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Sample records for finnish forest industry

  1. The Finnish national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    The National Forest Inventory (NFI) of Finland has produced large-area forest resource information since the beginning of 1920s (Ilvessalo 1927). When the 10th inventory (NFI10) started in 2004, the design was changed and the rotation shortened to 5 years. Measurements are done in the entire country each year through measuring one-fifth of the plots. About one-fifth of...

  2. Occupational burnout and severe injuries: an eight-year prospective cohort study among Finnish forest industry workers.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Kirsi; Salminen, Simo; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Koskinen, Aki; Väänänen, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological consequence of prolonged work stress. Studies have shown that it is related to physical and mental disorders. The safety outcomes of burnout have been studied to a lesser extent and only in the work context. This study explored the effect of burnout on future severe injuries regardless of their context. A total of 10,062 forest industry employees (77% men, 63% manual workers) without previous injuries participated in 1996 or 2000 in the "Still Working" study examining the work-related antecedents of health and mortality. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Injuries leading to death or hospitalization were regarded as severe. We extracted such injuries from independent national registers. The relationship between burnout and new injuries was analyzed using Cox proportional regression. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, and occupational status. There were 788 new injuries over eight years. Injuries were more common among male and manual workers. After adjustments, each one-unit increase in the burnout score was related to a 9% increase in the risk of injury (95% confidence interval: 1.2-1.17). Experiencing symptoms at least monthly was related to a 1.18-fold adjusted injury risk (95% CI: 1.2-1.36). Of the subscales of burnout, exhaustion and cynicism but not lack of professional efficacy predicted injuries after adjustments. In addition to mental and physical disorders, burnout predicts severe injuries. Developing work conditions and optimizing workload may enhance safety and decrease health expenses related to all injuries.

  3. Occupational burnout and chronic work disability: an eight-year cohort study on pensioning among Finnish forest industry workers.

    PubMed

    Ahola, K; Toppinen-Tanner, S; Huuhtanen, P; Koskinen, A; Väänänen, A

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to explore if burnout, a syndrome from chronic work stress, predicts work disability during eight years among industrial employees. We investigated whether burnout would predict disability in initially healthy employees and all subgroups by the most common causes for disability. Of the participants in a company-wide survey (n=9705, 63%) performed in 1996, 8371 employees were identified and 7810 provided full information. The impact of burnout and its sub-dimensions, assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, on being granted register-based new disability pension till 2004 was analysed with Cox hazard regression and multinomial regression. The analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, registered medication use, and self-reported chronic illness at baseline. The hazard ratio (HR) for new disability pension was 3.8 (95% confidence interval CI 2.7-5.4) with severe burnout. The risk of severe burnout and severe exhaustion for work disability attenuated but remained significant after adjustments. The association between severe burnout and work disability was significant also in the subpopulation of employees without registered medication at baseline but not among employees healthy by self-report. Crude associations between burnout and all categories of cause-specific disability were significant. The exhaustion dimension predicted work disability due to mental and miscellaneous disorders after adjustments. A non-random one-branch sample was used. The final sample covered 50% of eligible employees. In industrial work, burnout-related chronic work disability is general in nature. Burnout predicts work disability among healthy employees when health is assessed with registered use of medication but not when it is determined by self-report.

  4. Effects of biomass utilization on the carbon balance of Finnish forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievänen, Risto; Salminen, Olli; Kallio, Maarit

    2015-04-01

    The boreal forests cover three fourths of the land area of Finland. About 80 per cent of the total forest area is managed for commercial forestry. The forests produce timber for wood processing and pulp and paper industries and provide also bioenergy. The harvests of timber vary depending on demand of products of forest industry; the harvest level has been on average about 70 per cent of growth in recent years. The utilization of forest biomass is therefore the most important factor affecting the carbon balance of Finnish forests. We made projections of carbon balance of Finnish forests during 2012-2050 based on scenarios of timber and bioenergy demands. To assess the changes in carbon stock of forests, we combined three models: a large-scale forestry model, the soil carbon model Yasso07 for mineral soils, and a method based on emission factors for peatland soils. We considered two harvest scenarios based on the recent projections of plausible levels (min, max) of timber demand. For the bioenergy demand, we compared cases in which the wood energy use was low or high. In the past decades, the Finnish forests have been a steadily growing and substantial carbon sink. Its size has been more than 40% of the national GHG emissions during 1990-2012. The planned use of wood from the forests to forest and energy industry does not threaten the increasing trend of the forest sink; with the lowest use of forest biomass the sink may even match the national GHG emissions until 2050. The stock change of trees is the most important component of carbon balance of forests; it accounts for approximately 80 % of the total stock change. Trees and mineral soils act as carbon sinks and the drained peatland soils as a carbon source. By comparing the scenarios of wood energy use we conclude that the amount of carbon emissions avoided by replacing fossil fuels with stemwood is outweighed by the loss in carbon sequestration.

  5. Oklahoma forest industries, 1984

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1986-01-01

    This publication reports the findings of a 100 percent canvass of Oklahoma's forest industries in 1984. The production and receipts of industrial roundwood are reported by product, species group, and county. The production and disposition of mill residues generated hy Oklahoma's forest industries are also reported. Roundwood and residue production changes...

  6. Health promotion in the Finnish shipping industry.

    PubMed

    Saarni, H; Laine, M; Niemi, L; Pentti, J

    2001-01-01

    In autumn 1997 a pilot project was started in Finland to develop methods for promoting the health of sailors. Four Finnish shipping companies, (4 cargo ships and 2 passenger-cruise ferries), with altogether 730 sailors participated in the project. Special attention was paid to individuals with health problems and those who generally did not take care of their own health or fitness. Three-quarters of the respondents saw their health as good and one fifth as fair. Thirty-four persons responded that their working capacity was poor. 154 sailors were selected into further physical fitness evaluations. The main task of the project team was to activate sailors to take care of their own health and well-being. The health-promoting activities were directed especially at those persons who needed it. Information lectures concerning healthier eating habits and meals were given. Anti-smoking and anti-alcohol drinking information was given. On board one cruise ferry a project was started on how to react as early as possible to alcohol abuse among seafarers. Courses on shore for sailors were arranged to improve their physical fitness and to increase their resting benefit between working periods at sea. The intervention time was one year. Information about smoking and alcohol led to reduced alcohol consumption. The sailors had started to exercise more often both on board ship and on shore. Those who had increased their physical exercise during free time more often found their own health and working ability to have improved than those who had not changed their exercise habits. It appeared that health intervention projects are really needed especially by older sailors. The results also showed that positive effects could be achieved in the fitness of sailors. Better fitness was good for their health and also increased the work safety.

  7. California's forest industry, 1976.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Hiserote; James O. Howard

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in California for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  8. Alabama forest industries

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1972-01-01

    Alabama forests supplied 718 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries during 1971. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up over seven-tenths of the total. In terms of volume harvested, pulpwood was the leading product, with saw logs second. The two combined accounted for 91 percent of the roundwood produced. These are some of the major findings of a 1971 canvass of...

  9. Mississippi forest industries, 1976

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1976-01-01

    Mississippi forests supplied more than 677 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1976. This is an increase of 21 percent since 1972 and an increase of 69 percent over the 1966 harvest.Softwoods, mainly pine, made up over 71 percent of the total.Saw logs and pulpwood were the major products...

  10. Oklahoma forest industries, 1972

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1973-01-01

    Oklahoma forests supplied more than 64 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1972. Pine made up over three-fourths of the total. In terms of volume harvested, saw logs were the leading product, with pulpwood second (fig. 1). The two combined accounted for 79 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs added 11 percent and posts made up more than...

  11. Arkansas forest industries, 1977

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1980-01-01

    Arkansas forests supplied more than 516 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1977. This is an increase of 15 percent since 1971 and an increase of 32 percent over the 1968 harvest. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up almost three-fourths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 88 percent of the harvest. Veneer logs...

  12. Arkansas forest industries, 1971

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1973-01-01

    Arkansas forests supplied more than 451 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1971. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up more than two-thirds of the total. The timber harvest increased 15 percent during the years 1969-1971, while the number of primary wood-using plants decreased. Saw logs and pulpwood comprised 83 percent of the roundwood. Veneer logs made...

  13. Mississippi forest industry

    Treesearch

    Dwane D. Van Hooser

    1968-01-01

    Nearly 402 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood were harvested in Mississippi in 1966. This was the largest harvest in a decade. Nearly three-fifths was softwood-mainly pine. Altogether, 305 million cubic feet were processed by the State's forest industries. Some 123 million cubic feet were shipped to surrounding States, while 26 million cubic feet were...

  14. Oklahoma forest industries, 1975

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma forests supplied 54 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1975, a decrease of 16 percent since 1872. Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Saw logs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 83 percent of the harvest. Veneer logs accounted for 10 percent, and the remainder was made up mostly of posts (fib. 1). A total of 101 wood-...

  15. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  16. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  17. Regional industrial ecology: examples from regional economic systems of forest industry and energy supply in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, J

    2001-12-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) promotes the development of industrial systems based on recycling of matter and cascading of energy through cooperation. In this paper, the local/regional industrial ecosystem approach is reflected in two examples from Finland. The local forest industry system is based on renewable resources, waste materials and energy utilisation between forestry companies, a saw-mill, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a forest industry power plant. Waste energy from electricity production is used for production of heat and process steam. Regional city energy supply systems in Finland are also to a large extent arranged around power plants that utilise waste energy. The potential of combining the forest industry system with the energy supply systems of cities is considered and the conditions for success in the Finnish case are discussed.

  18. Oregon's forest products industry: 1988.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of all primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1988. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  19. California's forest products industry: 1994.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs...

  20. Oregon's forest products industry: 1985.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1985. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature...

  1. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  2. Oregon's forest products industry: 1992.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in. Oregon for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  3. California's forest products industry: 1988.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklln R. Ward

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of all primary forest products industries in California for 1988. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow...

  4. California's forest products industry: 1985.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in California for 1985. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry,...

  5. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  6. Oregon's forest products industry: 1976.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Bruce A. Hiserote

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  7. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    PubMed

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  8. East Texas forest industries, 1974

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1975-01-01

    East Texas forests supplied more than 456 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1974. Pulpwood and saw logs were the major products, accounting for 83 percent of the harvest. A total of 202 primary wood-using plants were in operation in 1974.

  9. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  10. California's forest products industry: 1982.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in California for 1982. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tabular presentations include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and...

  11. Oregon's forest products industry: 1982.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1982. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tabular presentations include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and...

  12. California's forest products industry: 1992.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Veneer and plywood mills are not included because they could not be presented without disclosing critical details. Tables, presented by...

  13. Mississippi forest industry statistics, 1962

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher

    1963-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the 1962 production of industrial roundwood (except pu1pwood)in Mississippi. Because county output is included--as well as State totals--this report should be locally useful to foresters, economists, and others concerned with the formation of forestry programs, the evaluation of timber production trends, the appraisal of plant...

  14. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Ilari; Kämäräinen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa; Venäläinen, Ari; Peltola, Heli

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts of the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below -8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. The increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.

  15. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtonen, Ilari; Kamarainen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa; Venalainen, Ari; Peltola, Heli

    2016-10-17

    This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts of the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below -8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. In conclusion, the increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.

  16. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    DOE PAGES

    Lehtonen, Ilari; Kamarainen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa; ...

    2016-10-17

    This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts ofmore » the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below -8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. In conclusion, the increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.« less

  17. Private industrial foresters and Forest Service research - the relevancy question

    Treesearch

    Janie Canton-Thomas

    2007-01-01

    What is the nature of the relationship between U.S. Forest Service researchers and private industrial foresters? How can Forest Service Research maintain independence while serving agency and private forestry managers? We decided to seek input from someone outside of the Forest Service, so I asked Pat Connell, Vice President of Resource Operations for Rocky Mountain...

  18. Idaho's Forest Products Industry: A Descriptive Analysis

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Thale Dillon; A. Lorin Hearst; Francis G. Wagner; Larry T. DeBlander

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; traces the flow of Idaho's 2001 timber harvest through the primary sectors; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. The economic contribution of the forest products industry to the State and historical industry changes are discussed...

  19. California's forest products industry: a descriptive analysis.

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Jeremy S. Fried; Marc N. Weber

    2004-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2000 timber harvest through the wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, operations, and condition of California’s primary forest products industry; and briefly summarizes timber inventory and growth. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, and...

  20. Physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain among forest industry workers.

    PubMed

    Miranda, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Martikainen, R; Takala, E P; Riihimäki, H

    2001-08-01

    The study investigated the relations between physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain among forest industry workers. We studied a population of 3312 Finnish forest industry workers, who replied to a questionnaire survey in 1994 (response rate 77%). The outcome variables in this cross-sectional study were the number of days with pain in the low back, neck, shoulder and knee during the preceding 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. Active walkers had more sciatic pain, active volleyball players had more shoulder pain and those who practiced trekking actively had more knee pain than those who practiced these activities less. The risk of shoulder pain was more than three times higher for those who played volleyball actively compared to those who played less. In addition, age, mental stress and work-related physical loading were strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain. When studying the relations between physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain in a working population, it is important to not only detect the general physical activity but also to specify the different modes of exercise. In addition, the other factors which are strongly related to pain (such as mental stress and work-related physical loading) should be taken into account.

  1. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  2. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  3. Louisiana forest industries: 1946-1971

    Treesearch

    P. Irland

    1973-01-01

    Louisiana is a prominent supplier of forest products to the nation. In 1971, it was the third leading state in output of softwood plywood, third in pulp production, and third in paper and paperboard. Louisiana ranked tenth in production of hardwood lumber, and thirteenth in all lumber. This article describes development of forest industries in the state since World War...

  4. The stability of Cladoceran communities in 32 subarctic NW Finnish Lapland lakes since pre-industrial era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, J. J.; Siitonen, S.; Weckström, J.

    2016-12-01

    Historical and ongoing environmental changes affecting aquatic ecosystems may easily go unnoticed. These background shifts complicate the interpretation of observations and hamper restoration planning. Zooplankton is regarded as a good indicator of environmental change of which cladocerans (water fleas) are one of the most used paleobioindicators. To assess whether cladoceran assemblages had remained unchanged in lakes with low human impact and to produce background information of possible environmental changes during the last few centuries, we compared pre-industrial and modern cladoceran assemblages in 32 lakes in NW Finnish Lapland. The study area ranges from low altitude forest catchments to high altitude tundra and includes a notable ecoclimatic gradient. A data set of measured environmental variables was used to determine their explanatory power on cladoceran assemblages. Cladoceran communities have remained relatively stable, but change in the species level was clearer with a significant proportional increase in Eubosmina spp. (Wilcoxon signed rank test z = 2.75 p = 0.006). Loss on ignition (LOI) was the strongest environmental variable to explain the variation in the cladoceran community. Since LOI is strongly correlated to allochthonous and autochthonous primary production, the differences in cladoceran communities between lakes and also the increased abundance of Eubosmina spp. may eventually be related to the trophic status of the lakes. Temperature and precipitation has increased in NW Lapland during the past few decades, but factors related to climate change cannot convincingly be attributed to increased abundance of Eubosmina spp. because the studied lakes respond differently to climatic factors. Our results are in relatively good agreement with previous studies conducted in northern hemisphere. Also, the increased abundance of planktonic cladoceran taxa since pre-industrial period has been noted before. The top-bottom approach is based on two

  5. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  6. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  7. Ohio's forests and wood-using industries

    Treesearch

    O. Keith Hutchison; James T. Morgan; James T. Morgan

    1956-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the forests in Ohio, as a part of the national survey of forest resources. The purpose of this survey is: (1) to make a field inventory of the present supply of standing timber, (2) to find out how fast this supply is being increased through growth, (3) to find out how it is being diminished through industrial and...

  8. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper.

  9. North Carolina Forest Resources and Industries

    Treesearch

    J.W. Cruikshank

    1944-01-01

    Dependable information on the supply of all raw materials is vital to the conduct of the war and to the success of current and future efforts at post-war planning. This economic survey of our forests which are an integral part of the Nation's reservoir of raw material is essential to a complete understanding of resource potentialities and of the industries...

  10. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  11. Fraser River action plan: Forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This research reviews the activities conducted under the Fraser River Action Plan with regard to forest industries and their effects on the Fraser River Basin environment. The review covers the following topics: Projects to cut pollution from wood preservatives and pulp/paper mills; ecological effects of pulp mill effluents; wood waste and its utilization; habitat conservation; environmentally sound forestry practices; riparian conservation; habitat and ecosystem protection; and the use of economic instruments as an alternative to regulation.

  12. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1977.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jack Zollner; W. Brad Smith

    1981-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends, timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1977, and production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated logging and primary mill residues and the disposition of mill residue.

  13. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the

  14. Calibration of industrial CT using two forest-balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yushu; Song, Xu; Li, Shi; Li, Wei; Li, Qi; Chen, Siwen; Shen, Fei; Song, Xiaoping; Gao, Sitian

    2015-02-01

    A small forest-ball was manufactured and calibrated using CMM F25. An industrial CT called Metrotom1500 was calibrated by the small forest-ball and another big forest-ball produced by Carl Zeiss. These two forest-balls were separately measured at two different magnifications of the industrial CT, and the measurement results could meet the maximum permissible error of Metrotom1500.

  15. Public use and potential impact on Missouri's forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Cutter; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Management of public lands impacts Missouri's forest products industry in a significant manner, particularly in rural areas. In 1989, some 1,340 firms were involved in the forest products industry, employing approximately 29,200 workers. Total value-added in 1989 was in excess of $1 billion and the industry's activity generated another $400 million in related...

  16. The Eastern Non-industrial Private Forests

    Treesearch

    Gerard D. Hertel

    The USDA Forest Service ?cares for the land and serves the people? under the framework of the Natural Resources Agenda (Watershed Health and Restoration; Sustainable Forest Ecosystems; Recreation; and Forest Roads). The National Forests comprise only 19 percent of the forestland (land that is at least 10% covered with trees) in the United States. The Forest Service has...

  17. Development and status of Arkansas' primary forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The development of Arkansas' primary forest products industry is presented by following the changes in numbers and types of mills operating through time as well as the State's production of roundwood to supply the changing industry.

  18. Lake states primary forest industry and timber use, 1975.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; James W. Whipple; Allen H. Boelter; Steven Wilhelm

    1980-01-01

    Discusses industrial roundwood production and forest industry trends in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Compares log and bolt production by state for several products and species and discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its use.

  19. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Iowa, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; William A. Farris

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other roundwood products. Comments on outlook for Iowa forest industry and production and use of roundwood and primary wood-using plant wood and bark residue.

  20. California's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2012

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Joshua P. Meek; Micah G. Scudder; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2015-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California's 2012 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides a description of the structure, condition, and economic impacts of California's forest products sector. Historical forest products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, mill residue, and sales. Also...

  1. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  2. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  3. Annual Forest Inventory: An Industry Perspective

    Treesearch

    Roger Lord

    2000-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program serves important public interests by providing credible data for informed public forest policy debates as well as feedback to the forest-based economic market. This feedback, which affects timber price expectations, helps ensure resource sustainability by promoting better investment decision making within the forest products...

  4. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  5. Long-term changes in acidity and DOC in throughfall and soil water in Finnish forests.

    PubMed

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine if any detectable trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulphate (SO4-S) concentrations and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in throughfall (TF) and soil water (SW) could be found during 1990-2010 and to relate them to recent changes in decreased acid deposition. The study was conducted in seven boreal coniferous forest sites: four of which are managed and three unmanaged forests sites. Generally, temporal trend showed a significant decrease in SO4-S concentrations in bulk precipitation (BP), TF and SW. At some of the sites, there was an increasing tendency in BP and TF in the DOC concentrations. This feature coincides with decreasing SO4-S concentration, indicating that SO4-S may be an important driver of DOC release from the canopy. However, a slightly increased temperature, larger senescing needle mass and consequently increased decaying activity in the canopy may partly explain the increasing trend in DOC. In SW, no consistent DOC trend was seen. At some sites, the decreased base cation concentrations mostly account for the decrease in the ANC values in SW and TF.

  6. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  7. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Iowa, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; John Tibben; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends, timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other industrial roundwood products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  8. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  9. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Indiana, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Donald H. McGuire; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  10. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Treesearch

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  11. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  12. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2009

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Jim Menlove

    2013-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana’s 2009 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana’s primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  13. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2010

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming’s 2010 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  14. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  15. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Treesearch

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  16. How will the changing industrial forest landscape affect forest sustainability?

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale divestiture of commercial forestlands is occurring in the United States. Furthermore, increasing demand for cellulose for bioenergy may modify forest management practices widely enough to impact the spatial characteristics of forested landscapes. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to investigate the potential consequences of divestiture and...

  17. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Nebraska, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Tom D. Wardle; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Highlights recent Nebraska forest industry trends, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other timber products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  18. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Kansas, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Leonard K. Gould; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Highlights recent Kansas forest industry trends, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other timber products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  19. Minnesota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin includes recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  20. Oregon`s forest products industry: 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  1. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  2. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2002, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  3. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2012

    Treesearch

    Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Chelsea P. McIver; Mike T. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2012, describes the composition and operations of the region’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Recent changes in the wood products industry are discussed, as well as trends...

  4. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2005

    Treesearch

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2005 timber harvest through the primary timber-processing industry to the wholesale market and residue-using sectors. The structure, capacity, operations, and conditions of Wyoming's primary forest products industry are described; and volumes and uses of wood fiber are quantified. Historical and recent changes in...

  5. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allan H. Boelter; Carl W. Danielson

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1972; production and receipts in 1972 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs ,and other roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer-log production, and compares saw log production in 1969 and 1972. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its disposition.

  6. Manpower training in eastern forest industry: a review and assessment

    Treesearch

    David E. White

    1980-01-01

    Most training in forest industry takes place on the job and is more effective in sawmilling than in logging. Many training programs for woods workers have been ineffective because the rewards of the work are insufficient to attract capable people, leaving the industry to operate in a secondary labor market. Some characteristics of the work and of the technology suggest...

  7. Implications For the Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Kluender

    2001-01-01

    Major changes have occurred in the Arkansas timber economy in the last 25 years.Global and domestic demand for forest products continues to expand,doubling every 42 years. Additionally,the U.S. per capita consumption rate of forest products is over three times the world average. Production continues to expand to meet rising global demand,but timber supplies have not...

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-11-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1997. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1998-03-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-05-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices in stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1997-02-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices, employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1997-07-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-07-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. The global position of the U S forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ share of global industrial roundwood production has declined since the 1990s. We reviewed data from 1961-2013 to evaluate the extent of this decline for industrial roundwood and derived secondary forest products compared to other major producing countries. We find that the U.S. global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28 percent in 1999 but...

  4. California forest industry wood consumption and characteristics, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1972-01-01

    The California forest industry as it exists today is the product of dramatic post-World War II changes. Before World War II, the industry consisted almost entirely of sawmills, depending primarily upon redwood and pines for their raw material supply. Responding to the post-War building boom and local population growth, the sawmill industry increased rapidly—from 450 to...

  5. Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Junna, J. ); Ruonala, S. )

    1991-07-01

    There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

  6. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  7. California`s forest products industry: 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  8. Oregon`s forest products industry: 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1992. The survey included the following sectors; lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  9. California`s forest products industry: 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: Lumber, pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Veneer and plywood mills are not included because they could not be presented without disclosng critical details. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residence.

  10. Primary forest products industry and industrial roundwood production, Michigan, 1969.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allen H. Boelter

    1971-01-01

    Michigan loggers cut 173.8 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products in 1969. Ninety percent was pulpwood and saw logs. Production is shifting from softwoods to hardwoods. The number of active primary wood-using mills declined rapidly from 1954 to 1969, but production per mill has expanded.

  11. California's forest industries—prospects for the future.

    Treesearch

    Daniel D. Oswald

    1970-01-01

    California's timberlands and forest products industries have played an important part in the growth of California's economy. Discovery of gold at the site of the first waterpowered sawmill in interior California triggered the gold rush of 1848, an event that led the California Territory into booming growth and statehood. Following that discovery, the lumber...

  12. Opportunities for the forest products industries

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable harvests is not new to lumber and paper companies—they have been concerned about it and been practicing it for decades, long before it became the headline in a newspaper article. After decades of static products and markets, the industry is offered an opportunity to add products in a new business sector—fuels and chemicals. Although paper...

  13. North Carolina's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1985-01-01

    Employment and earnings in North Carolina's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base in 1980 than in 1970. North Carolina had more forest products industry employment than any other State in the South. Moreover...

  14. Georgia's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H. Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1985-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Georgia's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for nearly the same share of the State's economic base in 1980 as in 1970. Moreover, during this period, the State increased its share of the Nation's forest products industry...

  15. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  16. Mississippi's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1988-01-01

    The forest products industry is one of Mississippi's basic industries, and in 1980, it accounted for about one of six basic jobs. Mississippi was one of the majority of Southern States in which the forest products industry improved its competitive position during the 1970's. Between 1972 and 1977, growth in productivity of Mississippi's forest products...

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-06-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  1. Recession effects on the forests and forest products industries of the South.

    Treesearch

    Douglas Hodges; Andrew Hartsell; Consuelo Brandeis; Thomas Brandeis; James Bentley

    2012-01-01

    The economic recession affected southern forests and related industries substantially, particularly those sectors most closely related to home construction. Between 2005 and 2009, for example, the three primary forestry sectors – wood manufacturing, paper manufacturing, and forestry and logging – lost more than 110,000 jobs in the southern United States. This article...

  2. Directory of forest industries in the Tennessee Valley Region, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The forest industries play an important role in supporting the Tennessee Valley region economy. In 1984, 2297 active primary and secondary wood-using industries provided employment for 92,203 persons. Gross product value totaled $2386 million for primary mills and $4160 million for secondary plants. Primary mills consumed 717 million cubic feet of wood while secondary plants used 291 million cubic feet. Fifty-two plants were under construction or began operations in 1985 and 293 mills were inactive during 1984. Sawmills are the most numerous industry, with 994 active mills employing 9775 workers. The pulp and paper industry is the next largest employer with eleven mills supporting 8406 workers. These two groups account for 92% of the workforce in the primary forest industry sector. Lumber production reached 2.1 billion board feet in 1984. The 56 mills in the 5000-9999 MBF/year size class produced the most lumber (384,809 MBF). The mid-range size classes (1000-9999 MBF/year) employed 5337 workers of 55% of the sawmill workforce. Hardwood lumber production was greatest in the 3000-4999 MBF/year and 5000-9999 MBF/year size classes with 281,224 and 315,808 MBF respectively. Softwood lumber production increased by size with the 50,000 + MBF/year size class producing the most softwood lumber (354,781 MBF).

  3. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  4. South Carolina's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H. Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in South Carolina's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base in 1980 than in 1970. Moreover, during this period, the State increased its share of the Nation's forest products...

  5. Texas' forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1987-01-01

    Even though Texas consumes more forest products than it produces, its forest products industry has a conspicuous record. Between 1970 and 1980, employment in the forest products industry increased by 12,000. Only one Southern State, North Carolina, showed a larger absolute gain. Texas was also second to North Carolina in improving its comparative advantage during the...

  6. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Treesearch

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  7. Tennessee's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1987-01-01

    The forest products industry is one of Tennessee's basic industries; in 1980, for example, it accounted for about 1 of every 12 basic jobs. Furthermore, Tennessee was one of the majority of Southern States in which the forest products industry improved its competitive position during the 1970's. In 1977, productivity growth of the paper and allied products...

  8. Florida's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1988-01-01

    Although tourism and retirement-related activities dominate the economy in Florida, the forest products industry is a basic industry in northern Florida. Growth in employment was above the national average during the 1970's, and value added by the forest products industry increased between 1972 and 1977. Florida was one of the majority of Southern States in which...

  9. Louisiana's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment in Louisiana's forest products industry, unlike employment in the other 12 Southern States, decreased significantly between 1970 and 1980. Despite this decrease, the value added by the industry increased. The productivity of Louisiana's forest products industry ranked second among the 13 States in the South. In 1980, lumber and wood products...

  10. Innovation in the forest products industry: an analysis of companies in Alaska and Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Abra Hovgaard; Eric Hansen; Joseph. Roos

    2005-01-01

    Because there is a lack of innovation research in the forest products industry and innovative activities in the industry are not well documented, this study attempted to fill that void. The objectives of this study were to understand the process and definition of innovation in the forest products industry, identify the constraints on innovative activities, identify...

  11. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors.

  12. Small-scale non-industrial private forest ownership in the United States: rationale and implications for forest management

    Treesearch

    Yaoqi Zhang; Daowei Zhang; John Schelhas

    2005-01-01

    The transaction cost approach is used to explain why small non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownerships are increasing in the U.S. We argue that the number of small NIPF owners have increased because: 1) a significant amount of forestland is no longer used economically if primarily for timber production, but rather for non-timber forest products and environmental...

  13. The history and future of the forest industry of Irkutsk province

    Treesearch

    Dennis V. Dayneko; Eric J. Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Multiple global changes are impacting Russia today. Economic transformations in Russia have prompted the establishment of new relations in economic, institutional and ecological spheres, including within the Forest Industry. This paper focuses on the Forest sector in Irkutsk province and beyond, examining the basic problems related to the transformation of the forest...

  14. An assessment of educational needs in the Alaskan forest products industry

    Treesearch

    J. Thomas; E. Hansen; A. Brackley

    2005-01-01

    Major changes in federal forest policy in Alaska have resulted in a dramatic downsizing of the state's forest industry. These changes have driven efforts for economic restructuring and improved support for Alaskan communities. The University of Alaska Sitka Forest Products program at the University of Alaska Southeast is one example of efforts to better support...

  15. An assessment of educational needs in the Alaskan forest products industry.

    Treesearch

    Jon Thomas; Eric Hansen; Allen M. Brackley

    2005-01-01

    Major changes in federal forest policy in Alaska have resulted in a dramatic downsizing of the state's forest industry. These changes have driven efforts for economic restructuring and improved support for Alaskan communities. The University of Alaska Sitka Forest Products program at the University of Alaska Southeast is one example of efforts to better support...

  16. Attitudes and Perceptions of Mississippi Loggers and Environmentalists Toward the Forest Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habig, Rachel B.; Grado, Stephen C.; Grace, Laura A.; Capella, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty about the acceptability of the forest industry and its practices to the citizens of Mississippi provided the impetus for a study of the attitudes and perceptions of eight constituency groups toward the forest industry in the state. This study examines attitudes and perceptions of two of those groups, loggers and two…

  17. Kentucky's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Kentucky's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. In fact, Kentucky's share of the Nation's forest products employment and earnings increased during this period. In 1980, lumber and wood products accounted for the largest share of the industry's employment,...

  18. Regional economic contributions of the forest-based industries in the south

    Treesearch

    P.B. Aruna; Frederick Cubbage; Karen Abt; Clair Redmond

    1997-01-01

    Forest-based industries (including forestry) make substantial direct contributions to the economy of the South, as well as contributing to pleasant living conditions and environmental protection. As of 1992, about 633,000 persons were employed in forest-based industries, comprising 1.5 percent of all southern employment. Total wages amounted to $15 billion in 1990, or...

  19. Oklahoma's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Oklahoma's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. In fact, Oklahoma's share of the Nation's forest products employment and earnings increased during this period. In 1980, lumber and wood products accounted for the largest share of the industry's employment,...

  20. Virgina's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Virginia's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, increased between 1970 and 1980. Furthermore, Virginia's share of the Nation's forest products employment and earnings increased during this period. In 1980, the wood furniture segment accounted for the largest share of the industry's employment, but...

  1. Attitudes and Perceptions of Mississippi Loggers and Environmentalists Toward the Forest Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habig, Rachel B.; Grado, Stephen C.; Grace, Laura A.; Capella, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty about the acceptability of the forest industry and its practices to the citizens of Mississippi provided the impetus for a study of the attitudes and perceptions of eight constituency groups toward the forest industry in the state. This study examines attitudes and perceptions of two of those groups, loggers and two…

  2. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Industrial Forest Clearcuts in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. Z.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping and characterizing changes in forest cover, but the available remote sensing forest change products are not discriminating between deforestation (permanent transition from forest to non forest) and industrial forest management (logging followed by regrowth, with no land cover/ land use class change) (Hansen et al, 2010). Current estimates of carbon-equivalent emissions report the contribution of deforestation as 12% of total anthropogenic carbon emissions (van der Werf et al., 2009), but accurate monitoring of forest carbon balance should discriminate between land use change related to forest natural disturbances, and forest management. The total change in forest cover (Gross Forest Cover Loss, GFLC) needs to be characterized based on the cause (natural/human) and on the outcome of the change (regeneration to forest/transition to non/forest)(Kurtz et al, 2010). This paper presents the methodology used to classify the forest loss detected by the University of Maryland Global Forest Change product (Hansen, 2013) into deforestation, disturbances (fires, insect outbreaks) and industrial forest clearcuts. The industrial forest clearcuts were subsequently analysed by converting the pixel based detections into objects, and applying patch level metrics (e.g. size, compactness, straightness of boundaries) and contextual measures. The analysis is stratified by region and by dominant forest specie, to highlight changes in the rate of forest resource utilization in the 2003-2013 period covered by the Maryland Forest Cover Change Product. References Hansen, M.C., Stehman, S.V., & Potapov, P.V. (2010). Reply to Wernick et al.: Global scale quantification of forest change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, E148-E148 Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore, R et al., (2013), "High resolution Global Maps for the 21stCentury Forest Cover Change", Science 342: 850-853 Kurz, W.A. (2010). An ecosystem context for global

  3. Integrating sustainable biofuels and byproducts into forest industry supply chains

    Treesearch

    Reid Hensen; Maureen Essen; Nathaniel Anderson; Larry Peters; April Kimmerly

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is a promising feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts because it is renewable and widely available as a byproduct of forest management. Its harvest and use also has the potential to positively impact rural communities, especially those negatively impacted by upheaval in the forest sector.

  4. Credit availability: a possible barrier to growth for the Alaska forest products industry?

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey Donovan; Hayley Hesseln; John. Garth

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the Alaska forest products industry has been driven by pulp production and the export of logs and cants primarily to Japan. Economic stagnation in Japan, the closure of Alaska's two pulp mills, harvest restrictions, and increased competition have severely impacted the industry. To survive, the industry must make significant investments in capital...

  5. Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2008: industry trends and impacts of the Great Recession through 2010

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Gale; Charles E. Keegan; Erik C. Berg; Jean Daniels; Glenn A. Christensen; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Paul. Polzin

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2008 timber harvest through the primary timber processing industry and provides a description of the structure, operation, and condition of Oregon’s forest products industry as a whole. It is the second in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years. Based on a census conducted in 2009 and 2010, we...

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1990.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1983.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1984-01-01

    Provides current information on the lumber and plywood production and prices, employment in the forest industries, international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies, and other related items.

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1983.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1983-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices, employment in the forest industries, international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies, and other related items.

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1986.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1985.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1988.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment In the forest Industries; International trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1993.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1994-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1989.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1995.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1997.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1998-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1989.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1993.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1994-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1989.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1985.

    Treesearch

    Debra O. Warren

    1985-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1992.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1993-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1994.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and pdces; employment In the forest industries; international trade In logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related Items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1994.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1994-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 1999.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2001-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1991.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1991.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1991-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1997.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1992.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1983.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1984-01-01

    Provides current information on the lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1986.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1991.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1991-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1988.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1988-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1990.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1991-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1992.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1993-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1990.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2001.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1993.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1993-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1995.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1990.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1988.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood: volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1997.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1999-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber. and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1984.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1985-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1985.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman; Debra D. Warren

    1985-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1984.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1984-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1989.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1990-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices: employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1994.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Provides current Information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade In logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1992.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1996.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1986.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1985.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries ; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1984.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1984-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1983.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1983-01-01

    Provides current information on the lumber and plywood production and prices, employment in the forest industries, international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies, and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1991.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1993.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1994-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1996.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1997.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1998-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1986.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood: volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1994.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1984.

    Treesearch

    Florence K. Ruderman

    1985-01-01

    Portland, Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1988.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1988-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1988-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices: employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1988-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies: and other related items.

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2012

    Treesearch

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2010

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2011-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1995.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1995.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices: employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2013

    Treesearch

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2009

    Treesearch

    Debra D Warren

    2010-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2011

    Treesearch

    Xiaoping Zhou; Debra D Warren

    2012-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Development of a Computer Vision Technology for the Forest Products Manufacturing Industry

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...

  12. Institutional innovations in the forest industry in Russia: a case study of Irkutsk province

    Treesearch

    Dennis V. Dayneko; Eric J. Gustafson

    2014-01-01

    Multiple global changes are impacting Russia today. Economic transformations in Russia have prompted the establishment of new business relations, which are based on innovations in the economic, institutional and ecological spheres, including within the Forest industry. This paper focuses on the Forest sector in Irkutsk province and beyond, examining the basic problems...

  13. Intensive Culture on Northern Forest-Industry Lands: Trends, Expectations, and Needs

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Dietmar W. Rose

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey of intensive forest-culture practices on forest-industry lands in the North. Timber-stand improvement and commercial thinning have been and apparently will continue to be the most popular practices undertaken. Estimated increases in recent annual harvests due to intensive culture averaged about 4 percent, and greater increases are expected during...

  14. Impacts of urban forests on offsetting carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Zheng-hong; Escobedo, Francisco J; Gao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests and carbon emissions from energy consumption by several industrial sources in Hangzhou, China. Carbon (C) storage and sequestration were quantified using urban forest inventory data and by applying volume-derived biomass equations and other models relating net primary productivity (NPP) and mean annual biomass increments. Industrial energy use C emissions were estimated by accounting for fossil fuel use and assigning C emission factors. Total C storage by Hangzhou's urban forests was estimated at 11.74 Tg C, and C storage per hectare was 30.25 t C. Carbon sequestration by urban forests was 1,328, 166.55 t C/year, and C sequestration per ha was 1.66 t C/ha/year. Carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou were 7 Tg C/year. Urban forests, through sequestration, annually offset 18.57% of the amount of carbon emitted by industrial enterprises, and store an amount of C equivalent to 1.75 times the amount of annual C emitted by industrial energy uses within the city. Management practices for improving Hangzhou's urban forests function of offsetting C emissions from energy consumption are explored. These results can be used to evaluate the urban forests' role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  15. The future of the non-timber forest product industry

    Treesearch

    Luc C. Duchesne; Iain Davidson-Hunt; John C. Zasada

    2001-01-01

    The boreal and northern forests of North America cover a vast area and have low population density with many inhabitants living in small communities. The inhabitants of these communities as well as those from urban areas are dependent on the forest resource for many commodity and non-commodity values. Although the socio-cultural outlook is changing somewhat, past and...

  16. The Finnish "social wilderness"

    Treesearch

    Ville Hallikainen

    2000-01-01

    The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...

  17. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  18. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  19. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  20. Proceedings of the Symposium on Needs for Nondestructive Testing in the Forest Products Industries

    Treesearch

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to bring together about 30 representatives of the various forest products industries and a few affiliated research and educational institutions to discuss and define industry needs for nondestructive testing. The necessity for such a meeting was made clear in the Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood held at this Laboratory in...

  1. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  2. The Willingness of Non-Industrial Private Forest Owners to Enter California's Carbon Offset Market.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin Clover; Gold, Gregg J; Di Tommaso, Joanna

    2017-08-23

    While non-industrial private forest landowners have a significant amount of forest landholdings in the US, they are underrepresented in the California cap-and-trade market forest offset program. Additional participation could benefit both the market and non-industrial private forest landowners. We developed a mail questionnaire which served as both a survey instrument and outreach tool about the market. Questions covered forest ownership objectives, landowners' future plans for forests, views of climate change, and attitudes and intentions regarding forest carbon offset project development. We sampled from five Northern California counties for a total of 143 usable surveys. Three different groups of landowners were identified based on their management objectives: amenity (including protecting nature and recreation); legacy (passing land to children and/or maintaining a farm or ranch); and income. Landowner objective groups differed on several key variables, particularly related to potential motivations for joining the market, while all landowners expressed concerns about protocol requirements. Regardless of ownership objectives, over half expressed that receiving revenue from their forests would be an important motivator to join, though most were unwilling to satisfy protocol requirements, even after learning of the potential benefits of program participation. Thus, participation appears to be limited by the costly and complex project development process, as well as a lack of landowner awareness. Extending these lessons, we assert that different landowners may approach payment for ecosystem services programs with different needs, awareness, and motivations, which provide important lessons for those who conduct landowner outreach and for PES program designers.

  3. Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows.

    PubMed

    Niutanen, Ville; Korhonen, Jouni

    2002-05-01

    The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper industry waste flows, wastes from paper recycling (de-inking) and wastes from forest industry energy production. Fibre clay wastes from paper mills, de-inking sludges from de-inking of recovered waste paper and incineration ash from forest industry power plants serve to substitute the use of natural clay for the building of landfill structures for closed landfills. Arguably, this method is preferable to existing practices of natural clay use for landfill building, because it (1) substitutes non-renewable natural clay, (2) consumes less energy and generates less CO2 emissions than the use of natural clay, and (3) eliminates considerable amounts of wastes from paper production, paper consumption and from forest industry energy production. Some difficulties in the application of the method are considered and the waste flow utilization is incorporated into a local forest industry recycling network.

  4. Innovation and forest industry: domesticating the pine forests of the southern United States,1920–1999

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Robert C. Kellison; F.S. Broerman; Stephen B. Jones

    2003-01-01

    The history of forest management in the southern United States has been a process of intensification and the pine forests of the Coastal Plain can be regarded as in the early stage of crop domestication. Silviculture research into tree improvement and other aspects of plantation establishment and management has been critical to the domestication process, which began in...

  5. The forest products industry in southeast Asia: An emphasis on Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, E.T. . School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries); Atmawidjaja, R. . Faculty of Forestry); Achmadi, S.S. . Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science)

    1993-05-01

    Wood production has increased rapidly in Southeast Asia in recent years. Harvesting intensity has also increased dramatically. To such an extent that the destruction of the tropical rainforest is of great concern to many people. This paper discusses the forest resources of three major wood-producing countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and the utilization of these resources in world markets. Because Indonesia is now the largest timber producer in the region, special emphasis is placed on the development of its forest products industry. Concern for the tropical forest and the effect of sustainable forestry development on the growth of the forest products industry, the economy, and the social environment are discussed.

  6. Machine Vision Technology for the Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Thomas T. Drayer

    1997-01-01

    From forest to finished product, wood is moved from one processing stage to the next, subject to the decisions of individuals along the way. While this process has worked for hundreds of years, the technology exists today to provide more complete information to the decision makers. Virginia Tech has developed this technology, creating a machine vision prototype for...

  7. Outlook to 2060 for world forests and forest industries: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Ronald Raunikar; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2012-01-01

    Four RPA scenarios corresponding with scenarios from the Third and Fourth Assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change were simulated with the Global Forest Products Model to project forest area, volume, products demand and supply, international trade, prices, and value added up to 2060 for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, South America,...

  8. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    substitution together with nonneutral technical progress" (p.179) Solow (1957) in a landmark study developed a method for estimating * technological change... Solow approach to measuring total factor productivity is the impli- 30 cit assumption of neutral technological change. In the case of the forest products...Three Mississippi Counties. Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 713. Solow , R. M. 1959. Investment and Economic Growth: Some

  9. Oregon's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2003.

    Treesearch

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Gary J. Lettman; Charles E. Keegan; David L. Azuma

    2006-01-01

    This Report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2003 timber harvest through the primary timber-processing industry and describes its structure, operations and condition. Pulp and board, lumber, and plywood and veer sectors accounted for 96 percent of total industry sales of $6.7 billion. Oregon’s 2003 timber harvest of just over 4 billion board feet was 95 percent softwood...

  10. Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of ecosystem response to industrial pollution in the Niepolomice Forest in southern Poland

    Treesearch

    January Weiner; Stefan Fredo-Boniecki; David Reed; Ann Maclean; Marshall Strong; Michael Hyslop

    1998-01-01

    The Niepolomice Forest is located near the city of Krakow in southern Poland. Since the erection of large iron works in the 1950's, the forest has suffered from heavy pollution with SO2 and industrial dusts containing heavy metals. During the past 10 years, the ecology of the Niepolomice Forest has been intensively studied and the impact of...

  11. Oregon's forest products industry and timber harvest 2013 with trends through 2014

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Glenn A. Christensen

    2016-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2013 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides detailed description of the structure, timber use, operations, and condition of Oregon’s forest products sector. It is the third in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years, and is based on a census of timber-using...

  12. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the u.s. Forest products industry value chain.

    PubMed

    Heath, Linda S; Maltby, Van; Miner, Reid; Skog, Kenneth E; Smith, James E; Unwin, Jay; Upton, Brad

    2010-05-15

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO(2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO(2)-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions.

  13. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  14. Forest industry hunt-lease programs in the south: implications for managers

    Treesearch

    Allan Marsinko; David Guynn; Don F., II Roach

    1998-01-01

    Selected characteristics of forest industry hunt lease programs in the southern United States were evaluated for the 1994 calendar year. Results were compared with earlier similar surveys. Utilization of the leased lands by lessees has increased over the last 5 years. There were also indications that the intensity of wildlife management on these lands has increased...

  15. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  16. Arkansas' forest products industry: perfnrmance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1987-01-01

    Accounting for one of every six basic jobs, the forest products industry in Arkansas is the second largest component of the State's economic base. Furthermore, Arkansas is the most timber-dependent State in the South. Between 1970 and 1980, employment increased in the paper and allied products segment but decreased in the wood furniture and the lumber and wood...

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters of 2007.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2008-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2005.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2007-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2004.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2006-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volumes and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1996.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 1998.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2000-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1996.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood: volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2006.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2008-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2002.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2004-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2003.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2005-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2000.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    2002-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2008

    Treesearch

    Debra Warren

    2009-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  8. Forest products industry in a digital age: Factors affecting social media adoption

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Gazal; Iris Montague; Rajendra Poudel; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2016-01-01

    The use of social media as a marketing tool has increased significantly in recent years. However, limited information is available regarding social media use in the US forest products industry or social media adoption at the organizational level, especially within the business-to-business context. This study presents part two of a two-part series of articles that look...

  9. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  10. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  11. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  12. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  13. Economies of scale and trends in the size of southern forest industries

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    In each of the major southern forest industries, the trend has been toward achieving economies of scale, that is, to build larger production units to reduce unit costs. Current minimum efficient plant size estimated by survivor analysis is 1,000 tons per day capacity for sulfate pulping, 100 million square feet (3/8- inch basis) annual capacity for softwood plywood,...

  14. Bilateral foreign direct investment in forest industry between the U.S. and Canada

    Treesearch

    Rao V Nagubadi; Daowei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine the trends and various factors influencing bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI) in the U.S. and Canadian forest industry between 1989 and 2008. Using panel data analysis methods, we find that bilateral FDI is positively influenced by depreciation of host country's real exchange rates and exchange rate volatility, and home country...

  15. Long-term effects of eliminating illegal logging on the world forest industries, trade, and inventory

    Treesearch

    Ruhong Li; J. Buongiorno; J.A. Turner; S. Zhu; J. Prestemon

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the impact on the world forest sector of a progressive elimination of illegal logging. The analysis compared predictions from 2007 to 2020, with and without a gradual reduction of illegally logged industrial roundwood from 2007 to 2011. A large part of the curtailment of timber supply due to the stoppage of illegal logging would be compensated by increased...

  16. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  17. Scale of harvesting by non-industrial private forest landowners

    Treesearch

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S. Amacher; David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    We examine the intensity of harvesting decision by non-industrial landowners at the lowest price offer they deem acceptable, using a multiple bounded discrete choice stated preference approach that draws upon and connects two subfields of forestry, one identifying characteristics of landowners important to past harvesting or reforestation decisions, and another...

  18. Economic dynamics of forests and forest industries in the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Andrew J. Hartsell; James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews how recent (2005-present) economic conditions have accelerated mill closings and job losses, and, to a lesser extent, influenced forest management in the Southern United States. We show that the number of primary roundwood-using mills has decreased across the South since the 1970s. At the same time, mill output has increased as the production of the...

  19. Modeling some long-term implications of CO2 fertilization for global forests and forest industries

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper explored the long-term, ceteris-paribus effects of potential CO2 fertilization on the globalforest sector. Based on the findings of Norby et al. (PNAS 2005, 102(50)) about forest response to elevated [CO2].Methods:...

  20. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  1. Finnish Science and Culture[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

  2. Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

  3. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  4. Impact of Brexit on the forest products industry of the United Kingdom and the rest of the world

    Treesearch

    Craig M. T. Johnston; Joseph Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model was applied to forecast the effect of Brexit on the global forest products industry to2003 under two scenarios; an optimistic and pessimistic future storyline regarding the potential economic effect of Brexit. The forecasts integrated a range of gross domestic product growth rates using an average of the optimistic and...

  5. The role of non-industrial private forest lands in the conservation of southern fire-dependent wildlife

    Treesearch

    Christopher E. Moorman; Peter T. Bromley; Mark A. Megalos; David Drake

    2002-01-01

    Although scientific support for fire as a land management tool has grown, non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners often fail to burn on their properties. These lands comprise approximately 70 percent of southern forests, making them critical to the long-term conservation of wildlife and plant species. Natural resource professionals must overcome key constraints...

  6. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Predicting stem total and assortment volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation using airborne laser scanning data and random forest

    Treesearch

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Lee Alexander Vierling; Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar; Midhun Mohan; Mariano Garcia; Antonio Ferraz; Adrian Cardil; Sassan Saatchi

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised...

  9. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence

  10. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Cari S

    2005-09-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  11. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Carl S

    2005-12-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  12. Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

    2010-05-01

    Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

  13. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  14. Ranking of industrial forest plantations in terms of sustainability: A multicriteria approach.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Alfranca, O; González-Pachón, J; Romero, C

    2016-09-15

    As forest managers and owners must have precise assessments of sustainability, in this study we have proposed a methodology based on multi-criteria techniques for assessing sustainability in industrial forest plantations and establishing a ranking of these plantations in terms of sustainability. First, we identified and have briefly described a set of sustainability indicators (economic, environmental and social). Next, we developed a statistical procedure to determine if a linear relationship existed between the indicators. With this analysis, the final set of indicators was defined and normalized. Then, we formulated four goal programming models, by which to aggregate the different indicators. In these models, we introduced the preferences of the decision makers for each indicator, using a survey with questions formulated in a pairwise comparison format. The procedure was applied to 30 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in northwestern Spain and 11 indicators were selected in order to define the sustainability. The results showed several rankings under each goal programming model. Although the results may not be the same in the different models, some plantations are always the most sustainable, while others are always the worst in terms of sustainability. The combination of initial values of indicators, goal programming models and preferences of stakeholders (preferential weights and targets) influence the results, and it cannot be predicted a priori which plantation is the best/worst in terms of sustainability. In our case study, we show how changes in preferential weights and targets substantially modify the results obtained.

  15. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  16. Forest sector and primary forest products industry contributions to the economies of the southern states: 2011 update

    Treesearch

    Consuelo Brandeis; Donald G. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    The analysis in this article provides an update on the southern forest sector economic activity after the downturn experienced in 2008–2009. The analysis was conducted using Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) software and data sets for 2009 and 2011 and results from the USDA Forest Service Timber Products Output latest survey of primary wood processing mills....

  17. THURSDAY: EPA to Hold a Public Meeting About the Cleanup of Cavenham Forest Industries Site in Gulfport

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Gulfport residents are invited to attend a public meeting about the ongoing cleanup of the Cavenham Forest Industries (CFI) facility. CFI is a former wood treating plant that closed in 1987 after operating for over 80 years at 9502 Creosot

  18. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  19. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decline in the pulp and paper industry: Effects on backward-linked forest industries and local economies

    Treesearch

    Consuelo Brandeis; Zhimei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills consume close to 52 percent of southern roundwood, providing a  significant market to southern forest landowners. Declining numbers of pulpwood-using mills and downward trends in mill  capacity, however, present a growing challenge to the southern forest sector. Shrinking mill  capacity affects rural communities that depend on mill...

  1. Examining incentives for adjacent non-industrial private forest landowners to cooperate

    Treesearch

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S Amacher; Jay Sullivan; Dave Wear

    2010-01-01

    Individual landowners may capture non-timber benefits from both their own forested parcels and adjacent parcels owned by different landowners. These benefits may affect incentives for landowners to cooperate in their forest management decisions. Landowner survey data is used to examine incentives to cooperate concerning joint forest management and coordination of...

  2. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  3. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  4. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  5. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  6. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  7. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  8. Sulphur and nitrogen fluxes and budgets in the Bohemian Forest and Tatra Mountains during the Industrial Revolution (1850-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopcek, J.; Vesel, J.; Stuchlk, E.

    Major fluxes of sulphur and dissolved inorganic nitrogen were estimated in Central European mountain ecosystems of the Bohemian Forest (forest lakes) and Tatra Mountains (alpine lakes) over the industrial period. Sulphur outputs from these ecosystems were comparable to inputs during a period of relatively stable atmospheric deposition (10-35 mmol m-2 yr-1) around the 1930s. Atmospheric inputs of sulphur increased by three- to four-fold between the 1950s and 1980s to ~140 and ~60 mmol mm-2 yr-1 in the Bohemian Forest and Tatra Mountains, respectively. Sulphur outputs were lower than inputs due to accumulation in soils, which was higher in forest soils than in the sparser alpine soils and represented 0.8-1.6 and 0.2-0.3 mol m-2, respectively, for the whole 1930-2000 period. In the 1990s, atmospheric inputs of sulphur decreased 80% and 50% in the Bohemian Forest and Tatra Mountains, respectively, and sulphur outputs exceeded inputs. Catchment soils became pronounced sources of sulphur with output fluxes averaging between 15 and 31 mmol m-2 yr-1. Higher sulphur accumulation in the forest soils has delayed (by several decades) recovery of forest lakes from acidification compared to alpine lakes. Estimated deposition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen was 53-75 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the Bohemian Forest and 35-45 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the Tatra Mountains in the 1880- 1950 period, i.e. below the empirically derived threshold of ~70 mmol m-2 yr-1, above which nitrogen leaching often occurs. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen was efficiently retained in the ecosystems and nitrate export was negligible (0-7 mmol m-2 yr-1). By the 1980s, nitrogen deposition increased to ~160 and ~80 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the Bohemian Forest and Tatra Mountains, respectively, and nitrogen output increased to 120 and 60 mmol m-2 yr-1. Moreover, assimilation of nitrogen in soils declined from ~40 to 10-20 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the alpine soils and even more in the Bohemian Forest, where one of the catchments has even become

  9. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  10. Private forest landowner willingness, community impacts and concerns, and the development of a wood-based biofuels industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric C.

    The technical/economic aspects of using wood-based biomass as an alternative source of fuel have been well represented in current academic literature. However, currently very few studies have examined the concerns of private forest landowners (PFLs) and communities toward increased harvesting rates to support a wood-based biofuels industry. Further, few studies have tried to study or to determine what factors might impact such willingness. The absence of studies that focus on understanding PFLs and community concerns as well as PFLs willingness to participate in harvesting biofuels for energy is in part traceable to two basic, but untested, assumptions regarding communities and forest landowners: (1) PFLs are able and willing to participate in the production of raw materials with few obstacles; and (2) they will make the transition because of the opportunity to increase profits. While the technical/economic aspects are clearly important, little attention has been paid to those social and cultural factors that may impact the viability of such activity. To address this issue, the present study focused on three questions. (1) What are the opportunities and concerns of PFLs, communities, residents, and existing wood-based industries regarding the development of a wood-based biofuel industry? (2) Will PFLs be willing to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? (2a) What sociocultural and sociodemographic dimensions influence PFLs' willingness to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? Data was collected using a mixed methods approach including using secondary data, key informant interviews and a phone survey of both the general public and PFLs in the Eastern forest region.

  11. Forest products industries of the southern middle-atlantic states, 1985-1986. Forest Service resource bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, E.H.; Mullarkey, K.

    1993-07-01

    The report evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. The results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. The study included statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made between historical and current data, and trends in industrial wood output are noted.

  12. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Salmela, Jukka; Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macroceranigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornusetigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophilaharuspica Plassmann is redescribed.

  13. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  14. Non-industrial private forests: timber supply for an uncertain future.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    1990-01-01

    According to U.S. Forest Service estimates (in press), annual timber harvest volume in the United States will have to increase from the 18 billion cubic feet of 1986 to 27 billion cubic feet by 2040 to satisfy increasing demand (Figure 1). It's doubtful that public forest lands can provide much of this additional timber, primarily because of increasing calls for...

  15. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  16. Water resource use and management by the United States forest products industry.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, P S; Flinders, C A; Ice, G G; Malmberg, B J; Fisher, R P

    2009-01-01

    The connections between forest products operations and water resources in the United States is considered and, where possible, quantified. Manufacture of wood, pulp, and paper products and the influences of forest management and forest products manufacture on water quality are discussed. Most fresh water in the US originates in forested areas. Responsible harvesting strategies, best management practices, and forest re-growth combine to minimize or eliminate changes in water availability and degradation of water quality due to harvesting. Relative to alternative land uses and large-scale disturbance events, forested areas produce the highest quality of fresh water. Water inputs for the manufacture of forest products total about 5.8 billion m(3) per year, an amount equal about 0.4% of the surface and groundwater yield from timberland. Approximately 88% of water used in manufacturing is treated and returned directly to surface waters, about 11% is converted to water vapor and released during the manufacturing process, and 1% is imparted to products or solid residuals. Extensive study and continued monitoring of treated effluents suggest few or no concerns regarding the compatibility of current effluents with healthy aquatic systems.

  17. North Carolina`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Brown, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report contains the findings of a 1994 canvas of all primary wood-using plants in North Carolina and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1992. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis periodic inventory of volume and removals from the State`s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1994 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood.

  18. Georgia`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Wells, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains the findings of a 1995 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Georgia and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1992. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) periodic inventory of volume and removals from the State`s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1995 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood.

  19. South Carolina`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Stratton, D.P.; Bischoff, P.S.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains the findings of a 1995 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in South Carolina and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1994. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) periodic inventory of volume and removals from the State`s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1995 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood.

  20. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  1. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  2. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  3. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…

  4. Southeast`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the findings of a 1995 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in the Southeast and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1992. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis periodic inventory of volume and removals from the timberland in Southeastern States. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1995 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood. Examples of industrial roundwood products are saw logs, pulpwood, veneer logs, poles, and logs used for composite board products.

  5. Medical English for Finnish Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Collan, Y.; Lock, S. P.; Pyke, D. A.; Whimster, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Courses in medical editing and medical English are relatively new and infrequent. We have now provided seven of them for Finnish doctors who wished to publish their work in English, to present papers in English to conferences, to work in English-speaking countries—or who wanted to improve their knowledge of the language. Although such courses should be tailored to individual needs, most participants seem to have found them helpful, particularly the sessions spent in the language laboratories. We suggest that courses in medical English might be useful for both medical students and postgraduate doctors outside English-speaking countries. PMID:4821015

  6. Pre-industrial baseline variation of upper midwestern forests in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, A.; Paciorek, C. J.; Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; Jackson, S. T.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in Earth systems processes, yet we still do not understand how they respond to changes in climate. While it has been argued that terrestrial ecosystems were fairly stable (by Quaternary standards) in the millennia before major anthropogenic disruption, others have emphasized vegetation response to environmental variability during this time. These competing perspectives are not necessarily in conflict, but argue for a quantitative assessment of forest ecosystem variability over the last several millennia. Here we reconstruct maps of forest composition for the last two millenia, with uncertainty. To do this, we use a network of fossil pollen records - the most reliable paleoecological proxy for forest composition. We link the fossil pollen records to public land survey forest composition using a Bayesian hierarchical model which accounts for key processes including pollen production and dispersal. The model is calibrated using data from the pre-settlement time with the hope of minimizing anthropogenic impacts. Process parameters are estimated in the calibration phase, and are subsequently used in the prediction phase to generate spatially explicit maps of relative species composition across the upper Midwestern US over the last 2000 years, with robust uncertainty estimates. Estimates of forest composition and uncertainty show many previously noted vegetation shifts, three of which we discuss here. First, we see expansion of the hemlock range into western Wisconsin. Second, we see changes along the prairie-forest ecotone. Third, we see significant increases in elm at approximately 500 YBP in the region known as the Minnesota Big Woods. These changes are significant in both a statistical and ecological sense, but the scale of these changes is small relative to changes in the early holocene. Our novel spatio-temporal composition estimates will be used to improve the forecasting capabilities of ecosystem models.

  7. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  8. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  9. Potential of Basidiomycetous Fungi Isolated from Gunung Barus Forest North Sumatera in Decolorization of Wastewater of Textile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, E.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.; Naimah, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A study of basidiomycetous fungi in decolorization of wastewater of textile industry has been started in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to obtain potential isolates and to examine their decolorization acitity. The fungi were isolated from local forest, Gunung Barus Forest, in North Sumatera and screened their ligninolytic activity qualitatively by bavendam method and the waste was obtained from local textile industry in Medan. Nineteen fungal isolates grew on plate agar medium containing 100% of waste supplemented with 2% glucose, and 6 of those exhibited good growth when glucose in the media was reduced to 1%. Surprisingly, these six potential isolates grew, although relatively at lower rate, when glucose was not included in the media. Meanwhile, there was no substantial decolorization of media could be observed on all plates cultures. Analyses of decolorization on liquid condition containing 25% of wastewater and no glucose showed that fungal grew at the bottom culture flask. All 6 isolates exhibited decolorization activity. Interestingly, mass of mycelia growth at the bottom absorbed dyes and dissolved suspended solid which was seemingly separated from very clean solution medium surrounding. These results indicated that the cultures utilized carbon source from waste and the extracellular matrixes produced by fungal isolates might involve in decolorization of textile wastewater.

  10. Existing and Potential Incentives for Practicing Sustainable Forestry on Non-industrial Private Forest Lands

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Michael G. Jacobson; Steven E. Daniels; Thomas J. Straka

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the compatibility between sustainable forestry practices and the framework of public and private financial incentive programs directed toward nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners. The incentives include tax, cost-share, and other types of programs. The study consisted of four components: a literature review, a mail survey of selected...

  11. Opportunities for a forest energy industry in a developing country: an example from Moldova

    Treesearch

    Vitalie Gulca; Robert Deal

    2010-01-01

    Developing sustainable energy from forest biomass presents both opportunities and challenges for the future generations of Moldova. Located in the southeastern part of Europe between Ukraine and Romania, Moldova is a relatively poor country with limited natural resources compared with other developing European countries such as Albania or Bosnia. This lack of fossil...

  12. A watershed-based environmental and regulatory data analysis system for the forest products industry

    Treesearch

    John Beebe

    2012-01-01

    A watershed-based data analysis system was created as a tool for forest product companies to better understand potential implications from environmental regulations. Also known as the Receiving Water Database (RWDB), this data system was designed with the purpose of assisting companies that own pulp and paper mills, wood product facilities, and commercial timberlands...

  13. Price transmission between products at different stages of manufacturing in forest industries

    Treesearch

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2005-01-01

    The theory of demand and supply implies a positive relationship, or "price transmission" between the prices of products at different stages of manufacturing, This relationship was investigated with quarterly prices of softwood stumpage in the US South, and national prices of forest products, from 1977 to 2002. All prices, net of inflation, were found to be...

  14. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  15. 77 FR 39985 - Information Collection; Forest Industries and Residential Fuelwood and Post Data Collection Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...-pulp or composite panel, primary wood-using mills, including small, part-time mills, as well as large... the Forest Service to evaluate trends in the use of logs and wood chips, to forecast anticipated levels of logs and wood chips, and to analyze changes in the harvest of these resources from the...

  16. Conference Proceedings: Forest Criteria and Indicators Analytical Framework and Report Workshop May 19-21, 2008 Joensuu, Finland

    Treesearch

    US Department of Agriculture Forest Service

    2009-01-01

    In May 2008, the Finnish Forest Research Institute; the Montréal Process; the International Institute of Tropical Forestry; the Forestry Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, sponsored a workshop to address the current status of...

  17. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  18. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on…

  19. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on…

  20. Conflicts, burnout, and bullying in a Finnish and a Polish company: a cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Varhama, Lasse M; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of conflicts, burnout, and bullying among employees of two similar companies, one situated in Poland (n=66) and the other in Finland (n=330) was investigated with the Psychosocial Workplace Inventory of Björkqvist and Osterman. Both companies were of Finnish ownership and manufacturers in heavy industry. They were similar in most respects, such as organization, production and marketing. Significant differences were found between the two companies. Polish workers had higher scores on conflicts and self-experienced bullying, while Finnish workers reported higher burnout, both self-experienced and observed by others.

  1. Forest Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  2. Kentucky's timber industry, 2011 - timber product output and use - forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Kentucky, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  3. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    PubMed

    Odigie, Kingsley O; Flegal, A Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  4. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    PubMed Central

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  5. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  6. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  7. Production Economics of Private Forestry: A Comparison of Industrial and Nonindustrial Forest Owners

    Treesearch

    David H. Newman; David N. Wear

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the producrion behavior of industrial and nonindustrial private forestland owners in the southeastern U.S. using a restricted profit function. Profits are modeled as a function of two outputs, sawtimber and pulpwood. one variable input, regeneration effort. and two quasi-fixed inputs, land and growing stock. Although an identical profit function is...

  8. 7 CFR 701.57 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... because of losses in calendar year 2005 caused by a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial... hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During the 5-year period beginning on the date of the loss,...

  9. Forest products industries of the southern Middle-Atlantic states, 1985 - 1986

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Kevin Mullarkey; Kevin Mullarkey

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. Contains statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made...

  10. [The response of forest ecosystems to reduction in industrial atmospheric emission in the Kola Subarctic].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Koptsik, S V; Smirnova, I E; Kudryavtseva, A D; Turbabina, K A

    2016-01-01

    In spite of reduction in atmospheric emission, current state of forest ecosystems within the impact zone of Severonickel enterprise still reflects the entire spectrum of anthropogenic digression stages. As the distance to the enterprise grows shorter, structural-functional changes in forest communities are manifested in dropping out of mosses and lichens, replacement of undershrub by Poaceae, worsening of timber stand and undergrowth conditions and their progressive dying-off, and, as a result, in forming of anthropogenic wastelands. Alterations of elemental composition of fir bark and needles due to exposure to pollutants consist in accumulation of nickel, copper, cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur along with depletion of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. According to the data obtained by correlation and multiparameter analyses, the accumulation of heavy metals in fir organs is closely related to the increasing of their concentration in root-inhabited soil layers as the distance to the pollution source is getting shorter. By comparison with the background fir grove, concentration of available compounds of nickel and copper in the ground litter of open fir-birch woodland near the enterprise increases by the factor of 30-60, reaching up 280 and 130 mg/kg respectively. With the increasing of anthropogenic stress, the ground litter becomes depleted of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and zinc. For the first time, the coupled dynamics of vegetation and soil state in fir forests as a response to reduction in atmospheric emission is tracked back. The most distinguishable response to the reduction appears to be the development of small-leaved plants' young growth within the impact zone. For the last decade, concentration of nickel in fir needles and in ground litter has reduced by the factor of 1.2-2. As for copper, its concentration in needles has reduced by the factor of 2-4, though in ground litter remains the same. By comparison with the period of

  11. Virginia's forests, 2001

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose

    2007-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2001, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program conducted the seventh inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15,844,000 acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. The majority (12,102,000 acres) of Virginia’s forest land was in nonindustrial private forest ownership. Public ownership and forest industry ranked second...

  12. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    PubMed

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management.

  13. Utilization of residues from agro-forest industries in the production of high value bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Pedro; Mendes, Joana A S; Trovatti, Eliane; Serafim, Luísa S; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Neto, Carlos Pascoal

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a very peculiar form of cellulose, is gaining considerable importance due to its unique properties. In this study, several residues, from agro-forestry industries, namely grape skins aqueous extract, cheese whey, crude glycerol and sulfite pulping liquor were evaluated as economic carbon and nutrient sources for the production of BC. The most relevant BC amounts attained with the residues from the wine and pulp industries were 0.6 and 0.3 g/L, respectively, followed by biodiesel crude residue and cheese whey with productions of about, 0.1 g/L after 96 h of incubation. Preliminary results on the addition of other nutrient sources (yeast extract, nitrogen and phosphate) to the residues-based culture media indicated that, in general, these BC productions could be increased by ~200% and ~100% for the crude glycerol and grape skins, respectively, after the addition organic or inorganic nitrogen.

  14. Sawmill profile : new Forest Products Lab report defines the makeup of North America's softwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter; Matthew Alderman

    2005-01-01

    As of July 2005, the main stream of the softwood lumber industry in the U.S. and Canada consisted of about 1,067sawmills. These sawmills had a combined capacity of 189 million m3 (80 billion BF), employed about 99,000, produced about 172 million m3 (nominal, 73 billion BF) of lumber, and in the process consumed about 280 million m3 of wood.

  15. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  16. Stress among Finnish farm entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti

    2008-01-01

    The aims were to examine the prevalence of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs in 2004 (n = 1,182) and to compare the results with those for the general working population in 2003. The second aim was to analyze which factors were associated with the prevalence of stress. A stratified random sample of farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability, were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. Health and extension services should pay special attention to encouraging farm entrepreneurs to maintain their social relationships. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.

  17. USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges

    Treesearch

    Ralph H. Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Forests and Ranges (EF&Rs) have provided and continue to provide scientific information for the management of National Forests, industrial and private lands. In accordance with federal authority 4062.01 of the Forest Service Manual, section 4000 provisions of the Organic Administration Act of 1897 (16 USC 551), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable...

  18. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  20. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  1. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  2. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  3. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  4. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  5. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  6. Technology Education in the Finnish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamaki, Ari

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 300 technology teachers in Finnish primary schools received 212 responses indicating that woodworking was a predominant activity and the design-based teaching method was most common. Age, education, and experience of teachers was not related to technology-education practice. Familiarity with technological equipment was not considered…

  7. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  8. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  9. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  10. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  11. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  12. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  13. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  14. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  15. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  16. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  17. Draft Inventory of Finnish Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsila, Tapani, Comp.; And Others

    Media studied in this report include broadcasting (radio and television), press (newspapers and magazines), literature, motion pictures, and sound and video recordings. First, there is an overview of Finnish mass communications on a qualitative level. After this, quantitative data are presented, divided into categories of production and…

  18. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  19. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  20. North Carolina's forests, 2002

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown; Barry D. New; Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Victor A. Rudis

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, forests covered 18.3 million acres in North Carolina, of which 17.7 million were classified as timberland. Hardwood forest types prevailed on 72 percent of timberland and planted pine stands occupied 15 percent. Nonindustrial private forest landowners controlled 78 percent of timberland, forest industry holdings declined to 8 percent, and publicly owned...

  1. Foreign direct investment outflows in the forest products industry: the case of the United States and Japan

    Treesearch

    R.V. Nagubadi; D. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows from two major forest product importing countries: the U.S. and Japan. Exchange rate, per capita income, cost of capital, and cost of labour in host countries have significant impacts on the FDI outflows from these two countries. A complementary relationship is found between forest...

  2. Internal defect detection success story : industry taps into the Forest Products Laboratory's research capabilities-so can you

    Treesearch

    John Dramm; Bill Adam

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses a success story of cooperative research and development (R&D) and commercialization of ultrasonic detection technology for locating internal defects in lumber. The R&D work described in this paper is the result of a unique federal laboratory and private sector partnership between the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (...

  3. Effect of conserving habitat for biodiversity on optimal management of non-industrial private forests in Florida

    Treesearch

    Jagannadha R. Matta; Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; George A. Stainback

    2008-01-01

    Healthy forests and enhanced habitat for wildlife is a growing concern among public and policy makers. These concerns have led to substantial interest in promoting various regulatory and voluntary compliance policies to further biodiversity on private forests. These policies, however, might result in additional cost to forestland owners. In this paper, we estimate the...

  4. Changes in Soil Carbon Storage in Industrial Forests of Western Oregon and Washington Following Modern Timber Harvesting Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, S. M.; Hatten, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon in forest soils is often overlooked because it is less conspicuous than the live trees, downed wood, and forest floor layer that are easily visible when walking through a forest. However, the amount of carbon in forest soils to one meter depth is generally one to two times the amount of carbon we see above ground in mature forests, making soils an important carbon storage pool in forest ecosystems. Given the large quantity of carbon stored in soil, there is some concern that disturbances to forest ecosystems could push some soils out of steady state and lead to a release of carbon from the soil, potentially contributing to the already large amount of greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels for energy. This has implications for the carbon neutrality of timberlands. Thus, careful investigation of the carbon cycle in forest soils is a key component in deciphering the gains and losses of carbon from forests, and ultimately understanding the effects of forest soils on the global carbon cycle. The study objective was to measure pre-harvest soil carbon stores to 1 m depth with enough precision to detect a small change upon resampling post-harvest. The 9 sites examined ranged from 100 to 400 Mg C / ha before harvest with minimum detectible differences around 5%. Three and a half years post-harvest the average of all 9 sites showed a very modest increase in mineral soil carbon as a result of modern timber harvest. Mineral soil carbon did not change significantly at 6 of the 9 sites, individually (range -2% to +5%), while two sites gained soil carbon (+6% and +11%) and soil carbon decreased at one site (-6%).

  5. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable.

  6. Virginia’s forests, 2007

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose

    2009-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2007, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program conducted the eighth inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15.7 million acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. The majority (12.4 million acres) of Virginia’s forest land was in nonindustrial private forest ownership. Public ownership and forest industry ranked second...

  7. Injury deaths among Finnish residents travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The increasing international mobility raises the possibility of foreign nationals dying abroad. Here, a descriptive, retrospective and population-based study of deaths abroad among Finnish residents from 1969 to 2007 is presented. The data were collected from the Statistics Finland data based on certificates of cause of death issued after repatriation of the corpse and after review of medical documents or a medico-legal autopsy. The frequency of injury deaths, proportional mortality rates (PMRs) and mortality risk estimates (MREs) were measured. During the study period, 6894 Finnish residents died abroad. Spain, Sweden and Thailand were the top three destination countries for number of deaths, accounting together for 40.3% of all the deaths. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of deaths. The overall injury deaths represented 26.7% of all deaths abroad and occurred at a higher proportion than in Finland (PMR: 3.3). The most common injury deaths were traffic accident and drowning, which together represented more than 50% of all unintentional injury deaths. High PMRs were found for traffic accidents in Russia, Germany and the US and for drowning in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. The MRE for injury deaths was 73.5 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Finnish travellers abroad are a population subgroup with a high risk of injury death. Common travel health interventions must be backed by actions to prevent injuries abroad, particularly traffic accident and drowning.

  8. Effect of vegetation on air quality: the value of forest vegetation as a filter for industrial sources of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Ares, J.O.

    1980-01-01

    A general model that can be used to estimate the deposition of gaseous pollutants by forests is made with described. Then the model is used to estimate the deposition of fluoride as hydrogen fluoride (HF) around an aluminum refinery. A comparison of spatial and temporal concentration patterns is made with data collected around the ALUAR plant in Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Finally, the area of forest needed to remove a significant portion of the fluoride from the atmosphere is estimated.

  9. Finnish Trauma Audit 2004: current state of trauma management in Finnish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Handolin, L; Leppäniemi, A; Vihtonen, K; Lakovaara, M; Lindahl, J

    2006-07-01

    There is great variation in the organisation of trauma care in European countries. The state of trauma care in Finnish hospitals has not been appropriately reviewed in the past. The aim of the present study conducted by the Finnish Trauma Association (FTA) was to assess the number of Finnish hospitals admitting severe trauma patients, and to evaluate the organisation and training of trauma care in those hospitals. In 2004, a telephone survey to all the Finnish hospitals was conducted, and information on the number of severe trauma patients treated per month, the organisation of acute trauma care, and the existence of multidisciplinary trauma care training was collected. Thirty-six Finnish hospitals admitted trauma patients. The range of estimated number of severely injured trauma patients treated in individual hospitals per month varied from 0.5 to 12, resulting in an estimated number of 1000-1300 patients with severe trauma treated in Finland every year (19-25/100.000 inhabitants). About 20% of the hospitals had a trauma team, and 25% had a systematic trauma education program. Only one hospital had established multidisciplinary and systematic trauma team training. The case load of severe trauma patients is low in most Finnish hospitals making it difficult to obtain and maintain sufficient experience. Too many hospitals admit too few patients, and only a few hospitals have been working on updating their trauma management protocols and education. There is an obvious need for leadership, discussion, legislation and initiatives by the professional organisations and the government to establish a modern trauma system in Finland.

  10. Inventory of chlorophenol use in the forest-products industry and investigation of related emissions of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chinkin, L.R.; Weir, B.R.; Latimer, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    The report is primarily a statewide inventory of the amount of chlorophenols used as fungicides and wood preservatives in California's forest-products industry. The homologs used are predominately the penta-and tetra-chlorophenols and their water-soluble derivatives. Approximately 944 tons of the chlorophenols are used annually in approximately 40 facilities. The preservatives are applied by spray or dip or by injection under pressure. The authors also estimated the quantities of airborne fugitive emissions of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans produced upon incineration of treated wood products, as well as emissions of these compounds contained as contaminants in the commercial preparations.

  11. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  12. A mortality study of Finnish pulp and paper workers.

    PubMed Central

    Jäppinen, P

    1987-01-01

    Mortality among workers in the Finnish pulp and paper industry was evaluated in a retrospective cohort study of 3520 workers who had been employed continuously for at least one year between 1945 and 1961. Six subcohorts were formed according to six work areas: sulphite, sulphate, paper, and board mills, maintenance department, and power plant. National mortality rates were used for comparison. The mortality of a cohort of 1290 sawmill workers was also studied in order to have a socially, geographically, and occupationally similar group without the exposures typical of the pulp and paper industry for comparison. Smoking habits were surveyed. Mortality was followed up until 31 December 1981. Overall mortality for the entire cohort did not differ from that expected (1044 obs, 1029.4 exp, SMR 101), but there was an excess of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system among the men (489 obs, 404.9 exp, SMR 121). This was due to the excess of deaths from ischaemic heart disease found among the men at the sulphite, sulphate, and paper mills, maintenance department, and power plant, but not at the sawmill. The existing smoking data did not explain this finding and it may therefore be associated with occupational exposures. PMID:3663525

  13. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  14. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  15. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  16. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  17. DEPTH--Developing Professional Thinking for Finnish Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Esa-Matti; Hintikka, Jouni; Karsikas, Arto

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish case contributing to the international DEPTH study was carried out within the Technology Education "NOW!" project at the University of Oulu. Nineteen project teachers participated in the study. The recent revision of the Finnish Basic Education Curriculum with the introduction of the cross-curricular theme "Humans and…

  18. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  19. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  20. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  1. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  2. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  3. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  4. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  5. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  6. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  7. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  8. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  9. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  10. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  11. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  12. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  13. Safety climate in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking companies.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Simo; Seppälä, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety.

  14. A Market-oriented Approach To Maximizing Product Benefits: Cases in U.S. Forest Products Industries

    Treesearch

    Vijay S. Reddy; Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik

    1996-01-01

    Conjoint analysis, a decompositional customer preference modelling technique, has seen little application to forest products. However, the technique provides useful information for marketing decisions by quantifying consumer preference functions for multiattribute product alternatives. The results of a conjoint analysis include the contribution of each attribute and...

  15. Survival rates of female white-tailed deer on an industrial forest following a decline in population density

    Treesearch

    Shawn M. Crimmins; John W. Edwards; Patrick D. Keyser; James M. Crum; W. Mark Ford; Brad F. Miller; Tyler A. Campbell; Karl V. Miller

    2013-01-01

    With white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations at historically high levels throughout many North American forests, many current management activities are aimed at reducing deer populations. However, very little information exists on the ecology of low-density white-tailed deer populations or populations that have declined in density. We...

  16. Midsouth veneer industry

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station's latest survey of the Midsouth veneer industry shows the softwood veneer industry continuing its dominance as the hardwood veneer industry has continued to decline. The number of softwood mills has stabilized after years of growth, while both commercial and container hardwood mills have decreased in...

  17. Arkansas forest resource patterns

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Van Sickle

    1970-01-01

    A new forest survey of Arkansas reveals that forests cover 55 percent of the land in the State. In all, 18.2 million acres are available for and capable of growing industrial timber. Substantial change has occurred in the timber resource. In the 10 years preceding the new survey, forest area declined by one-eighth . Clearing for cropland and pasture claimed...

  18. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  19. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    PubMed

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ∼ε/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (Pω), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in Pω, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and Pω differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in Pω of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels.

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Finnish Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Kantala, T; Kinnunen, P M; Oristo, S; Jokelainen, P; Vapalahti, O; Maunula, L

    2017-05-01

    We investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Finnish veterinarians engaged in different practice specialties and evaluated the effect of different background factors on HEV exposure by examining total HEV antibodies in samples collected from the participants of the 2009 National Veterinary Congress in Helsinki, Finland. Finnish veterinarians commonly have total HEV antibodies with seroprevalence of 10.2%. Of the non-veterinarians, 5.8% were seropositive. Increasing age was associated with HEV seropositivity, and, surprisingly, the highest HEV seroprevalence (17.8%) among veterinarians was detected among small animal practitioners. Although no positive correlation between swine contacts and HEV seropositivity was found, 22.7% of veterinarians who had had needle stick by a needle that had previously been injected into a pig versus 9.0% of those who had not were seropositive, even though the finding was statistically non-significant (P = 0.07). Our results suggest that, although contact with swine is a known risk factor for HEV infection, the sources of HEV infections are probably numerous, including travelling abroad and possibly also other reservoirs of HEV than pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Cutin composition of five finnish berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

    2006-01-25

    The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains <50% polyester polymer cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.

  2. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-08-14

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  3. Assessment of air pollution of the forests using satellite data in the neighborhood of cities and industrial complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Keishi; Fujii, Hisao; Hata, Yoshio

    1994-03-01

    Analysis of the data of in situ observation of spectral reflectance of the polluted cedar leaves and Landsat TM data indicate following interesting features. (1) The level of pollution caused by sulfur dioxide in the forest area can be assessed by the reflectance ratio (NIR/R) of the spectrum of red (R) and (TM band-3) and near infrared (NIR) band (TM band-4) calculated from the Landsat TM data. (2) It is possible to visualize the degree of atmospheric pollution by inputting results of the analysis of the Landsat TM data, the findings of ground truth and growing conditions of forestal trees together with the results of the chemical analysis of sulfur dioxide.

  4. Assessment of the state of soil microbial cenoses in the forest-tundra zone under conditions of airborne industrial pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ponomareva, T. V.; Shapchenkova, O. A.; Shishikin, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The quantitative and functional responses of soil microbial cenoses in the forest-tundra zone to pollution have been studied in the area exposed to emissions from the Norilsk Mining and Metallurgical Works. The strongest structural and functional disturbances of the soil biota have been recorded on the plots with completely destroyed vegetation. A decrease in the content of microbial carbon and an elevated respiration rate in the technogenically transformed soils provide evidence for the functioning of the microbial communities under stress caused by the continuous input of aggressive pollutants. The degree of transformation and the contents of technogenic elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, and S) in the organic horizons of the forest-tundra soils are the major factors affecting the development and functioning of the soil microbial cenoses.

  5. Contamination study of forest track soils located in a recreational area and filled with steel industry waste 30years ago.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Nubla, Leticia; Aramendia, Julene; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2017-11-15

    The reuse of waste is increasingly widespread in order to avoid the exploitation of natural resources and to reduce costs. An example of that reuse is the employment of steel slag, a by-product from the steel making process. When the steel is produced through an electric arc furnace (EAF), two types of slag are generated: black and white slag. One application rarely used for this waste is as filler in forest tracks. In this work, two forest tracks of the Basque Country (northern Spain) filled with black and white slag 19 and 35years ago, respectively, have been studied. Leaching tests were performed using Milli-Q water and acetic acid over the slags collected in that area. Additionally, soil samples collected near the slags were subjected to acid digestion. In these soil samples, there were elements of natural origin and others that could come from the leaching of the slag. Some of the more leached elements from the black slag (Ca, Fe, K, Cr, Se, W, Mn and Mo) and white slag (Mg, Al, Na, Co, Ni and Cu) coincided with the elements of highest concentration found in the soil samples. Moreover, there were differences in some elemental concentrations of soil samples with only black slag (higher presence of Ca and Mg) and soil samples with a mixture of both types of slag. It was noticeable that the highest concentration values of the measured elements were found on a specific side of the forest tracks, possibly due to the runoff water or the higher inclination of that side. On the other hand, some areas of both forest tracks could be considered contaminated by Cr according to a standard values from the Basque regulation, posing a risk to human health since they are recreational areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Georgia’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Georgia, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  7. North Carolina’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in North Carolina, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  8. Mississippi’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Mississippi, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  9. Virginia’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Virginia, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  10. Alabama’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Alabama, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  11. Oklahoma’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Oklahoma, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  12. Arkansas’ timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Arkansas and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  13. Tennessee’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Tennessee, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  14. Louisiana’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use— forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Louisiana, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  15. Florida’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in Florida, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  16. South Carolina’s timber industry, 2011—timber product output and use— forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper; Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    This science update contains the findings of a 2011 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in South Carolina, and presents changes in product output and residue use since 2009. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory of volume and removals from the State’s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood...

  17. The forest resources of Vermont

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1977-01-01

    A statistical and analytical report on the third forest survey of Vermont by the USDA Forest Service. Statistical findings are based on the remeasurement of 1/5-acre plots and 10-point cluster plots. This report discusses and analyzes trends in forest-land area, timber volume, annual growth, and timber removals. Timber-products output by forest industries, based upon a...

  18. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  19. Preliminary results of Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czobor, A.; Ádám, J.; Mihály, S.; Vass, T.; Parm, T.; Ollikainen, M.

    The Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign was carried out in Finland in August 1983 during 13 days. The campaign was organized by the Finnish Geodetic Institute. Three Hungarian JMR-1A receivers and one Finnish JMR-4 occupied 9 stations together with the 1st order triangulation network points of Finland. The data processing was performed in the Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Penc. The observation strategy, the methods of data processing and results obtained by GEODOP and SADOSA programs as well as the S-transformations are presented in this paper.

  20. Measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, H; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks. We have surveyed the 14 largest wastewater treatment plants in the country, which account for approximately 40% of total Finnish treatment capacity. It was found that these plants still only rely on a few, traditional measurement techniques. The treatment processes could be improved, and the treatment could be made more energy-efficient by installing modern instrumentation. We review some recent developments in wastewater plant instrumentation technology and suggest improvements to Finnish plants.

  1. Effect of individual trees on the pH and the content of heavy metals in forest litters upon industrial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobeichik, E. L.; Pishchulin, P. G.

    2009-08-01

    The influence of individual spruce and birch trees on the distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and hydrogen ions in the forest litter is considered in a territory subjected to long-term industrial pollution by emissions of the Ural copper smelter (town of Revda, Sverdlovsk oblast, southern taiga). In the background territory, the content of the elements regularly decreases from the tree trunks to the canopy gaps, whereas, in the contaminated territory, this relationship is either not traced at all (for the metal concentrations) or more weakly pronounced (for the metal reserves and pH values). The influence of trees on the spatial distribution of metals in the litter is specific for various elements and differs in coniferous and deciduous biotopes.

  2. North Carolina`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from North Carolina`s forests totaled 833 million cubic feet, 2 percent less than in 1994. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 301 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 398 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 332 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 66 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 322 in 1994 to 320 in 1995. Total receipts declined 4 percent to under 743 million cubic feet.

  3. Virginia`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Scrivani, J.A.; Foreman, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Virginia`s forests totaled more than 455 million cubic feet, 4 percent more than in 1992. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 3 percent to 167 million cubic feet. Almost 97 percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 213 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 201 million cubic feet; composite panels were third at 21 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 311 in 1992 to 289 in 1995. Total receipts increased 3 percent to almost 485 million cubic feet.

  4. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  5. Oral health problems in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H; Ankkuriniemi, O

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of oral health problems in 353 Finnish conscripts aged 21.0 (SD 1.2 years) was studied by means of a questionnaire and by investigating the dental records. One hundred five (30%) conscripts had seeked dental help during their 8 months' military service. Forty-four percent of these patients had dental caries as their main diagnosis; endodontic problems comprised 9% of all cases. The problems related to third molars were second in frequency, accounting for 27% of the conscripts treated. Six and one-half percent of the patients had lost serving time on dental grounds (mean absence 3.6 days), most often (90%) due to acute pericoronitis or post-operative status following third molar surgery.

  6. Simulating responses to expected climate change in eastern North America: applications to decision-making in the forest industry

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.; West, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of rising CO/sub 2/ on climate are debatable. However, even if the climate change projections from general circulation models of the atmosphere are proven correct, responses by forests on specific small tracts of land are not intuitively obvious. Standard regression techniques may be misleading or invalid for predictions of future structural or compositional responses; the ecological systems are simply too complex, and combinations of future climatic variables are too different from those of today. Instead, the problem may be soluble with a modeling approach that can be based upon documented differences in response by individual tree species to separate and combined environmental variables. We present one such approach that has been under development for several years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and elsewhere. We show how the individual natural histories of tree species (warmth and moisture requirements, shade and root-competition tolerance, regeneration and mortality characteristics) can be interfaced with intra-annual variations and shifting long-term means in climate variables. The resulting model can project long-term forest ecosystem behavior under expected future conditions that may be quite different from those found on the modern landscape. We then illustrate use of the model by applying it to land transaction decisions in which long-term considerations are required. 72 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Ville; Taipale, Vappu

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in which mental

  9. Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lundén, Janne; Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel.

  10. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  11. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  12. Declining trend of carbon in Finnish cropland soils in 1974-2009.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Regina, Kristiina

    2013-05-01

    Soil organic matter not only affects soil properties and productivity but also has an essential role in global carbon (C) cycle. We studied changes in the topsoil C content of Finnish croplands using a dataset produced in nationwide soil monitoring. The monitoring network consisting of fields on both mineral and organic soils was established in 1974 and resampled in 1987, 1998, and 2009. Over the monitoring period from 1974 to 2009, cultivated soils showed a continuous decline in C concentration (g kg(-1) ). In organic soils, C concentration decreased at a mean rate of 0.2-0.3% yr(-1) relative to the existing C concentration. In mineral soils, the relative decrease was 0.4% yr(-1) corresponding to a C stock (kg m(-2) ) loss of 220 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) . The change in management practices in last decades toward increasing cultivation of annual crops has contributed to soil C losses noted in this study. The results, however, suggest that the C losses result partly from other processes affecting cultivated soils such as climatic change or the continuing long-term effect of forest clearance. We estimated that Finnish cropland soils store 161 Tg carbon nationwide in the topmost 15 cm of which 117 Tg is in mineral soils. C losses from mineral soils can therefore total up to 0.5 Tg yearly. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. First meteorite recovery based on observations by the Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko; Moilanen, Jarmo; Kohout, Tomáš; Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovka, Valery; Midtskogen, V.; Kruglikov, Nikolai; Ischenko, Alexei; Yakovlev, Grigory; Grokhovsky, Victor; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Aikkila, Asko; Taavitsainen, Aki; Lauanne, Jani; Pekkola, Marko; Kokko, Pekka; Lahtinen, Panu; Larionov, Mikhail

    2014-02-01

    We present a summary of the trajectory reconstruction, dark flight simulations and pre-impact orbit for a bright fireball that appeared in the night sky over the Kola Peninsula, close to the Finnish border, on April 18 2014, at 22h14m13.0s (UTC). The fireball was instrumentally recorded in Finland from Kuusamo, Mikkeli and Muhos observing sites belonging to the Finnish Fireball Network. Additionally, a publicly available video made by Alexandr Nesterov in Snezhnogorsk (Russia), from the opposite side of the fireball track, was carefully calibrated and taken into account in the trajectory reconstruction. Based on a thorough analysis of the fireball, it was concluded that part of the meteoroid survived atmospheric entry and reached the ground. To further specify an impact area for a dedicated expedition, dark flight simulations were done to build a strewn field map showing the most probable distribution of fragments. A 5-day expedition with 4 participants from Russia and Finland took place at the end of May following snow melt and preceding vegetation growth. On May 29, 2014, a first 120.35 g meteorite fragment was found on a local forest road within the predicted impact area. A second 47.54 g meteorite fragment, fully covered with a fusion crust, was recovered nearby on the following day. Both pieces were preserved in very good condition without apparent weathering.

  14. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  15. Polarised Multiangular Reflectance Measurements Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Puttonen, Eetu

    2009-01-01

    The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces. PMID:22412342

  16. Cancer incidence among Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers in 1967–2011: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry since the beginning of production in 1967. Methods The study cohort was made up of all persons employed by the Finnish stainless steel production chain from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel during the period 1967–2004, and it was divided into subcohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns of the subcohorts assessed in previous studies. Follow-up for cancer through the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry was performed using the personal identity code as key. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratios of observed numbers of cancer cases and numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. Results The overall cancer incidence was at the expected level. The lung cancer risk was decreased in the whole cohort (SIR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.08). The incidence of prostate cancer was significantly increased (1.31; 1.05 to 1.61) and that for kidney cancer was significantly decreased (0.38; 0.14 to 0.82). None of the department-specific SIRs for lung cancer were significantly different from 1.0. No cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses were observed among workers in the ferrochromium smelter or the stainless steel melting shop. Conclusions It is not likely that the occupational exposures in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry would have increased the risk of cancer. PMID:24253032

  17. New Brunswick`s forestry sector. Forest report number 7

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.D.; Simpson, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    The report presents data on the New Brunswick forestry industry, including forest land area, ownership, stock inventory, wood utilization, forest management expenditures, volume of roundwood production, silviculture activities, economic benefits from forest, fish, and wildlife, fuelwood consumption, Christmas tree production, maple syrup production, forest sector employment, salaries, income taxes from the industry, exports, and gross domestic product due to the forest sector.

  18. Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Watkins, Gary; Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Dahl, Olli

    2012-03-15

    Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy metals (CH3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2+H2O2+CH3COONH4, the BCR method). Produced matrices showed liming effects comparable to commercial ground limestone and included significant quantities of soluble vital nutrients. The use of converter steel slag, however, led to significant increases in the total concentrations of Cr and V. Subsequently, total Cr was attested to occur as Cr(III) by Na2CO3+NaOH digestion followed by IC UV/VIS-PCR (USEPA 3060A). Additionally, 80.6% of the total concentration of Cr (370 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the residual fraction. However, 46.0% of the total concentration of V (2470 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the easily reduced fraction indicating potential bioavailability.

  19. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  20. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

    PubMed

    Huvinen, M; Pukkala, E

    2016-04-01

    Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  2. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2006 review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data-sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established, the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983–1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975–1979) included also assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations. PMID:23298696

  3. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field.

  4. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  5. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  6. Impact of professional foresters on timber harvests on West Virginia nonindustrial private forests

    Treesearch

    Stuart A. Moss; Eric. Heitzman

    2013-01-01

    Timber harvests conducted on 90 nonindustrial private forest properties in West Virginia were investigated to determine the effects that professional foresters have on harvest and residual stand attributes. Harvests were classified based on the type of forester involved: (1) consulting/state service foresters representing landowners, (2) industry foresters representing...

  7. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  8. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  9. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  10. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  11. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  12. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  13. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  14. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  15. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  16. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System.

  17. The forest resources of Maryland

    Treesearch

    Douglas S. Powell; Neal P. Kingsley

    1980-01-01

    The findings in this statistical and analytical report of the third forest survey of Maryland, completed in 1976, are based on remeasured 1/5 acre plots and both remeasured and new 10-point variable radius plots. The present status and trends in forest-land area, timber volume, and annual growth and removals are discussed. Timber products output by forest industries,...

  18. Forest resources of southeast Alabama

    Treesearch

    A.R. Spillers

    1939-01-01

    Southeast Alabama (Forest survey Unit Alabam No. 3) has long been one of the principal agricultural areas of the deep South. since its forests, however, are almost as extensive as its fields, a recent study has been made of the forest resources and wood-products industries of this area to determine how important the yare and how their usefulness may be increased. the...

  19. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  20. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities.

  1. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved. PMID:21126368

  2. Finnish Research Activities relevant to IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Kauristie, K.; Vainio, R.

    Space physics is a traditional and strong field of research in Finland dating its early roots back to the mid-19th century i e several decennia before the First International Polar Year in 1882 Measurements of rapid variations of the geomagnetic field started in Helsinki already in 1844 and form now some of the longest and most uniform series of observations measuring the global state of the heliosphere Even further in the north at the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory SGO continuous measurements span more than 90 years Today space physics activities are conducted mainly in the Universities of Helsinki HU Oulu OU and Turku TU and in the Finnish Meteorological Institute FMI SGO which maintains a versatile set of ground-based instrumentation belongs to OU Although several fields of common interest exist each of these parties also have their own research areas and specific expertise TU has a strong experimental and theoretical program in solar energetic particles HU has a wide program in planetary research as well as in auroral magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and theoretical space plasma physics OU and SGO have a strong involvement in ionospheric physics as well as in solar-terrestrial and heliospheric physics HU has long been active in space weather projects while OU is a key player in space climate i e in the research of long-term changes in the Sun heliosphere and the near-Earth space As one part of this cosmic rays have been continuously measured in Oulu since 42 years In addition to the versatile ground-based instrumentation

  3. Pseudo-CFI for industrial forest industries

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    2000-01-01

    Corporate inventory systems have historically had a greater spatial and temporal intensity than is common in the public sector. For many corporations, these inventory systems might be described as dynamic in that current estimates rely on a small amount of recent data and a large amount of information resulting from the imputation of older data that have been...

  4. Finnish Government reiterates its support for fifth nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In late February 1993, the Finnish government voted 11 to 6 in favor of supporting a fifth nuclear reactor for the country. The vote, which was viewed as a vote in principle to support the nuclear option, was taken at the behest of the Finnish utilities. It follows a parliamentary vote in November 1992 that opposed building new nuclear sites. Thus, the issue is now being discussed in committees, and a parliamentary vote whether or not to approve the government stance will take place later this spring.

  5. Multidecadal analysis of forest growth and albedo in boreal Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Petr; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Manninen, Terhikki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that forests serve as carbon sinks. However, the balancing effect of afforestation and increased forest density on global warming due to carbon storage may be lost by low albedo (thus high absorption) of the forests. In the last 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the growing stock of Finnish forests by nearly a quarter while the area of the forests has remained virtually unchanged. Such increase in forest density together with the availability of detailed forest inventories provided by the Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) in high spatial resolution makes Finland an ideal candidate for exploring the effects of increased forest density on satellite derived estimates of bio-geochemical products e.g. albedo (directional-hemispherical reflectance, DHR), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by canopies (fAPAR), leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in both current and long-term perspective. In this study, we first used MODIS-based vegetation satellite products for Finnish forests to study their seasonal patterns and interrelations. Next, the peak growing season observations are linked to the MS-NFI database to yield the generic relationships between forest density and the satellite-derived vegetation indicators. Finally, long-term GIMMS3g datasets between 1982 and 2011 (2008 for DHR) are analyzed and interpreted using forest inventory data. The vegetation peak growing season NIR DHR and VIS DHR showed weak to moderate negative correlation with fAPAR, whereas there was no correlation between NIR DHR and fAPAR. Next, we show that the spectral albedos in the near-infrared region (NIR DHR) showed weak negative correlation with forest biomass, basal area or canopy cover whereas, as expected, the spectral albedo in the visible region (VIS DHR) correlated negatively with these measures of forest density. Interestingly, the increase in forest density (biomass per ha) of Finnish

  6. Criterion 6, indicator 34 : value of capital investment and annual expenditure in forest management, wood and non-wood product industries, forest-based environmental services, recreation, and tourism

    Treesearch

    Ken Skog; John Bergstrom; Elizabeth Hill; Ken Cordell

    2010-01-01

    USDA Forest Service capital investment in management infrastructure was $501 and $390 million (2005$) for 2005 and 2007, respectively. National forest programs expenditures decreased from $3.0 to $2.7 billion between 2004 and 2007 and wildfire management expenditures increased from $1.7 to $2.1 billion (2005$). State forestry program expenditures for 1998, 2002, and...

  7. The forest resources of New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Neil P. Kingsley

    1976-01-01

    A statistical and analytical report on the third forest survey of New Hampshire. Statistical findings are based on the remeasurement of 1/5-acre plots and new 10-point cluster plots. Trends in forest-land area, timber volume, annual growth, and timber removals are discussed; also timber-products output by forest industries, based upon a canvass of industries in 1973,...

  8. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  9. Ethnic identity among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada: some voices and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jurva, Katrina; Jaya, Peruvemba S

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity experiences of second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada. The study draws from interviews conducted among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Ottawa. How these individuals identify with the Finnish ethnic group and engage in ethnic culture may play a pivotal role in the continuance of Finnish culture in Canada. Therefore, it is necessary to understand not only whether second-generation Finnish immigrants identify with their ethnic group, but also how they do so. We found that the youth identified with their Finnish ethnicity on a symbolic level, participating occasionally in the local ethnic community, but not living within ethnic culture on a day-to-day basis. They identify strongly with being Canadian and have an appreciation of multiculturalism and contrast it with Finnish society when they visit Finland.

  10. Finnish women's experiences of antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Bondas, Terese

    2002-03-01

    to explore and describe women's experiences of antenatal care. semi-structured interviews, dialogical interviews and non-participant observation in two phases both during and after pregnancy were analysed according to Colaizzi's phenomenological method. four maternity clinics in one rural and one urban primary health care centre and one outpatient maternity clinic at a central hospital in Finland. in the first phase a purposive sample of nine women were interviewed at 36 weeks gestation, three weeks, three months and two and a half years after birth. In the second phase, data were collected for further breadth and depth and 31 women, who were going through different stages of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium participated. Data were collected by means of interviews supplemented by non-participatory observation. In the total sample of 40 Finnish women, one half was primigravidae and the other half multigravidae. a main thread running through the women's experiences of antenatal care were their needs and wishes that concerned the health of the unborn baby, but also the health and dignity of themselves and their family. The pregnant women wanted to share their pregnancy and childbirth story in a confident relationship based on humaneness and interest in a peaceful atmosphere. They needed protection safeguarded through scientifically based and humane surveillance, and professional competence was expected. They wanted to continuously participate in the new situations through knowledge in dialogues and they wanted to involve their family in the care on their own terms. The childbirth preparation groups had an important multidimensional role in the care. the findings challenge the antenatal care that so far has been focused on the physical health, the needs of the primigravida and a blurred family perspective. The family perspective implies knowing both the pregnant woman and her partner in terms of the pregnancy, the birth and a new parenthood. Humane

  11. First forest soil survey gives significant results.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1947-01-01

    The first forest soil survey on national forest lands in the Pacific Northwest was completed last year on the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest when a detailed soil map covering four square miles was made by W.J. Leighty, Assistant Inspector, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. Arrangements for the survey were made by Region 6 of the Forest...

  12. Forests of Indiana: A 1998 Overview

    Treesearch

    Barbara Tormoehlen; Joey Gallion; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    Indiana's forests are among the most diverse and productive in the country. Almost 200 years ago, forests covered 85 percent of the state. By 1860, most forestland disappeared to make room for farms, industry, infrastructure, and the growing number of Hoosiers. Indiana has added more than 400,000 forested acres since 1967. Forests now comprise 4.5 million acres (...

  13. The forest resources of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones

    1978-01-01

    A statistical and analytical report of the third forest survey of West Virginia by the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Findings are based on the remeasurement of 1/5-acre plots and new 10-point cluster plots. This report analyzes trends in forest land area, timber volume, annual growth, and timber removals. Timber- products output by forest industries...

  14. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a…

  15. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  16. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  17. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  18. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  19. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  20. Organizational ethics in Finnish intensive care units: staff perceptions.

    PubMed

    Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Mäkelä, Merja; McDaniel, Charlotte; Puukka, Pauli

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe ethical problems that are influenced by organizational factors in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). The goal was to help nurses and administrators to analyse intensive care work, and to improve nurses' work motivation. Through these means the ultimate goal is to improve the quality of patient care. Data were collected in 35 hospital ICUs by means of the Ethics Environmental Questionnaire (EEQ). This gained access to the population of 1047 Finnish intensive care nurses. The response rate was 77% (n = 814). Data analysis was carried out using SAS-6 statistical software. The results provided scores for the 20 EEQ items. Reliability according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. The results revealed that organizational factors in Finnish ICUs have both positive and negative dimensions. Positively, nurses have the opportunity to discuss ethical problems in their work units, whereas, negatively, respondents noted that there is much concern about earning money. Nurses' work in Finnish hospital ICUs is ethically challenging; it is similar to that found in other countries and thereby supports international application of these findings.

  1. Monitoring Finnish Owls 1982-1996: methods and results

    Treesearch

    Pertti Saurola

    1997-01-01

    In 1982, the Raptor Grid, a nation-wide program for monitoring birds of prey was started by the Finnish Ringing Centre. Voluntary banders were asked to select a 10 x 10 km study plot and find annually all active nests or at least occupied territories of birds of prey from their study plot (annual total averaged 120). Since 1986, additional...

  2. Changing Literacy Practices According to the Finnish Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how a teacher implemented principles of literacy teaching and learning set forth in the Finnish core curriculum in a first-grade classroom, focusing on two aspects of the curriculum: (1) "a community-oriented view of language," which can be understood from a socio-cultural perspective; and (2) "a broad conception of…

  3. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  4. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  5. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  6. The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

  7. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  8. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  9. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  10. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  11. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  12. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  13. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  14. Bridge Building for the Future of the Finnish Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the strategy process of Finnish polytechnics using the balanced scorecard approach. The study extends the balanced scorecard from the communication and implementation of this strategy to the planning of the strategy. Stakeholders formulated a strategic managerial plan for the network of all polytechnics in Finland by applying…

  15. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  16. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  17. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  18. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  19. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  20. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…