01-01
The note introduces sequences having M-bonacci property. Two summation formulas for sequences with M-bonacci property are derived. The formulas are generalizations of corresponding summation formulas for both M-bonacci numbers and Fibonacci numbers that have appeared previously in the literature. Applications to the Arithmetic series, "m"th "g -…
Elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomiyama, A.; Suga, S.; Okiji, A.
1997-07-01
The elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures are studied with the use of the Bethe ansatz solution. The formulation is based on the method of Yang and Yang, which was developed for the one-dimensional boson systems with the 0953-8984/9/27/014/img1-function type interaction. The dispersion relations and the excitation spectrums are obtained numerically for the charge and the spin degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjemâa, Abdelâali; Guebli, Nadia
2017-10-01
Using the time-dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach, where the condensate is coupled with the thermal cloud and the anomalous density, we study the equilibrium and the dynamical properties of three-dimensional quantum-degenerate Bose gas at finite temperature. Effects of the anomalous correlations on the condensed fraction and the critical temperature are discussed. In uniform Bose gas, useful expressions for the Bogoliubov excitations spectrum, the first and second sound, the condensate depletion and the superfluid fraction are derived. Our results are tested by comparing the findings computed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We present also a systematic investigation of the collective modes of a Bose condensate confined in an external trap. Our predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. We show in particular that our theory is capable of explaining the so-called anomalous behavior of the m=0 mode.
Simulation on Temperature Field of Radiofrequency Lesions System Based on Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, D.; Qian, L.; Qian, Z.; Li, W.
2011-01-01
This paper mainly describes the way to get the volume model of damaged region according to the simulation on temperature field of radiofrequency ablation lesion system in curing Parkinson's disease based on finite element method. This volume model reflects, to some degree, the shape and size of the damaged tissue during the treatment with all tendencies in different time or core temperature. By using Pennes equation as heat conduction equation of radiofrequency ablation of biological tissue, the author obtains the temperature distribution field of biological tissue in the method of finite element for solving equations. In order to establish damage models at temperature points of 60°C, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, 80°C, 85°C and 90 °C while the time points are 30s, 60s, 90s and 120s, Parkinson's disease model of nuclei is reduced to uniform, infinite model with RF pin at the origin. Theoretical simulations of these models are displayed, focusing on a variety of conditions about the effective lesion size on horizontal and vertical. The results show the binary complete quadratic non-linear joint temperature-time models of the maximum damage diameter and maximum height. The models can comprehensively reflect the degeneration of target tissue caused by radio frequency temperature and duration. This lay the foundation for accurately monitor of clinical RF treatment of Parkinson's disease in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, V. L.; Ricco, L. S.; Seridonio, A. C.
2017-07-01
The zero-bias peak (ZBP) is understood as the definite signature of a Majorana bound state (MBS) when attached to a semi-infinite Kitaev nanowire (KNW) nearby zero temperature. However, such characteristics concerning the realization of the KNW constitute a profound experimental challenge. We explore theoretically a QD connected to a topological KNW of finite size at nonzero temperatures and show that overlapped MBSs of the wire edges can become effectively decoupled from each other and the characteristic ZBP can be fully recovered if one tunes the system into the leaked Majorana fermion fixed point. At very low temperatures, the MBSs become strongly coupled. We derive universal features of the conductance as a function of the temperature and the relevant crossover temperatures. Our findings offer additional guides to identify signatures of MBSs in solid state setups.
Chen, Roland K; Chastagner, Matthew W; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J
2013-02-01
The temporal and spatial tissue temperature profile in electrosurgical vessel sealing was experimentally measured and modeled using finite element modeling (FEM). Vessel sealing procedures are often performed near the neurovascular bundle and may cause collateral neural thermal damage. Therefore, the heat generated during electrosurgical vessel sealing is of concern among surgeons. Tissue temperature in an in vivo porcine femoral artery sealed using a bipolar electrosurgical device was studied. Three FEM techniques were incorporated to model the tissue evaporation, water loss, and fusion by manipulating the specific heat, electrical conductivity, and electrical contact resistance, respectively. These three techniques enable the FEM to accurately predict the vessel sealing tissue temperature profile. The averaged discrepancy between the experimentally measured temperature and the FEM predicted temperature at three thermistor locations is less than 7%. The maximum error is 23.9%. Effects of the three FEM techniques are also quantified.
Heavy quark potential at finite temperature from gauge-string duality
Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.; Ferreira, Cristine N.
2006-10-15
A static string in an AdS Schwarzschild space is dual to a heavy quark-antiquark pair in a gauge theory at high temperature. This space is nonconfining in the sense that the energy is finite for infinite quark-antiquark separation. We introduce an infrared cutoff in this space and calculate the corresponding string energy. We find a deconfining phase transition at a critical temperature T{sub C}. Above T{sub C}, the string tension vanishes representing the deconfined phase. Below T{sub C}, we find a linear confining behavior for large quark-antiquark separation. This simple phenomenological model leads to the appropriate zero temperature limit, corresponding to the Cornell potential and also describes a thermal deconfining phase transition. However, the temperature corrections to the string tension do not recover the expected results for low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satow, Daisuke; Gubler, Philipp
2017-03-01
We derive three exact sum rules for the spectral function of the electromagnetic current with zero spatial momentum at finite temperature. Possible applications of the three sum rules to lattice computations of the spectral function and transport coefficients are also discussed: We propose an ansatz for the spectral function that can be applied to all three sum rules and fit it to available lattice data of the Euclidean vector correlator above the critical temperature. As a result, we obtain estimates for both the electrical conductivity σ and the second order transport coefficient τJ.
Sound propagation in a Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures
Meppelink, R.; Koller, S. B.; Straten, P. van der
2009-10-15
We study the propagation of a density wave in a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures. The thermal cloud is in the hydrodynamic regime and the system is therefore described by the two-fluid model. A phase-contrast imaging technique is used to image the cloud of atoms and allows us to observe small density excitations. The propagation of the density wave in the condensate is used to determine the speed of sound as a function of the temperature. We find the speed of sound to be in good agreement with calculations based on the Landau two-fluid model.
Finite-temperature simulations of the scissors mode in Bose-Einstein condensed gases.
Jackson, B; Zaremba, E
2001-09-03
The dynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas at finite temperatures is described by a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate order parameter and a semiclassical kinetic equation for the thermal cloud, solved using N-body simulations. The two components are coupled by mean fields as well as collisional processes that transfer atoms between the two. We use this scheme to investigate scissors modes in anisotropic traps as a function of temperature. Frequency shifts and damping rates of the condensate mode are extracted, and are found to be in good agreement with recent experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.; Hendricks, R. C.
1984-01-01
The analysis presented herein deals with the evaluation of the pressure, velocity, and temperature profiles in a finite-length plane journal bearing. The geometry of the case under study consists of a spatially tilted shaft. The two-dimensional Reynolds equation accounts for the variation of the clearance gap h with x and z and is used to model the pressure field. The latter is solved for a variety of shaft tilt angles and then used to calculate the two-dimensional flow field. Finally, the flow field is used in the energy equation to solve for the film temperature profile, when the effect of viscous dissipation is taken into account.
Low-field diamagnetic response of granular superconductors at finite temperatures
Auletta, C.; Raiconi, G. ); De Luca, R.; Pace, S. )
1994-05-01
We study the low-field diamagnetic response of granular superconductors at finite temperatures by means of a simple two-dimensional Josephson-junction array. The temperature effects are taken into account by inserting white-noise current sources in parallel to the resistively shunted junction circuit models of the Josephson junctions of the network. By this analysis we argue that a simplified one-dimensional description of the equivalent circuit, proposed by the authors for cylindrical granular superconductors, is still valid even in the presence of thermally activated flux jumps. A flux-creep picture for intergranular flux motion follows.
Temperature dependence of coulomb drag between finite-length quantum wires.
Peguiron, J; Bruder, C; Trauzettel, B
2007-08-24
We evaluate the Coulomb drag current in two finite-length Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid wires coupled by an electrostatic backscattering interaction. The drag current in one wire shows oscillations as a function of the bias voltage applied to the other wire, reflecting interferences of the plasmon standing waves in the interacting wires. In agreement with this picture, the amplitude of the current oscillations is reduced with increasing temperature. This is a clear signature of non-Fermi-liquid physics because for coupled Fermi liquids the drag resistance is always expected to increase as the temperature is raised.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.; Hendricks, R. C.
1984-01-01
The analysis presented herein deals with the evaluation of the pressure, velocity, and temperature profiles in a finite-length plane journal bearing. The geometry of the case under study consists of a spatially tilted shaft. The two-dimensional Reynolds equation accounts for the variation of the clearance gap h with x and z and is used to model the pressure field. The latter is solved for a variety of shaft tilt angles and then used to calculate the two-dimensional flow field. Finally, the flow field is used in the energy equation to solve for the film temperature profile, when the effect of viscous dissipation is taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2013-05-01
We study sound propagation in a Bose-condensed gas confined in a highly elongated harmonic trap at finite temperatures. Our analysis is based on Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) formalism, which consists of Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate and the kinetic equation for a thermal cloud. We extend ZNG formalism to deal with a highly-anisotropic trap potential, and use it to simulate sound propagation in the two fluid hydrodynamic regime. We use the trap parameters for the experiment that has reported second sound propagation. Our simulation results show that propagation of two sound pulses corresponding to first and second sound can be observed in an intermediate temperature.
Symmetry breaking in noncommutative finite temperature λphi4 theory with a nonuniform ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez, C.; Sánchez, M.
2014-05-01
We consider the CJT effective action at finite temperature for a noncommutative real scalar field theory, with noncommutativity among space and time variables. We study the solutions of a stripe type nonuniform background, which depends on space and time. The analysis in the first approximation shows that such solutions appear in the planar limit, but also under normal anisotropic noncommutativity. Further we show that the transition from the uniform ordered phase to the non uniform one is first order and that the critical temperature depends on the nonuniformity of the ground state.
A study of symmetry restoration at finite temperature in the O(4) model using anisotropic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavai, R. V.; Heller, U. M.; Karsch, F.; Plache, B.; Neuhaus, T.
Results of investigations of the O(4) spin model at finite temperature using anisotropic lattices are presented. In both the large N approximation and the numerical simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm we find that the ratio of the symmetry restoration temperature TSR to the Higgs mass mH is independent of the anisotropy. We obtain a lower bound of 0.59 ± 0.04 for the ratio, T SR/m H, at m H ⋍ 0.5 , which is lowered furhter by about 10% at m Ha ⋍ 1 .
Optical properties of water at high temperature
French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald
2011-04-15
We calculate optical properties of water along the principal Hugoniot curve from ambient conditions up to temperatures of 130 000 K with density functional theory (DFT) and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The effect of the exchange correlation functional is examined by comparing the generalized gradient approximation with a hybrid functional that contains Fock exchange. We find noticeable but moderate differences between the respective results which decrease rapidly above 80 000 K. The reflectivity along the principal Hugoniot is calculated and a good qualitative but fair quantitative agreement with available experimental data is found. Our results are of general relevance for calculations of optical properties with DFT at zero and elevated temperature.
Finite-temperature charge transport in the one-dimensional Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, F.; Steinigeweg, R.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.
2015-11-01
We study the charge conductivity of the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model at finite temperature using the method of dynamical quantum typicality, focusing at half filling. This numerical approach allows us to obtain current autocorrelation functions from systems with as many as 18 sites, way beyond the range of standard exact diagonalization. Our data clearly suggest that the charge Drude weight vanishes with a power law as a function of system size. The low-frequency dependence of the conductivity is consistent with a finite dc value and thus with diffusion, despite large finite-size effects. Furthermore, we consider the mass-imbalanced Hubbard model for which the charge Drude weight decays exponentially with system size, as expected for a nonintegrable model. We analyze the conductivity and diffusion constant as a function of the mass imbalance and we observe that the conductivity of the lighter component decreases exponentially fast with the mass-imbalance ratio. While in the extreme limit of immobile heavy particles, the Falicov-Kimball model, there is an effective Anderson-localization mechanism leading to a vanishing conductivity of the lighter species, we resolve finite conductivities for an inverse mass ratio of η ≳0.25 .
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgac, Aurel; Drut, Joaquín E.; Magierski, Piotr
2008-08-01
The quantum Monte Carlo method for spin- (1)/(2) fermions at finite temperature is formulated for dilute systems with an s -wave interaction. The motivation and the formalism are discussed along with descriptions of the algorithm and various numerical issues. We report on results for the energy, entropy, and chemical potential as a function of temperature. We give upper bounds on the critical temperature Tc for the onset of superfluidity, obtained by studying the finite-size scaling of the condensate fraction. All of these quantities were computed for couplings around the unitary regime in the range -0.5⩽(kFa)-1⩽0.2 , where a is the s -wave scattering length and kF is the Fermi momentum of a noninteracting gas at the same density. In all cases our data are consistent with normal Fermi gas behavior above a characteristic temperature T0>Tc , which depends on the coupling and is obtained by studying the deviation of the caloric curve from that of a free Fermi gas. For Tc
Daniels, M J; Jiang, J; Varghese, T
2008-03-01
Radiofrequency ablation is the most common minimally invasive therapy used in the United States to treat hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The ability to perform real-time temperature imaging while a patient is undergoing ablation therapy may help reduce the high recurrence rates following ablation therapy. Ultrasound echo signals undergo time shifts with increasing temperature due to sound speed and thermal expansion, which are tracked using both 1D cross correlation and 2D block matching based speckle tracking methods. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy and precision of temperature estimation using the above algorithms on both simulated and experimental data. A finite element analysis simulation of radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tissue was developed. Finite element analysis provides a method to obtain the exact temperature distribution along with a mapping of the tissue displacement due to thermal expansion. These local displacement maps were combined with the displacement due to speed of sound changes and utilized to generate ultrasound radiofrequency frames at specified time increments over the entire ablation procedure. These echo signals provide an ideal test-bed to evaluate the performance of both speckle tracking methods, since the estimated temperature results can be compared directly to the exact finite element solution. Our results indicate that the 1D cross-correlation (CC) method underestimates the cumulative displacement by 0.20mm, while the underestimation with 2D block matching (BM) is about 0.14 mm after 360 s of ablation. The 1D method also overestimates the size of the ablated region by 5.4% when compared to 2.4% with the 2D method after 720 s of ablation. Hence 2D block matching provides better tracking of temperature variations when compared to the 1D cross-correlation method over the entire duration of the ablation procedure. In addition, results obtained using 1D cross-correlation diverge from
Collective modes of a one-dimensional trapped atomic Bose gas at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Xianlong, Gao; Liu, Xia-Ji
2014-07-01
We theoretically investigate collective modes of a one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gas in a harmonic tras at finite temperatures, by using a variational approach and the local density approximation. We find that the temperature dependence of collective mode frequencies is notably different in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. Therefore, the experimental measurement of collective modes could provide a sensitive probe for different quantum phases of a 1D trapped Bose gas, realized by tuning the interatomic interaction strength and temperature. Our prediction on the temperature dependence of the breathing mode frequency is in good qualitative agreement with an earlier experimental measurement for a weakly interacting 1D Bose gas of rubidium-87 atoms in harmonic traps [Moritz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 250402 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.250402].
Casimir effect for parallel plates involving massless Majorana fermions at finite temperature
Cheng Hongbo
2010-08-15
We study the Casimir effect for parallel plates with massless Majorana fermions obeying the bag boundary conditions at finite temperature. The thermal influence will modify the effect. It is found that the sign of the Casimir energy remains negative if the product of the plate distance and the temperature is larger than a special value, otherwise the energy will change to positive. The Casimir energy rises with the stronger thermal influence. We show that the attractive Casimir force between two parallel plates becomes greater with increasing temperature. In the case of the piston system involving the same Majorana fermions with the same boundary conditions, the attractive force on the piston will be weaker in higher-temperature surroundings.
Finite temperature and the Polyakov loop in the covariant variational approach to Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quandt, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo
2017-03-01
We extend the covariant variational approach for Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge to non-zero temperatures. Numerical solutions for the thermal propagators are presented and compared to high-precision lattice data. To study the deconfinement phase transition, we adapt the formalism to background gauge and compute the effective action of the Polyakov loop for the colour groups SU(2) and SU(3). Using the zero-temperature propagators as input, all parameters are fixed at T = 0 and we find a clear signal for a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperatures, which is second order for SU(2) and first order for SU(3). The critical temperatures obtained are in reasonable agreement with lattice data.
Spin dependent correlations in a homogeneous electron gas at finite temperature
Arora, Priya; Moudgil, R. K.; Kumar, Krishan
2016-05-23
We have studied theoretically the magnetic structure factor of a three-dimensional homogeneous electron gas at finite temperature. The spin density response function has been derived using the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander (STLS) theory that incorporates the correlation effects through spin anti-symmetric local field correction factor. The numerical results so obtained are compared against the recent path-integral Monte Carlo Simulation data of Brown et al. in the warm-dense regime for various temperature values. We find almost exact agreement at small temperature for different coupling parameter (r{sub s}) values. However, with increasing temperature and decreasing density, there has been observed noticeable disagreement with simulation results. This is attributed to the known failure of the STLS theory in dealing separately with the spin-resolved correlation functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dȩbski, Lech
2016-03-01
This paper announces a possibility of detection of finite-temperature stripe ordering in the two-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model at half-filling by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the tools to study orderings and to detect phase transition temperatures are presented. The use of Binder's cumulant is supplemented by finite-size magnetization profiles not analyzed previously in this context. Continuous character of phase transitions is announced. Analyses proving the existence of more complicated phases of finite-temperature stripe ordering than the checkerboard one conclude the paper.
Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tada, Mitsunori; Mochimaru, Masaaki
2011-03-01
Since the tactile perception detects skin deformation due to the contact of an object, it is important to understand contact mechanics, especially, frictional behavior of the human fingertip. The coefficient of friction is recently modeled as a function of the applied normal load in which case the traditional Coulomb's law does not provide a description for the skin surface. When a surface is a rubber-like material, the frictional behavior follows the frictional law of the rubber-like material. Therefore, we developed a three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip and analyzed frictional behavior based on the frictional law of rubber-like material. We proposed a combined technique using both experimental and Finite Element analyses in order to investigate the frictional property of the fingertip. A three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip was developed using MRI images. We hypothesized a frictional equation of the critical shear stress. Squared differences between equivalent coefficient of friction of the FE analysis and the coefficient of kinetic friction of the experiment while sliding was decreased and the Finite Element analysis iterated until the error was minimized, and thus the frictional equation was determined. We obtained the equation of the critical shear stress and simulated kinetic friction of the fingertip while sliding under arbitrary normal loading condition by using the Finite Element analysis. We think this study is an appropriate method for understanding the frictional property of the human fingertip using the Finite Element analysis.
Lach, Joanna; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel
2016-04-05
Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds used against humans, mostly at war conditions but also in terrorist attacks. Even though the sulfur mustard has been synthesized over a hundred years ago, some of its molecular properties are not yet resolved. We investigate the structural flexibility of the SM molecule in the gas phase by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough conformation analysis of 81 different SM configurations using density functional theory is performed to analyze the behavior of the system at finite temperature. The conformational diversity is analyzed with respect to the formation of intramolecular blue-shifting CH⋯S and CH⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that all structural rearrangements between SM local minima are realized either in direct or non-direct way, including the intermediate structure in the last case. We study the lifetime of the SM conformers and perform the population analysis. Additionally, we provide the anharmonic dynamical finite temperature IR spectrum from the Fourier Transform of the dipole moment autocorrelation function to mimic the missing experimental IR spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U(1) slave-particle study of the finite-temperature doped Hubbard model in one and two dimensions
Ribeiro, P.; Sacramento, P.D.; Araujo, M.A.N.
2011-05-15
Research Highlights: > Mean-field U(1) slave-particle description of Hubbard model. > Fractionalized phases at finite-temperature in Hubbard model. > Spectral function of 1d and 2d Hubbard model. - Abstract: One-dimensional systems have unusual properties such as fractionalization of degrees of freedom. The occurrence of similar phenomena in higher dimensional systems has been considered in the literature for the description of quantum spin liquids and some non-fermi liquid phases. In this work we construct a mean field (MF) theory of the Hubbard model which is based on a representation of the electronic fields that explicitly introduces a separation of the charge and spin degrees of freedom (the so-called Zou-Anderson transformation) and study the finite-temperature phase diagram for the Hubbard chain and square lattice. The mean field variables are defined along the links of the underlying lattice. We obtain the spectral function and identify the regions of higher spectral weight with the fractionalized fermionic (spin) and bosonic (charge) excitations.
Chiral restoration of strong coupling QCD at finite temperature and baryon density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromm, Michael
2009-04-01
The strong coupling limit (β=0) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (μ,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-μ transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Mütter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heffner, J.; Reinhardt, H.
2015-04-01
Yang-Mills theory is studied at finite temperature within the Hamiltonian approach in Coulomb gauge by means of the variational principle using a Gaussian-type Ansatz for the vacuum wave functional. Temperature is introduced by compactifying one spatial dimension. As a consequence the finite-temperature behavior is encoded in the vacuum wave functional calculated on the spatial manifold R2×S1(L ) where L-1 is the temperature. The finite-temperature equations of motion are obtained by minimizing the vacuum energy density to two-loop order. We show analytically that these equations yield the correct zero-temperature limit while at infinite temperature they reduce to the equations of the 2 +1 -dimensional theory in accordance with dimensional reduction. The resulting propagators are compared to those obtained from the grand canonical ensemble where an additional Ansatz for the density matrix is required.
Dynamics of Nonplanar Quantized Vortex Rings Before Reconnection at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.
2017-03-01
The paper presents a numerical study of the dynamics of nonplanar quantized vortices at finite temperatures on their route to reconnection. We perform numerical simulations using the vortex filament method, solving the full Biot-Savart equation at a wide range of temperatures and initial conditions. We consider the dynamics of the two rings, lying initially in different planes and at different distances. The angles between planes are taken as equal to 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. It is observed that the temperature and the initial position of the vortices strongly affect the dynamics of the vortices on their route to reconnection. However, when the distances between the vertices of the vortices become smaller than the distances satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, the dynamics of the system change drastically, and this trend is universal. The universality is expressed in the shapes and velocities of the vertices of the vortices.
Expansion of one-dimensional lattice hard-core bosons at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wei; Rigol, Marcos
2017-03-01
We develop an exact approach to study the quench dynamics of hard-core bosons initially in thermal equilibrium in one-dimensional lattices. This approach is used to study the sudden expansion of thermal states after confining potentials are switched off. We find that a dynamical fermionization of the momentum distribution occurs at all temperatures. This phenomenon is studied for low initial site occupations, for which the expansion of the cloud is self-similar. In this regime, the occupation of the natural orbitals allows one to distinguish hard-core bosons from noninteracting fermions. We also study the free expansion of initial Mott insulating domains at finite temperature and show that the emergence of off-diagonal one-body correlations is suppressed gradually with increasing temperature. Surprisingly, the melting of the Mott domain is accompanied by an effective cooling of the system. We explain this phenomenon analytically using an equilibrium description based on an emergent local Hamiltonian.
Finite temperature Casimir effect for massless Majorana fermions in a magnetic field
Erdas, Andrea
2011-01-15
The zeta function regularization technique is used to study the finite temperature Casimir effect for a massless Majorana fermion field confined between parallel plates and satisfying bag boundary conditions. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plates is included. An expression for the zeta function is obtained, which is exact to all orders in the magnetic field strength, temperature and plate distance. The zeta function is used to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of the Majorana field and the pressure on the plates, in the case of weak magnetic field and strong magnetic field. In both cases, simple analytic expressions are obtained for the free energy and pressure which are very accurate and valid for all values of the temperature and plate distance.
Dynamics of Nonplanar Quantized Vortex Rings Before Reconnection at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.
2017-06-01
The paper presents a numerical study of the dynamics of nonplanar quantized vortices at finite temperatures on their route to reconnection. We perform numerical simulations using the vortex filament method, solving the full Biot-Savart equation at a wide range of temperatures and initial conditions. We consider the dynamics of the two rings, lying initially in different planes and at different distances. The angles between planes are taken as equal to 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. It is observed that the temperature and the initial position of the vortices strongly affect the dynamics of the vortices on their route to reconnection. However, when the distances between the vertices of the vortices become smaller than the distances satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, the dynamics of the system change drastically, and this trend is universal. The universality is expressed in the shapes and velocities of the vertices of the vortices.
Emergence of a Fermionic Finite-Temperature Critical Point in a Kondo Lattice.
Chou, Po-Hao; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Chung, Chung-Hou; Mou, Chung-Yu; Lee, Ting-Kuo
2016-04-29
The underlying Dirac point is central to the profound physics manifested in a wide class of materials. However, it is often difficult to drive a system with Dirac points across the massless fermionic critical point. Here by exploiting screening of local moments under spin-orbit interactions in a Kondo lattice, we show that below the Kondo temperature, the Kondo lattice undergoes a topological transition from a strong topological insulator to a weak topological insulator at a finite temperature T_{D}. At T_{D}, massless Dirac points emerge and the Kondo lattice becomes a Dirac semimetal. Our analysis indicates that the emergent relativistic symmetry dictates nontrivial thermal responses over large parameter and temperature regimes. In particular, it yields critical scaling behaviors both in magnetic and transport responses near T_{D}.
Finite-size effects and percolation properties of Poisson geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmier, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Zoia, A.
2016-07-01
Random tessellations of the space represent a class of prototype models of heterogeneous media, which are central in several applications in physics, engineering, and life sciences. In this work, we investigate the statistical properties of d -dimensional isotropic Poisson geometries by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation, with special emphasis on the case d =3 . We first analyze the behavior of the key features of these stochastic geometries as a function of the dimension d and the linear size L of the domain. Then, we consider the case of Poisson binary mixtures, where the polyhedra are assigned two labels with complementary probabilities. For this latter class of random geometries, we numerically characterize the percolation threshold, the strength of the percolating cluster, and the average cluster size.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, C. A.; Hahn, G. T.; Kulkarni, S. M.
1991-01-01
The present paper describes a transient translating elastoplastic thermomechanical finite element model to study two-dimensional frictional rolling contact. Frictional two-dimensional contact is simulated by repeatedly translating a nonuniform thermomechanical distribution across the surface of an elastoplastic half space. The half space is represented by a two-dimensional finite element mesh with appropriate boundaries. Calculations are for an elastic-perfectly plastic material and the selected thermophysical properties are assumed to be temperature independent. The paper presents temperature variations, stress and plastic strain distributions and deformations. Residual tensile stresses are observed. The magnitude and depth of these stresses depends on (1) the temperature gradients and (2) the magnitudes of the normal and tangential tractions.
Path Integral Monte Carlo finite-temperature electronic structure of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.
2003-03-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We apply the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in a single and double quantum dots. With this approach we evaluate the electronic distributions and correlations, and finite temperature effects on those. Temperature increase broadens the one-electron distribution as expected. This effect is smaller for correlated electrons than for single ones. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and two coupled quantum dots are also compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. This and other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).
A finite-temperature Monte Carlo algorithm for network forming materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vink, Richard L. C.
2014-03-01
Computer simulations of structure formation in network forming materials (such as amorphous semiconductors, glasses, or fluids containing hydrogen bonds) are challenging. The problem is that large structural changes in the network topology are rare events, making it very difficult to equilibrate these systems. To overcome this problem, Wooten, Winer, and Weaire [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1392 (1985)] proposed a Monte Carlo bond-switch move, constructed to alter the network topology at every step. The resulting algorithm is well suited to study networks at zero temperature. However, since thermal fluctuations are ignored, it cannot be used to probe the phase behavior at finite temperature. In this paper, a modification of the original bond-switch move is proposed, in which detailed balance and ergodicity are both obeyed, thereby facilitating a correct sampling of the Boltzmann distribution for these systems at any finite temperature. The merits of the modified algorithm are demonstrated in a detailed investigation of the melting transition in a two-dimensional 3-fold coordinated network.
Finite-temperature scaling at the quantum critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haelg, Manuel; Huvonen, Dan; Guidi, Tatiana; Quintero-Castro, Diana Lucia; Boehm, Martin; Regnault, Louis-Pierre; Zheludev, Andrey
2015-03-01
Inelastic neutron scattering is used to study the finite-temperature scaling behavior of spin correlations at the quantum critical point in an experimental realization of the one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field. The target compound is the well-characterized, anisotropic and bond-alternating Heisenberg spin-1 chain material NTENP. The validity and the limitations of the dynamic structure factor scaling are tested, discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. For this purpose neutron data have been collected on the three-axes spectrometers IN14 at ILL and FLEXX at HZB as well as on the time of flight multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS. In addition to the general statement about quantum criticality and universality, present study also reveals new insight into the properties of the spin chain compound NTENP in particular.
Phase diagrams of the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at finite temperature.
Mysakovych, T S
2010-09-08
The phase transitions at finite temperatures in the systems described by the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model are investigated in this work in the framework of the self-consistent random phase approximation. The case of the hard-core bosons is considered and the pseudospin formalism is used. The density-density correlator is calculated in the random phase approximation and the possibilities of transitions from superfluid to supersolid phases are investigated. It is shown that the transitions between uniform and charge-ordered phases can be of the second or the first order, depending on the system parameters.
Unusual finite size effects on critical temperature in fcc Ising antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pommier, J.; Diep, H. T.; Ghazali, A.; Lallemand, P.
1988-04-01
A new multispin coding technique is presented for Monte Carlo simulation of antiferromagnetic Ising spin systems on an fcc lattice. The nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions J1 and J2 are included. This technique allows a considerable gain in CPU time and computer memory. As a first application, we have studied samples of 4L3 spins with L up to 48. An unusual behavior of the critical temperature with increasing L is found in the case of nearest-neighbor interaction in zero field. Finite size effects on the locations of tricrical points in the (T,J2/J1) plane are discussed.
Aether field in extra dimensions: Stefan-Boltzmann law and Casimir effect at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2017-01-01
The Lorentz and C P T symmetries are not violated at the highest laboratory energies available. However these symmetries may be violated at Planck scale. A particular development is to investigate the breakdown of Lorentz and C P T symmetries by introducing an aether field that exhibits nonzero vacuum expectation value along the fifth dimension. The interactions of the aether field with scalar, electromagnetic, and fermions fields are analyzed. The Stefan-Boltzmann law and Casimir effect at finite temperature are calculated using the Thermo Field Dynamics formalism.
Ahmed, B.; Ahmad, J.; Guy, G.
1994-09-01
A finite elements method coupled with the Preisach model of hysteresis is used to compute-the ferrite losses in medium power transformers (10--60 kVA) working at relatively high frequencies (20--60 kHz) and with an excitation level of about 0.3 Tesla. The dynamic evolution of the permeability is taken into account. The simple and doubly cubic spline functions are used to account for temperature effects respectively on electric and on magnetic parameters of the ferrite cores. The results are compared with test data obtained with 3C8 and B50 ferrites at different frequencies.
Non-analyticity of the induced Carroll-Field-Jackiw term at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assunção, J. F.; Mariz, T.; Petrov, A. Yu.
2016-11-01
In this paper, we discuss the behavior of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) coefficient kμ arising due to integration over massive fermions, and the modification suffered by its topological structure in the finite-temperature case. Our study is based on the imaginary time formalism and summation over the Matsubara frequencies. We demonstrate that the self-energy of photon is non-analytic for the small-kμ limit, i.e., the static limit (k_0=0,k→ 0) and the long-wavelength limit (k_0→ 0,k= 0) do not commute, while the tensorial structure of the CFJ term holds in both limits.
Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension
Santos, A.F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2016-12-15
Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.
Microcanonical determination of effective-spin models for finite-temperature QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gocksch, A.; Ogilvie, M.
1985-04-01
The microcanonical-reorganization-group techniques developed by Creutz, et al. (1984) are applied to computer-simulation effective-spin models for finite-temperature QCD in SU(3) gauge theory. The effective-spin-model coupling coefficient J is plotted against the gauge-field coupling coefficient lambda; the results are compared with the predictions of strong-coupling (Green and Karsch, 1984) and weak-coupling (Kadanoff, 1977) theory; and the implications of the transition to a new phase of deconfined quarks and gluons for cosmology are indicated.
The finite element simulation of high-temperature magnesium AZ31 sheet forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Ravi; Hector, Louis G.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Taleff, Eric M.
2009-08-01
Finite element (FE) simulations will be vitally important to advancing magnesium alloy sheet forming technologies for vehicle component manufacturing. Although magnesium alloy sheet has been successfully formed into complex components at high temperatures, material constitutive model development for FE simulations has not kept pace with the needs of forming process design. This article describes the application of a new material constitutive model in FE simulations for hot forming of magnesium AZ31 alloy sheet. Simulations of forming both simple geometries from laboratory studies and complex parts from production trials are presented and compared with experimental results.
Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2016-12-01
Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.
Low-temperature properties of aviation fuels
Brunton, C.; Voisey, M.A.; Willcock, C.R.
1983-01-01
A review is presented of work on the low-temperature properties of aviation turbine fuels that has been carried out in recent years at Thornton Research Centre. Details of both simulated full-scale aircraft tank tests and laboratory evaluations are included. Zero holdup is considered as a low-temperature specification parameter and a novel method for measuring its value is described. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a change from a freezing point to a flow criterion could provide an increase in fuel availability without prejudicing flight safety.
Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.
2016-04-01
The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.
Finite Volume Dependence of Hadron Properties and Lattice QCD
Anthony W. Thomas; Jonathan D. Ashley; Derek B. Leinweber; Ross D. Young
2005-02-01
Because the time needed for a simulation in lattice QCD varies at a rate exceeding the fourth power of the lattice size, it is important to understand how small one can make a lattice without altering the physics beyond recognition. It is common to use a rule of thumb that the pion mass times the lattice size should be greater than (ideally much greater than) four (i.e., m{sub {pi}} L >> 4). By considering a relatively simple chiral quark model we are led to suggest that a more realistic constraint would be m{sub {pi}} (L - 2R) >> 4, where R is the radius of the confinement region, which for these purposes could be taken to be around 0.8-1.0 fm. Within the model we demonstrate that violating the second condition can lead to unphysical behavior of hadronic properties as a function of pion mass. In particular, the axial charge of the nucleon is found to decrease quite rapidly as the chiral limit is approached.
Stability Properties of Underdominance in Finite Subdivided Populations
Altrock, Philipp M.; Traulsen, Arne; Reed, Floyd A.
2011-01-01
In isolated populations underdominance leads to bistable evolutionary dynamics: below a certain mutant allele frequency the wildtype succeeds. Above this point, the potentially underdominant mutant allele fixes. In subdivided populations with gene flow there can be stable states with coexistence of wildtypes and mutants: polymorphism can be maintained because of a migration-selection equilibrium, i.e., selection against rare recent immigrant alleles that tend to be heterozygous. We focus on the stochastic evolutionary dynamics of systems where demographic fluctuations in the coupled populations are the main source of internal noise. We discuss the influence of fitness, migration rate, and the relative sizes of two interacting populations on the mean extinction times of a group of potentially underdominant mutant alleles. We classify realistic initial conditions according to their impact on the stochastic extinction process. Even in small populations, where demographic fluctuations are large, stability properties predicted from deterministic dynamics show remarkable robustness. Fixation of the mutant allele becomes unlikely but the time to its extinction can be long. PMID:22072956
Linear and nonlinear finite element analysis of laminated composite structures at high temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilt, Thomas Edmund
The use of composite materials in aerospace applications, particularly engine components, is becoming more prevalent due to the materials high strength, yet low weight. In addition to thermomechanical deformation response, life prediction and damage modeling analysis is also required to assess the component's service life. These complex and computationally intensive analyses require the development of simple, efficient and robust finite element analysis capabilities. A simple robust finite element which can effectively model the multi-layer composite material is developed. This will include thermal gradient capabilities necessary for a complete thermomechanical analysis. In order to integrate the numerically stiff rate dependent viscoplastic equations, efficient, stable numerical algorithms are developed. In addition, consistent viscoplastic/plastic tangent matrices will also be formulated. The finite element is formulated based upon a generalized mixed variational principle with independently assumed displacements and layer number independent strains. A unique scheme utilizing nodal temperatures is used to model a linear thermal gradient through the thickness of the composite. The numerical integration algorithms are formulated in the context of a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. The consistent tangent matrices arise directly from the formulation. The multi-layer composite finite element demonstrates good performance in terms of static displacement and stress predictions, and dynamic response. Also, the element appears to be relatively insensitive to mesh distortions. The robustness and efficiency of the fully implicit integration algorithms is effectively demonstrated in the numerical results. That is, large time steps and a significant reduction in global iterations, as a direct result of utilizing the consistent tangent matrices, is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madaras, E. I.; Kline, R. A.; Cruse, G.; Striz, A. G.
1991-01-01
In this work, the use of ultrasonic property measurements as the basis for finite element analysis of full scale composite components is presented. The approach utilizes multiple velocity measurements at oblique angles of incidence and quantitative analysis of radiographic images for the local determination of each of the nine orthotropic moduli in a woven carbon-carbon composite. These values were then used as input into a finite element code (NASTRAN) to analyze the response of the material to load: here, diametric compression. The predicted response was then compared with strain gage results at several locations to validate the approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaukat, Muzzamal I.; Masood, W.; Shah, H. A.; Iqbal, M. J.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2016-10-01
In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in the presence of trapped electrons with quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects in dense plasmas have been studied. The linear dispersion relation of the ion drift wave has been derived and it has been found that the Landau quantization and finite temperature effects significantly alter the linear propagation characteristics of the wave under consideration. Employing the Sagdeev potential approach, the formation of finite amplitude drift solitary structures has been investigated in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field for both fully and partially degenerate plasmas. Both compressive and rarefactive drift solitary structures have been obtained for different values of quantizing magnetic field and finite electron temperature effects. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs.
Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)
2009-01-01
The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan-Liang, Xiao; Meng-Yun, Lai; Xiao-Yin, Pan
2016-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamic properties of an ideal charged Bose gas confined in an anisotropic harmonic potential and a constant magnetic field. Using an accurate density of states, we calculate analytically the thermodynamic potential and consequently various intriguing thermodynamic properties, including the Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the specific heat, magnetization, and the corrections to these quantities due to the finite number of particles are also given explicitly. In contrast to the infinite number of particles scenarios, we show that those thermodynamic properties, particularly the Bose-Einstein transition temperature depends upon the strength of the magnetic field due to the finiteness of the particle numbers, and the collective effects of a finite number of particles become larger when the particle number decreases. Moreover, the magnetization varies with the temperature due to the finiteness of the particle number while it keeps invariant in the thermodynamic limit N → ∞. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375090), and the K. C. Wong Magna Foundation of Ningbo University, China.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, M. D.; Javernick, P. D.; Loheac, A. C.; Porter, W. J.; Anderson, E. R.; Drut, J. E.
2015-03-01
We present finite-temperature, lattice Monte Carlo calculations of the particle number density, compressibility, pressure, and Tan's contact of an unpolarized system of short-range, attractively interacting spin-1/2 fermions in one spatial dimension, i.e., the Gaudin-Yang model. In addition, we compute the second-order virial coefficients for the pressure and the contact, both of which are in excellent agreement with the lattice results in the low-fugacity regime. Our calculations yield universal predictions for ultracold atomic systems with broad resonances in highly constrained traps. We cover a wide range of couplings and temperatures and find results that support the existence of a strong-coupling regime in which the thermodynamics of the system is markedly different from the noninteracting case. We compare and contrast our results with identical systems in higher dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmons, Samuel B.; Kang, Daekyoung; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas
2017-09-01
We study the recombination process of three atoms scattering into an atom and diatomic molecule in heteronuclear mixtures of ultracold atomic gases with large and positive interspecies scattering length at finite temperature. We calculate the temperature dependence of the three-body recombination rates by extracting universal scaling functions that parametrize the energy dependence of the scattering matrix. We compare our results to experimental data for the 40K-87Rb mixture and make a prediction for 6Li-87Rb . We find that contributions from higher partial wave channels significantly impact the total rate and, in systems with particularly large mass imbalance, can even obliterate the recombination minima associated with the Efimov effect.
Bloch-Nordsieck thermometers: one-loop exponentiation in finite temperature QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Sourendu; Indumathi, D.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.
1996-02-01
We study the scattering of hard external particles in a heat bath in a real-time formalism for finite temperature QED. We investigate the distribution of the 4-momentum difference of initial and final hard particles in a fully covariant manner when the scale of the process, Q, is much larger than the temperature, T. Our computations are valid for all T subject to this constraint. We exponentiate the leading infra-red term at one-loop order through a resummation of soft (thermal) photon emissions and absorptions. For T > 0, we find that tensor structures arise which are not present at T = 0. These cant' thermal signatures. As a result, external particles can serve as thermometers introduced into the heat bath. We investigate the phase space origin of log( Q/ m) and log ( Q/ T) teens.
Competition between fermions and bosons in nuclear matter at low densities and finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabiala, J.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.; Kohley, Z.; Yennello, S. J.
2016-12-01
We derive the free energy for fermions and bosons from fragmentation data. Inspired by the symmetry and pairing energy of the Weizsäcker mass formula, we obtain the free energy of fermions (nucleons) and bosons (alphas and deuterons) using Landau's free-energy approach. We confirm previously obtained results for fermions and show that the free energy for α particles is negative and close to the free energy for ideal Bose gases and in perfect agreement with the free energy of an interacting Bose gas under the repulsive Coulomb force. Deuterons behave more similarly to fermions (positive free energy) rather than bosons, which is probably due to their low binding energy. We show that the α -particle fraction is dominant at all temperatures and densities explored in this work. This is consistent with their negative free energy, which favors clusterization of nuclear matter into α particles at subsaturation densities and finite temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knudsen, William C.
1992-01-01
The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gasses consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor.
Magnetovolume effect and finite-temperature theory of magnetism in transition metals and alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Y.
1990-01-01
A review of recent developments in the theory of magnetovolume effects based on the Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is presented. The general expression of the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion is shown to cover a wide range of magnetovolume effects from the insulator to the weak ferromagnets. It consists of the positive term proportional to the specific heat and a term proportional to the temperature derivative of the amplitude of the local moment. By using the single-site spin fluctuation theory (SSF) the Fe-Ni as well as Fe3Pt invar alloys are shown to be understood from this viewpoint. The local environment effects and the electron correlations at finite temperatures improve the difficulties in the SSF.
Magnetovolume effect and finite-temperature theory of magnetism in transition metals and alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Y.
1989-10-01
A review of recent developments in the theory of magnetovolume effects based on the Liberman-Pettifor virial theorem is presented. The general expression of the electronic contribution to the thermal expansion is shown to cover a wide range of magnetovolume effects from the insulator to the weak ferromagnets. It consists of the positive term proportional to the specific heat and a term proportional to the temperature derivative of the amplitude of the local moment. By using the single-site spin fluctuation theory (SSF) the Fe-Ni as well as Fe 3Pt invar alloys are shown to be understood from this viewpoint. The local environment effects and the electron correlations at finite temperatures improve the difficulties in the SSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubler, Philipp; Satow, Daisuke
2016-11-01
We derive three exact sum rules for the spectral function of the electromagnetic current with zero spatial momentum at finite temperature. Two of them are derived in this paper for the first time. We explicitly check that these sum rules are satisfied in the weak coupling regime and examine which sum rule is sensitive to the transport peak in the spectral function at low energy or the continuum at high energy. Possible applications of the three sum rules to lattice computations of the spectral function and transport coefficients are also discussed: we propose an Ansatz for the spectral function that can be applied to all three sum rules and fit it to available lattice data of the Euclidean vector correlator above the critical temperature. As a result, we obtain estimates for both the electrical conductivity σ and the second-order transport coefficient τJ .
Finite-temperature time-dependent variation with multiple Davydov states.
Wang, Lu; Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang
2017-03-28
The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach with Davydov Ansätze is a sophisticated, yet efficient technique to obtain an accurate solution to many-body Schrödinger equations for energy and charge transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates and light-harvesting complexes. We extend this variational approach to finite temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model by adopting a Monte Carlo importance sampling method. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we compare calculated real-time quantum dynamics of the spin-boson model with that from numerically exact iterative quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) technique. The comparison shows that our variational approach with the single Davydov Ansätze is in excellent agreement with the QUAPI method at high temperatures, while the two differ at low temperatures. Accuracy in dynamics calculations employing a multitude of Davydov trial states is found to improve substantially over the single Davydov Ansatz, especially at low temperatures. At a moderate computational cost, our variational approach with the multiple Davydov Ansatz is shown to provide accurate spin-boson dynamics over a wide range of temperatures and bath spectral densities.
BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature in the broken-symmetry phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G. C.
2004-09-01
The BCS-BEC crossover is studied in a systematic way in the broken-symmetry phase between zero temperature and the critical temperature. This study bridges two regimes where quantum and thermal fluctuations are, respectively, important. The theory is implemented on physical grounds, by adopting a fermionic self-energy in the broken-symmetry phase that represents fermions coupled to superconducting fluctuations in weak coupling and to bosons described by the Bogoliubov theory in strong coupling. This extension of the theory beyond mean field proves important at finite temperature, to connect with the results in the normal phase. The order parameter, the chemical potential, and the single-particle spectral function are calculated numerically for a wide range of coupling and temperature. This enables us to assess the quantitative importance of superconducting fluctuations in the broken-symmetry phase over the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Our results are relevant to the possible realizations of this crossover with high-temperature cuprate superconductors and with ultracold fermionic atoms in a trap.
Shim, Vickie B; Battley, Mark; Anderson, Iain A; Munro, Jacob T
2015-01-01
Bone in the pelvis is a composite material with a complex anatomical structure that is difficult to model computationally. Rather than assigning material properties to increasingly smaller elements to capture detail in three-dimensional finite element (FE) models, properties can be assigned to Gauss points within larger elements. As part of a validation process, we compared experimental and analytical results from a composite beam under four-point load to FE models with material properties assigned to refined elements and Gauss points within larger elements. Both FE models accurately predicted deformation and the analytical predictions of internal shear stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvíčala, M.; Frydrýšek, K.; Štamborská, M.
2015-03-01
This paper deals with the comparison of experimentally measured temperature gradients and finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of two heating strategies that were used for continuously cast bloom soaking. The temperature gradient between the bloom surface and center was measured by two thermocouples incorporated directly into the bloom. Scanning electron microscopy equipped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, hot tensile tests, and interdendritic solidification software was used for modeling of steel thermophysical properties with respect to the alloying-elements macrosegregation. The model of the bloom was programmed in the Fortran language. The FEM software MARC/MENTAT 2012 was used for simulation of two heating strategies (plane strain formulation). The first heating model was fitted to the commonly used heating strategy when internal defects grew above the critical limit. The second heating model was a newly proposed strategy that consisted of slower heating up to 1073 K when the first warming-through period occurred. The FEM simulations included determinations of the temperature gradient, the equivalent of stress, the equivalent of elastic strain, the equivalent of plastic strain, and the equivalent of total strain. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental observations. The new heating strategy based on the FEM simulations led to significantly lower occurrence of internal defects in hot-rolled billets that are used for cylinder production.
Finite Reynolds number properties of a turbulent channel flow similarity solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klewicki, Joseph; Oberlack, Martin
2015-11-01
Finite Reynolds number behaviors of the asymptotically logarithmic mean velocity profile in fully developed turbulent channel flow are investigated. This is accomplished by exploiting invariance properties admitted by the appropriately simplified form of the mean momentum equation. These properties underlie the existence of a similarity solution over an interior inertial domain. This similarity solution, which was originally demonstrated by numerically integrating the relevant nonlinear equation, is consistent with the emergence of a logarithmic mean velocity profile as the Reynolds number becomes large. It is now shown that the governing nonlinear equation has an analytical solution that contains both linear and logarithmic terms, but with the coefficient on the linear term decaying to zero with Reynolds number. Existing DNS are used to elucidate Reynolds number dependent properties of this finite Reynolds number form of the similarity solution. Correspondences between these properties and those indicated by finite Reynolds number corrections to the classical overlap layer formulation for the mean velocity profile are described and discussed. Support of the 2014 Mathematics of Turbulence program at the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, is gratefully acknowledged.
Effects of {omega} meson self-coupling on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars
Kumar, Raj; Dhiman, Shashi K.; Agrawal, B. K.
2006-09-15
The effects of {omega} meson self-coupling (OMSC) on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars are investigated within the framework of an effective field theory based relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model that includes the contributions from all possible mixed interactions between the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. For a realistic investigation, several parameter sets corresponding to different values of OMSC are generated by adjusting the remaining parameters of the ERMF model to fit the properties of the finite nuclei. Though all these parameter sets give equally good fit to the properties of the finite nuclei, only moderate values of OMSC are favored from the 'naturalness' point of view. The equations of state for the symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matters resulting from the parameter sets, with the moderate values of OMSC are in close agreement with the ones obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. For such parameter sets, the limiting mass for the neutron stars composed of {beta}-stable matter is {approx}1.9 M{sub {center_dot}}. It is found that the direct Urca process can occur in the neutron stars with 'canonical' mass of 1.4 M{sub {center_dot}} only for the moderate and higher values of OMSC. Some other interesting properties for the neutron stars are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partheepan, G.; Sehgal, D. K.; Pandey, R. K.
2006-12-01
An inverse finite element algorithm is established to extract the tensile constitutive properties such as Young's modulus, yield strength and true stress-true strain diagram of a material in a virtually non-destructive manner. Standard test methods for predicting mechanical properties require the removal of large size material samples from the in-service component, which is impractical. To circumvent this situation, a new dumb-bell shaped miniature specimen has been designed and fabricated which can be used for evaluation of properties for a material or component. Also test fixtures were developed to perform a tension test on this proposed miniature specimen in a testing machine. The studies have been conducted in low carbon steel, die steel and medium carbon steel. The output from the miniature test, namely, load-elongation diagram, is obtained and used for the proposed inverse finite element algorithm to find the material properties. Inverse finite element modelling is carried out using a 2D plane stress analysis. The predicted results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
Topological susceptibility in finite temperature (2 +1 )-flavor QCD using gradient flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, Yusuke; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi; WHOT-QCD Collaboration
2017-03-01
We compute the topological charge and its susceptibility in finite temperature (2 +1 )-flavor QCD on the lattice applying a gradient flow method. With the Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a ) -improved Wilson quarks, we perform simulations on a fine lattice with a ≃0.07 fm at a heavy u , d quark mass with mπ/mρ≃0.63 , but approximately physical s quark mass with mηss/mϕ≃0.74 . In a temperature range from T ≃174 MeV (Nt=16 ) to 697 MeV (Nt=4 ), we study two topics on the topological susceptibility. One is a comparison of gluonic and fermionic definitions of the topological susceptibility. Because the two definitions are related by chiral Ward-Takahashi identities, their equivalence is not trivial for lattice quarks which violate the chiral symmetry explicitly at finite lattice spacings. The gradient flow method enables us to compute them without being bothered by the chiral violation. We find a good agreement between the two definitions with Wilson quarks. The other is a comparison with a prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation, which is relevant in a study of axions as a candidate of the dark matter in the evolution of the Universe. We find that the topological susceptibility shows a decrease in T which is consistent with the predicted χt(T )∝(T /Tpc)-8 for three-flavor QCD even at low temperature Tpc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchoule, I.; Szigeti, S. S.; Davis, M. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2016-11-01
We develop a finite-temperature hydrodynamic approach for a harmonically trapped one-dimensional quasicondensate and apply it to describe the phenomenon of frequency doubling in the breathing-mode oscillations of the quasicondensate momentum distribution. The doubling here refers to the oscillation frequency relative to the oscillations of the real-space density distribution, invoked by a sudden confinement quench. By constructing a nonequilibrium phase diagram that characterizes the regime of frequency doubling and its gradual disappearance, we find that this crossover is governed by the quench strength and the initial temperature rather than by the equilibrium-state crossover from the quasicondensate to the ideal Bose gas regime. The hydrodynamic predictions are supported by the results of numerical simulations based on a finite-temperature c -field approach and extend the utility of the hydrodynamic theory for low-dimensional quantum gases to the description of finite-temperature systems and their dynamics in momentum space.
Finite-temperature electron correlations in the framework of a dynamic local-field correction
Schweng, H.K.; Boehm, H.M. )
1993-07-15
The quantum-mechanical version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation is applied to finite temperatures. This approximation has two main advantages. First, it includes a dynamic local-field correction and second, it gives positive values for the pair-distribution function in the short-range region at zero temperature. This is even valid for rather low densities. After a description of the numerical difficulties arising with the use of a dynamic approximation, the results for the static-structure factor and the pair-distribution function are discussed thoroughly. Detailed work is performed on the static part of the local-field correction, with special emphasis put on the investigation of its structure. A peak is found at a wave vector [ital q][approx]2.8 (in units of the Fermi wave vector) for small temperatures, which tends towards higher values of [ital q] with increasing temperature. This peak causes an attractive particle-hole interaction in a certain [ital q] region and thus gives rise to the appearance of a charge-density wave. A parametric description is given for the static local-field correction in order to simplify further applications. Furthermore, the exchange-and-correlation free energy is considered. The results are compared with the STLS results and with the modified convolution approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deák, A.; Simon, E.; Balogh, L.; Szunyogh, L.; dos Santos Dias, M.; Staunton, J. B.
2014-06-01
We develop a self-consistent relativistic disordered local moment (RDLM) scheme aimed at describing finite-temperature magnetism of itinerant metals from first principles. Our implementation in terms of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple-scattering theory and the coherent potential approximation allows us to relate the orientational distribution of the spins to the electronic structure, thus a self-consistent treatment of the distribution is possible. We present applications for bulk bcc Fe, L10-FePt, and FeRh ordered in the CsCl structure. The calculations for Fe show significant variation of the local moments with temperature, whereas according to the mean-field treatment of the spin fluctuations the Curie temperature is overestimated. The magnetic anisotropy of FePt alloys is found to depend strongly on intermixing between nominally Fe and Pt layers, and it shows a power-law behavior as a function of magnetization for a broad range of chemical disorder. In the case of FeRh we construct a lattice constant vs temperature phase diagram and determine the phase line of metamagnetic transitions based on self-consistent RDLM free-energy curves.
Extracting signatures of quantum criticality in the finite-temperature behavior of many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuccoli, Alessandro; Taiti, Alessio; Vaia, Ruggero; Verrucchi, Paola
2007-08-01
We face the problem of detecting and featuring footprints of quantum criticality in the finite-temperature behavior of quantum many-body systems. Our strategy is that of comparing the phase diagram of a system displaying a T=0 quantum phase transition with that of its classical limit, in order to single out the genuinely quantum effects. To this aim, we consider the one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field: while the quantum S=1/2 Ising chain is exactly solvable and extensively studied, results for the classical limit (S→∞) of such model are lacking, and we supply them here. They are obtained numerically, via the transfer-matrix method, and their asymptotic low-temperature behavior is also derived analytically by self-consistent spin-wave theory. We draw the classical phase diagram according to the same procedure followed in the quantum analysis, and the two phase diagrams are found unexpectedly similar: Three regimes are detected also in the classical case, each characterized by a functional dependence of the correlation length on temperature and field analogous to that of the quantum model. What discriminates the classical from the quantum case are the different values of the exponents entering such dependencies, a consequence of the different nature of zero-temperature quantum fluctuations with respect to the thermal ones.
Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Peng-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang
2017-08-01
We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β -equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β -equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Bin
2015-02-01
Temperature-pressure coupled field analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank under jet fire can offer theoretical guidance for preventing the fire accidents of LPG tank, the application of super wavelet finite element on it is studied in depth. First, review of related researches on heat transfer analysis of LPG tank under fire and super wavelet are carried out. Second, basic theory of super wavelet transform is studied. Third, the temperature-pressure coupled model of gas phase and liquid LPG under jet fire is established based on the equation of state, the VOF model and the RNG k-ɛ model. Then the super wavelet finite element formulation is constructed using the super wavelet scale function as interpolating function. Finally, the simulation is carried out, and results show that the super wavelet finite element method has higher computing precision than wavelet finite element method.
Finite-temperature perturbation theory for the random directed polymer problem
Korshunov, S. E.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G.
2013-09-15
We study the random directed polymer problem-the short-scale behavior of an elastic string (or polymer) in one transverse dimension subject to a disorder potential and finite temperature fluctuations. We are interested in the polymer short-scale wandering expressed through the displacement correlator Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , with {delta}u(X) being the difference in the displacements at two points separated by a distance X. While this object can be calculated at short scales using the perturbation theory in higher dimensions d > 2, this approach becomes ill-defined and the problem turns out to be nonperturbative in the lower dimensions and for an infinite-length polymer. In order to make progress, we redefine the task and analyze the wandering of a string of a finite length L. At zero temperature, we find that the displacement fluctuations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} LX{sup 2} depend on L and scale with the square of the segment length X, which differs from a straightforward Larkin-type scaling. The result is best understood in terms of a typical squared angle Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} L, where {alpha} = {partial_derivative}{sub x}u, from which the displacement scaling for the segment X follows naturally, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket X{sup 2}. At high temperatures, thermal fluctuations smear the disorder potential and the lowest-order results for disorder-induced fluctuations in both the displacement field and the angle vanish in the thermodynamic limit L {yields} {infinity}. The calculation up to the second order allows us to identify the regime of validity of the perturbative approach and provides a finite expression for the displacement
Properties of ferrites at low temperatures (invited)
Dionne, G.F.
1997-04-01
At cryogenic temperatures magnetic properties of ferrites change significantly from their values at room temperature, which has been the main regime for most device applications. Recently, microwave ferrite devices with superconducting microstrip circuits have been demonstrated at a temperature of 77 K with virtually no electrical conduction losses. Conventional ferrimagnetic garnet and spinel compositions, however, are not generally optimized for low temperatures and may require chemical redesign if the full potential of these devices is to be realized. Saturation magnetizations increase according to the Brillouin{endash}Weiss function dependence that is characteristic of all ferromagnetic materials. Increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostriction can have large effects on hysteresis loop squareness and coercive fields that are essential for stable phase shift and efficient switching. Rare-earth impurities and other ions with short spin-lattice relaxation times can cause increased microwave losses. In this article, the basic magnetochemistry pertaining to ferrites will be examined for adaptation of ferrite technology to cryogenic environments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Tungjitkusolmun, S; Woo, E J; Cao, H; Tsai, J Z; Vorperian, V R; Webster, J G
2000-09-01
Finite element (FE) analysis has been utilised as a numerical tool to determine the temperature distribution in studies of radio frequency (RF) cardiac ablation. However, none of the previous FE analyses clarified such computational aspects as software requirements, computation time or convergence test. In addition, myocardial properties included in the previous models vary greatly. A process of FE modelling of a system that included blood, myocardium, and an ablation catheter with a thermistor embedded at the tip is described. The bio-heat equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in myocardium using a commercial software application (ABAQUS). A Cauchy convergence test (epsilon = 0.1 degree C) was performed and it is concluded that the optimal number of elements for the proposed system is 24610. The effects of changes in myocardial properties (+/- 50% electric conductivity, +100%/-50% thermal conductivity, and +100%/-50% specific heat capacity) in both power-controlled (PCRFA) and temperature-controlled RF ablation (TCRFA) were studied. Changes in myocardial properties affect the results of the FE analyses of PCRFA more than those of TCRFA, and the maximum changes in lesion volumes were -58.6% (-50% electric conductivity), -60.7% (+100% thermal conductivity), and +43.2% (-50% specific heat).
Imaging properties of finite-size left-handed material slabs.
Chen, Jianbing J; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Wu, Bae-Ian; Kong, Jin Au
2006-10-01
Finite-size left-handed material (LHM) slabs are studied both analytically and numerically. The analytical method is based on Huygens' principles using truncated current sheets that cover only the apertures of the slabs. It is shown that the main effects on the images' spectra due to the size of the slabs can be predicted by the proposed analytical method, which can, therefore, be used as a fast alternative to the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the property of negative-energy streams at the image plane is explained. This unique property is found to be due to the interactions between propagating and evanescent waves and can only occur with LHM slabs, both finite size and infinite.
How to extract information from simulations of coarsening at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrida, B.
1997-03-01
Certain properties of coarsening phenomena such as the fraction of space which remains always in the same phase are hard to measure in simulations, at nonzero temperature, because one needs to distinguish spin flips due to thermal fluctuations from those due to the motion of interfaces. By comparing the system where coarsening takes place with a fully ordered system submitted to the same thermal noise, one can measure in a simple way the fraction of space which remains in the same phase. Our numerical results indicate a power law decay (of the fraction of persistent spins) in the whole low temperature phase very similar to the zero temperature situation.
Finite-temperature dynamics and thermal intraband magnon scattering in Haldane spin-one chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, J.; Köhler, T.; Tiegel, A. C.; Manmana, S. R.; Wessel, S.; Honecker, A.
2017-08-01
The antiferromagnetic spin-one chain is considerably one of the most fundamental quantum many-body systems, with symmetry-protected topological order in the ground state. Here, we present results for its dynamical spin structure factor at finite temperatures, based on a combination of exact numerical diagonalization, matrix-product-state calculations, and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Open finite chains exhibit a subgap band in the thermal spectral functions, indicative of localized edge states. Moreover, we observe the thermal activation of a distinct low-energy continuum contribution to the spin spectral function with an enhanced spectral weight at low momenta and its upper threshold. This emerging thermal spectral feature of the Haldane spin-one chain is shown to result from intraband magnon scattering due to the thermal population of the single-magnon branch, which features a large bandwidth-to-gap ratio. These findings are discussed with respect to possible future studies on spin-one chain compounds based on inelastic neutron scattering.
Properties of finite difference models of non-linear conservative oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mickens, R. E.
1988-01-01
Finite-difference (FD) approaches to the numerical solution of the differential equations describing the motion of a nonlinear conservative oscillator are investigated analytically. A generalized formulation of the Duffing and modified Duffing equations is derived and analyzed using several FD techniques, and it is concluded that, although it is always possible to contstruct FD models of conservative oscillators which are themselves conservative, caution is required to avoid numerical solutions which do not accurately reflect the properties of the original equation.
Distilling momentum-space entanglement in Luttinger liquids at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dóra, Balázs; Lovas, Izabella; Pollmann, Frank
2017-08-01
While much is known about the entanglement characteristics of ground states, the properties of reduced thermal density matrices have received significantly less attention. Here we investigate the total correlations in reduced thermal density matrices for momentum-space bipartitioning in Luttinger liquids using analytical and numerical methods. The low-lying part of its spectrum contains an "entanglement gap", which persists up to temperatures comparable to the level spacing. With increasing temperature, the low-energy modes acquire dispersion and resemble those in the physical Hamiltonian with an enhanced effective temperature. The momentum-space entanglement is carried by high-energy modes (compared to temperature), featuring a completely flat spectrum. The von Neumann entropy increases with temperature with a universal Sommerfeld coefficient. The effective Hamiltonian of the right-moving excitations turns out to be as universal as the physical Hamiltonian.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol
2015-01-01
This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Results for the Degenerate Electron Gas at Finite Temperature.
Schoof, T; Groth, S; Vorberger, J; Bonitz, M
2015-09-25
The uniform electron gas at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in dense plasmas, warm dense matter, laser excited solids, and much more. Accurate thermodynamic data for the uniform electron gas are an essential ingredient for many-body theories, in particular, density-functional theory. Recently, first-principles restricted path integral Monte Carlo results became available, which, however, had to be restricted to moderate degeneracy, i.e., low to moderate densities with r_{s}=r[over ¯]/a_{B}≳1. Here we present novel first-principles configuration path integral Monte Carlo results for electrons for r_{s}≤4. We also present quantum statistical data within the e^{4} approximation that are in good agreement with the simulations at small to moderate r_{s}.
Finite-temperature phase transitions in lattice QCD for general number of flavors
Fukugita, M.; Ohta, S.; Ukawa, A.
1988-01-18
Finite-temperature transitions in lattice QCD are studied for various numbers of flavors in the range 1less than or equal toN/sub f/less than or equal to18 on an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice by the Langevin simulation technique. It is found that the weakening of the transition at intermediate quark mass is a general feature for N/sub f/greater than or equal to2, but that the smoothing out of the transition observed for N/sub f/ = 2--4 does not occur for large numbers of flavors (N/sub f/greater than or equal to20). For N/sub f/ = 1 the transition weakens toward small quark mass m/sub q/ but remains first order down to m/sub q/a = 0.05.
Induced fermionic current by a magnetic flux in a cosmic string spacetime at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra de Mello, Eugênio R.; Saharian, Aram A.; Mohammadi, Azadeh
2016-01-01
Here we analyze the finite temperature expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic quantum field with nonzero chemical potential μ, induced by a magnetic flux running along the axis of an idealized cosmic string. These densities are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. Specifically the charge density is an even periodic function of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the quantum flux and an odd function of the chemical potential. The only nonzero component of the current density corresponds to the azimuthal current and it is an odd periodic function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. Both analyzed are developed for the cases where |μ| is smaller than the mass of the field quanta m.
Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.
Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M
2016-06-21
We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy.
Holographic geometry of cMERA for quantum quenches and finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mollabashi, Ali; Naozaki, Masahiro; Ryu, Shinsei; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2014-03-01
We study the time evolution of cMERA (continuous MERA) under quantum quenches in free field theories. We calculate the corresponding holographic metric using the proposal in arXiv:1208.3469 and confirm that it qualitatively agrees with its gravity dual given by a half of the AdS black hole spacetime, argued by Hartman and Maldacena in arXiv:1303.1080. By doubling the cMERA for the quantum quench, we give an explicit construction of finite temperature cMERA. We also study cMERA in the presence of chemical potential and show that there is an enhancement of metric in the infrared region corresponding to the Fermi energy.
Hedgehog loops and finite-temperature transition in Yang-Mills theory
Belavin, V. A.; Kozlov, I. E.; Chernodub, M. N.
2009-02-15
The dynamics of non-Abelian gauge theory can be described not only in terms of local gauge fields but also in terms of nonlocal gauge-invariant variables known as Wilson loops. In Wilson loop space, specific trajectories (defects) are considered on which Wilson loop operators take values in the center of the underlying gauge group. It is shown that, at finite temperature, the density of static (thermal) defects in the Euclidean formulation of Yang-Mills theory is sensitive to the thermodynamic phase transition: numerical calculations reveal that, in contrast to the gluon-plasma phase, where the defect density is high, the density of static defects is very low in the confining phase.
Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.
Finite-Temperature Phase Diagram of the d=3 tJ Model with Quenched Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berker, A. Nihat; Hinczewski, Michael
2008-03-01
We study a quenched disordered d=3 tJ Hamiltonian with static vacancies as a model of nonmagnetic impurities in high-Tc materials.[1,2] Using a position-space renormalization-group approach, we calculate the evolution of the finite-temperature phase diagram with impurity concentration p, and find several features with close experimental parallels: away from half-filling we see the rapid destruction of a spin-singlet liquid phase (analogous to the superconducting phase in cuprates) which is eliminated for p >=0.05; in the same region for these dilute impurity concentrations we observe an enhancement of antiferromagnetism. The antiferromagnetic phase near half-filling is robust against impurity addition, and disappears only for p >=0.40. [1] M. Hinczewski and A.N. Berker, Eur. Phys. J. B 51, 461 (2006). [2] M. Hinczewski and A.N. Berker, arXiv:cond-mat/0607171v1 [cond-mat.str-el].
Wild, B. G.; Hutchinson, D. A. W.
2011-06-15
We present a method utilizing the continuity equation for the condensate density to make predictions of the precessional frequency of single off-axis vortices and of vortex arrays in Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperature. We also present an orthogonalized Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) formalism. We solve the continuity equation for the condensate density self-consistently with the orthogonalized HFB equations and find stationary solutions in the frame rotating at this frequency. As an example of the utility of this formalism we obtain time-independent solutions for quasi-two-dimensional rotating systems in the corotating frame. We compare these results with time-dependent predictions where we simulate stirring of the condensate.
Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-11-28
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, rs=r¯/aB≳1. These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ≤ 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method-the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (θ = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density.
Motion of a single hole in a quantum antiferromagnet at finite temperatures
Igarashi, J. ); Fulde, P. )
1993-07-01
Motion of a single hole is studied at finite temperatures in the [ital t]-[ital J] model on a slave-fermion Schwinger-boson representation. The spin fluctuation is treated with the mean-field theory of Arovas and Auerbach. The Green's function for the slave fermion is calculated within the self-consistent Born approximation. A sharp quasiparticle peak is found to be separated from a broad spectrum of incoherence in the spectral function for low temperatures. The Green's function for the physical hole is calculated by taking account of the multiple scattering between the slave fermion and the Schwinger boson. A bound state of the slave fermion and the Schwinger boson is found at low temperatures, suggesting that the spin and the charge cannot be separated into a simple form. The energy of the bound state is minimized at momenta ([plus minus][pi]/2, [plus minus][pi]/2), indicating that a small pocketlike Fermi surface is formed around the momenta for low concentrations of dopant holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.
2016-12-01
Whistler mode wave propagation plays a significant role in the energy dynamics of the earth's magnetosphere. Whistler mode wave trajectories can be predicted using numerical ray tracing, which tracks the power flow path of the wave by solving the Haselgrove equations. Ray trajectories are seen to be significantly modified with the inclusion of finite electron and ion temperature at different frequencies. The effect is most prominent near the lower hybrid resonance frequency. In this work we focus on waves launched around L = 4, both inside and outside the plasmapause boundary. We observe that when the electron and ion temperature are taken into consideration, whistler mode wave energy is predicted to be largely confined to a region just inside the plasmapause boundary. This effect is not seen in under the cold plasma assumption. Our numerical predictions on wave energy confinement show qualitative agreement with Van Allen probe data. In addition we compare the differences in the confinement regions at different Magnetic Local Times (MLT) and also with different temperature profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio
2016-08-01
We study a bilayer Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with lattice distortion and interlayer spin exchange interaction under cylinder geometry. Our analysis based on real-space dynamical mean field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo demonstrates the emergence of a topological edge Mott insulating (TEMI) state which hosts gapless edge modes only in collective spin excitations. This is confirmed by the numerical calculations at finite temperatures for the spin-Hall conductivity and the single-particle excitation spectrum; the spin-Hall conductivity is almost quantized, σspinx y˜2 (e /2 π ) , predicting gapless edge modes carrying the spin current, while the helical edge modes in the single-particle spectrum are gapped out with respecting symmetry. It is clarified how the TEMI state evolves from the ordinary spin-Hall insulating state with increasing the Hubbard interaction at a given temperature and then undergoes a phase transition to a trivial Mott insulating state. With a bosonization approach at zero temperature, we further address which collective modes host gapless edge modes in the TEMI state.
Fatigue life prediction for finite ratchetting of bellows at cryogenic temperatures
Skoczen, B.; Kurtyka, T.; Brunet, J.C.; Poncet, A.
1997-06-01
The expansion bellows, used in the magnet interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are designed for severe service conditions (cryogenic temperatures, high internal pressure, large cyclic deflections). According to the results of the material research, a stainless steel of grade AISI 316 exhibits a high ductility at cryogenic temperatures. This results in the development of the plastic strain fields in the bellows wall, subjected to cyclic loadings, and to failure after a comparatively low number of cycles. In the present work the progressive deformation (ratchetting) of bellows subjected to a sustained load (internal pressure) and to a superimposed cyclic deflection programme at cryogenic temperatures is examined. In order to estimate the number of cycles to failure a generalized Manson-Coffin equation was developed. The model is based on two parameters: the ratchetting induced mean plastic strain and the plastic strain amplitude. The material model is based on the bilinear elastic-plastic response with kinematic hardening. The cyclic hardening and the evolution of the material model parameters (yield strength and hardening modulus) are accounted for. The finite element simulation of the initial 20 cycles leads to an estimation of the accumulated plastic strains and enables the calculation of the fatigue life of the bellows. An experimental stand for cryogenic fatigue tests is also presented and the first verification tests are reported.
Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong
2017-08-07
Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.
On a strong dense periodicity property of shifts of finite type
Dzul-Kifli, Syahida Che; Al-Muttairi, Hassan
2015-10-22
There are various definitions of chaotic dynamical systems. The most utilized definition of chaos is Devaney chaos which isolates three components as being the essential features of chaos; transitivity, dense periodic points and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In this paper, we focus on a strong dense periodicity property i.e. the set of points with prime period at least n is dense for each n. On shift of finite type over two symbols Σ{sub 2}, we show that the strong dense periodicity property implies another strong chaotic notions; locally everywhere onto (also called exact) and totally transitive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resapu, Rajeswara Reddy
The most common approaches to determining mechanical material properties of materials are tension and compression tests. However, tension and compression testing cannot be implemented under certain loading conditions (immovable object, not enough space to hold object for testing, etc). Similarly, tensile and compression testing cannot be performed on certain types of materials (delicate, bulk, non-machinable, those that cannot be separated from a larger structure, etc). For such cases, other material testing methods need to be implemented. Indentation testing is one such method; this approach is often non-destructive and can be used to characterize regions that are not compatible with other testing methods. However, indentation testing typically leads to force-displacement data as opposed to the direct stress-strain data normally used for the mechanical characterization of materials; this data needs to be analyzed using a suitable approach to determine the associated material properties. As such, methods to establish material properties from force-displacement indentation data need to be identified. In this work, a finite element approach using parameter optimization is developed to determine the mechanical properties from the experimental indentation data. Polymers and tissues tend to have time-dependent mechanical behavior; this means that their mechanical response under load changes with time. This dissertation seeks to characterize the properties of these materials using indentation testing under the assumption that they are linear viscoelastic. An example of a material of interest is the polymer poly vinyl chloride (PVC) that is used as the insulation of some aircraft wiring. Changes in the mechanical properties of this material over years of service can indicate degradation and a potential hazard to continued use. To investigate the validity of using indentation testing to monitor polymer insulation degradation, PVC film and PVC-insulated aircraft wiring are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.
2015-08-01
Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.
Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail
2013-12-01
Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.
Corneal Viscoelastic Properties from Finite-Element Analysis of In Vivo Air-Puff Deformation
Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana
2014-01-01
Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery. PMID:25121496
Finite-difference schemes for nonlinear wave equation that inherit energy conservation property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furihata, Daisuke
2001-09-01
We propose two general finite-difference schemes that inherit energy conservation property from nonlinear wave equations, such as the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation (NLKGE). One of proposed schemes is implicit and another is explicit. Many studies exist on FDSs that inherit energy conservation property from NLKGE and we can derive all of their schemes from the proposed general schemes in this paper. The most important feature of our procedure is a rigorous discretization of variational derivatives using summation by parts, which implies that the inherited properties are satisfied exactly. Because of this the derived schemes are expected to be numerically stable and yield solutions converging to PDE solutions. We make new FDSs for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam equation, string vibration equation, Shimoji-Kawai equation (SKE) and Ebihara equation and verify numerically the inheritance of the energy conservation property for NLKGE and SKE.
Corneal viscoelastic properties from finite-element analysis of in vivo air-puff deformation.
Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Pascual, Daniel; Marcos, Susana
2014-01-01
Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Kazuo; Iino, Takashi
2012-03-01
Low temperature properties of the spin-1/2 frustrated ladder with ferromagnetic rungs and legs, and two different antiferromagnetic next nearest neighbor interactions are investigated using the modified spin wave approximation in the region with ferromagnetic ground states. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic structure factors is calculated. The results are consistent with the numerical exact diagonalization results in the intermediate temperature range. Below this temperature range, the finite size effect is significant in the numerical diagonalization results, while the modified spin wave approximation gives more reliable results. The low temperature properties near the limit of the stability of the ferromagnetic ground state are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanderbemden, Ph.; Hong, Z.; Coombs, T. A.; Denis, S.; Ausloos, M.; Schwartz, J.; Rutel, I. B.; Hari Babu, N.; Cardwell, D. A.; Campbell, A. M.
2007-05-01
Crossed-magnetic-field effects on bulk high-temperature superconductors have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The sample geometry investigated involves finite-size effects along both (crossed-)magnetic-field directions. The experiments were carried out on bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O single domains that had been premagnetized with the applied field parallel to their shortest direction (i.e., the c axis) and then subjected to several cycles of the application of a transverse magnetic field parallel to the sample ab plane. The magnetic properties were measured using orthogonal pickup coils, a Hall probe placed against the sample surface, and magneto-optical imaging. We show that all principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law and in which the current density flows perpendicularly to the plane within which the two components of magnetic field are varied. The results of this study suggest that the suppression of the magnetic moment under the action of a transverse field can be predicted successfully by ignoring the existence of flux-free configurations or flux-cutting effects. These investigations show that the observed decay in magnetization results from the intricate modification of current distribution within the sample cross section. The current amplitude is altered significantly only if a field-dependent critical current density Jc(B) is assumed. Our model is shown to be quite appropriate to describe the cross-flow effects in bulk superconductors. It is also shown that this model does not predict any saturation of the magnetic induction, even after a large number (˜100) of transverse field cycles. These features are shown to be consistent with the experimental data.
Application of finite element techniques in predicting the acoustic properties of turbofan inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majjigi, R. K.; Sigman, R. K.; Zinn, B. T.
1978-01-01
An analytical technique was developed for predicting the acoustic performance of turbofan inlets carrying a subsonic axisymmetric steady flow. The finite element method combined with the method of weighted residuals is used in predicting the acoustic properties of variable area, annular ducts with or without acoustic treatments along their walls. An approximate solution for the steady inviscid flow field is obtained using an integral method for calculating the incompressible potential flow field in the inlet with a correction to account for compressibility effects. The accuracy of the finite element technique was assessed by comparison with available analytical solutions for the problems of plane and spinning wave propagation through a hard walled annular cylinder with a constant mean flow.
Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review
Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo
2014-01-01
Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560
Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin
2013-06-01
Finite element analysis is an effective tool to evaluate the material properties of living tissue. For an interactive optimization procedure, the finite element analysis usually needs many simulations to reach a reasonable solution. The meta-model analysis of finite element simulation can be used to reduce the computation of a structure with complex geometry or a material with composite constitutive equations. The intervertebral disc is a complex, heterogeneous, and hydrated porous structure. A poroelastic finite element model can be used to observe the fluid transferring, pressure deviation, and other properties within the disc. Defining reasonable poroelastic material properties of the anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus is critical for the quality of the simulation. We developed a material property updating protocol, which is basically a fitting algorithm consisted of finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. This protocol was used to find the material properties, such as the hydraulic permeability, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, of intact and degenerated porcine discs. The results showed that the in vitro disc experimental deformations were well fitted with limited finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. The comparison of material properties of intact and degenerated discs showed that the hydraulic permeability significantly decreased but Poisson's ratio significantly increased for the degenerated discs. This study shows that the developed protocol is efficient and effective in defining material properties of a complex structure such as the intervertebral disc.
Color-flavor locked strange matter and strangelets at finite temperature
Paulucci, L.; Horvath, J. E.
2008-12-15
It is possible that a system composed of up, down, and strange quarks exists as the true ground state of nuclear matter at high densities and low temperatures. This exotic plasma, called strange quark matter (SQM), seems to be even more favorable energetically if quarks are in a superconducting state, the so-called color-flavor locked state. Here we present calculations made on the basis of the MIT bag model, considering the influence of finite temperature on the allowed parameters characterizing the system for stability of bulk SQM (the so-called stability windows) and also for strangelets, small lumps of SQM, both in the color-flavor locking scenario. We compare these results with the unpaired SQM and also briefly discuss some astrophysical implications of them. Also, the issue of the strangelet's electric charge is discussed. The effects of dynamical screening, though important for nonpaired SQM strangelets, are not relevant when considering pairing among all three flavors and colors of quarks.
Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C
2014-01-01
The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are proposed for a heat engine operating between two heat baths and outputting mechanical work. With the aid of these two concepts, the generalized thermodynamic fluxes and forces can be expressed in a consistent way within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Then the efficiency at maximum power output for a heat engine, one of key topics in finite-time thermodynamics, is investigated on the basis of a generic model under the tight-coupling condition. The corresponding results have the same forms as those of low-dissipation heat engines [ M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg and C. Van den Broeck Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603 (2010)]. The mappings from two kinds of typical heat engines, such as the low-dissipation heat engine and the Feynman ratchet, into the present generic model are constructed. The universal efficiency at maximum power output up to the quadratic order is found to be valid for a heat engine coupled symmetrically and tightly with two baths. The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are also transplanted to the optimization of refrigerators.
The Master Equation for Two-Level Accelerated Systems at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomazelli, J. L.; Cunha, R. O.
2016-10-01
In this work, we study the behaviour of two weakly coupled quantum systems, described by a separable density operator; one of them is a single oscillator, representing a microscopic system, while the other is a set of oscillators which perform the role of a reservoir in thermal equilibrium. From the Liouville-Von Neumann equation for the reduced density operator, we devise the master equation that governs the evolution of the microscopic system, incorporating the effects of temperature via Thermofield Dynamics formalism by suitably redefining the vacuum of the macroscopic system. As applications, we initially investigate the behaviour of a Fermi oscillator in the presence of a heat bath consisting of a set of Fermi oscillators and that of an atomic two-level system interacting with a scalar radiation field, considered as a reservoir, by constructing the corresponding master equation which governs the time evolution of both sub-systems at finite temperature. Finally, we calculate the energy variation rates for the atom and the field, as well as the atomic population levels, both in the inertial case and at constant proper acceleration, considering the two-level system as a prototype of an Unruh detector, for admissible couplings of the radiation field.
Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E.; Deng, Cheri X.; Jiang, Huabei
2013-01-01
The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography. PMID:23849388
Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E; Deng, Cheri X; Jiang, Huabei
2013-10-01
The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography.
Estimating the material properties of heel pad sub-layers using inverse Finite Element Analysis.
Ahanchian, Nafiseh; Nester, Christopher J; Howard, David; Ren, Lei; Parker, Daniel
2017-02-01
Detailed information about the biomechanical behaviour of plantar heel pad tissue contributes to our understanding of load transfer when the foot impacts the ground. The objective of this work was to obtain the hyperelastic and viscoelastic material properties of heel pad sub-layers (skin, micro-chamber and macro-chamber layers) in-vivo. An anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the human heel was used to derive the sub-layer material properties. A combined ultrasound imaging and motorised platform system was used to compress heel pad and to create input data for the Finite Element model. The force-strain responses of the heel pad and its sub-layers under slow compression (5mm/s) and rapid loading-hold-unloading cycles (225mm/s), were measured and hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of the three heel pad sub-layers were estimated by the model. The loaded (under ∼315N) thickness of the heel pad was measured from MR images and used for hyperelastic model validation. The capability of the model to predict peak plantar pressure was used for further validation. Experimental responses of the heel pad under different dynamic loading scenarios (loading-hold-unloading cycles at 141mm/s and sinusoidal loading with maximum velocity of 300mm/s) were used to validate the viscoelastic model. Good agreement was achieved between the predicted and experimental results for both hyperelastic (<6.4% unloaded thickness, 4.4% maximum peak plantar pressure) and viscoelastic (Root Mean Square errors for loading and unloading periods <14.7%, 5.8% maximum force) simulations. This paper provides the first definition of material properties for heel pad sub-layers by using in-vivo experimental force-strain data and an anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the heel.
Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.; Haensel, Pawel
2009-07-15
We calculate the important quantity of superfluid hydrodynamics, the relativistic entrainment matrix for a nucleon-hyperon mixture at arbitrary temperature. In the nonrelativistic limit this matrix is also termed the Andreev-Bashkin or mass-density matrix. Our results can be useful for modeling the pulsations of massive neutron stars with superfluid nucleon-hyperon cores and for studies of the kinetic properties of superfluid baryon matter.
Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poovathingal, Savio
reaction products because the reaction probabilities were in the diffusion dominant regime. The molecular beam data at different surface temperatures was then used to build a finite rate model. Each reaction mechanism and all rate parameters of the new model were determined individually based on the molecular beam data. Despite the experiments being performed at near vacuum conditions, the finite rate model developed using the data could be used at pressures and temperatures relevant to hypersonic conditions. The new model was implemented in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and flow over a hypersonic vehicle was simulated. The new model predicted similar overall mass loss rates compared to existing models, however, the individual species production rates were completely different. The most notable difference was that the new model (based on molecular beam data) predicts CO as the oxidation reaction product with virtually no CO2 production, whereas existing models predict the exact opposite trend. CO being the dominant oxidation product is consistent with recent high enthalpy wind tunnel experiments. The discovery that measurements taken in molecular beam facilities are able to determine individual reaction mechanisms, including dependence on surface coverage, opens up an entirely new way of constructing ablation models.
Meakin, Judith R; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A
2003-03-01
A finite element model of the knee meniscus was developed to investigate the effects of various geometrical and material properties on the behaviour of the meniscus under compressive load. Factorial methods were used to determine the relative effect of varying the properties by +/-10% of their initial value. It was found that the stresses in the meniscus were more sensitive to geometry (meniscus width and radius of curvature of the femoral surface of the meniscus) than material properties. The model was also used to investigate the effect of incongruency between the radius of curvature of the femur and the femoral surface of the meniscus. It was shown that mismatch between the curvatures of the femur and meniscus has a large effect on the stresses both in the meniscus and in the underlying cartilage. The results from the study have implications for the design and development of meniscal repair devices and replacements.
Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun
2017-03-28
A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosny, W. M.; Tabakoff, W.
1975-01-01
A two-dimensional finite difference numerical technique is presented to determine the temperature distribution in a solid blade of a radial guide vane. A computer program is written in Fortran IV for IBM 370/165 computer. The computer results obtained from these programs have a similar behavior and trend as those obtained by experimental results.
Quaglioni, S.; Beck, B. R.
2011-06-03
The Monte Carlo All Particle Method generator and collision physics library features two models for allowing a particle to either up- or down-scatter due to collisions with material at finite temperature. The two models are presented and compared. Neutron interaction with matter through elastic collisions is used as testing case.
An inverse finite element method for determining the anisotropic properties of the cornea.
Nguyen, T D; Boyce, B L
2011-06-01
An inverse finite element method was developed to determine the anisotropic properties of bovine cornea from an in vitro inflation experiment. The experiment used digital image correlation (DIC) to measure the three-dimensional surface geometry and displacement field of the cornea at multiple pressures. A finite element model of a bovine cornea was developed using the DIC measured surface geometry of the undeformed specimen. The model was applied to determine five parameters of an anisotropic hyperelastic model that minimized the error between the measured and computed surface displacement field and to investigate the sensitivity of the measured bovine inflation response to variations in the anisotropic properties of the cornea. The results of the parameter optimization revealed that the collagen structure of bovine cornea exhibited a high degree of anisotropy in the limbus region, which agreed with recent histological findings, and a transversely isotropic central region. The parameter study showed that the bovine corneal response to the inflation experiment was sensitive to the shear modulus of the matrix at pressures below the intraocular pressure, the properties of the collagen lamella at higher pressures, and the degree of anisotropy in the limbus region. It was not sensitive to a weak collagen anisotropy in the central region.
Fukugita, M.; Ohta, S.; Ukawa, A.
1986-10-20
Finite-temperature behavior of lattice QCD is studied with the Wilson fermion action and use of the Langevin technique for treating quarks dynamically. It is found that the transition zone from low- to high-temperature behavior does not cross the line of critical hopping parameter, but rather continues down to the strong-coupling limit. Practical implications for spectroscopic simulations at small quark masses are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyachkov, Sergey; Levashov, Pavel
2014-05-01
We determine the region of applicability of the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model and its thermal part with respect to quantum and exchange corrections. Very high accuracy of computations has been achieved by using a special approach for the solution of the boundary problem and numerical integration. We show that the thermal part of the model can be applied at lower temperatures than the full model. Also we offer simple approximations of the boundaries of validity for practical applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troy, B. E., Jr.; Maier, E. J.
1975-01-01
The effects of the grid transparency and finite collector size on the values of thermal ion density and temperature determined by the standard RPA (retarding potential analyzer) analysis method are investigated. The current-voltage curves calculated for varying RPA parameters and a given ion mass, temperature, and density are analyzed by the standard RPA method. It is found that only small errors in temperature and density are introduced for an RPA with typical dimensions, and that even when the density error is substantial for nontypical dimensions, the temperature error remains minimum.
Structural properties and magic structures in hydrogenated finite and infinite silicon nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zdetsis, A. D.; Koukaras, E. N.; Garoufalis, C. S.
2007-11-01
Unusual effects such as bending and "canting," related with the stability, have been identified by ab initio real-space calculations for hydrogenated silicon nanowires. We have examined in detail the electronic and structural properties of finite and infinite nanowires as a function of length (and width) and have developed stability and bending rules, demonstrating that "magic" wires do not bend. Reconstructed 2×1 nanowires are practically as stable as the magic ones. Our calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data of Ma et al. [Science 299, 1874 (2003).].
Determination of Mechanical Properties of Porous Silicon with Image Analysis and Finite Element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmoun, K.; Faraoun, H. I.; Bassou, G.; Mathieu, C.; Sari, N. E. Chabane
In order to create equivalent images, a series of SEM micrographs of porous silicon were treated with the image analysis procedure, developed using public domain software "ImageJ". A morphological description was used to reduce the complexity of the microstructure of porous silicon and an image analysis procedure has been established to quantify different geometrical parameters related to the shape, size and orientation distribution. This description allows performing predictive calculation of mechanical properties of porous silicon using finite element analysis. Results are compared with experiment and a good agreement is observed
Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets.
Luo, Peixun; Wong, K Y Michael
2003-01-01
The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.
Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Peixun; Michael Wong, K. Y.
2003-01-01
The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.
Spin-orbital order in the undoped manganite LaMnO3 at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snamina, Mateusz; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2016-12-01
We investigate the evolution of spin and orbital order in undoped LaMnO3 under increasing temperature with a model including both superexchange and Jahn-Teller interactions. We used several cluster mean field calculation schemes and find coexisting A -type antiferromagnetic and C -type alternating orbital order at low temperature. The value of the Jahn-Teller coupling between strongly correlated eg orbitals is estimated from the orbital transition temperature at TOO≃780 K. By a careful analysis of onsite and on-bond correlations, we demonstrate that spin-orbital entanglement is rather weak. We have verified that the magnetic transition temperature is influenced by entangled spin-orbital operators as well as by entangled orbital operators on the bonds, but the errors introduced by decoupling such operators partly compensate each other. Altogether, these results justify why the commonly used disentangled spin-orbital model is so successful in describing the magnetic properties and the temperature dependence of the optical spectral weights for LaMnO3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Rodrigues, Josberg S.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2009-10-01
In this work, we examine the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and Lorentz-invariance-violating (LIV) electrodynamics of the standard model extension, represented by the term WανρφFανFρφ. We begin analyzing the Hamiltonian structure following the Dirac’s procedure for constrained systems and construct a well-defined and gauge invariant partition function in the functional integral formalism. Next, we specialize for the nonbirefringent coefficients of the tensor Wανρφ. In the sequel, the partition function is explicitly carried out for the parity-even sector of the tensor Wανρφ. The modified partition function is a power of the Maxwell’s partition function. It is observed that the LIV coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black body angular energy density distribution. The Planck’s radiation law, however, retains its frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the usual form, except for a change in the Stefan-Boltzmann constant by a factor containing the LIV contributions.
Coherent tunneling of atoms from Bose-condensed gases at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luxat, David L.; Griffin, Allan
2002-04-01
Tunneling of atoms between two trapped Bose-condensed gases at finite temperatures is explored using a many-body linear-response tunneling formalism similar to that used in superconductors. To lowest order, the tunneling currents can be expressed quite generally in terms of the single-particle Green's functions of isolated Bose gases. A coherent first-order tunneling Josephson current between two atomic Bose-Einstein condensates is found, in addition to coherent and dissipative contributions from second-order condensate-noncondensate and noncondensate-noncondensate tunneling. Our work is a generalization of Meier and Zwerger, who recently treated tunneling between uniform atomic Bose gases. We apply our formalism to the analysis of an out-coupling experiment induced by light wave fields, using a simple Bogoliubov-Popov quasiparticle approximation for the trapped Bose gas. For tunneling into the vacuum, we recover the results of Japha, Choi, Burnett, and Band, who recently pointed out the usefulness of studying the spectrum of out-coupled atoms. In particular, we show that the small tunneling current of noncondensate atoms from a trapped Bose gas has a broad spectrum of energies, with a characteristic structure associated with the Bogoliubov quasiparticle u2 and v2 amplitudes.
Theory of the dissociation dynamics of small molecules on metal surfaces: Finite temperature studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, B. E.
1992-11-01
The goal is to gain a better understanding of metal-catalyzed reactions by examining in detail the dynamics of molecule-metal interactions. Much effort has been focused on treating the molecule quantum mechanically when necessary, and including the effects of finite surface temperature. Recently developed time-dependent quantum techniques have been used to compute the dissociative sticking probability of H2, HD, and D2 on Cu and Ni surfaces. All molecular degrees of freedom can now be included either quantum mechanically or classically. The dependence upon translational and internal molecular energy, the angle and site of surface impact, and the details of the molecule-metal interaction potential were examined. Similar techniques were used to study the Eley-Rideal mechanism for the recombinative desorption of adsorbed H and D atoms with gas-phase H and D atoms. Several useful methods for coupling gas particles to the thermal vibrations of the solid were developed and used in studies of energy transfer and sticking. The trapping of H2 and other diatomics in weakly bound molecular precursors to dissociative adsorption is also of interest.
Martins, R. A.
2007-08-15
The recent extension of the standard model to include massive neutrinos in the framework of noncommutative geometry and the spectral action principle involves new scalar fields and their interactions with the usual complex scalar doublet. After ensuring that they bring no unphysical consequences, we address the question of how these fields affect the physics predicted in the Weinberg-Salam theory, particularly in the context of the electroweak phase transition. Applying the Dolan-Jackiw procedure, we calculate the finite temperature corrections, and find that the phase transition is first order. The new scalar interactions significantly improve the stability of the electroweak Z string, through the 'bag' phenomenon described by Vachaspati and Watkins ['Bound states can stabilize electroweak strings', Phys. Lett. B 318, 163-168 (1993)]. (Recently, cosmic strings have climbed back into interest due to a new evidence.) Sourced by static embedded strings, an internal space analogy of Cartan's torsion is drawn, and a possible Higgs-force-like 'gravitational' effect of this nonpropagating torsion on the fermion masses is described. We also check that the field generating the Majorana mass for the {nu}{sub R} is nonzero in the physical vacuum.
Massive Yang-Mills for vector and axial-vector spectral functions at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf
2016-05-01
The hadronic mechanism which leads to chiral symmetry restoration is explored in the context of the ρπa1 system using Massive Yang-Mills, a hadronic effective theory which governs their microscopic interactions. In this approach, vector and axial-vector mesons are implemented as gauge bosons of a local chiral gauge group. We have previously shown that this model can describe the experimentally measured vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum. Here, we carry the analysis to finite temperatures by evaluating medium effects in a pion gas and calculating thermal spectral functions. We find that the spectral peaks in both channels broaden along with a noticeable downward mass shift in the a1 spectral peak and negligible movement of the ρ peak. The approach toward spectral function degeneracy is accompanied by a reduction of chiral order parameters, i.e., the pion decay constant and scalar condensate. Our findings suggest a mechanism where the chiral mass splitting induced in vacuum is burned off. We explore this mechanism and identify future investigations which can further test it.
Finite-temperature effects in stirred ring Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, N.; Lanier, C.; Edwards, M.; Wang, Y.-H.; Clark, C. W.
2014-05-01
A ring Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with zero circulation (m = 0) stirred by a barrier will eventually jump to an m = 1 state when stirred faster than a certain critical speed, Ωc+. A ring BEC with m = 1 will drop to m = 0 when stirred at a critical speed, Ωc-, which is lower than Ωc+. The loop areas, Ωc+ -Ωc- , of this hysteretic response of the BEC to stirring predicted by zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) disagreed significantly with the results of a recent experiment. In the work reported here, we simulated this experiment with the phenomenologically damped GPE, [S. Choi, S. A. Morgan, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4057 (1999)], and with the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) theory. The ZNG theory can account for finite-T, non-equilibrium dynamics. We compare the results of these simulations with the experimental data. The simulations show that a vortex/antivortex pair forms in the barrier region during the stirring and that this drives the hysteresis. We also show how the presence of an interacting, thermal cloud affects the dynamics of these pairs. We also simulate a ring condensate stirred by two barriers and find that the GPE matches the data much more closely. Supported in part by NSF grant #1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI.
Finite-temperature effects in rotational hysteresis of ring Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, N.; Lanier, C.; Edwards, M.; Wang, Y.-H.; Clark, C. W.; Eckel, S.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Campbell, G. K.
2014-03-01
A ring Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with zero circulation (m = 0) stirred by a barrier will eventually jump to an m = 1 state when stirred faster than a certain critical speed, Ωc+. A ring BEC with m = 1 will drop to m = 0 when stirred at a critical speed, Ωc-, which is lower than Ωc+. The loop areas, Ωc+ -Ωc- , of this hysteretic response of the BEC to stirring predicted by zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) disagreed significantly with the results of a recent experiment. In the work reported here, we simulated this experiment with the phenomenologically damped GPE, [S. Choi, S. A. Morgan, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4057 (1999)], and with the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) theory. The ZNG theory can account for finite-T, non-equilibrium dynamics. We compare the results of these simulations with the experimental data. The simulations show that a vortex/antivortex pair forms in the barrier region during the stirring and that this drives the hysteresis. We also show how the presence of an interacting, thermal cloud affects the dynamics of these pairs. Supported in part by NSF grant #1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI
Quantum quench dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperatures
Zhang, J. M.; Shen, C.; Liu, W. M.
2011-06-15
We study quench dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model by exact diagonalization. Initially, the system is at thermal equilibrium and of a finite temperature. The system is then quenched by changing the on-site interaction strength U suddenly. Both the single-quench and double-quench scenarios are considered. In the former case, the time-averaged density matrix and the real-time evolution are investigated. It is found that though the system thermalizes only in a very narrow range of the quenched value of U, it does equilibrate or relax well into a much larger range. Most importantly, it is proven that this is guaranteed for some typical observables in the thermodynamic limit. In order to test whether it is possible to distinguish the unitarily evolving density matrix from the time-averaged (thus time-independent), fully decohered density matrix, a second quench is considered. It turns out that the answer is affirmative or negative depending on whether the intermediate value of U is zero or not.
Chung, Chen-Yuan; Mansour, Joseph M.
2014-01-01
The feasibility of determining biphasic material properties using a finite element model of stress relaxation coupled with two types of constrained optimization to match measured data was investigated. Comparison of these two approaches, a zero-order method and a gradient-based algorithm, validated the predicted material properties. Optimizations were started from multiple different initial guesses of material properties (design variables) to establish the robustness of the optimization. Overall, the optimal values are close to those found by Cohen et al., (1998), but these small differences produced a marked improvement in the fit to the measured stress relaxation. Despite the greater deviation in the optimized values obtained from the zero-order method, both optimization procedures produced material properties that gave equally good overall fits to the measured data. Furthermore, optimized values were all within the expected range of material properties. Modeling stress relaxation using the optimized material properties showed an excellent fit to the entire time history of the measured data. PMID:25460921
Zero Temperature Limits of Gibbs-Equilibrium States for Countable Alphabet Subshifts of Finite Type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkinson, O.; Mauldin, R. D.; Urbański, M.
2005-05-01
Let Σ A be a finitely primitive subshift of finite type on a countable alphabet. For appropriate functions f:Σ A → IR, the family of Gibbs-equilibrium states (μ tf ) t⩾1 for the functions tf is shown to be tight. Any weak*-accumulation point as t→∞ is shown to be a maximizing measure for f.
Nadobny, Jacek; Szimtenings, Michael; Diehl, Dirk; Stetter, Eckart; Brinker, Gerhard; Wust, Peter
2007-10-01
An investigation of magnetic resonance (MR)-induced hot spots in a high-resolution human model is performed, motivated by safety aspects for the use of MR tomographs. The human model is placed in an MR whole body resonator that is driven in a quadrature excitation mode. The MR-induced hot spots are studied by varying the following: (1) the temporal specific absorption rate (SAR) mode ("steady imaging", "intermittent imaging"), (2) the simulation procedure (related to given power levels or to limiting temperatures), and (3) different thermal tissue properties including temperature-independent and temperature-dependent perfusion models. Both electromagnetic and thermodynamic simulations have been performed. For the electromagnetic modeling, a commercial finite-integration theory (FIT) code is applied. For the thermodynamic modeling, a time-domain finite-difference (FD) scheme is formulated that uses an explicit treatment of temperature gradient components. This allows a flux-vector-based implementation of heat transfer boundary conditions on cubical faces. It is shown that this FD scheme significantly reduces the staircase errors at thermal boundaries that are locally sloped or curved with respect to the cubical grid elements.
The importance of intrinsic damage properties to bone fragility: a finite element study.
Hardisty, M R; Zauel, R; Stover, S M; Fyhrie, D P
2013-01-01
As the average age of the population has increased, the incidence of age-related bone fracture has also increased. While some of the increase of fracture incidence with age is related to loss of bone mass, a significant part of the risk is unexplained and may be caused by changes in intrinsic material properties of the hard tissue. This investigation focused on understanding how changes to the intrinsic damage properties affect bone fragility. We hypothesized that the intrinsic (μm) damage properties of bone tissue strongly and nonlinearly affect mechanical behavior at the apparent (whole tissue, cm) level. The importance of intrinsic properties on the apparent level behavior of trabecular bone tissue was investigated using voxel based finite element analysis. Trabecular bone cores from human T12 vertebrae were scanned using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and the images used to build nonlinear finite element models. Isotropic and initially homogenous material properties were used for all elements. The elastic modulus (E(i)) of individual elements was reduced with a secant damage rule relating only principal tensile tissue strain to modulus damage. Apparent level resistance to fracture as a function of changes in the intrinsic damage properties was measured using the mechanical energy to failure per unit volume (apparent toughness modulus, W(a)) and the apparent yield strength (σ(ay), calculated using the 0.2% offset). Intrinsic damage properties had a profound nonlinear effect on the apparent tissue level mechanical response. Intrinsic level failure occurs prior to apparent yield strength (σ(ay)). Apparent yield strength (σ(ay)) and toughness vary strongly (1200% and 400%, respectively) with relatively small changes in the intrinsic damage behavior. The range of apparent maximum stresses predicted by the models was consistent with those measured experimentally for these trabecular bone cores from the experimental axial compressive loading (experimental:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni Bashusqeh, Saeed; Rastgoo, Abbas
2017-10-01
In the current study, the viscoelastic properties of the free-standing DPPC lipid bilayer are investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) and inverse finite element (FE) methods. As the first step, the CG-MD method is employed to simulate the loading/relaxation of a free-standing DPPC lipid bilayer in an indentation experiment. Then the experiment is simulated using the FE method, in which viscoelastic properties of the bilayer are chosen by a genetic algorithm. At each optimization step, the force–time curve is extracted and evaluated with respect to the curve obtained from the CG-MD simulation. The optimization process is continued until a sufficiently good accordance is acquired between the force–time curves obtained from the FE and CG-MD simulations. The material’s behavior in the FE simulation is represented by a two-term Prony model which comprises three unknown constants; the instantaneous Young’s modulus, the steady-state Young’s modulus and the relaxation time constant, which are obtained through optimization. The effects of various simulation parameters, such as indentation speed, the shape of the indenter, the size of the bilayer and temperature, on the viscoelastic properties of the bilayer are also studied and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2017-07-01
The variational tensor network renormalization approach to two-dimensional (2D) quantum systems at finite temperature is applied to a model suffering the notorious quantum Monte Carlo sign problem—the orbital eg model with spatially highly anisotropic orbital interactions. Coarse graining of the tensor network along the inverse temperature β yields a numerically tractable 2D tensor network representing the Gibbs state. Its bond dimension D —limiting the amount of entanglement—is a natural refinement parameter. Increasing D we obtain a converged order parameter and its linear susceptibility close to the critical point. They confirm the existence of finite order parameter below the critical temperature Tc, provide a numerically exact estimate of Tc, and give the critical exponents within 1 % of the 2D Ising universality class.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro
2013-03-01
We study sound propagation in Bose-condensed gases in a highly elongated harmonic trap at finite temperatures. This problem is studied within the framework of the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) formalism, which consists of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate and a kinetic equation for the thermal cloud. We extend the ZNG formalism to deal with a highly anisotropic trap potential and use it to simulate sound propagation using the trap parameters corresponding to an experiment on sound pulse propagation at finite temperature. We focus on the high-density two-fluid hydrodynamic regime, and explore the possibility of observing first- and second-sound pulse propagation. The results of numerical simulation are compared with analytical results derived from linearized ZNG hydrodynamic equations. We show that the second-sound mode makes the dominant contribution to condensate motion at relatively high temperature, while the first-sound mode makes an appreciable contribution.
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
Spin glass in a field: a new zero-temperature fixed point in finite dimensions.
Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio
2015-03-06
By using real-space renormalization group (RG) methods, we show that spin glasses in a field display a new kind of transition in high dimensions. The corresponding critical properties and the spin-glass phase are governed by two nonperturbative zero-temperature fixed points of the RG flow. We compute the critical exponents and discuss the RG flow and its relevance for three-dimensional systems. The new spin-glass phase we discovered has unusual properties, which are intermediate between the ones conjectured by droplet and full replica symmetry-breaking theories. These results provide a new perspective on the long-standing debate about the behavior of spin glasses in a field.
Thermoelectric properties of LaFeAsO1-y at low temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Miyazawa, K.; Shirage, P. M.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.
2010-08-01
We have studied the thermoelectric properties of LaFeAsO1-y in the temperature range 10-300 K. The resistivity decreases with carrier doping induced by oxygen deficiency up to y =0.16. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient shows a maximum absolute value at a finite doping level. The power factor (PF) and the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in y =0.16 are PF=4.1 mW m-1 K-2 at T =75 K and ZT =0.061 at T =125 K. The results indicate that iron pnictides have potential as a good low temperature thermoelectric material.
Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: finite-element-based simulation.
Oshmyan, V G; Patlazhan, S A; Timan, S A
2001-11-01
The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.
Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: Finite-element-based simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshmyan, V. G.; Patlazhan, S. A.; Timan, S. A.
2001-11-01
The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.
Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2015-02-01
We study finite sample properties of estimators of power-law cross-correlations-detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), height cross-correlation analysis (HXA) and detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA)-with a special focus on short-term memory bias as well as power-law coherency. We present a broad Monte Carlo simulation study that focuses on different time series lengths, specific methods' parameter setting, and memory strength. We find that each method is best suited for different time series dynamics so that there is no clear winner between the three. The method selection should be then made based on observed dynamic properties of the analyzed series.
Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.
Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale
2017-01-01
In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material.
Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cremers, C. J.
1973-01-01
The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Travis L.; Zhong, Z. W.; Mei, Chuh
1994-01-01
A feasibility study on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) for suppression of the random response of composite panels due to acoustic loads at elevated temperatures is presented. The constitutive relations for a composite lamina with embedded SMA fibers are developed. The finite element governing equations and the solution procedures for a composite plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads are presented. Solutions include: 1) Critical buckling temperature; 2) Flat panel random response; 3) Thermal postbuckling deflection; 4) Random response of a thermally buckled panel. The preliminary results demonstrate that the SMA fibers can completely eliminate the thermal postbuckling deflection and significantly reduce the random response at elevated temperatures.
Mechanical Properties of Ceramics for High Temperature Applications
1976-12-01
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Technical Information Service AD-A034 262 MFIHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS...Atlantic Treaty Organization 7 rue Ancelle, 92200 Neujily sur Seinle, France 6.TtlcMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS...whlichi are outlined onl thle Outside Back Covers of all AGARI) publications. 13. Key words/Descriptors . Ceramics Fracture properties Mechanical properties
Hickel, T; Grabowski, B; Körmann, F; Neugebauer, J
2012-02-08
The performance of materials such as steels, their high strength and formability, is based on an impressive variety of competing mechanisms on the microscopic/atomic scale (e.g. dislocation gliding, solid solution hardening, mechanical twinning or structural phase transformations). Whereas many of the currently available concepts to describe these mechanisms are based on empirical and experimental data, it becomes more and more apparent that further improvement of materials needs to be based on a more fundamental level. Recent progress for methods based on density functional theory (DFT) now makes the exploration of chemical trends, the determination of parameters for phenomenological models and the identification of new routes for the optimization of steel properties feasible. A major challenge in applying these methods to a true materials design is, however, the inclusion of temperature-driven effects on the desired properties. Therefore, a large range of computational tools has been developed in order to improve the capability and accuracy of first-principles methods in determining free energies. These combine electronic, vibrational and magnetic effects as well as structural defects in an integrated approach. Based on these simulation tools, one is now able to successfully predict mechanical and thermodynamic properties of metals with a hitherto not achievable accuracy.
Advancing density functional theory to finite temperatures: methods and applications in steel design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickel, T.; Grabowski, B.; Körmann, F.; Neugebauer, J.
2012-02-01
The performance of materials such as steels, their high strength and formability, is based on an impressive variety of competing mechanisms on the microscopic/atomic scale (e.g. dislocation gliding, solid solution hardening, mechanical twinning or structural phase transformations). Whereas many of the currently available concepts to describe these mechanisms are based on empirical and experimental data, it becomes more and more apparent that further improvement of materials needs to be based on a more fundamental level. Recent progress for methods based on density functional theory (DFT) now makes the exploration of chemical trends, the determination of parameters for phenomenological models and the identification of new routes for the optimization of steel properties feasible. A major challenge in applying these methods to a true materials design is, however, the inclusion of temperature-driven effects on the desired properties. Therefore, a large range of computational tools has been developed in order to improve the capability and accuracy of first-principles methods in determining free energies. These combine electronic, vibrational and magnetic effects as well as structural defects in an integrated approach. Based on these simulation tools, one is now able to successfully predict mechanical and thermodynamic properties of metals with a hitherto not achievable accuracy.
Finite Element Study of the Effect of Substrate Properties in Micro-cutting Thin Workpiece Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saptaji, K.; Subbiah, S.
2016-02-01
The cutting mechanism and residual stress profile of the micro-cutting thin workpiece are affected by the interaction of the thin workpiece and the fixture (substrate) underneath it similar to that observed in the nano-indentation and nano-scratching of thin film. The appropriate substrate properties are necessary especially to avoid detachment during machining and to minimize deformation and warping of the machined thin workpiece. Thus, the investigations of the influence of substrate properties on micro-cutting thin workpiece are essentially to be conducted. The finite element study of orthogonal micro-cutting of thin Al6061-T6 is presented here. The simulations were conducted to study the residual stress profile across the thickness of the machined thin workpiece at various workpiece thicknesses and various substrate (adhesive) elastic properties. Simulations results show that as the machined workpiece become thinner, the stress is more significant not only on the machined surface but also it can reach the bottom of the workpiece. The stiffer substrate produces less variation of the stress across the workpiece thickness while more compliant substrate produces broader stress variation as the workpiece become thinner. The results show the significant effect of the workpiece thickness and the substrate properties on the stress profiles in the micro-cutting of thin workpiece.
Statistical properties of record-breaking temperatures.
Newman, William I; Malamud, Bruce D; Turcotte, Donald L
2010-12-01
A record-breaking temperature is the highest or lowest temperature at a station since the period of time considered began. The temperatures at a station constitute a time series. After the removal of daily and annual periodicities, the primary considerations are trends (i.e., global warming) and long-range correlations. We first carry out Monte Carlo simulations to determine the influence of trends and long-range correlations on record-breaking statistics. We take a time series that is a Gaussian white noise and give the classic record-breaking theory results for an independent and identically distributed process. We then carry out simulations to determine the influence of long-range correlations and linear temperature trends. For the range of fractional Gaussian noises that are observed to be applicable to temperature time series, the influence on the record-breaking statistics is less than 10%. We next superimpose a linear trend on a Gaussian white noise and extend the theory to include the effect of an additive trend. We determine the ratios of the number of maximum to the number of minimum record-breaking temperatures. We find the single governing parameter to be the ratio of the temperature change per year to the standard deviation of the underlying white noise. To test our approach, we consider a 30 yr record of temperatures at the Mauna Loa Observatory for 1977-2006. We determine the temperature trends by direct measurements and use our simulations to infer trends from the number of record-breaking temperatures. The two approaches give values that are in good agreement. We find that the warming trend is primarily due to an increase in the (overnight) minimum temperatures, while the maximum (daytime) temperatures are approximately constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Sangita; Lekala, Mantile Leslie; Chakrabarti, Barnali; Bhattacharyya, Satadal; Rampho, Gaotsiwe Joel
2017-09-01
'We study the condensate fluctuation and several statistics of weakly interacting attractive Bose gas of 7 Li atoms in harmonic trap. Using exact recursion relation we calculate canonical ensemble partition function and study the thermal evolution of the condensate. As 7 Li condensate is associated with collapse, the number of condensate atom is truly finite and it facilitates to study the condensate in mesoscopic region. Being highly correlated, we utilize the two-body correlated basis function to get the many-body effective potential which is further used to calculate the energy levels. Taking van der Waals interaction as interatomic interaction we calculate several quantities like condensate fraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, E.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Figueira, M. S.
2014-11-01
We study thermoelectric transport properties through a gate defined T-coupled quantum dot, describing the system at base with the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), whose corresponding Green's functions are calculated employing the finite correlation U atomic approach. We compute, with the linear approximation for the thermoelectric transport coefficients, the electrical and thermal conductance (G and K), the thermopower S, the product of the thermoelectric figure of merit and the temperature ZT, for all the regimes of the SIAM: empty quantum dot, intermediate valence, Kondo, and double occupation, at different temperatures; the treatment employed extends the results obtained for the limit of infinite U-Coulomb repulsion in the quantum dot, and has a many-body character, which is absent in Green's function descriptions that employ mean field approximations. Our main result connects the ZT behavior with the interplay between the thermopower and the violation of the Wiedemann-Franz relation; the results are in good agreement with other recent theoretical papers that employ the numerical renormalization group (NRG), different Green's function approximations, and some experimental reports.
RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GASES
DENSITY, *GAS IONIZATION, *GASES, *HIGH TEMPERATURE, *QUANTUM THEORY , *THERMODYNAMICS, ABSORPTION, CONTINUUM MECHANICS, EQUATIONS OF STATE, HEAT...HYDRODYNAMICS, HYDROGEN, INEQUALITIES, INTEGRAL EQUATIONS, IONS, MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), MEASUREMENT, NITROGEN, NUMBER THEORY , OXYGEN, PHOTOELECTRIC...CELLS (SEMICONDUCTOR), PHOTOTUBES, PROBABILITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, TEMPERATURE, THEORY
Electrical Properties Of Capacitors At High Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Overton, E.; Hammoud, A. N.
1994-01-01
Brief report describes results of experiments in which capacitance and dielectric loss of glass, metallized-polytetrafluoroethylene, and solid-tantalum capacitor measured at temperatures from 20 degrees C to 200 degrees C. Conclusions drawn concerning suitability of capacitors for use at high temperatures; such as in nuclear powerplants, aircraft, equipment for extracting geothermal energy, switching power supplies, and automotive integrated engine electronics.
[Anomalous Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions at Low Temperatures].
Matsumoto, Masakazu
2015-01-01
Water has many anomalous properties below the room temperature. The temperature range overlaps with that of the Earth's atmosphere and also with that natural life forms favor. We review the origin of the anomalous properties of water and aqueous solutions in association with the hypothetical second critical point and liquid-liquid phase separation of water hidden in the supercooled state of liquid water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chen
2016-03-01
A key element in the density functional embedding theory (DFET) is the embedding potential. We discuss two major issues related to the embedding potential: (1) its non-uniqueness and (2) the numerical difficulty for solving for it, especially for the spin-polarized systems. To resolve the first issue, we extend DFET to finite temperature: all quantities, such as the subsystem densities and the total system's density, are calculated at a finite temperature. This is a physical extension since materials work at finite temperatures. We show that the embedding potential is strictly unique at T > 0. To resolve the second issue, we introduce an efficient iterative embedding potential solver. We discuss how to relax the magnetic moments in subsystems and how to equilibrate the chemical potentials across subsystems. The solver is robust and efficient for several non-trivial examples, in all of which good quality spin-polarized embedding potentials were obtained. We also demonstrate the solver on an extended periodic system: iron body-centered cubic (110) surface, which is related to the modeling of the heterogeneous catalysis involving iron, such as the Fischer-Tropsch and the Haber processes. This work would make it efficient and accurate to perform embedding simulations of some challenging material problems, such as the heterogeneous catalysis and the defects of complicated spin configurations in electronic materials.
D* and B* mesons in strange hadronic medium at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind
2016-03-01
We calculate the effect of density and temperature of isospin symmetric strange medium on the shift in masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons using chiral SU(3) model and QCD sum rule approach. In the present investigation the values of quark and gluon condensates are calculated from the chiral SU(3) model and these condensatesare further used as input in the QCD Sum rule framework to calculate the in-medium masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons. These in medium properties of vector D and B mesons may be helpful to understand the experimental observables of the experiments like CBM and PANDA under FAIR project at GSI, Germany. The results which are observed in present work are also compared with the previous predictions.
Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions
Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.
2016-12-15
We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.
Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davesne, D.; Becker, P.; Pastore, A.; Navarro, J.
2016-12-01
We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin-orbit terms from the spin-isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin-orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.
Properties of a Finite Stochastic Cellular Automaton Toy Model of Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Białecki, Mariusz
2015-08-01
Finite version of Random Domino Automaton — a recently proposed toy model of earthquakes — is investigated in detail. Respective set of equations describing stationary state of the FRDA is derived and compared with infinite case. It is shown that for a system of large size, these equations are coincident with RDA equations. We demonstrate a non-existence of exact equations for size N ≥ 5 and propose appropriate approximations, the quality of which is studied in examples obtained within the framework of Markov chains. We derive several exact formulas describing properties of the automaton, including time aspects. In particular, a way to achieve a quasi-periodic like behaviour of RDA is presented. Thus, based on the same microscopic rule — which produces exponential and inverse-power like distributions - we extend applicability of the model to quasi-periodic phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lászlóffy, A.; Udvardi, L.; Szunyogh, L.
2017-05-01
We developed a technique to determine suitable spin models for small embedded clusters of arbitrary geometry by combining the spin-cluster expansion with the relativistic disordered local moment scheme. We present results for uncovered and covered hexagonal Co clusters on Au(111) surface, and use classical Monte Carlo simulations to study the temperature dependent properties of the systems. To test the new method we compare the calculated spin-model parameters of the uncovered clusters with those of a Co monolayer deposited on Au(111). In general, the isotropic and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions are larger between atoms at the perimeter than at the center of the clusters. For Co clusters covered by Au, both the contribution to the magnetic anisotropy and the easy axis direction of the perimeter atoms differ from those of the inner atoms due to reduced symmetry. We investigate the spin reversals of the covered clusters with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and based on the variance of the magnetization component parallel to the easy direction we suggest a technique to determine the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic particles. We also determine the Néel relaxation time from the Monte Carlo simulations and find that it satisfies the Néel-Arrhenius law with an energy barrier close to the magnetic anisotropy energy of the clusters.
Homogenized mechanical properties of auxetic composite materials in finite-strain elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochmann, Dennis M.; Venturini, Gabriela N.
2013-08-01
Careful microstructural design can result in materials with counterintuitive effective (macroscale) mechanical properties such as a negative Poisson’s ratio, commonly referred to as auxetic behavior. One specific approach to achieving auxetic behavior is to elastically connect structural elements with rotational degrees of freedom to result in elastic structures that unfold under uniaxial loading in specific directions, thereby giving rise to bi- or triaxial expansion, i.e. auxetic behavior (transverse expansion under uniaxial extension). This concept has been applied successfully to elastically coupled two-dimensional rigid rotational elements (such as rotating rectangles and triangles) which exhibit a negative effective in-plane Poisson’s ratio under uniaxial (ex)tension. Here, we adopt this fundamental design principle but take it to the next level by achieving auxetic behavior in finitely strained composites made of stiff inclusions in a hyperelastic matrix, and we study the resulting elastic properties under in-plane strain by numerical homogenization. Our results highlight the emergence of auxetic behavior based on geometric arrangement and properties of the base material and demonstrate a path towards simple inclusion-matrix composites with auxetic behavior.
Zhang, Jingzhou; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.
2009-01-01
Measurement of the mechanical properties of bone is important for estimating the stresses and strains exerted at the cellular level due to loading experienced on a macro-scale. Nano- and micro-mechanical properties of bone are also of interest to the pharmaceutical industry when drug therapies have intentional or non-intentional effects on bone mineral content and strength. The interactions that can occur between nano- and micro-indentation creep test condition parameters were considered in this study, and average hardness and elastic modulus were obtained as a function of indentation testing conditions (maximum load, load/unload rate, load-holding time, and indenter shape). The results suggest that bone reveals different mechanical properties when loading increases from the nano- to the micro-scale range (μN to N), which were measured using low- and high-load indentation testing systems. A four-parameter visco-elastic/plastic constitutive model was then applied to simulate the indentation load vs. depth response over both load ranges. Good agreement between the experimental data and finite element model was obtained when simulating the visco-elastic/plastic response of bone. The results highlight the complexity of bone as a biological tissue and the need to understand the impact of testing conditions on the measured results. PMID:17961578
Effects of Phase Lags on Three-Dimensional Wave Propagation with Temperature-Dependent Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Deswal, Sunita
2014-05-01
A three-dimensional model of equations for a homogeneous and isotropic medium with temperature-dependent mechanical properties is established under the purview of two-phase-lag thermoelasticity theory. The modulus of elasticity is taken as a linear function of the reference temperature. The resulting non-dimensional coupled equations are applied to a specific problem of a half-space whose surface is traction-free and is subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The analytical expressions for the displacement component, stress, temperature field, and strain are obtained in the physical domain by employing normal mode analysis. These expressions are also calculated numerically for a copper-like material and depicted graphically. Discussions have been made to highlight the joint effects of the temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and time on these physical fields. The phenomenon of a finite speed of propagation is observed graphically for each field.
Dillenschneider, Raoul; Richert, Jean
2006-10-01
We study the role played by a Chern-Simons contribution to the action in the QED{sub 3} formulation of a two-dimensional Heisenberg model of quantum spin systems with a strictly fixed site occupation at finite temperature. We show how this contribution affects the screening of the potential that acts between spinons and contributes to the restoration of chiral symmetry in the spinon sector. The constant that characterizes the Chern-Simons term can be related to the critical temperature T{sub c} above which the dynamical mass goes to zero.
Fukugita, M.; Ukawa, A.
1986-08-04
Finite-temperature behavior of quantum chromodynamics is investigated with the Langevin technique including the dynamical quark loops. The deconfining and chiral transitions occur at the same temperature. The strength of transition weakens initially as the quark mass decreases from infinity, but at small quark masses it strengthens again and shows the characteristic of a first-order transition. We estimate the inverse coupling constant at zero quark mass to be beta/sub c/ = 6/g/sub c//sup 2/approx. =4.9--5.0 for four flavors on an 8/sup 3/ x 4 lattice.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, G. P.
1986-01-01
A model that is currently used to predict the priming and performance limitations of a monogroove heat pipe is expanded to include the boiling limitation and the cross-sectional temperature distribution as determined from a multidimensional finite element analysis technique. The improved model is verified experimentally and shown to accurately predict the cross-sectional temperature distribution when the heat flux distribution is known. The model provides a way to estimate the level at which nucleate boiling and the associated dryout of the capillary wick occurs.
AlN Bandgap Temperature Dependence from its Optical Properties
2008-06-07
In the present work we report on the AlN gap energy temperature dependence studied through the optical properties of high-quality large bulk AlN...evolution of these features up to room temperature and inferred the gap energy temperature dependence using the exciton binding energy obtained by our group in the past.
The High Temperature Thermochemical Properties of Carbon.
1982-03-31
b2 (cos@+ a )z + bZ (22) )2 )2 (c.cos0- a ) + (decos - b,) (CCosa+ aIf )~ z+ (d cos + b1 ) Z (23) 3 2 hlsteller, L. P., and F. Wooten , * Optical Properties and...31. Born, M., and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd Edition, Permagon Press, NY, 1964. 32. Mosteller, L. P., and F. Wooten , " Optical Properties and
Shiomi, Masanori; Mori, Kenichiro; Osakada, Kozo
1995-12-31
Non-steady-state metal flow and temperature distribution in twin roll strip casting are simulated by the finite element method. In the present simulation, the viscoplastic finite element method is combined with that for heat conduction to calculate the metal flow and the temperature distribution during the casting process. The solid, mushy and liquid phases are assumed to be viscoplastic materials with individual flow stresses. In the temperature analysis, the latent heat due to solidification of the molten metal is taken into account by using the temperature recovery method. Since the metal flow and temperature distribution do not often attain to steady states, they are simulated by the stepwise calculation. To examine the accuracy of the calculated results, physical simulation of plane-strain twin roll strip casting is carried out by use of paraffin wax as a model material. The calculated profiles of the solid region agree qualitatively well with the experimental ones. Twin roll strip casting processes for stainless steel are also simulated. An optimum roll speed for obtaining a strip without a liquid zone under a minimum rolling load is obtained from the results of the simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.
2007-04-01
A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.
Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi
2016-08-01
Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.
Žvátora, Pavel; Veverka, Miroslav; Veverka, Pavel; Knížek, Karel; Závěta, Karel; Pollert, Emil; Goglio, Graziella; Duguet, Etienne; Kaman, Ondřej
2013-08-15
Syntheses of nanocrystalline perovskite phases of the general formula La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} were carried out employing sol–gel technique followed by thermal treatment at 700–900 °C under oxygen flow. The prepared samples exhibit a rhombohedral structure with space group R3{sup ¯}c in the whole investigated range of composition 0.20≤x≤0.45. The studies were aimed at the chemical composition including oxygen stoichiometry and extrinsic properties, i.e. size of the particles, both influencing the resulting structural and magnetic properties. The oxygen stoichiometry was determined by chemical analysis revealing oxygen excess in most of the studied phases. The excess was particularly high for the samples with the smallest crystallites (12–28 nm) while comparative bulk materials showed moderate non-stoichiometry. These differences are tentatively attributed to the surface effects in view of the volume fraction occupied by the upper layer whose atomic composition does not comply with the ideal bulk stoichiometry. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of the particle size with annealing temperature in the nanocrystalline La{sub 0.70}Sr{sub 0.30}MnO{sub 3+δ} phase. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The magnetic behaviour of nanocrystalline La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} phases was analyzed on the basis of their crystal structure, chemical composition and size of the particles. • Their Curie temperature and magnetization are markedly affected by finite size and surface effects. • The oxygen excess observed in the La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3+δ} nanoparticles might be generated by the surface layer with deviated oxygen stoichiometry.
Elevated temperature properties of aligned ferrous eutectics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemkey, F. D.
1982-01-01
Iron base alloys containing aluminum and chromium together with smaller amounts of yttrium and silicon are of interest for high temperature applications. Strengthening an inherently weak but oxidation resistant solid solution matrix with aligned in situ chromium carbides represents an attractive approach to achieving both surface stability and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Aligned microstructures were produced in alloys of approximately 30 wt % (Cr + Mn), about 3 wt % C and the balance Fe consisting of a gamma matrix and the hexagonal carbide (Cr, Mn, Fe)7C3. The tensile and stress rupture strength to 2000 F of aligned Fe-20 w/t % Cr-10 wt % Mn-3.2 wt % C measured parallel to the carbide reinforcement exceeded those of the strongest iron-nickel superalloys, e.g., CRM-6D developed by Chrysler for automotive turbine application. The cyclic oxidation and sulfidation response of these alloys at elevated temperatures can be markedly improved by aluminum additions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, G. P.; Liu, L.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.
2017-10-01
Electron capture and excitation processes in H+-H collisions imbedded in warm dense quantum plasmas are studied by the two-center atomic orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) method in the energy range 1-200 keV. The screened potential which is used to describe the interaction between charged particles incorporates the quantum electron degeneracy, exchange-correlation and finite-temperature gradient correlation effects. The total and state-selective electron capture and excitation cross-sections for this collision system with this potential are calculated in a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. It is demonstrated that the screening of Coulomb interactions affects the collision dynamics and the magnitude and energy behavior of the excitation and electron capture cross-sections. The results at very low and high temperatures are also compared with those obtained for zero-temperature quantum plasmas and Debye plasmas, respectively.
Finite-Temperature Spin Dynamics in a Perturbed Quantum Critical Ising Chain with an E8 Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jianda; Kormos, Márton; Si, Qimiao
2014-12-01
A spectrum exhibiting E8 symmetry is expected to arise when a small longitudinal field is introduced in the transverse-field Ising chain at its quantum critical point. Evidence for this spectrum has recently come from neutron scattering measurements in cobalt niobate, a quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Unlike its zero-temperature counterpart, the finite-temperature dynamics of the model has not yet been determined. We study the dynamical spin structure factor of the model at low frequencies and nonzero temperatures, using the form factor method. Its frequency dependence is singular, but differs from the diffusion form. The temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate has an activated form, whose prefactor we also determine. We propose NMR experiments as a means to further test the applicability of the E8 description for CoNb2O6 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mukherjee, Anamitra; Kaushal, Nitin; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio
2017-08-01
We employ a recently developed computational many-body technique to study for the first time the half-filled Anderson-Hubbard model at finite temperature and arbitrary correlation U and disorder V strengths. Interestingly, the narrow zero temperature metallic range induced by disorder from the Mott insulator expands with increasing temperature in a manner resembling a quantum critical point. Our study of the resistivity temperature scaling Tα for this metal reveals non-Fermi liquid characteristics. Moreover, a continuous dependence of α on U and V from linear to nearly quadratic is observed. We argue that these exotic results arise from a systematic change with U and V of the "effective" disorder, a combination of quenched disorder and intrinsic localized spins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Yan-Wei; Shi, Qian-Qian; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang
2017-06-01
The finite-temperature phase diagram is obtained for an infinite honeycomb lattice with spin-1 /2 Ising interaction J by using thermal-state fidelity and the von Neumann entropy based on the infinite projected entangled pair state algorithm with ancillas. The tensor network representation of the fidelity, which is defined as an overlap measurement between two thermal states, is presented for thermal states on the honeycomb lattice. We show that the fidelity per lattice site and the von Neumann entropy can capture the phase transition temperatures for an applied magnetic field, consistent with the transition temperatures obtained via the transverse magnetizations, which indicates that a continuous phase transition occurs in the system. In the temperature-magnetic field plane, the phase boundary for finite temperature is found to be well approximated by the functional form (kBTc) 2+hc2/2 =a J2 with a single numerical fitting coefficient a =2.298 (7 ) , where Tc and hc are the critical temperature and field with Boltzmann constant kB. The critical temperature in the absence of magnetic field is estimated as kBTc/J =√{a }≃1.516 (2 ) , compared with the exact result kBTc/J =1.51865 ⋯ . For the quantum state at zero temperature, this phase boundary function gives the critical field estimate hc/J =√{2 a }≃2.144 (3 ) , compared to the known value hc/J =2.13250 (4 ) calculated from a cluster Monte Carlo approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danchev, Daniel M.; Tonchev, Nicholay S.
1999-10-01
The behaviour of the finite-temperature C-function, defined by Neto and Fradkin (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 400 525), is analysed within a d -dimensional exactly solvable lattice model, recently considered by Vojta (1996 Phys. Rev. B 53 710), which is of the same universality class as the quantum nonlinear O(n) sigma model in the limit nicons/Journals/Common/rightarrow" ALT="rightarrow" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/>. The scaling functions of C for the cases d = 1 (absence of long-range order), d = 2 (existence of a quantum critical point), d = 4 (existence of a line of finite-temperature critical points that ends up with a quantum critical point) are derived and analysed. The locations of regions where C is monotonically increasing (which depend significantly on d) are exactly determined. The results are interpreted within the finite-size scaling theory that has to be modified for d = 4.
Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuckey, J. M.
1977-01-01
A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Shahnazari, A.; Rouhi, S.
2017-04-01
In this paper, the density functional theory calculations are used to obtain the elastic properties of zigzag phosphorene nanotubes. Besides, based on the similarity between phosphorene nanotubes and a space-frame structure, a three-dimensional finite element model is proposed in which the atomic bonds are simulated by beam elements. The results of density functional theory are employed to compute the properties of the beam elements. Finally, using the proposed finite element model, the elastic modulus of the zigzag phosphorene nanotubes is computed. It is shown that phosphorene nanotubes with larger radii have larger Young's modulus. Comparing the results of finite element model with those of density functional theory, it is concluded that the proposed model can predict the elastic modulus of phosphorene nanotubes with a good accuracy.
Galbusera, Fabio; Jonas, René; Schlager, Benedikt; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Villa, Tomaso
2017-01-01
The Ovine spine is an accepted model to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of the human lumbar one. Indeed, the use of animal models for in vitro studies is necessary to investigate the mechanical behaviour of biological tissue, but needs to be reduced for ethical and social reasons. The aim of this study was to create a finite element model of the lumbar intervertebral disc of the sheep that may help to refine the understanding of parallel in vitro experiments and that can be used to predict when mechanical failure occurs. Anisotropic hyperelastic material properties were assigned to the annulus fibrosus and factorial optimization analyses were performed to find out the optimal parameters of the ground substance and of the collagen fibers. For the ground substance of the annulus fibrosus the investigation was based on experimental data taken from the literature, while for the collagen fibers tensile tests on annulus specimens were conducted. Flexibility analysis in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation were conducted. Different material properties for the anterior, lateral and posterior regions of the annulus were found. The posterior part resulted the stiffest region in compression whereas the anterior one the stiffest region in tension. Since the flexibility outcomes were in a good agreement with the literature data, we considered this model suitable to be used in conjunction with in vitro and in vivo tests to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the ovine lumbar disc. PMID:28472100
Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D
2016-08-01
The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.
Temperature dependent terahertz properties of energetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azad, Abul K.; Whitley, Von H.; Brown, Kathryn E.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Sorensen, Christian J.; Moore, David S.
2016-04-01
Reliable detection of energetic materials is still a formidable challenge which requires further investigation. The remote standoff detection of explosives using molecular fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range has been an evolving research area for the past two decades. Despite many efforts, identification of a particular explosive remains difficult as the spectral fingerprints often shift due to the working conditions of the sample such as temperature, crystal orientation, presence of binders, etc. In this work, we investigate the vibrational spectrum of energetic materials including RDX, PETN, AN, and 1,3-DNB diluted in a low loss PTFE host medium using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at cryogenic temperatures. The measured absorptions of these materials show spectral shifts of their characteristic peaks while changing their operating temperature from 300 to 7.5 K. We have developed a theoretical model based on first principles methods, which is able to predict most of the measured modes in 1, 3-DNB between 0.3 to 2.50 THz. These findings may further improve the security screening of explosives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio
2009-01-01
This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a…
Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Barbour, J.C.
1996-12-31
We present a methodology based on finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data to extract reliable and accurate mechanical properties from thin, hard films and surface-modified layers on softer substrates. The method deduces the yield stress, Young`s modulus, and hardness from indentations as deep as 50% of the layer thickness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio
2009-01-01
This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a…
Electrical properties of teflon and ceramic capacitors at high temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Overton, E.
1992-01-01
Space power systems and components are often required to operate efficiently and reliably in harsh environments where stresses, such as high temperature, are encountered. These systems must, therefore, withstand exposure to high temperature while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. Experiments were carried out to evaluate Teflon and ceramic capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature, up to 200 C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 25 to 200 C. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors studied for high temperature applications.
Temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties of the human supraspinatus tendon.
Huang, Chun-Yuh; Wang, Vincent M; Flatow, Evan L; Mow, Van C
2009-03-11
Temperature effects on the viscoelastic properties of the human supraspinatus tendon were investigated using static stress-relaxation experiments and the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory. Twelve supraspinatus tendons were randomly assigned to one of two test groups for tensile testing using the following sequence of temperatures: (1) 37, 27, and 17 degrees C (Group I, n=6), or (2) 42, 32, and 22 degrees C (Group II, n=6). QLV parameter C was found to increase at elevated temperatures, suggesting greater viscous mechanical behavior at higher temperatures. Elastic parameters A and B showed no significant difference among the six temperatures studied, implying that the viscoelastic stress response of the supraspinatus tendon is not sensitive to temperature over shorter testing durations. Using regression analysis, an exponential relationship between parameter C and test temperature was implemented into QLV theory to model temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior. This modified approach facilitates the theoretical determination of the viscoelastic behavior of tendons at arbitrary temperatures.
Nguyen, Bac V; Wang, Qi Guang; Kuiper, Nicola J; El Haj, Alicia J; Thomas, Colin R; Zhang, Zhibing
2010-12-06
A chondrocyte and its surrounding pericellular matrix (PCM) are defined as a chondron. Single chondrocytes and chondrons isolated from bovine articular cartilage were compressed by micromanipulation between two parallel surfaces in order to investigate their biomechanical properties and to discover the mechanical significance of the PCM. The force imposed on the cells was measured directly during compression to various deformations and then holding. When the nominal strain at the end of compression was 50 per cent, force relaxation showed that the cells were viscoelastic, but this viscoelasticity was generally insignificant when the nominal strain was 30 per cent or lower. The viscoelastic behaviour might be due to the mechanical response of the cell cytoskeleton and/or nucleus at higher deformations. A finite-element analysis was applied to simulate the experimental force-displacement/time data and to obtain mechanical property parameters of the chondrocytes and chondrons. Because of the large strains in the cells, a nonlinear elastic model was used for simulations of compression to 30 per cent nominal strain and a nonlinear viscoelastic model for 50 per cent. The elastic model yielded a Young's modulus of 14 ± 1 kPa (mean ± s.e.) for chondrocytes and 19 ± 2 kPa for chondrons, respectively. The viscoelastic model generated an instantaneous elastic modulus of 21 ± 3 and 27 ± 4 kPa, a long-term modulus of 9.3 ± 0.8 and 12 ± 1 kPa and an apparent viscosity of 2.8 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.6 kPa s for chondrocytes and chondrons, respectively. It was concluded that chondrons were generally stiffer and showed less viscoelastic behaviour than chondrocytes, and that the PCM significantly influenced the mechanical properties of the cells.
Nguyen, Bac V.; Wang, Qi Guang; Kuiper, Nicola J.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Thomas, Colin R.; Zhang, Zhibing
2010-01-01
A chondrocyte and its surrounding pericellular matrix (PCM) are defined as a chondron. Single chondrocytes and chondrons isolated from bovine articular cartilage were compressed by micromanipulation between two parallel surfaces in order to investigate their biomechanical properties and to discover the mechanical significance of the PCM. The force imposed on the cells was measured directly during compression to various deformations and then holding. When the nominal strain at the end of compression was 50 per cent, force relaxation showed that the cells were viscoelastic, but this viscoelasticity was generally insignificant when the nominal strain was 30 per cent or lower. The viscoelastic behaviour might be due to the mechanical response of the cell cytoskeleton and/or nucleus at higher deformations. A finite-element analysis was applied to simulate the experimental force-displacement/time data and to obtain mechanical property parameters of the chondrocytes and chondrons. Because of the large strains in the cells, a nonlinear elastic model was used for simulations of compression to 30 per cent nominal strain and a nonlinear viscoelastic model for 50 per cent. The elastic model yielded a Young's modulus of 14 ± 1 kPa (mean ± s.e.) for chondrocytes and 19 ± 2 kPa for chondrons, respectively. The viscoelastic model generated an instantaneous elastic modulus of 21 ± 3 and 27 ± 4 kPa, a long-term modulus of 9.3 ± 0.8 and 12 ± 1 kPa and an apparent viscosity of 2.8 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.6 kPa s for chondrocytes and chondrons, respectively. It was concluded that chondrons were generally stiffer and showed less viscoelastic behaviour than chondrocytes, and that the PCM significantly influenced the mechanical properties of the cells. PMID:20519215
Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter
2016-01-01
The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712
Rossmanna, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter
2014-01-01
The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes.
Kim, Jeongnim; Reboredo, Fernando A
2014-01-01
The self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 136}, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 89}, 6316 (1988)] are blended to obtain a method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric trial wave functions. A statistical method is derived for the calculation of finite temperature properties of many-body systems near the ground state. In the process we also obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes the many-body basis of a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. This small subspace is optimized to have maximum overlap with the one expanded by the lower energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the Helmholtz free energy is minimized within this subspace as the iteration number increases. We show that the subspace expanded by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace expanded by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method to calculate the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can be also used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with Quantum Monte Carlo.
Thermodynamic properties of UF6 at high temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.
1974-01-01
The equilibrium composition and the thermodynamic properties of the mixture resulting from the decomposition of uranium hexafluoride is calculated for temperatures ranging from 600 K to 4000 K at pressures from 0.01 atmospheres to 10 atmospheres.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tauchert, T. R.
1976-01-01
Rayleigh-Ritz and modified Rayleigh-Ritz procedures are used to construct approximate solutions for the response of a thick-walled sphere to uniform pressure loads and an arbitrary radial temperature distribution. The thermoelastic properties of the sphere are assumed to be transversely isotropic and nonhomogeneous; variations in the elastic stiffness and thermal expansion coefficients are taken to be an arbitrary function of the radial coordinate and temperature. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate the effect of the temperature-dependence upon the thermal stress field. A comparison of the approximate solutions with a finite element analysis indicates that Ritz methods offer a simple, efficient, and relatively accurate approach to the problem.
Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties
Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong
2015-01-01
High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to −150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed. PMID:26382318
Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties.
Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong
2015-09-18
High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.