Science.gov

Sample records for finnish hessup population

  1. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  2. Paternal and maternal DNA lineages reveal a bottleneck in the founding of the Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Sajantila, A; Salem, A H; Savolainen, P; Bauer, K; Gierig, C; Pääbo, S

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in several European populations reveals an almost monomorphic pattern in the Finns, whereas Y-chromosomal diversity is significantly higher in other populations. Furthermore, analyses of nucleotide positions in the mitochondrial control region that evolve slowly show a decrease in genetic diversity in Finns. Thus, relatively few men and women have contributed the genetic lineages that today survive in the Finnish population. This is likely to have caused the so-called "Finnish disease heritage"-i.e., the occurrence of several genetic diseases in the Finnish population that are rare elsewhere. A preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial mutations that have accumulated subsequent to the bottleneck suggests that it occurred about 4000 years ago, presumably when populations using agriculture and animal husbandry arrived in Finland. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876258

  3. Finnish Disease Heritage II: population prehistory and genetic roots of Finns.

    PubMed

    Norio, Reijo

    2003-05-01

    In the second part of my review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), I discuss the settling of Finland; factors influencing the genes of a population, such as agriculture versus hunting/fishing/gathering, trading and cultural relations, wars and other kinds of violence, and bottlenecks; relatives of the Finns in the light of classical European studies, classical Finnish studies, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal studies; the genes of the Finns today, characterizing FDH, the east-west difference among Finns, and minorities in Finland, viz. the Lapps or Saami and Swedish-speaking Finns.

  4. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  5. Finnish mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II population data.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Brandstätter, A; Pimenoff, V; Sistonen, P; Palo, J U; Parson, W; Sajantila, A

    2007-10-25

    We have analyzed the two hypervariable regions HVS-I and HVS-II of 200 Finnish male individuals for forensic purposes. The distribution of the haplotypes within Finland was determined by the geographical knowledge of the donors' maternal ancestors. In our population sample, we identified 135 different mtDNA haplotypes. Different mtDNA sequences were further divided to haplogroups using the EMPOP software. The most common haplogroups were H (40.0%) and U (27.5%). Subgroup U5b, which contains earlier described "Saami motif", consisted majority (65.5%) of the sample in the U haplogroup. Analysis of the mtDNA sequence hypervariable regions I and II showed that the mtDNA diversity within the Finnish population sample was comparable to other European populations and uniformly distributed. This is contrary to the Y-STR "minimal haplotype" diversity, which in Finland is lower than in any of the other European populations studied so far.

  6. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10⁻⁸) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P = 1.5×10⁻¹¹⁷). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10⁻⁴), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers.

  7. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10⁻⁸) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P = 1.5×10⁻¹¹⁷). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10⁻⁴), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID

  8. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Sciatica in Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Lemmelä, Susanna; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Benner, Christian; Heliövaara, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (p<1x10-6) were replicated in 776 Finnish sciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981) at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08) and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively). The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04). Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6–7%) than in other European populations (1–2%). Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109) were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB), which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate. PMID:27764105

  9. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  10. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-05-26

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  11. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  12. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  13. Gender differences in health information behaviour: a Finnish population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Ek, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Narrowing the gaps in health outcomes, including those between men and women, has been a pronounced goal on the agenda of the Finnish health authorities since the mid-1980s. But still there is a huge gap in favour of women when it comes to life expectancy at birth. People's health information behaviour, that is how people seek, obtain, evaluate, categorize and use relevant health-related information to perform desired health behaviours, is a critical prerequisite to appropriate and consistent performances of these behaviours. With respect to gender, it has been noted that men often are unwilling and lack the motivation to engage with health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender affects health information behaviour in the Finnish population aged 18-65 years. The survey data were collected via a questionnaire which was posted to a representative cross section consisting of 1500 Finnish citizens. The statistical analysis consists of ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests. The results show that women were more interested in and reported much more active seeking of health-related information, paid more attention to potential worldwide pandemics and were much more attentive as to how the goods they purchase in everyday life affect their health than men did. Women also reported receiving far more informal health-related information from close family members, other kin and friends/workmates than men did. Thus, to succeed in public health promotion and interventions the measures taken should be much more sensitive to the gender gap in health information behaviour.

  14. Simulation of Finnish Population History, Guided by Empirical Genetic Data, to Assess Power of Rare-Variant Tests in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sophie R.; Agarwala, Vineeta; Flannick, Jason; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Altshuler, David; Flannick, Jason; Manning, Alisa; Hartl, Christopher; Agarwala, Vineeta; Fontanillas, Pierre; Green, Todd; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark; Poplin, Ryan; Shakir, Khalid; Fennell, Timothy; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Burtt, Noël; Gabriel, Stacey; Altshuler, David; Fuchsberger, Christian; Kang, Hyun Min; Sim, Xueling; Ma, Clement; Locke, Adam; Blackwell, Thomas; Jackson, Anne; Teslovich, Tanya; Stringham, Heather; Chines, Peter; Kwan, Phoenix; Huyghe, Jeroen; Tan, Adrian; Jun, Goo; Stitzel, Michael; Bergman, Richard N.; Bonnycastle, Lori; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S.; Scott, Laura; Mohlke, Karen; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Boehnke, Michael; Strom, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Grallert, Harald; Kriebel, Jennifer; Ried, Janina; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Kravic, Jasmina; Ladenvall, Claes; Toumi, Tiinamaija; Isomaa, Bo; Groop, Leif; Gaulton, Kyle; Moutsianas, Loukas; Rivas, Manny; Pearson, Richard; Mahajan, Anubha; Prokopenko, Inga; Kumar, Ashish; Perry, John; Chen, Jeff; Howie, Bryan; van de Bunt, Martijn; Small, Kerrin; Lindgren, Cecilia; Lunter, Gerton; Robertson, Neil; Rayner, Will; Morris, Andrew; Buck, David; Hattersley, Andrew; Spector, Tim; McVean, Gil; Frayling, Tim; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Finnish samples have been extensively utilized in studying single-gene disorders, where the founder effect has clearly aided in discovery, and more recently in genome-wide association studies of complex traits, where the founder effect has had less obvious impacts. As the field starts to explore rare variants’ contribution to polygenic traits, it is of great importance to characterize and confirm the Finnish founder effect in sequencing data and to assess its implications for rare-variant association studies. Here, we employ forward simulation, guided by empirical deep resequencing data, to model the genetic architecture of quantitative polygenic traits in both the general European and the Finnish populations simultaneously. We demonstrate that power of rare-variant association tests is higher in the Finnish population, especially when variants’ phenotypic effects are tightly coupled with fitness effects and therefore reflect a greater contribution of rarer variants. SKAT-O, variable-threshold tests, and single-variant tests are more powerful than other rare-variant methods in the Finnish population across a range of genetic models. We also compare the relative power and efficiency of exome array genotyping to those of high-coverage exome sequencing. At a fixed cost, less expensive genotyping strategies have far greater power than sequencing; in a fixed number of samples, however, genotyping arrays miss a substantial portion of genetic signals detected in sequencing, even in the Finnish founder population. As genetic studies probe sequence variation at greater depth in more diverse populations, our simulation approach provides a framework for evaluating various study designs for gene discovery. PMID:24768551

  15. Living on the edge: reconstructing the genetic history of the Finnish wolf population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many western European carnivore populations became almost or completely eradicated during the last ~200 years, but are now recovering. Extirpation of wolves started in Finland in the 19th century, and for more than 150 years the population size of wolves has remained small. To investigate historical patterns of genetic variation, we extracted DNA from 114 wolf samples collected in zoological museums over the last ~150 years. Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to look at genotypic variation in this historical sample. Additionally, we amplified a 430 bp sequence of mtDNA control region from the same samples. Contemporary wolf samples (N = 298) obtained after the population recovery in the mid-1990s, were used as a reference. Results Our analyses of mtDNA revealed reduced variation in the mtDNA control region through the loss of historical haplotypes observed prior to wolf declines. Heterozygosity at autosomal microsatellite loci did not decrease significantly. However, almost 20% of microsatellite alleles were unique to wolves collected before the 1960s. The genetic composition of the population changed gradually with the largest changes occurring prior to 1920. Half of the oldest historical samples formed a distinguishable genetic cluster not detected in the modern-day Finnish or Russian samples, and might therefore represent northern genetic variation lost from today’s gene pool. Point estimates of Ne were small (13.2 and 20.5) suggesting population fragmentation. Evidence of a genetic population bottleneck was also detected. Conclusions Our genetic analyses confirm changes in the genetic composition of the Finnish wolf population through time, despite the geographic interconnectivity to a much larger population in Russia. Our results emphasize the need for restoration of the historical connectivity between the present wolf populations to secure long-term viability. This might be challenging, however, because the management policies between

  16. Validation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes screening in the Slovenian working population.

    PubMed

    Štiglic, Gregor; Fijačko, Nino; Stožer, Andraž; Sheikh, Aziz; Pajnkihar, Majda

    2016-10-01

    We performed a cross-sectional population-based study on 632 participants, aged 20-65, who were screened using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire. Optimal results for men were achieved at FINDRISC⩾7 (100.0% sensitivity and 0.78 AUC) and for women at FINDRISC⩾13 (60.0% sensitivity and 0.78 AUC).

  17. Diversity of Extended HLA-DRB1 Haplotypes in the Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, Annika; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Lahtela, L. Elisa; Paakkanen, Riitta; Eronen, Katja T.; Seppänen, Mikko; Lokki, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, 6p21) codes for traditional HLA and other host response related genes. The polymorphic HLA-DRB1 gene in MHC Class II has been associated with several complex diseases. In this study we focus on MHC haplotype structures in the Finnish population. We explore the variability of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in relation to the other traditional HLA genes and a selected group of MHC class III genes. A total of 150 healthy Finnish individuals were included in the study. Subjects were genotyped for HLA alleles (HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1). The polymorphism of TNF, LTA, C4, BTNL2 and HLA-DRA genes was studied with 74 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). The C4A and C4B gene copy numbers and a 2-bp silencing insertion at exon 29 in C4A gene were analysed with quantitative genomic realtime-PCR. The allele frequencies for each locus were calculated and haplotypes were constructed using both the traditional HLA alleles and SNP blocks. The most frequent Finnish A∼B∼DR -haplotype, uncommon in elsewhere in Europe, was A*03∼B*35∼DRB1*01∶01. The second most common haplotype was a common European ancestral haplotype AH 8.1 (A*01∼B*08∼DRB1*03∶01). Extended haplotypes containing HLA-B, TNF block, C4 and HLA-DPB1 strongly increased the number of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes showing variability in the extended HLA-DRB1 haplotype structures. On the contrary, BTNL2 block and HLA-DQB1 were more conserved showing linkage with the HLA-DRB1 alleles. We show that the use of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes rather than single HLA-DRB1 alleles is advantageous when studying the polymorphisms and LD patters of the MHC region. For disease association studies the HLA-DRB1 haplotypes with various MHC markers allows us to cluster haplotypes with functionally important gene variants such as C4 deficiency and cytokines TNF and LTA, and provides hypotheses for further assessment. Our study corroborates the importance of studying population-specific MHC

  18. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  19. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  20. The mean concentration of uranium in drinking water, urine, and hair of the occupationally unexposed Finnish working population.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Puhakainen, Marketta; Heikkinen, Tarja; Ilus, Taina

    2009-06-01

    Uranium concentrations in the household water, urine, and hair of the occupationally unexposed Finnish working population were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The age of the randomly selected participants ranged from 18 to 66 y. The mean concentrations of uranium in water, urine, and hair were 1.25 microg L(-1), 0.016 microg L(-1), and 0.216 microg g(-1), respectively. The mean uranium concentration in hair of the Finnish working population was from 3- to 15-fold higher than the values reported in the literature, while the mean uranium concentration in urine was similar to those measured elsewhere in Europe. The observed large variation in the uranium concentrations in hair and urine can be explained by the variation in the uranium concentration in drinking water. Exceptionally high concentrations have been measured in private drilled wells in the granite areas of Southern Finland.

  1. A genome-wide analysis of population structure in the Finnish Saami with implications for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fransen, Erik; Hannula, Samuli; Van Laer, Lut; Van Eyken, Els; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of patterns of genetic variation within and among human populations is a prerequisite for successful genetic association mapping studies of complex diseases and traits. Some populations are more favorable for association mapping studies than others. The Saami from northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula represent a population isolate that, among European populations, has been less extensively sampled, despite some early interest for association mapping studies. In this paper, we report the results of a first genome-wide SNP-based study of genetic population structure in the Finnish Saami. Using data from the HapMap and the human genome diversity project (HGDP-CEPH) and recently developed statistical methods, we studied individual genetic ancestry. We quantified genetic differentiation between the Saami population and the HGDP-CEPH populations by calculating pair-wise F(ST) statistics and by characterizing identity-by-state sharing for pair-wise population comparisons. This study affirms an east Asian contribution to the predominantly European-derived Saami gene pool. Using model-based individual ancestry analysis, the median estimated percentage of the genome with east Asian ancestry was 6% (first and third quartiles: 5 and 8%, respectively). We found that genetic similarity between population pairs roughly correlated with geographic distance. Among the European HGDP-CEPH populations, F(ST) was smallest for the comparison with the Russians (F(ST)=0.0098), and estimates for the other population comparisons ranged from 0.0129 to 0.0263. Our analysis also revealed fine-scale substructure within the Finnish Saami and warns against the confounding effects of both hidden population structure and undocumented relatedness in genetic association studies of isolated populations.

  2. A genome-wide analysis of population structure in the Finnish Saami with implications for genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fransen, Erik; Hannula, Samuli; Van Laer, Lut; Van Eyken, Els; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Camp, Guy Van

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of patterns of genetic variation within and among human populations is a prerequisite for successful genetic association mapping studies of complex diseases and traits. Some populations are more favorable for association mapping studies than others. The Saami from northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula represent a population isolate that, among European populations, has been less extensively sampled, despite some early interest for association mapping studies. In this paper, we report the results of a first genome-wide SNP-based study of genetic population structure in the Finnish Saami. Using data from the HapMap and the human genome diversity project (HGDP-CEPH) and recently developed statistical methods, we studied individual genetic ancestry. We quantified genetic differentiation between the Saami population and the HGDP-CEPH populations by calculating pair-wise FST statistics and by characterizing identity-by-state sharing for pair-wise population comparisons. This study affirms an east Asian contribution to the predominantly European-derived Saami gene pool. Using model-based individual ancestry analysis, the median estimated percentage of the genome with east Asian ancestry was 6% (first and third quartiles: 5 and 8%, respectively). We found that genetic similarity between population pairs roughly correlated with geographic distance. Among the European HGDP-CEPH populations, FST was smallest for the comparison with the Russians (FST=0.0098), and estimates for the other population comparisons ranged from 0.0129 to 0.0263. Our analysis also revealed fine-scale substructure within the Finnish Saami and warns against the confounding effects of both hidden population structure and undocumented relatedness in genetic association studies of isolated populations. PMID:21150888

  3. Analysis of 16 Y STR loci in the Finnish population reveals a local reduction in the diversity of male lineages.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Pimenoff, V; Lukka, M; Sistonen, P; Sajantila, A

    2004-05-28

    We analysed samples of 400 Finnish males using nine Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (minimal haplotype); for 200 of these subjects an additional seven Y-chromosomal STR loci were used. The geographical distribution of the observed haplotypes was determined from 200 individuals of known paternal origin within Finland. The observed number of alleles varied from 2 to 13 alleles per locus. A total of 146 minimal haplotypes were identified in our population sample. Interestingly, 90 (22.5%) individuals shared an identical haplotype. This haplotype was extremely frequent in the northern and eastern subpopulations of Savo, Pohjanmaa and Karjala (53, 42 and 37%, respectively). With the seven additional loci analysed in the sample of 200 individuals, 120 haplotypes were identified, and individuals sharing the most common haplotype decreased to 13.0%. However, in comparison to other European populations, the Finnish population showed decreased genetic diversity (GD) when the number of different minimal haplotypes in the population was divided by the sample size (36.5% in Finns versus 83.7% on average). Our results strongly support the earlier hypothesis of individual isolated Y-chromosomal lineages and population substructuring in Finland. For paternity testing, power of exclusion was 92% using minimal haplotype data, but including the seven additional loci this value increased to 97%.

  4. Health economic consequences of reducing salt intake and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the adult Finnish population: estimates based on the FINRISK and FINDIET studies

    PubMed Central

    Martikainen, J A; Soini, E J O; Laaksonen, D E; Niskanen, L

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To predict the health economic consequences of modest reductions in the daily intake of salt (−1.0 g per day) and replacement of saturated fat (SFA, −1.0 energy percent (E%)) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, +1.0 E%) in the Finnish population aged 30–74 years. Subjects/Methods: A Markov model with dynamic population structure was constructed to present the natural history of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) based on the most current information about the age- and sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and nutrient intake. To predict the undiscounted future health economic consequences of the reduction of dietary salt and SFA, the model results were extrapolated for the years 2010–2030 by replacing the baseline population in the year 2007 with the extrapolated populations from the official Finnish statistics. Finnish costs (€2009, societal perspective) and EQ-5D utilities were obtained from published references. Results: During the next 20 years, a population-wide intervention directed at salt intake and dietary fat quality could potentially lead to 8000–13 000 prevented CVD cases among the Finnish adults compared the situation in year 2007. In addition, the reduced incidence of CVDs could gain 26 000–45 000 quality-adjusted life years and save €150–225 million over the same time period. Conclusion: A modest reduction of salt and replacement of SFA with PUFA in food products can significantly reduce the burden of CVD in the adult Finnish population. This impact may be even larger in the near future due to the ageing of Finnish population. PMID:21587284

  5. IL23R in the Swedish, Finnish, Hungarian and Italian populations: association with IBD and psoriasis, and linkage to celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Koskinen, Lotta LE; Dukes, Emma; Kainu, Kati; Suomela, Sari; Lappalainen, Maarit; Ziberna, Fabiana; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R; Kurppa, Kalle; Kaukinen, Katri; Ádány, Róza; Pocsai, Zsuzsa; Széles, György; Färkkilä, Martti; Turunen, Ulla; Halme, Leena; Paavola-Sakki, Paulina; Not, Tarcisio; Vatta, Serena; Ventura, Alessandro; Löfberg, Robert; Torkvist, Leif; Bresso, Francesca; Halfvarson, Jonas; Mäki, Markku; Kontula, Kimmo; Saarialho-Kere, Ulpu; Kere, Juha; D'Amato, Mauro; Saavalainen, Päivi

    2009-01-01

    Background Association of the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been confirmed in several populations. IL23R also associates with psoriasis, suggesting that the gene may be an important candidate for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods We studied association of single-nucleotide variants in IL23R with IBD in Swedish patients, in both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) subsets. The same genetic variants were also studied in Finnish patients with psoriasis or celiac disease, and in Hungarian and Italian patients with celiac disease. Results Association of IL23R with IBD was replicated in our Swedish patients, and linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis was found in the Finnish population. The IL23R region was also linked to celiac disease in Finnish families, but no association of IL23R variants with celiac disease was found in the Finnish, Hungarian or Italian samples. Conclusion Our study is the first to demonstrate association of IL23R with CD and UC in Swedish patients with IBD. It is also the first study to report linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis in the Finnish population. Importantly, this is the first report of linkage of the IL23R region to celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory condition in which IL23R has not been previously implicated. PMID:19175939

  6. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  7. Multi-Dimensional Interacting Constraints on Physical Activity Behaviours in the Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Aki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kokko, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Finnish sports organisations, local and federal government, and healthcare organisations have widely adopted the World Health Organization and national recommendations for physical activity for different age groups. However, studies have indicated that only 46 % of 3-year-old preschool children, approximately 50 % of primary school students (7-12 years), 10-17 % of secondary school students (13-15 years) and 16 % of Finnish adults (20-54 years) attain those recommendations. In Finland there are 33,620 built sports facilities and over 9000 sport clubs, meaning there are many possibilities for physical activity, yet people are still rather inactive. In this paper we argue that availability of facilities, although an important element, is not enough to promote physical activity. It is possible that the current built physical environmental design does not fulfil people's needs regarding participation in physical activity. More emphasis should be placed on the design and operation of the facilities to develop new affordances for physical activity. PMID:27245059

  8. The age of human mutation: Genealogical and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CLN5 mutation in the Finnish population

    SciTech Connect

    Varilo, T; Savukoski, M.; Peltonen, L.

    1996-03-01

    Variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) is an autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathy of childhood enriched in the western part of Finland, with a local incidence of 1/1,500. We recently assigned the locus for vLINCL, CLN5, to 13q21.1-q32. In the present study, the haplotype analysis of Finnish CLN5 chromosomes provides evidence that one single mutation causes vLINCL in the Finnish population. Eight microsatellite markers closely linked to the CLN5 gene on chromosome 13q were analyzed, to study identity by descent by shared haplotype analysis. One single haplotype formed by flanking markers D13S160 and D13S162 in strong linkage disequilibrium (P < .0001) was present in 81% of disease-bearing chromosomes. Allele 4 at the marker locus D13S162 was detected in 94% of disease-bearing chromosomes. To evaluate the age of the CLN5 mutation by virtue of its restricted geographical distribution, church records were used to identify the common ancestors for 18 vLINCL families diagnosed in Finland. The pedigrees of the vLINCL ancestors merged on many occasions, which also supports a single founder mutation that obviously happened 20-30 generations ago (i.e., {approximately}500 years ago) in this isolated population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected with seven markers covering an extended genetic distance of 11 cM, which further supports the young age of the CLN5 mutation. When the results of genealogical and linkage disequilibrium studies were combined, the CLN5 gene was predicted to lie {approximately}200-400 kb (total range 30-1,360 kb) from the closest marker D13S162. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta LE; Slot, Ruben van't; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Mäki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility to other autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes. We performed fine mapping on 446 independent individuals with celiac disease and 641 controls of Dutch origin, testing 872 tagging SNPs in a 22 Mb region of chromosome 6. The 12 most promising SNPs were followed up in 2071 individuals from 284 Finnish and 357 Hungarian celiac disease families to identify risk variants in this region. Multiple markers in the region were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Dutch material. Two SNPs, rs9391227 and rs4946111, were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Finnish population. The association to rs9391227 represents the strongest association signal found in the Finnish (P=0.003, OR 0.66) as well as the combined Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations (P=3.6 × 10−5, OR 0.76). The rs9391227 is situated downstream of the HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) gene and is contained within a region of strong linkage disequilibrium enclosing HACE1. Two additional, independent, susceptibility variants in the 6q21-22 region were also found in a meta-analysis of the three populations. The 6q21-22 region was confirmed as a celiac disease susceptibility locus and harbors multiple independent associations, some of which may implicate ubiquitin-pathways in celiac disease susceptibility. PMID:21326284

  10. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  11. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, P. W.; Auvinen, A.; Voutilainen, E. T.; Hakulinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Estimation of cancer patient survival by social class has been performed using observed, corrected (cause specific), and relative (with expected survival based on the national population) survival rates. Each of these measures are potentially biased and the optimal method is to calculate relative survival rates using social class specific death rates to estimate expected survival. This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the estimation of social class differences in cancer patient survival. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All Finnish residents diagnosed with at least one of 10 common malignant neoplasms during the period 1977-1985 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and followed up for deaths to the end of 1992. DESIGN: Survival rates were calculated by site, sex, and age at 5, 10, and 15 years subsequent to diagnosis for each of three measures of survival; relative survival, corrected (cause specific) survival, and relative survival adjusted for social class differences in general mortality. Regression models were fitted to each set of rates for the first five years of follow up. MAIN RESULTS: The degree of variation in relative survival resulting from social class decreased, although did not disappear, after controlling for social class differences in general mortality. The results obtained using corrected survival were close to those obtained using relative survival with a social class correction. The differences between the three measures were largest when the proportion of deaths from other causes was large, for example, in cancers with high survival, among older patients, and for longer follow up times. CONCLUSIONS: Although each of the three measures gave comparable results, it is recommended that relative survival rates are used with expected survival adjusted for social class when studying social class variation in cancer patient survival. If this is not an available option, it is recommended

  12. Culled males, infant mortality and reproductive success in a pre-industrial Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Helle, Samuli; Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-22

    Theoretical and empirical literature asserts that the sex ratio (i.e. M/F) at birth gauges the strength of selection in utero and cohort quality of males that survive to birth. We report the first individual-level test in humans, using detailed life-history data, of the 'culled cohort' hypothesis that males born to low annual sex ratio cohorts show lower than expected infant mortality and greater than expected lifetime reproductive success. We applied time-series and structural equation methods to a unique multigenerational dataset of a natural fertility population in nineteenth century Finland. We find that, consistent with culled cohorts, a 1 s.d. decline in the annual cohort sex ratio precedes an 8% decrease in the risk of male infant mortality. Males born to lower cohort sex ratios also successfully raised 4% more offspring to reproductive age than did males born to higher cohort sex ratios. The offspring result, however, falls just outside conventional levels of statistical significance. In historical Finland, the cohort sex ratio gauges selection against males in utero and predicts male infant mortality. The reproductive success findings, however, provide weak support for an evolutionarily adaptive explanation of male culling in utero.

  13. Association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and respiratory-distress syndrome in the Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Rämet, M; Haataja, R; Marttila, R; Floros, J; Hallman, M

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory-distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Although prematurity is the most-important risk factor for RDS, the syndrome does not develop in many premature infants. The main cause of RDS is a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which consists of phospholipids and specific proteins. The genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and RDS in the genetically homogeneous Finnish population. In the present study, 88 infants with RDS and 88 control infants that were matched for degree of prematurity, prenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and sex were analyzed for SP-A genotypes. We show that certain SP-A1 alleles (6A2 and 6A3) and an SP-A1/SP-A2 haplotype (6A2/1A0) were associated with RDS. The 6A2 allele was overrepresented and the 6A3 allele was underrepresented in infants with RDS. These associations were particularly strong among small premature infants born at gestational age <32 wk. In infants protected from RDS (those that had no RDS, despite extreme prematurity and lack of glucocorticoid therapy), compared with infants that had RDS develop despite having received glucocorticoid therapy, the frequencies of 6A2 (.22 vs.71), 6A3 (.72 vs.17), 6A2/1A0 (.17 vs.68), 6A3/1A1 (.39 vs.10), and 6A3/1A2 (.28 vs.06) in the two groups, respectively, were strikingly different. According to the results of conditional logistic-regression analysis, diseases associated with premature birth did not explain the association between the odds of a particular homozygous SP-A1 genotype (6A2/6A2 and 6A3/6A3) and RDS. In the population evaluated in the present study, SP-B intron 4 variant frequencies were low and had no detectable association with RDS. We conclude that the SP-A gene locus is an important determinant for predisposition to RDS in premature infants. PMID:10762543

  14. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  15. The genome-wide landscape of copy number variations in the MUSGEN study provides evidence for a founder effect in the isolated Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Buck, Gemma; Blancher, Christine; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Here we characterized the genome-wide architecture of copy number variations (CNVs) in 286 healthy, unrelated Finnish individuals belonging to the MUSGEN study, where molecular background underlying musical aptitude and related traits are studied. By using Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12v.1.0 beadchip, we identified 5493 CNVs that were spread across 467 different cytogenetic regions, spanning a total size of 287.83 Mb (∼9.6% of the human genome). Merging the overlapping CNVs across samples resulted in 999 discrete copy number variable regions (CNVRs), of which ∼6.9% were putatively novel. The average number of CNVs per person was 20, whereas the average size of CNV per locus was 52.39 kb. Large CNVs (>1 Mb) were present in 4% of the samples. The proportion of homozygous deletions in this data set (∼12.4%) seemed to be higher when compared with three other populations. Interestingly, several CNVRs were significantly enriched in this sample set, whereas several others were totally depleted. For example, a CNVR at chr2p22.1 intersecting GALM was more common in this population (P=3.3706 × 10−44) than in African and other European populations. The enriched CNVRs, however, showed no significant association with music-related phenotypes. Moreover, the most common CNV locations in world's normal population cohorts (6q14.1, 11q11) were overrepresented in this population. Thus, the genome-wide CNV investigation in this Finnish sample set demonstrated features that are characteristic to isolated populations. Novel CNVRs and the functional implications of CNVs revealed in this study elucidate structural variation present in this population isolate, and may also serve as candidate gene loci for music-related traits. PMID:23591402

  16. National Trends in Main Causes of Hospitalization: A Multi-Cohort Register Study of the Finnish Working-Age Population, 1976–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Kokkinen, Lauri; De Vogli, Roberto; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Background The health transition theory argues that societal changes produce proportional changes in causes of disability and death. The aim of this study was to identify long-term changes in main causes of hospitalization in working-age population within a nation that has experienced considerable societal change. Methodology National trends in all-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations for the five main diagnostic categories were investigated in the data obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seven-cohort sample covered the period from 1976 to 2010 and consisted of 3,769,356 randomly selected Finnish residents, each cohort representing 25% sample of population aged 18 to 64 years. Principal Findings Over the period of 35 years, the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases decreased. Hospitalization for musculoskeletal diseases increased whereas mental and behavioral hospitalizations slightly decreased. The risk of cancer hospitalization decreased marginally in men, whereas in women an upward trend was observed. Conclusions/Significance A considerable health transition related to hospitalizations and a shift in the utilization of health care services of working-age men and women took place in Finland between 1976 and 2010. PMID:25379723

  17. Metabolic genotypes as modulators of asbestos-related pleural malignant mesothelioma risk: a comparison of Finnish and Italian populations.

    PubMed

    Neri, Monica; Taioli, Emanuela; Filiberti, Rosangela; Paolo Ivaldi, Giovanni; Aldo Canessa, Pier; Verna, Anna; Marroni, Paola; Puntoni, Riccardo; Hirvonen, Ari; Garte, Seymour

    2006-07-01

    The role of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, EPHX1, and NAT2 genotypes in susceptibility to malignant mesothelioma (MM) was compared in two case-control studies, previously conducted in two countries where different types of asbestos fibers have been used [Hirvonen et al., 1995. Inherited GSTM1 and NAT2 defects as concurrent risk modifiers in asbestos-related human malignant mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 55, 2981-2983; Hirvonen et al., 1996. Glutathione S-Transferase and N-Acetyltransferase genotypes and asbestos-associated pulmonary disorders. J. Natl. Cancer Inst.88, 1853-1856; Neri et al., 2005. Pleural malignant mesothelioma, genetic susceptibility and asbestos exposure. Mutat. Res. 592, 36-44]. Fifty-seven asbestos-exposed MM patients and 255 controls were recruited in Italy, 48 cases and 121 controls in Finland. In order to make the two studies comparable, they have been updated and new genotyping analyses have been performed. The NAT2 fast acetylator and EPHX1 low-activity genotypes were positively associated with MM in the Italian study, while they were negatively associated with this malignancy in the Finnish one. A combined significant effect was also observed in the Italian study for the NAT2 fast acetylator and EPHX1 low-activity genotypes, while this combination was protective in the Finnish study. Combination of NAT2 fast acetylator and GSTM1 null genotype posed a significantly increased risk of MM in the Italian, but not in the Finnish study. The opposite results obtained in Finland and Italy may be ascribed to random chance, but a role may be hypothesized for the fact that different types of asbestos have been used in the two countries.

  18. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Ayala-Castillo, Miguel; Forero-Naranjo, Leonardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in a Colombian population. METHODS: This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects (age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital’s database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. RESULTS: A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population. PMID:26675051

  19. Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants Associate With Hypertension: A Case-Control Study in a Finnish Population-The TAMRISK Study.

    PubMed

    Nikkari, Seppo T; Määttä, Kirsi M; Kunnas, Tarja A

    2015-11-01

    Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and expression has been associated with hypertension, but less is known whether the 2 known functional polymorphic sites in the iNOS gene (g.-1026 C/A (rs2779249), g.2087 G/A (rs2297518)) affect susceptibility to hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic variants of iNOS and diagnosed hypertension in a Finnish cohort.This study included 320 hypertensive cases and 439 healthy controls. All participants were 50-year-old men and women and the data were collected from the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk study (TAMRISK). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and iNOS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed using KASP genotyping PCR. Data analysis was done by logistic regression.At the age of 50 years, the SNP rs2779249 (C/A) associated significantly with hypertension (P = 0.009); specifically, subjects carrying the A-allele had higher risk of hypertension compared to those carrying the CC genotype (OR = 1.47; CI = 1.08-2.01; P = 0.015). In addition, a 15-year follow-up period (35, 40, and 45 years) of the same individuals showed that carriers of the A-allele had more often hypertension in all of the studied age-groups. The highest risk for developing hypertension was obtained among 35-year-old subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-12.27; P = 0.024). Those carrying variant A had also significantly higher readings of both systolic (P = 0.047) and diastolic (P = 0.048) blood pressure during the follow-up. No significant associations between rs2297518 (G/A) variants alone and hypertension were found. However, haplotype analysis of rs2779249 and rs2297518 revealed that individuals having haplotype H3 which combines both A alleles (CA-GA, 19.7% of individuals) was more commonly found in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (OR = 2.01; CI = 1.29-3.12; P = 0

  20. Awareness and determinants of electronic cigarette use among Finnish adolescents in 2013: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Jaana Maarit; Ollila, Hanna; El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Pere, Lasse Antero; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Background A wide range of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now on the market. We studied e-cigarette awareness and use, determinants and sources of e-cigarettes, the e-liquids used in them and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements among adolescents in Finland. Among smokers, we studied the association of e-cigarette use and interest in smoking cessation. Method Data were obtained from a national survey of 12–18-year-old Finnish adolescents in 2013 (N=3535, response rate 38%). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Results Of the respondents, 85.3% knew what e-cigarettes were; 17.4% had tried them. E-liquids with nicotine were used most often (65.7%); also those who had never tried conventional cigarettes had used them. Of e-cigarette ever users, 8.3% had never tried smoking. Parents’ high level of education, being in employment, and intact family protected against children's e-cigarette use. In the final model, daily smoking (OR 41.35; 95% CI 25.2 to 67.8), snus use (2.96; 2.4–4.0), waterpipe use (2.21; 1.6–3.0), children's vocational education (2.06; 1.4–3.1) and poor school performance (1.92; 1.4–3.0) were associated with e-cigarette experimentation. Those smokers with most experience of e-cigarettes were least likely to consider smoking cessation. Conclusions Awareness and experimentation with e-cigarettes are high among adolescents, especially in older age groups and boys. Nicotine e-liquids are easy to acquire for youth. Having similar risk factors, e-cigarette use seems to follow the model of conventional smoking initiation. Among adolescent smokers, use of e-cigarettes does not clearly relate to interest in smoking cessation. Preventive policies are needed to protect the youth. PMID:24827977

  1. Household income and health problems during a period of labour-market change and widening income inequalities - a study among the Finnish population between 1987 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Income inequalities widened considerably from 1987 to 2007 in Finland. We compared the association between household income and health problems across three periods and in several different ways of modelling the dependence. Our aim was to find out whether the change in the distribution of income might have led to wider income-related inequalities in health problems. The data represent an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population, and we restricted the analysed sample to those between 18 and 67 years of age and not in receipt of any pension in each of the three six-year periods examined (n between 280,106 and 291,198). The health outcome was sickness-allowance days compensated. Household-equivalent taxable income was applied with two different scale transformations: firstly, as real income adjusted for price level and secondly, as rank position on the income distribution. We used negative binomial regression models, with and without zero inflation, as well as decomposition analysis. We found that sickness-allowance days decreased with increasing income, while differences in the shape and magnitude of the association were found between the scales and the periods. During the study period the association strengthened considerably at both the lowest fifth and the top fifth of the rank scale, while the observed per-unit effect of real income changed less. Decomposition analysis suggested that slightly less than half of the observed increase in concentration of health problems at lower end of the rank scale could be accounted for by the change in real income distribution. The results indicate that widening differences in household consumption potential may have contributed to an intensified impact of household income on inequalities in health problems. Explaining the change only in terms of consumption potential, however, was problematic, and changes in the interdependence of labour-market advantage and health problems are likely to contribute as well.

  2. Body fat distribution in the Finnish population: environmental determinants and predictive power for cardiovascular risk factor levels.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, B; Tuomilehto, J; Salomaa, V; Kartovaara, L; Korhonen, H J; Pietinen, P

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine (1) whether health habits are associated with body fat distribution, as measured by the waist/hip girth ratio, and (2) to what extent environmental factors, including anthropometric characteristics, explain the variability in levels of cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--The study was a population based cross sectional survey, conducted in the spring of 1987 as a part of an international research project on cardiovascular epidemiology. SETTING--The survey was conducted in three geographical areas of eastern and south western Finland. SUBJECTS--2526 men and 2756 women aged 25-64 years took part in the study, corresponding to a survey participation rate of 82%. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--In men, waist/hip ratio showed stronger associations with exercise (Pearson's r = -0.24), resting heart rate (r = 0.10), alcohol consumption (r = 0.07), smoking (r = 0.05), and education (r = -0.23) than did body mass index. Jointly, exercise, resting heart rate, alcohol consumption, education, and age explained 18% of variance in male waist/hip ratio, but only 9% of variance in male body mass index. In women, environmental factors were more predictive for body mass index than for waist/hip ratio, with age and education being the strongest determinants. Waist/hip ratio and body mass index were approximately equally strong predictors of cardiovascular risk factor levels. The additional predictive power of waist/hip ratio over and above body mass index was tested in a hierarchical, stepwise regression. In this conservative type of analysis the increase in explained variance uniquely attributable to waist/hip ratio was 2-3% for female and 1-2% for male lipoprotein levels, and less than 0.5% for female and 0-2% for male blood pressure values. CONCLUSIONS--The distribution of abdominal obesity in Finland is significantly influenced by health habits and sociodemographic factors in both men and women. This in turn is obviously one reason for the

  3. [Implementation in Finnish].

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Raija; Mäntyranta, Taina; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Komulainen, Jorma; Kaila, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Implementation research examines and promotes the uptake of research findings in various operational environments. The concepts of implementation research in Finnish are not yet established. In support of the research field we describe the Finnish equivalents of the central terms related to knowledge translation in healthcare and the frame of reference of Implementation research, with the national Current Care Guidelines as the starting point. The frame of reference is based on literature, experiences of the authors, iterative modification of the frame of reference on the basis of discussions, and results of expert inquiry. The frame of reference describes seven objects of evaluation, examples of research set-ups and methods as well as tools. PMID:27319083

  4. Finnish care integrated?

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, J. Jouni

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology. PMID:16896395

  5. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  6. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Types Persist in Finnish Chicken Production

    PubMed Central

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks. PMID:25700264

  7. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,…

  8. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  9. Genetic Variants on Chromosome 1p13.3 Are Associated with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and the Expression of DRAM2 in the Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Perttu P.; Vaara, Satu; Kettunen, Johannes; Pirinen, Matti; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Huikuri, Heikki; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Eskola, Markku; Nikus, Kjell; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Ripatti, Samuli; Havulinna, Aki S.; Salomaa, Veikko; Palotie, Aarno; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Perola, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is divided into either ST elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), differing in a number of clinical characteristics. We sought to identify genetic variants conferring risk to NSTEMI or STEMI by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MI stratified into NSTEMI and STEMI in a consecutive sample of 1,579 acute MI cases with 1,576 controls. Subsequently, we followed the results in an independent population-based sample of 562 cases and 566 controls, a partially independent prospective cohort (N = 16,627 with 163 incident NSTEMI cases), and examined the effect of disease-associated variants on gene expression in 513 healthy participants. Genetic variants on chromosome 1p13.3 near the damage-regulated autophagy modulator 2 gene DRAM2 associated with NSTEMI (rs656843; odds ratio 1.57, P = 3.11 × 10−10) in the case-control analysis with a consistent but not statistically significant effect in the prospective cohort (rs656843; hazard ratio 1.13, P = 0.43). These variants were not associated with STEMI (rs656843; odds ratio, 1.11, P = 0.20; hazard ratio 0.97, P = 0.87), appearing to have a pronounced effect on NSTEMI risk. A majority of the variants at 1p13.3 associated with NSTEMI were also associated with the expression level of DRAM2 in blood leukocytes of healthy controls (top-ranked variant rs325927, P = 1.50 × 10−12). The results suggest that genetic factors may in part influence whether coronary artery disease results in NSTEMI rather than STEMI. PMID:26509668

  10. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. Material and Methods We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22–60 years and diagnosed in 2000–2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10–1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Conclusions Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be

  11. The Finnish Day Care System and the Needs of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Eeva; Tamminen, Merja

    The Finnish family and day care, the child behavior and growth environment, and the development of day care are discussed in this paper. The Finnish family and day care is discussed in relation to policies regarding the Finnish family, the Finnish day care system, the basis of Finnish day care education, and ecological views in day care education.…

  12. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  13. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education--How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and…

  14. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health.

  15. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. PMID:22269485

  16. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…

  17. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo…

  18. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities. PMID:10827305

  19. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland. PMID:27081893

  20. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  1. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  2. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Asbestos Program 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Koskinen, K; Tossavainen, A; Karjalainen, A; Rinne, J P; Rantanen, J

    1995-07-01

    In 1987-1992, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) implemented a nationwide asbestos program aimed at preventing asbestos-related risks in good cooperation with governmental authorities, industry, trade unions, the health care and insurance systems, and mass media. The goals were to minimize all exposure to asbestos, identify people exposed at work, and improve the diagnostics of asbestos diseases, especially cancers. The program entailed several concrete actions and extensive dissemination of information, training, services, and scientific research. As proposed by the State Asbestos Committee, new use of asbestos products was banned and strict regulations were applied to renovation and inspection of old buildings. The screening study of asbestos-induced diseases included 18,943 current and retired workers from house building, shipyard, and asbestos industries. Pleural and parenchymal changes were found in 4,133 persons (22%), who were referred to further clinical examinations as suspected cases of an occupational disease. It was estimated that past exposure of asbestos among the Finnish population of 5 million causes > 150 mesotheliomas and lung cancers annually, totalling > 2,000 asbestos-induced cancer deaths by the year 2010. Although several major control actions were made or started during the program, the bulk of the preventive work still lies ahead.

  3. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  4. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher education policy,…

  5. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  6. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  7. Spoken Finnish: Book One [and] Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    This course in spoken Finnish is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book I and Book II, combined in this text, are divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3)…

  8. Technology Education in the Finnish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamaki, Ari

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 300 technology teachers in Finnish primary schools received 212 responses indicating that woodworking was a predominant activity and the design-based teaching method was most common. Age, education, and experience of teachers was not related to technology-education practice. Familiarity with technological equipment was not considered…

  9. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  10. Neurolinguistic Aspects of Finnish Posterior Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi

    Examination of the lexical errors (phonological paraphasias and neologisms) of two posterior aphasic patients who are speakers of Finnish, a highly synthetic language, revealed that the lexical difficulties generally typical of posterior aphasics were found in these patients as well. The typical lexical difficulties clustered around open class…

  11. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  12. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  13. The genetic relationship between the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps): analysis of nuclear DNA and mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Lahermo, P; Sajantila, A; Sistonen, P; Lukka, M; Aula, P; Peltonen, L; Savontaus, M L

    1996-06-01

    The genetic relationships between two Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps), were studied by using PCR for six nuclear-DNA marker loci, mitochondrial restriction-site polymorphism, and sequence variation of a 360-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region. The allele frequencies of each of the nuclear-DNA marker loci and the frequencies of mtDNA restriction haplotypes were significantly different between the populations. The Saami showed exceptionally low variation in their mtDNA restriction sites. The 9-bp deletion common in East Asian populations was not observed, nor did the haplotype data fit into the haplogroup categorization of Torroni et al. The average number of nucleotide substitutions from the mtDNA haplotype data indicated that the Finnish Saami may be closer to the Finns than to the other reference populations, whereas nuclear DNA suggested that the Finns are more closely related to the European reference populations than to the Finnish Saami. The similarity of the Finns to the other Europeans was even more pronounced according to the sequence data. We were unable to distinguish between the Finns and either the Swiss or Sardinian reference populations, whereas the Finnish Saami clearly stood apart. The Finnish Saami are distinct from other Circumarctic populations, although two of the lineages found among the Saami showed closer relationship to the Circumarctic than to the European lineages. The sequence data indicated an exceptionally high divergence for the Saami mtDNA control lineages. The distribution of the pairwise nucleotide differences in the Saami suggested that this population has not experienced an expansion similar to what was indicated for the Finns and the reference populations.

  14. Staff empowerment in Finnish intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Suominen, T; Leino-Kilpi, H; Merja, M; Doran, D I; Puukka, P

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe staff empowerment in Finnish intensive care units. The data were collected with a questionnaire comprising demographic background and empowerment items. The concept of empowerment was divided into three components: behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment. The questionnaire was sent to all registered nurses at Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). Eight hundred and fourteen replied, giving a response rate of 77%. The ICU nurses demonstrated confidence in their own skills and competencies, although least so in the domain of outcome empowerment. Experience of behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment increased linearly with age. The length of nursing experience was positively associated with behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment. Experience in ICU nursing correlated positively with verbal and outcome empowerment. Motivation, job satisfaction, respect of job autonomy and the fact that the job of ICU nurses commanded respect in society were associated with behavioural, verbal, and outcome empowerment.

  15. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  16. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  17. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  18. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  19. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  20. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  1. Establishing credibility, constructing understanding: The epistemic struggle over healthy eating in the Finnish dietetic blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Huovila, Janne; Saikkonen, Sampsa

    2016-07-01

    What constitutes healthy eating is experiencing ongoing public debate, and this debate is increasingly taking place on the Internet. In this article, using a dialectical approach to analyse rhetorical discourse, we investigated how six highly popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers construct dietetic credibility and understanding. Their argumentation is compared to that of two academic experts contributing to the blog of the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Theoretically, we draw on Michael Billig's notions on how thinking and understanding are pervasively argumentative and reflect wider socio-cultural contexts, and on the dilemmatic nature of common sense. We demonstrate how the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers rhetorically constructed a more particularistic and individualistic understanding of healthy eating in their argumentation in critical opposition to the universalistic and population-based understanding. In the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers argumentation, practical, subjective and moral knowledge was valued, alongside abstract, scientific knowledge. In contrast, the National Institute for Health and Welfare bloggers typically utilised population-based averages and causalities in their argumentation. We argue that arguing over healthy eating in the public domain is fundamentally an epistemic struggle, in which different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing are valued, and dilemmas related to healthy eating are deliberated. PMID:26220062

  2. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus.

  3. Establishing credibility, constructing understanding: The epistemic struggle over healthy eating in the Finnish dietetic blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Huovila, Janne; Saikkonen, Sampsa

    2016-07-01

    What constitutes healthy eating is experiencing ongoing public debate, and this debate is increasingly taking place on the Internet. In this article, using a dialectical approach to analyse rhetorical discourse, we investigated how six highly popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers construct dietetic credibility and understanding. Their argumentation is compared to that of two academic experts contributing to the blog of the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Theoretically, we draw on Michael Billig's notions on how thinking and understanding are pervasively argumentative and reflect wider socio-cultural contexts, and on the dilemmatic nature of common sense. We demonstrate how the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers rhetorically constructed a more particularistic and individualistic understanding of healthy eating in their argumentation in critical opposition to the universalistic and population-based understanding. In the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers argumentation, practical, subjective and moral knowledge was valued, alongside abstract, scientific knowledge. In contrast, the National Institute for Health and Welfare bloggers typically utilised population-based averages and causalities in their argumentation. We argue that arguing over healthy eating in the public domain is fundamentally an epistemic struggle, in which different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing are valued, and dilemmas related to healthy eating are deliberated.

  4. Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type maps to the long arm of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Kestilae, M.; Maennikkoe, M.; Tryggvason, K.; Savolainen, E.R. ); Holmberg, C.; Peltonen, L. ); Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J.

    1994-05-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome at birth. CNF represents a unique, apparently specific dysfunction of the renal basement membranes, and the estimated incidence of CNF in the isolated population of Finland is 1 in 8,000 newborns. The basic defect is unknown, and no specific biochemical defect or chromosomal aberrations have been described. Here the authors report the assignment of the CNF locus to 19[sub q]12-q13.1 on the basis of linkage analysis in 17 Finnish families. Multipoint analyses and observed recombination events place the CNF locus between multiallelic markers D19S416 and D19S224, and the significant linkage disequilibrium observed suggests that the CNF gene lies in the immediate vicinity of the markers D19S224 and D19S220. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  6. The Significance of the Youth Society Movement in Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Youth Society movement on Finnish cultural life is widespread. Three main areas can be observed in all Youth Society activities: moral education of Finnish youth, extending ideas of national awakening to everyone, and a tendency to bring different social circles closer together. (JOW)

  7. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  8. The Influence of Swedish on the English of Finnish Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan

    A study of the effects of learning Swedish as a third language on the previously-learned English of native Finnish-speaking students examined 10,000 English-language school-leaving examinations of Finnish students for possible examples of Swedish influence in vocabulary, grammar, and word order. The examinations were those graded by a native…

  9. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  10. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  11. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  12. BASIC COURSE IN FINNISH. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEHTINEN, MERI; SEBEOK, THOMAS A.

    THIS TEXTBOOK IS INTENDED AS AN INTENSIVE FIRST-YEAR FINNISH COURSE ON THE ADULT LEVEL. THE INTRODUCTION PROVIDES AN EXPLANATION OF THE AURAL-ORAL APPROACH USED IN THE COURSE AS WELL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE SOUND SYSTEM OF FINNISH AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PRONUNCIATION. THE 33 LESSON UNITS, FIVE OF WHICH ARE REVIEW UNITS, FOLLOW A GENERAL FORMAT--(1)…

  13. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  14. Finnish perspectives of wireless in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Alasaarela, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Wireless solutions are a good choice for healthcare development in Finland. A survey of 135 experts in Finland show that (1) the competences needed for developing wireless solutions exist (2) the Finnish healthcare system is integrated enough and (3) the technology industry in this area is too weak for global marketing. The following recommendations can be concluded: (1) Cooperate internationally (2) Develop integrated solutions and health managing concepts for the important health problems (such as diabetes), (3) Harness the healthcare system to act as a test bed for new solutions and (4) Help companies to grow and take global roles. PMID:19906633

  15. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  16. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  17. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  18. Dietary supplementation habits and perceptions of supplement use among elite Finnish athletes.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anni; Alaranta, Antti; Helenius, Ilkka; Vasankari, Tommi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of dietary supplement (DS) use among elite Finnish athletes in 2002 and 2009. In 2009, the authors also wanted to examine the reasons for athletes' DS use, whether athletes feel they have experienced benefits from their supplement use, and whether athletes had had an opportunity to consult dietary specialists. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2002 and 2009 among Finnish Olympic athletes. Data were collected using semistructured questionnaires, mainly in national team camps. The study population in 2002 was 446 athletes, and in 2009 it was 372. The number of DS users was high in both study years (81% in 2002 and 73% in 2009). Vitamin D consumption was low in both 2002 and 2009 (0.7% and 2.0%, respectively). An increase was found in consumption of omega-3 fatty acids between study years (11% in 2002 and 19% in 2009; p = .002), and their regular use nearly doubled (8% and 15%, p = .002). For vitamin and mineral users, the main reason for DS use was to prevent nutritional deficiencies, and for nutritional supplement users the main reason was recovery from exercise. Only 27% of all athletes and 30% of DS users had an opportunity to consult dietary specialists in 2009. This survey shows that supplementation rates among elite Finnish athletes are high and there may be over- and underuse of some micronutrient supplements. There is a need for professional nutritional counseling among national elite athletes. PMID:21813910

  19. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  20. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  1. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  2. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  3. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  5. Confidence in biopreparedness authorities among Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Vartti, Anne-Marie; Aro, Arja R; Jormanainen, Vesa; Henriksson, Markus; Nikkari, Simo

    2010-08-01

    A large sample of Finnish military conscripts of the armored brigade were questioned on the extent to which they trusted the information given biopreparedness authorities (such as the police, military, health care, and public health institutions) and how confident they were in the authority's ability to protect the public during a potential infectious disease outbreak, from either natural or deliberate causes. Participants answered a written questionnaire during their initial health inspection in July 2007. From a total of 1,000 conscripts, 953 male conscripts returned the questionnaire. The mean sum scores for confidence in the information given to biopreparedness authorities and the media on natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range = 0-30) were 20.14 (SD = 7.79) and 20.12 (SD = 7.69), respectively. Mean sum scores for the respondents' confidence in the ability of the biopreparedness authorities to protect the public during natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range 0-25) were 16.04 (SD = 5.78) and 16.17 (SD = 5.89). Most respondents indicated that during a natural outbreak, they would have confidence in information provided by a health care institution such as central hospitals and primary health care centers, whereas in the case of bioterrorism, the respondents indicated that they would have confidence in the defense forces and central hospitals. PMID:20731266

  6. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future. PMID:15876212

  7. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  8. Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among General Medical Outpatients in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Nkomazna, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14.4%) with no significant differences between the gender (20% versus 12.5%, P = 0.26). The area under curve for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.55–0.72) for the total population, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.56–0.75) for women, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52–0.83) for men. The optimal cut-off point for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 17 (sensitivity = 48% and specificity = 73%) for the total population, 17 (sensitivity = 56% and specificity = 66%) for females, and 13 (sensitivity = 53% and specificity = 77%) for males. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20% and 89.5%, respectively. The findings indicate that the Finnish questionnaire was only modestly effective in predicting undiagnosed diabetes among outpatients in Botswana. PMID:27738638

  9. The psychometric properties of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire in chronic pain patients and a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2-extended; short form) in samples of chronic pain patients (n=271) and controls (n=331) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data in the total sample supported the 18-factor structure as hypothesized by Young, J. E., Klosko, J., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. The diagonally weighted least squares estimation method gave repeatable parameter estimates in successive confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency of the YSQ-S2-extended was adequate to high in both samples and the groups showed equal goodness-of-fit statistics in CFA. This study consisted of the oldest population so far (mean age 47 years) and supported the use of the Finnish version of the YSQ-S2-extended in clinical practice.

  10. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  11. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  12. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  13. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher…

  14. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  15. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  16. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

  17. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  18. Finnish nurses' attitudes to pain in children.

    PubMed

    Salanterä, S

    1999-03-01

    This study measured the attitudes of Finnish paediatric nurses to children in pain and the connection between nurses' attitudes, nurses' attributes and nurses' own view of their knowledge and ability to take care of children in pain. The measurements were based on a purpose-designed instrument consisting of a 41-item Likert-type questionnaire and demographic data. The convenience sample consisted of paediatric nurses at all five university hospitals in Finland (n = 303). The response rate was 87%. ANOVA and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were used as statistical methods. The results show that, taken as a whole, the attitudes of these nurses do not hinder effective pain management but there are some misconceptions that need further attention. It also emerged that such attributes as nurses' age, education, experience, place of work and field of expertise do not have a significant effect on nurses' attitudes. Nurses working in operating theatres felt they had a limited scope to work together with parents and in some hospitals nurses felt they had limited scope to work together with other staff groups. The units differed significantly in nurses' views about the unit's possibilities to provide treatment for pain. The findings of this study indicate that although nurses' attitudes to pain management are mainly positive, there is much variation in how they feel they can actually provide quality care to control pain. More attention should be paid to training nurses and to providing knowledge about the treatment of pain in children. Future research should look at nurses' existing knowledge base as well as their activities in the assessment and management of pain. PMID:10210472

  19. Change detection for Finnish CORINE land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, Markus; Härmä, Pekka; Hatunen, Suvi; Teiniranta, Riitta; Kallio, Minna; Järvenpää, Elise

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the ideas, data and methods to produce Finnish Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC2006) classification. This version is based on use of existing national GIS data and satellite images and their automated processing, instead of visual interpretation of satellite images. The main idea is that land use information is based on GIS datasets and land cover information interpretation of satellite images. Because Finland participated to CLC2000-project, also changes between years 2000 and 2006 are determined. Finnish approach is good example how national GIS data is used to produce data fulfilling European needs in bottom-up fashion.

  20. Finnish Government reiterates its support for fifth nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In late February 1993, the Finnish government voted 11 to 6 in favor of supporting a fifth nuclear reactor for the country. The vote, which was viewed as a vote in principle to support the nuclear option, was taken at the behest of the Finnish utilities. It follows a parliamentary vote in November 1992 that opposed building new nuclear sites. Thus, the issue is now being discussed in committees, and a parliamentary vote whether or not to approve the government stance will take place later this spring.

  1. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  2. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious…

  3. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  4. The Predictiveness of the Finnish Matriculation: a Differential Psychology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtovaara, A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of part of a comprehensive research project concerning the Finnish matriculation examination. The goal of the project was to explore the matriculation examination as a series of tests indicative of ability differences between individuals, regardless of their causes. The…

  5. Bridge Building for the Future of the Finnish Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the strategy process of Finnish polytechnics using the balanced scorecard approach. The study extends the balanced scorecard from the communication and implementation of this strategy to the planning of the strategy. Stakeholders formulated a strategic managerial plan for the network of all polytechnics in Finland by applying…

  6. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  7. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  8. Holistic School Pedagogy and Values: Finnish Teachers' and Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the components of holistic school pedagogy as identified by a sample of Finnish secondary school teachers and students from two schools. Holistic pedagogy concerns the development of the whole student and acknowledges the cognitive, social, moral, emotional and spiritual dimensions of education. The data…

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Virus Strains from Finnish Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y.; Siikamäki, Heli; Saarinen, Auli; Piiparinen, Heli; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2008-01-01

    We characterized 11 dengue virus (DENV) isolates obtained from Finnish travelers during 2000–2005 using monoclonal antibodies and phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of DENV isolated from travelers contributes to the global picture of strain distribution and circulation. The isolates included all serotypes, including a DENV-2 isolate from Ghana. PMID:18258084

  10. Finnish Children's Views on the Ideal School and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Marjaana

    2010-01-01

    This grounded-theory study involved how Finnish children describe their ideal school and learning environment and considers how their notions should be valued in the development of schools to better respond to the challenges of the future. The school children, aged 10-12 years, participated in the study by writing a story about a school in which…

  11. Active Learning in a Finnish Engineering University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Debra; Ahonen, Anna-Maija

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the use of active learning techniques in an upper-level engineering course at the Helsinki University of Technology. The paper describes how these techniques were introduced and successfully used within the Finnish university classroom. The cultural subtext is explored and attention is given to teaching techniques…

  12. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  13. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  14. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a desirable…

  15. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  16. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  17. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  18. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  19. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  20. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  1. Some Perspectives on Global Education in Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudas, Anna-Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses global education in Finnish basic education with the help of two major publications in the field: the National Core Curriculum (2004) and the Global Education Programme (2007). The core values and goals of these documents are considered in the light of selected learning theories, and ongoing research is presented which…

  2. A Special Education Teacher's Networks: A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomainen, Jenna; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzed a special education (SE) teacher's activity within his workplace community and external professional network in a Finnish special education context. The nature of the SE teacher's networks and his networking role were examined using an interview and a questionnaire, completed by the teachers working in the community…

  3. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  4. Students' Experiences of Workplace Learning in Finnish VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Anne; Tynjala, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish vocational education and training system underwent remarkable transformations at the turn of the century. One of the biggest changes was introducing compulsory and guided on-the-job learning periods in all study programmes. In this article students' experiences of on-the-job learning and in particular of integrating school-based and…

  5. Changing Literacy Practices According to the Finnish Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how a teacher implemented principles of literacy teaching and learning set forth in the Finnish core curriculum in a first-grade classroom, focusing on two aspects of the curriculum: (1) "a community-oriented view of language," which can be understood from a socio-cultural perspective; and (2) "a broad conception of…

  6. Cancer incidence among Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers in 1967–2011: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry since the beginning of production in 1967. Methods The study cohort was made up of all persons employed by the Finnish stainless steel production chain from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel during the period 1967–2004, and it was divided into subcohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns of the subcohorts assessed in previous studies. Follow-up for cancer through the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry was performed using the personal identity code as key. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratios of observed numbers of cancer cases and numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. Results The overall cancer incidence was at the expected level. The lung cancer risk was decreased in the whole cohort (SIR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.08). The incidence of prostate cancer was significantly increased (1.31; 1.05 to 1.61) and that for kidney cancer was significantly decreased (0.38; 0.14 to 0.82). None of the department-specific SIRs for lung cancer were significantly different from 1.0. No cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses were observed among workers in the ferrochromium smelter or the stainless steel melting shop. Conclusions It is not likely that the occupational exposures in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry would have increased the risk of cancer. PMID:24253032

  7. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well. PMID:15943388

  8. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  9. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers. PMID:26237718

  10. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  11. Comparison of stroke mortality in Finnish-born migrants living in Sweden 1970-1999 and in Swedish-born individuals.

    PubMed

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2014-02-01

    A limited number of studies have been found on stroke mortality in migrants showing higher mortality for some groups. Influence of time of residence has been studied by one research group. An earlier study showed a significantly higher number of deaths in Diseases of the circulatory system in Finnish migrants compared with native Swedes. To test the hypothesis of a higher mortality in and a decrease in mortality over time in stroke among Finnish migrants in Sweden. The study was based on National Population data, the study population included 321,407 Swedish and 307,174 foreign born persons living in Sweden 1987-1999. Mean age was lower at time for death for Finnish migrants than native Swedes, men 5.1 years difference and women 2.3 years. The difference decreased over time. The risk of death by stroke was higher for migrants with short time of residence than with long time (≤10 years, OR 1.61-1.36 vs ≥11 year, OR 1.18). Migrants with short time of residence died 9.8-5.3 years earlier than native Swedes. The hypothesis was confirmed and an indication of adjustment to life in the new country was found. International studies show similar results for other migrant groups but further studies are needed to verify if the same pattern can be found in other migrants groups in Sweden and to generalise the findings.

  12. ABH secretion polymorphism in Icelanders, Aland Islanders, Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi and Greenland Eskimos: a review and new data.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A W; Partanen, K; Frants, R R; Pronk, J C; Kostense, P J

    1986-01-01

    The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis

  13. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The…

  14. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  15. Risk-Taking Abilities for Everyone? Finnish Entrepreneurship Education and the Enterprising Selves Imagined by Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Katri; Korhonen, Maija; Raty, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the spread of the neo-liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition "Good Enterprise!" written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their…

  16. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  17. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of "Finnish education…

  18. Russian Pupils in Finnish Schools--Problems Created by Differences in Pedagogical Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laihiala-Kankainen, Sikka

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a 1997-98 pilot study that asked five Finnish teachers working with immigrant children to discuss problems of Russian-speaking students in Finnish classrooms. Russian-speaking students were also interviewed. Problem areas included social relationships, teacher and learner roles, the teaching/learning process, and parent/school…

  19. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  20. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  1. THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINNISH LANGUAGE. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAKULINEN, LAURI

    THIS INDIANA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND REVISION OF THE FINNISH ORIGINAL "SUOMEN KIELEN RAKENNE JA KEHITYS," (OTAVA, HELSINKI, 1941 AND 1946). CHAPTERS IN PART I TREAT--(1) THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF FINNISH, (2) HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY, (3) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OR PARTS OF SPEECH, AND (4) INFLECTION AND DERIVATION. CHAPTERS…

  2. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  3. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  4. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  5. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  6. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  7. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  8. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  9. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  10. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…

  11. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  12. The Letter-Sound Generalization of First, Second, and Third Grade Finnish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Richard L.

    To find how well children learn letter-sound correspondences when an orthography is highly regular, and how this ability relates to socioeconomic status (SES) and to reading ability, 240 Finnish children were tested for letter-sound generalizations. The test consisted of 25 synthetic words, constructed to look like Finnish words and to contain the…

  13. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  14. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  15. Clustering of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia in a Finnish Twin Cohort.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Ritva; Järvinen, Pentti; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kalso, Eija; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-08-01

    The objective was to assess the prevalence and heritability of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia in a population-based working-age twin sample. The study was based on the 12,502 like-sexed twins of the Finnish Twin Cohort and 49 diagnosed fibromyalgia patients who answered the same questionnaire in 1990-1992. Questions that were considered to best match symptoms of fibromyalgia were validated between the twins and the fibromyalgia patients. Latent class analysis was used to classify the subjects into more homogeneous groups with respect to the symptom items. The pairwise distribution of symptom classes in relation to zygosity and gender was modelled using quantitative genetic models to estimate heritability. Responses to all fibromyalgia-related items were obtained from 10,608 twins. A similar proportion of men (12%) and women (13%) was placed in the third latent class, which best represented possible fibromyalgia patients. Subjects in this class had a similar symptom profile as the diagnosed fibromyalgia patient group, but they were less severely affected. The two other latent classes represented subjects that were virtually symptom free and subjects with some symptoms. The heritability of liability to symptom class membership was estimated to be 51% (95% CI 45-56%). The prevalence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia in our population-based sample unselected for disease status was comparable to the prevalence of widespread pain reported in population based studies. The symptoms known to be associated with fibromyalgia seem to have a strong genetic background.

  16. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  17. Balantidium coli-infection in a Finnish horse.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Kummala, Elina; Sukura, Antti

    2008-11-25

    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan that inhabits the large intestine of swine, man, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Frequently this organism is associated with enteric diseases in man and nonhuman primates, with rare manifestations of disease in swine and other mammalian species. This report describes a case of B. coli-induced enteric disease in a 15-yr-old, mare, Finnish Horse after an acute onset of colic. Severe hemorrhagic and eosinophilic colitis with intense infiltration of intralesional B. coli-like ciliated protozoan were found histologically. PMID:18922641

  18. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

  19. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  20. Unemployment and health: experiences narrated by young Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Söderlund, Maud; Nyström, Lisbet; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  1. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development. PMID:25819212

  2. Healthy lifestyles of former Finnish world class athletes.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Kaprio, J; Sarna, S

    1994-02-01

    Recently, Sarna et al. (Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25:237-244, 1993) reported increased mean life expectancy in former world class athletes. Because lifestyle is associated with longevity, we have examined whether health habits of former Finnish male athletes (N = 1274; present mean age: 57.5, range: 36-94 yr) differed from those of noncompetitive referents (N = 788; mean age: 55.7, range: 39-87 yr). The athletes had represented Finland in international competitions in endurance (N = 177), power (N = 454), or other ("mixed") events (N = 643) from 1920-1965. Data on physical characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and health habits were obtained from questionnaires. All dependent variables in an analysis of covariance and in a logistic regression analysis were adjusted for age and occupation. Both leisure aerobic and work activity of all athlete groups was higher (P < 0.01) than that of referents. Compared with the referents, both power and "mixed" athletes were more prone to eat fruits and vegetables and to avoid vitamin supplements, but less prone to use butter and high-fat milk, and to smoke (odds ratios different from 1.0, P < 0.05). Also endurance athletes smoked less and drank less alcohol than the referents (P < 0.05). Higher leisure aerobic activity and less frequent smoking after athletic years might explain higher life expectancy of Finnish athletes.

  3. A follow-up of cancer incidence among former Finnish dump site residents: 1999–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Background: In an analysis of the years 1976–1998, a 50% excess in cancer incidence was observed among residents in twelve blockhouses in Helsinki, Finland on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste. Objective: To assess cancer risk over a 13-year period 1999–2011 among residents formerly living in houses built on a dump area. Methods: All 1879 persons who ever lived in the former dump area were identified and the number of cancer cases in this population was obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results: After 5 years of residence at the dump site, the standardized incidence ratio of cancer (all sites combined) was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.94–1.79) in men and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.33–0.82) for women, in comparison with the general Helsinki population (1999–2011). No significant excess cancer risks were found. Conclusions: Residing on a former dump area was not found to result in an increased risk of cancer. PMID:25224807

  4. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  5. Risk of schizophrenia and minority status: a comparison of the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972–1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24–0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41–1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males. PMID:25263996

  6. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  7. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  8. On the construction of a Finnish audiometric sentence test.

    PubMed

    Määttä, T K; Sorri, M J; Huttunen, K H; Välimaa, T T; Muhli, A A

    2001-01-01

    To respond to the demands of clinical practice and the needs of rehabilitation, a Finnish audiometric sentence test is being developed. The test consists of 10 sets of 10 sentences, each set serving as an independent test. The test is scored by words (50 per set). Homogeneity between the sets was guaranteed by a number of linguistic and phonetic criteria, controlled by using the Virko Sentence Analyzer, a programme especially constructed for the purpose. Recognition tests for the validation of the sentence sets were made with young normally hearing adults (n = 70; age group 18-25 years). Psychometric recognition properties of the test are described. The selection process of the final 10 sentence sets is illustrated.

  9. Sound exposure among the Finnish National Opera personnel.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Heli M; Toppila, Esko M; Olkinuora, Pekka S; Kuisma, Kaarina

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how and when the personnel of the Finnish National Opera are exposed to noise and whether exposure depends on musical selection of repertoire. Additionally, an evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual rehearsals was included. The measurements were done using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. From the measurements, annual noise exposure in the Opera was evaluated. The conductors, dancers, and double bass players were exposed to levels below 85 decibels, A-weighted, dB(A), which is the national action level. The choir members were exposed to sound levels of 92 and 94 dB(A). Within the orchestra, the highest sound exposure levels were found among percussionists, 95 dB(A); flute/piccolo players, 95 dB(A); and brass players, 92-94 dB(A). Other sound exposure levels among orchestra members varied from 83 to 89 dB(A). Soloists and rehearsal pianists are likely to be exposed to sound levels exceeding the national action level. From an exposure perspective, the individual rehearsals, 79-100 dB(A), proved to be as important as performances and group rehearsals, 82-99 dB(A), among orchestra musicians and choir singers. The ambient sound level for the lighting crew was 76 +/- 4 dB(A). However, the measured sound levels at the ear varied from 77 to 92 dB(A) due to the communication via headphones that had individual volume control. For the majority of personnel of the Finnish National Opera, sound exposure level exceeded the national action level value of 85 dB(A). Artists exceeded the action level during both individual and group rehearsals, as well as during performances. Hearing protection has been designed for musicians. Education/reinforcement is required to ensure it is worn.

  10. Health status of former elite athletes. The Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Kaprio, J; Kujala, U M; Koskenvuo, M

    1997-01-01

    Physical activity is an important aspect of health behavior and life-style, when considering the possibilities to prevent premature deaths and sustain functional capacity. We studied former Finnish male athletes and controls to investigate the effects of long-lasting participation in vigorous sports on health, and the main findings are reviewed here. The athletes represented Finland between the years 1920-1965 at least once in international competitions. The following sports were selected: track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting. The full name, place and date of birth were traced for 2613 (97.7%) men. The referent subjects (N = 1712) were selected among those Finnish men who, at the age of 20, were classified completely healthy at the medical examination for induction into military service. In most analyses we grouped the sports according to the type of training needed to achieve maximal results, i.e., principally aerobic training, principally anaerobic training or mixed. In 1985, a questionnaire on physical activity, health and health habits was mailed to surviving former athletes and referents (N = 2851, 65.9% of the original cohort). Follow-up for morbidity and mortality was based on national medical registries. We found that former aerobic sports athletes (endurance and mixed sports) in particular have high total and active life expectancy and low risk for ischemic heart disease and diabetes in later years. On the other hand, they have slightly higher risk for lower-limb osteoarthritis. Overall, the benefits of physically active life-style on health were clearly higher than the adverse effects.

  11. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care.

  12. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care. PMID:15481692

  13. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  14. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BODY MASS INDEX DURING ADOLESCENCE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AMONG FINNISH TWINS

    PubMed Central

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rissanen, Aila; Silventoinen, Karri

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study genetic and environmental factors affecting body mass index (BMI) and BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Design Prospective, population-based, twin cohort study. Subjects and methods We used twin modeling in 2413 monozygotic and same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic Finnish twin pairs born in 1983–1987 and assessed by self-report questionnaires at 11–12, 14, and 17 years. Results Heritability of BMI was estimated to be 0.58–0.69 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls, 0.83 among 17-year-old boys and 0.74 among girls. Common environmental effects shared by siblings were 0.15–0.24 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls but no longer discernible at 17 y. Unique environmental effects were 0.15–0.23. Additive genetic factors explained 90–96% of the BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence, whereas unique environmental factors explained the rest. Common environment had no effect on BMI phenotypic correlations. Conclusions The genetic contribution to BMI is strong during adolescence, and it mainly explains BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Common environmental factors have an effect on BMI during early adolescence, but that effect disappears by late adolescence. PMID:19337205

  15. Current trends in Finnish drug abuse: Wastewater based epidemiology combined with other national indicators.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2016-10-15

    No single measure is able to provide a complete picture of population- or community-level drug abuse and its current trends. Therefore, a multi-indicator approach is needed. The aim of this study was to combine wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) with data from other national indicators, namely driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) statistics, drug seizures, and drug use surveys. Furthermore, drug market size estimates and a comparison of confiscated drugs to drugs actually consumed by users were performed using the WBE approach. Samples for wastewater analysis were collected during one-week sampling periods in 2012, 2014 and 2015, with a maximum of 14 cities participating. The samples were analysed with a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) methodology for various common drugs of abuse. The results were then compared with data from other national indicators available. Joint interpretation of the data shows that the use of amphetamine and MDMA has increased in Finland from 2012 to 2014. A similar trend was also observed for cocaine, although its use remains at a very low level compared to many other European countries. Heroin was practically absent from the Finnish drug market during the study period. The retail market for the most common stimulant drugs were estimated to have been worth EUR 70 million for amphetamine and around EUR 10 million for both methamphetamine and cocaine, in 2014 in Finland. PMID:27335163

  16. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  17. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  18. Current trends in Finnish drug abuse: Wastewater based epidemiology combined with other national indicators.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2016-10-15

    No single measure is able to provide a complete picture of population- or community-level drug abuse and its current trends. Therefore, a multi-indicator approach is needed. The aim of this study was to combine wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) with data from other national indicators, namely driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) statistics, drug seizures, and drug use surveys. Furthermore, drug market size estimates and a comparison of confiscated drugs to drugs actually consumed by users were performed using the WBE approach. Samples for wastewater analysis were collected during one-week sampling periods in 2012, 2014 and 2015, with a maximum of 14 cities participating. The samples were analysed with a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) methodology for various common drugs of abuse. The results were then compared with data from other national indicators available. Joint interpretation of the data shows that the use of amphetamine and MDMA has increased in Finland from 2012 to 2014. A similar trend was also observed for cocaine, although its use remains at a very low level compared to many other European countries. Heroin was practically absent from the Finnish drug market during the study period. The retail market for the most common stimulant drugs were estimated to have been worth EUR 70 million for amphetamine and around EUR 10 million for both methamphetamine and cocaine, in 2014 in Finland.

  19. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086

  20. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia.

  1. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  2. Allele frequencies of the major milk proteins in the Finnish Ayrshire and detection of a new kappa-casein variant.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T; Ruottinen, O; Erhardt, G; Ojala, M

    1996-06-01

    A total of 20990 Finnish Ayrshire cows were phenotyped for the major milk proteins by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. The predominant alleles in the Finnish Ayrshire were alpha S1-casein B (0.999), alpha S2-casein A (0.991), beta-casein A1 (0.509) and alpha 2 (0.490), kappa-casein A (0.612) and beta-lactoglobulin B (0.716). The kappa-casein E allele (0.307) was also rather common in the Finnish Ayrshire. A new kappa-casein variant (kappa-casein F) was demonstrated in two Finnish Ayrshire cows, a dam and a daughter.

  3. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  4. No change in prevalence of symptoms of COPD between 1996 and 2006 in Finnish adults – a report from the FinEsS Helsinki Study

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Pallasaho, Paula; Pietinalho, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence caused by smoking and other inhalational exposures in the general population is well-known worldwide. However, time trends are poorly known, due to lower number of high-quality studies especially following nationwide efforts on diminishing exposure levels. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD symptoms and their major determinants in Finnish adults in 1996 and 2006. Methods Two identical postal surveys were conducted among two random population samples from Helsinki using identical methodologies in 1996 and 2006, with 6,062 (76%) and 2,449 (62%) participants, respectively. Results The physician-diagnoses of COPD remained at 3.7%, whereas physician-diagnoses of asthma and use of asthma medicines increased in both genders. Current smoking reduced from 33.4 to 27.3% (p<0.001), and the amount of cigarettes smoked also reduced significantly. The crude prevalence of chronic productive cough was 12.1 and 11.1%, wheezing with dyspnoea without a cold (wheezing triad) 7.3 and 7.7%, and dyspnoea grade II 13.8 and 13.6%, in 1996 and 2006, respectively. Among subjects with physician-diagnosed COPD, the prevalences of chronic productive cough and recurrent wheeze reduced significantly, from 60.6 to 40.7% and 53.5 to 38.5%, respectively. Conclusion From 1996 to 2006, the prevalence of obstructive airway symptoms common in different phenotypes of COPD did not increase in Finnish adults. This suggests that the upward trend of COPD prevalence might have reached a plateau. Current smoking and the quantities smoked diminished suggesting a wider impact of stronger legislation and smoking-cessation efforts during the Finnish National Programme for COPD. PMID:27534614

  5. Fertility and perinatal health among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gissler, Mika; Pakkanen, Milla; Olausson, Petra Otterblad

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have reported poorer infant outcome among immigrants, but contrary evidence also exists. Between 1940 and 1999 more than a half million Finns emigrated to Sweden, which made Finns the largest minority group in Sweden. Our aim was to investigate fertility trends, parturients' background and pregnancy outcomes among Finns in Sweden, and to compare the findings with those obtained among Swedes in Sweden and Finns in Finland. The data came from the Finnish and Swedish Medical Birth Registers for the years 1987-1998. All deliveries by women born in Finland and having given birth in Sweden (N=33874) were compared with a 10% sample of all deliveries by Swedish parturients in Sweden (N=108549) and of all Finnish deliveries (n=75133). Among Finns in Sweden, the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 years declined significantly in the late 1990s. The change in the total fertility rate was less dramatic: the rate for Finns in Sweden followed the total Swedish rate although it remained from 5% to 10% higher up to the mid-1990s. Finns who had given birth in Sweden were older, had a higher parity and a higher prevalence of previous miscarriages, and smoked more often than did Swedes in Sweden or Finns in Finland. The crude infant outcomes of Finns having given birth in Sweden were equal to those among Swedes in Sweden (except for the incidence of small for gestational age), but poorer than in Finland. Biological factors explained the differences between Finns in Sweden and Finland in being small for gestational age, and biological factors and smoking explained the difference in prematurity. The difference in low birth weight remained statistically significant (3.9% versus 3.6% among singletons). In conclusion, fertility trends followed the pattern prevailing in the resident country. The relatively good outcome of children whose mothers were born in Finland but who had given birth in Sweden can partly be explained by the healthy migrant effect. PMID

  6. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment. PMID:27438779

  7. Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Frans Orsted

    2010-01-01

    The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

  8. Men, masculinity and food: interviews with Finnish carpenters and engineers.

    PubMed

    Roos, G; Prättälä, R; Koski, K

    2001-08-01

    This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences. PMID:11562157

  9. Change in hormones reflecting sympathetic activity in the Finnish sauna.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, R; Syvälahti, E; Pekkarinen, A

    1976-08-01

    The effects of the high temperature (80-120 degrees C) of the Finnish Sauna bath on the concentrations of growth hormone, immunoreactive insulin and renin activity in plasma, on blood glucose and on the urinary excretion of aldosterone, vanilmandelic acid and sodium of 55 healthy volunteers were studied. There was a significant increase in mean heart rate (62%), serum growth hormone (142%) and plasma renin activity (95%) in the Sauna. One hour after the Sauna bath the mean serum growth hormone had returned to the control level while plasma renin activity still remained higher (p less than 0.05) than before the Sauna bath. The serum insulin, blood sugar and urinary excretion of aldosterone and VMA did not change during or after Sauna bath. The urinary sodium excretion decreased significantly after the Sauna bath and the decrease was most striking (46%) during the first 6-hour period from the beginning of Sauna bath. Plasma renin activity values correlated positively with 12-hour urinary VMA excretion (p less than 0.01) and negatively with 6-hour urinary sodium excretion (p less than 0.05) before and after Sauna, suggesting the role of catecholamines and sodium depletion in renin response in Sauna.

  10. Sauna habits and related symptoms in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Markkola, L; Mattila, K J; Koivikko, M J

    1989-12-01

    Fifteen hundred randomly chosen Finnish children aged 0-15 years were studied by a questionnaire about their sauna habits and possible abnormal symptoms during or immediately after the sauna. A total of 1247 families (83%) answered. Almost all children visited the sauna (98.5%), most of them "with pleasure" (83%). Nearly half of the children were in the sauna as often as 2-3 times a week, and over 90% at least once a week. The children's sauna visits began quite early, in 70% during infancy. The time spent in a hot steam bath increased with age. Symptoms were rare and were not serious. Transient symptoms (dizziness, nausea etc.) were the most common. Of the children, 17% had some chronic or recurring disorder, most commonly atopic dermatitis or middle ear infections. In half of the cases of atopic dermatitis it became worse in the sauna. Sauna is a very common practice in Finland, also among children. It does not seem to cause any significant immediate harm to healthy children.

  11. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  12. Water quality of arctic rivers in Finnish Lapland.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jorma

    2010-02-01

    The water quality monitoring data of eight rivers situated in the Finnish Lapland above the Arctic Circle were investigated. These rivers are icebound annually for about 200 days. They belong to the International River Basin District founded according to the European Union Water Framework Directive and shared with Norway. They are part of the European river monitoring network that includes some 3,400 river sites. The water quality monitoring datasets available varied between the rivers, the longest comprising the period 1975-2003 and the shortest 1989-2003. For each river, annual medians of eight water quality variables were calculated. In addition, medians and fifth and 95th percentiles were calculated for the whole observation periods. The medians indicated good river water quality in comparison to other national or foreign rivers. However, the river water quality oscillated widely. Some rivers were in practice in pristine state, whereas some showed slight human impacts, e.g., occasional high values of hygienic indicator bacteria.

  13. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards nursing research and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2005-02-01

    This study was concerned with Finnish nurses' attitudes to nursing research and with the associations of different background factors with these attitudes. The data were collected with a purpose-designed, structured questionnaire. The study was carried out in one central hospital, one central university hospital and 10 community health centres in Finland. A total of 400 nurses took part. The response rate was 67%. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Attitudes to nursing research were generally quite positive, although over half of the nurses felt their own relationship to nursing science was quite distant. There were also shortfalls with respect to the information value and utilisation of research results. Only one-third took the view that doing research is an important part of the nurse's job. Age, the frequency of reading the professional literature, participation in training courses, training received in research and development, and the type of workplace were associated with attitudes. The results underline the importance of paying closer attention to the choice of research objects in the field of nursing science. Greater effort should also be invested in supporting and developing the application of research results. It is recommended that more courses on research methodology and other relevant training be made available to practical nurses. PMID:15680617

  14. Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti

    2006-05-01

    Characteristics of ribbed moraines, the dominating moraine type in southern Finnish Lapland, have been studied in detail. The ridges are composed of several till units, of which the bottommost units consist of mature basal tills and the surficial parts are enriched with local, short-transport rock fragments and boulders in till and at the surface of ridges. As a result of this re-examination a two-step model of the formation process of ribbed moraines is presented. In the first stage, while cold-based conditions prevailed, both the bottommost part of the ice sheet and the frozen, substrate fractured under compressive ice flow. Following glacial transport of fractured blocks and formation of the transverse ridge morphology, erosion between the ridges continued owing to freeze-thaw process under variable pressure conditions. In the areas with a low pre-existing till sheet, the process caused quarrying of the bedrock surface and subsequent deposition of rock fragments and boulders under high pressure on the next ridge. The most suitable conditions for ribbed moraine formation existed during Late Weichselian deglaciation, after the Younger Dryas when the climate warmed very quickly, leading to an imbalance between a warm glacier surface and a cold base. Copyright

  15. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  16. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both…

  17. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  18. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  19. Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Sointu, Erkko T.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among…

  20. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  1. English Voiceless and Voiced Stops as Produced by Native and Finnish Speakers. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 2. Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Kari

    It is well known to anyone involved in teaching English to Finnish students that it is difficult for Finns to distinguish between English /ptk/ and /bdg/. This second volume in a series on a Finnish-English contrastive project reports on a study which attempted to obtain more concrete knowledge about the ability of speakers of Finnish to use the…

  2. The 1993 Finnish Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI - A review of aims, approaches and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppanen, Jouko

    1993-10-01

    The communications of the International Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI, held on March 6-7, 1993 in Vantaa, Finland, are reviewed and the contents and conclusions of papers summarized. The seminar was organized jointly by the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (FAIS), Finnish Astronomical Society, Ursa Astronomical Association and Heureka - The Finnish Science Centre. As the ninth in a series of intelligence-related seminars of FAIS, SETI was chosen as the topic for spring 1993, noting the new ten year NASA SETI program HRMS (High Resolution Micro-wave Survey), commenced on Columbus Day, October 12, 1992. The aims and the interdisciplinary format of the seminar are described, the main results and conclusions of papers are restated, and the seminar publications introduced. The summaries of papers are based on their abstracts and contain excerpts from texts.

  3. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way.

  4. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values.

  6. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92.

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. DESIGN--Record linkage study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences. RESULTS--A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). CONCLUSIONS--Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population--for example, in terms of social status and parity--concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to the cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. Estimates of the effect of reproductive risk factors only partly explained the increased risk of breast cancer. If present estimates of health hazards due to radiation are also valid for cosmic radiation, then the radiation doses of cabin attendants seem too small to account entirely for the observed excess risk. PMID:7549630

  7. Genetic factors in evolution of sleep length--a longitudinal twin study in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Genetic factors affect many aspects of sleep, such as sleep length. We investigated the contribution of genetic factors to stability and change of sleep length among adults over a 15-year period. In this representative follow-up study we used the Finnish Twin Cohort as the study population. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 1975 (response rate 89%, 11,041 twin pairs; age ≥18 years), 1981 (84%, 9323; ≥24 years) and 1990 (77%, 4507; 33-60 years). Sleep was categorized as short (<7 h), average or long (>8 h). Pairwise similarity in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was examined at each survey by age group and sex. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects. The proportion of variance in sleep length at one point in time that was accounted for by genetic effects was very stable over the study period, being 0.31 in 1975, 0.32 in 1981 and 0.30 in 1990. Longitudinal genetic modelling indicated that the correlations of genetic effects between the three measurement points were high: 0.85 between 1975 and 1981; 0.93 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.76 between 1975 and 1990. Despite a high contribution of environmental effects, their correlations over time were modest: 0.31 between 1975 and 1981; 0.33 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.18 between 1975 and 1990. In conclusion, genetic factors have a modest but stable effect on the evolution of sleep length over a long time span in adults. Multiple measures are a more robust basis for genetic analyses than a single cross-sectional measure. PMID:23509990

  8. Congenital chloride diarrhoea. Clinical analysis of 21 Finnish patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, C; Perheentupa, J; Launiala, K; Hallman, N

    1977-01-01

    Clinical findings in 21 Finnish children with congenital chloride diarrhoea are reported. Inheritance of this disease by the autosomal recessive mode is established. All children were born 1-8 weeks prematurely. Hydramnios was present in every case and no meconium was observed; intrauterine onset of diarrhoea is thus apparent. In most cases the diarrhoea or passing of large volumes of "urine" was noted on the first day of life and the abdomen was usually large and distended. The neonatla weight loss was abnormally large, and was associated with hypochloraemia and hyponatraemia. Some infants survived the neonatal period without adequate therapy. They presented later with failure to thrive and usually had hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia, and metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperaldosteronism. However, these features may be absent and the diagnosis is based on a history of hydramnios and diarrhoea, and a faecal Cl- concentration which always exceeds 90 mmol/l when fluid and electrolyte deficits have been corrected. Lower faecal Cl- concentrations were seen only in chronic hypochloraemia, which is also associated with achloriduria. Adequate treatment consists of full continuous replacement of the faecal losses of water, NaCl, and KCl. This should be given intravenously in the early neonatal period; later a solution can be taken orally with meals. The dose has to be adjusted to maintain normal serum electrolyte concentrations, normal blood pH, and some chloriduria. This therapy prevents the renal lesions and the retarded growth and psychomotor development which were seen in the children who were diagnosed late and in those who received inadequate replacement therapy. The watery diarrhoea persists and increases slightly with age, though patients learn to live with their disease and to make an adequate social adjustment. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 PMID:324405

  9. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  10. Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Saarimäki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Määttänen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-01

    Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p < 0.001) and the risk was especially elevated for interval cancer (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.15). Risk for low-grade (Gleason 2-6) tumors was increased (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.69), but it was decreased for Gleason 8-10 tumors (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). PSA test performance (sensitivity and specificity) was slightly inferior for FH positives. No difference in PC mortality was observed in terms of FH. Our findings provide no support for selective PSA screening targeting men with FH of PC.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  12. Housing wealth and mortality: A register linkage study of the Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Martikainen, Pekka

    2009-09-01

    In many countries home ownership is the main form of property and covers a major part of people's possessions. Since overall wealth is difficult to measure, many health studies have used home ownership as an indicator of wealth and material resources. However, most studies have measured housing wealth with a simple dichotomous measure of home ownership. We examined the associations between three different measures of housing wealth and overall mortality, separating subsidized renters and private renters, and using floor area and the number of rooms as measures of dwelling size. We further examined whether other socioeconomic factors, level of urbanisation of the region of residence, and household composition account for the found associations. Finns aged 35-79 years at the end of 1999 were followed up until the end of 2004. Data were drawn from various registers combined by Statistics Finland and linked with death records. The age-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality among subsidized renters compared to owner-occupiers was 2.26 in men and 1.87 in women. However, also private renters had clearly higher mortality than owner-occupiers, with the excess mortality of 92% in men and 61% in women. Both measures of home size were also strongly associated with mortality, with the excess risk of 1.7-3.0 in the lowest home size quintile compared to the highest. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and mutually for all housing wealth measures considerably attenuated the associations. Further adjustment for urbanisation had no effect whereas adjustment for household size, marital status and living arrangements attenuated the associations of the two home size measures and mortality. However, a clear association remained between all housing wealth measures and mortality after all adjustments. Housing wealth summarises one's material circumstances over a prolonged period of time. Measures of housing wealth may therefore provide useful social classifications for studies on poor health and mortality especially in older age groups where most deaths occur.

  13. Total ankle replacement: a population-based study of 515 cases from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Koivu, Helka; Eskelinen, Antti; Ikävalko, Mikko; Paavolainen, Pekka; Remes, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Although total ankle replacement (TAR) is a recognized procedure for treatment of the painful arthritic ankle, the best choice of implant and the long-term results are still unknown. We evaluated the survival of two TAR designs and factors associated with survival using data from the nationwide arthroplasty registry in Finland. Methods 573 primary TARs were performed during the period 1982–2006 because of rheumatic, arthritic, or posttraumatic ankle degeneration. We selected contemporary TAR designs that were each used in more than 40 operations, including the S.T.A.R. (n = 217) and AES (n = 298), to assess their respective survival rates. The mean age of the patients was 55 (17–86) years and 63% of operations were performed in women. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The effects of age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume were also studied. Results The annual incidence of TAR was 1.5 per 105 inhabitants. The 5-year overall survivorship for the whole TAR cohort was 83% (95% CI: 81–86), which agrees with earlier reports. The most frequent reasons for revision were aseptic loosening of one or both of the prosthesis components (39%) and instability (39%). We found no difference in survival rate between the S.T.A.R. and AES designs. Furthermore, age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume (< 10 and > 100 replacements in each of 17 hospitals) did not affect the TAR survival. Interpretation Based on our findings, we cannot conclude that any prosthesis was superior to any other. A high number of technical errors in primary TARs suggests that this low-volume field of implant arthroplasty should be centralized to fewer units. PMID:20180720

  14. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  15. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. The SP2 provides detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). The measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The rBC mass was log-normally distributed showing a relatively constant rBC core mass mean diameter with an average of 194 nm (75-655 nm sizing range). On average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 (integrated over 350-450 nm particle diameter range) and the average particle diameter to rBC core volume equivalent diameter ratio was 2.0 (averaged over particles with 150-200 nm rBC core volume equivalent diameters). These average numbers mean that the observed rBC core mass mean diameter is similar to those of aged particles, but the observed particles seem to have unusually high particle to rBC core diameter ratios. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) using an Aethalometer and a MAAP showed that eBC was larger by a factor of five. The difference could not be fully explained without assuming that only a part of the optically detected light absorbing material is refractory and absorbs light at the wavelength used by the SP2. Finally, climate implications of five different black carbon mixing state representations were compared using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with

  16. Validation of the Finnish version of the SCOFF questionnaire among young adults aged 20 to 35 years

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Sini; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Suokas, Jaana T; Saarni, Suoma E; Perälä, Jonna; Saarni, Samuli I; Aro, Hillevi; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana M

    2009-01-01

    Background We tested the validity of the SCOFF, a five-question screening instrument for eating disorders, in a general population sample. Methods A random sample of 1863 Finnish young adults was approached with a questionnaire that contained several screens for mental health interview, including the SCOFF. The questionnaire was returned by 1316 persons. All screen positives and a random sample of screen negatives were invited to SCID interview. Altogether 541 subjects participated in the SCID interview and had filled in the SCOFF questionnaire. We investigated the validity of the SCOFF in detecting current eating disorders by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) for different cut-off scores. We also performed a ROC analysis based on these 541 persons, of whom nine had current eating disorder. Results The threshold of two positive answers presented the best ability to detect eating disorders, with a sensitivity of 77.8%, a specificity of 87.6%, a PPV of 9.7%, and a NPV of 99.6%. None of the subjects with current eating disorder scored zero points in the SCOFF. Conclusion Due to its low PPV, there are limitations in using the SCOFF as a screening instrument in unselected population samples. However, it might be used for ruling out the possibility of eating disorders. PMID:19200401

  17. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals no gain in power for association studies of common variants in the Finnish Saami.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fransen, Erik; Hannula, Samuli; Van Laer, Lut; Van Eyken, Els; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Lysholm-Bernacchi, Alana; Aikio, Pekka; Stephan, Dietrich A; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-05-01

    The Saami from Fennoscandia are believed to represent an ancient, genetically isolated population with no evidence of population expansion. Theoretical work has indicated that under this demographic scenario, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) is generated by genetic drift. Therefore, it has been suggested that the Saami would be particularly suited for genetic association studies, offering a substantial power advantage and allowing more economic study designs. However, no study has yet assessed this claim. As part of a GWAS for a complex trait, we evaluated the relative power for association studies of common variants in the Finnish Saami. LD patterns in the Saami were very similar to those in the non-African HapMap reference panels. Haplotype diversity was reduced and, on average, levels of LD were higher in the Saami as compared with those in the HapMap panels. However, using a 'hidden' SNP approach we show that this does not translate into a power gain in association studies. Contrary to earlier claims, we show that for a given set of common SNPs, genomic coverage attained in the Saami is similar to that in the non-African HapMap panels. Nevertheless, the reduced haplotype diversity could potentially facilitate gene identification, especially if multiple rare variants play a role in disease etiology. Our results further indicate that the HapMap is a useful resource for genetic studies in the Saami.

  18. Lack of association between human longevity and polymorphisms of IL-1 cluster, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha genes in Finnish nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Y; Hurme, M; Jylhä, M; Hervonen, A

    2001-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in research on genetic basis of longevity. Aging is accompanied by immune deterioration and dysregulation of cytokines. Increased IL-6 concentration in vivo and enhanced IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha production in vitro have been reported in healthy elderly people. Cytokine gene polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be associated with cytokine production both in vivo and in vitro, and with some diseases. Thus, gene polymorphisms of cytokine may play a role in longevity by modulating an individual's responses to life-threatening disorders. Cytokine gene polymorphisms at IL1A-889, IL1B+3953, IL1B-511, IL1RN VNTR, IL6-174, IL10-1082, and TNFA-308 were genotyped in 250 Finnish nonagenarians (52 men and 198 women) and in 400 healthy blood donors (18-60 years) as controls. No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distributions, allelic frequencies and A2+ carrier status of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha genes between nonagenarians and younger controls within Finnish population, nor between male and female nonagenarians. No differences emerged between nonagenarians and younger controls by comparing different IL-1 gene cluster haplotypes. Thus, there is no evidence of an association of IL-1 complex, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms with longevity, alone or in combination.

  19. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  20. The Representation of Leisure in Corporate Publicity Material: The Case of a Finnish Pine Construction Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka M.

    1998-01-01

    States that a video introducing a company to various audiences is a common genre of promotional material in Finland. Applies theories of both advertising and semiotics to analyze the first minute of a video produced for a Finnish company that manufactures log buildings and wraps its image around a concept of leisure. (PA)

  1. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  2. From Discrete to Transformed? Developing Inclusive Primary School Teacher Education in a Finnish Teacher Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naukkarinen, Aimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the primary school teacher education curriculum reform currently under way in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. A general overview of the Finnish context and relevant inclusive education policy issues are presented. The process of developing inclusive education in the curriculum and…

  3. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  4. Socio-Spatial Practices in a Finnish Daycare Group for One- to Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutanen, Niina

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study approaches early childhood education and care practices from a socio-spatial point of view. One Finnish daycare group for one- to three-year-olds participated in the study. The ethnographic observations from the practices are analyzed together with the ECE practitioners' audio-recorded team meetings and video-elicited…

  5. Finnish Media Literacy Education Policies and Best Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care since 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…

  6. The Construction of Academic Identity in the Changes of Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in…

  7. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…

  8. Dental maturity curves in Finnish children: Demirjian's method revisited and polynomial functions for age estimation.

    PubMed

    Chaillet, Nils; Nyström, Marjatta; Kataja, Matti; Demirjian, Arto

    2004-11-01

    Dental maturity was studied from 2213 dental panoramic radiographs of healthy ethnic Finns from southern Finland, aged between 2 and 19 years. The aim was to provide new Finnish maturity tables and curves and to compare the efficiency of Demirjian's method when differently weighted scores and polynomial regressions are used. The inter-ethnic variations lead us to calculate specific Finnish weighted scores. Demirjian's method gives maturity score as a function of age and seems better adapted for clinicians because, in their case, the maturity score is unknown. Polynomial functions give age as a function of maturity score and are statically adapted for age estimation studies. Finnish dental maturity tables and development curves are given for Demirjian's method and for polynomial functions. Sexual dimorphism is established for the same weighted score for girls and boys, and girls present a greater maturity than boys for all of age groups. Polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.19% of misclassifies) and the percentile method, using Finnish weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 1.95 years on average, between 2 and 18 years of age). This suggests that polynomial functions are most useful in forensic sciences, while Demirjian's method is most useful for dental health clinicians.

  9. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  10. Teams as Network Builders: Analysing Network Contacts in Finnish Elementary School Teacher Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Merja

    2000-01-01

    Studied the preconditions and obstacles to building network contacts for two teams of five Finnish elementary school teachers each. Results show that breaking traditional patterns of teacher work, especially the tradition of single- handed lesson planning and implementation, results from team work in building a shared object. Results show the…

  11. Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…

  12. Investigating Finnish Teacher Educators' Views on Research-Based Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokfors, Leena; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Stenberg, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Maaranen, Katriina; Jyrhama, Riitta; Byman, Reijo; Kansanen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine teacher educators' views on research-based teacher education. Finnish research-based teacher education has four characteristics: (1) the study programme is structured according to a systematic analysis of education; (2) all teaching is based on research; (3) activities are organized in such a way that students can…

  13. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  14. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  15. A Case Study of Parents' School Choice Strategies in a Finnish Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poikolainen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses how Finnish parents of sixth graders in a comprehensive school act in the local "school markets" of the case city. The parents' subject positions as choosers are reflected on and explored in relation to the discourses and resources they use when discussing their school choices. The data were gathered in 2009 by administering…

  16. Comparison of the Classroom Practices of Finnish and Icelandic Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savola, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers in Finland and Iceland are on different tracks. Based on a recent video study, the classroom practices of Finnish mathematics teachers seem to be rather traditional. This is in contrast to the Icelandic teachers many of whom use progressive-minded, learner-based instructional strategies. The classroom practices in Finland…

  17. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management…

  18. Organization and Management of Continuing Education in German and Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Knust, Michaela; Hanft, Anke

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, an international comparison study investigated the organization and management of university continuing education (UCE). The Finnish continuing education system proved to be especially advanced in this study. On the other hand, it became clear that Germany was still lagging behind in continuing education. In this article, German and…

  19. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  20. Non-Linear Modeling of Growth Prerequisites in a Finnish Polytechnic Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of…

  1. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.…

  2. Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research…

  3. Having Many Irons in the Fire--"Finnish Female Leaders' School Memories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Education and school years impact leadership development, but this development has still been little studied. This study contributes Finnish female leaders' narratives to the discussion. The purpose was to analyze how female leaders describe their school years and themselves as learners and how these elements have shaped their careers. The…

  4. Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the…

  5. Cultures in Dialogue: Perceptions and Experiences of Finnish Teachers of Transnational Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siljamäki, Mariana Elisabet; Anttila, Eeva; Sääkslahti, Arja

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a phenomenographic study that focuses on identifying the pedagogical conceptions of Finnish teachers of transnational dances. The purpose is to uncover and understand teachers' conceptions concerning the implications of the cultural contexts of their specific dance forms for their pedagogical practices. Through a…

  6. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  7. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  8. From Canon to Chaos Management: Blogging as a Learning Tool in a Modern Finnish Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Elina; Vaarala, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the teaching experiment implemented in summer 2013 in a modern Finnish literature course organised by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre. In order to break away from the traditional conception of literature and text, students' independent blogging was chosen as the…

  9. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  10. Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to…

  11. Distributed Leadership as Administrative Practice in Finnish Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jonna; Venninen, Tuulikki; Ojala, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the professional development towards distributed leadership among different organizational levels in Finnish day care centres within the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim of the study was to monitor the progress of professional development between educational administration and practitioners. The data was based on…

  12. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…

  13. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  14. Perceptions of Identity among Finnish University-Based Subject Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how Finnish university-based subject teacher educators perceived their professional identity. Several factors related to professional identity were analysed. Subject teacher educators are initially subject teachers who have proceeded to the doctorate level. They form a small academic group within a…

  15. Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)…

  16. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  17. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,…

  18. Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…

  19. Case Study on Teachers' Contribution to Children's Participation in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni Elina

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify different teaching practices and explore the types of opportunities that they provide for children's participation in four different Finnish preschool classrooms for 6-year olds during structured learning sessions. Observational data of four preschool teachers were analyzed according to the principles of…

  20. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  1. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  2. Variation in Finnish Students' Understanding of Lutheranism and Its Implications for Religious Education: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hella, Elina

    2008-01-01

    This article contains the results of how a selected group of Finnish upper secondary students understand Lutheranism. The data consisted of 63 students' responses to a writing task together with complementary interviews of 11 students. The outcomes of phenomenographic analysis of variation in the students' understanding of Lutheranism are…

  3. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which…

  4. The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyblom, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…

  5. Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

  6. Changing Voices in Early Years Curricula. An Example from Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the changing constructions of childhood in two Finnish pre-school education curricula during the time of pre-school reform in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These constructions are part of the underlying curriculum containing postulates and values that influence the written curriculum documents. They determine the…

  7. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemela, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmaki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between…

  8. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  9. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  10. The Transnational Idea of University Autonomy and the Reform of the Finnish Universities Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piironen, Ossi

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Finnish parliament passed a new Universities Act that aimed to strengthen the institutional autonomy of the country's universities. But why and how did the idea of autonomy come to frame the reform agenda in the overt way it did? In analysing a sample of authoritative policy and strategy papers by the key stakeholders in the…

  11. Reception of the Quality Assurance Commitments of the Bologna Process in Finnish Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Va¨ha¨la¨, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Finnish higher education institutions' reception of the implementation of the new quality assurance systems that governments participating in the Bologna Process have committed to establishing in the Berlin Communique´ of 2003. The data were collected using a web survey and the respondents were classified with a cluster…

  12. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in…

  13. How Finnish Upper Secondary Students Conceive Transgenerational Responsibility and Historical Reparations: Implications for the History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how Finnish upper secondary school students ponder upon the questions of transgenerational responsibility and historical reparation. These questions have got a prominent place in the history culture in many societies in the last 20 years. The philosophical and political dimensions of reparations for historical injustices have…

  14. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  15. Voices of Teachers with Dyslexia in Finnish and English Further and Higher Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…

  16. Examining the Differences of Linear Systems between Finnish and Taiwanese Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between Finnish and Taiwanese textbooks for grades 7 to 9 on the topic of solving systems of linear equations (simultaneous equations). The specific textbooks examined were TK in Taiwan and FL in Finland. The content analysis method was used to examine (a) the teaching sequence, (b)…

  17. Dancing in Fetters? Chinese Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Finnish Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xin; Dervin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an increased interest in overseas training for educational leaders in China, little is known about the value of such programs. This qualitative case study explores Chinese school principals' perceptions of leadership practices and professional development after undertaking a Finnish training program. The article also…

  18. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  19. Democratisation of Early Childhood Education in the Attitudes of Slovene and Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Pekkarinen, Asko

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnsek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the…

  20. Same Challenges, Different Processes: Perceptions on Governance Changes in Portuguese and Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diogo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article compares recent governance reforms in Finnish and Portuguese higher education (HE) systems and institutions (HEIs). Although Portugal and Finland differ significantly, both the countries have recently undertaken similar HE legislative reforms. This article analyses the contexts and implementation processes of these legal frameworks:…

  1. Imported tungiasis in a Finnish journalist: the first case reported from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Marttila, Harri; Talve, Lauri; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Jokiranta, Sakari; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2008-03-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic infection widely spread in tropical Africa and in South and Central America. Only a few cases involving travellers have been reported from Europe, and none from the Nordic countries. We report a case of tungiasis in a Finnish journalist returning from Uganda. In this era of increasing intercontinental travel it is important that all physicians are aware of tungiasis.

  2. United States Historians, Cold War Rhetoric, and The Finnish Winter War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Keith W.

    The U.S. attitude toward Finland during the Cold War years reveals much about U.S. society and politics. In particular, the war between Finland and the Soviet Union during 1939 and 1940 (Finnish Winter War) and the way in which the United States reacted to it at the time and in the years following World War II has relevance for better…

  3. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  4. Work People's College: A Finnish Folk High School in the American Labor College Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J.; Paulston, Rolland G.

    American working class organizations' efforts since World War I to establish and control their own educational programs flourished during the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of over 300 worker controlled colleges. An important forerunner of this movement was the Work People's College, created by socialist Finnish immigrants in Duluth,…

  5. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  6. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  7. Syntactically Non-Integrated Finnish "Jos" "If"-Conditional Clauses as Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laury, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the use of independent "jos" "if"-clauses as directives (requests, proposals, and suggestions) in Finnish everyday conversation. It shows that clause types which are traditionally considered subordinate can be used without any main clauses and, thus, do not project further talk to follow in the same turn. Other participants…

  8. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  9. Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…

  10. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  11. Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different…

  12. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  13. Workforce Competencies of Finnish Plant Production Graduates as Assessed by Students, Employers and Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Ritva; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which Finnish horticulture graduates' assessments of their work force competencies differ from those of their teachers and employers. Questionnaires were sent to all 68 plant production graduates of the University of Helsinki's plant production program from 1990-1993, a sample of 38 employers representing…

  14. Exploring the Moral and Distributive Levers for Teacher Empowerment in the Finnish Policy Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok; Hjertø, Kjell Brynjulf; Tihveräinen, Saku Petteri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between school leadership practices and teacher empowerment in the Finnish policy culture. Specifically, moral leadership and distributed leadership enacted by school principals are tested in a simultaneous design as predictor to two distinct yet related aspects of teachers' sense…

  15. Hybridisation or Ousterisation? The Case of Local Accountability Policy in Finnish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paananen, Maiju; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analytic concept of imaginary, this study investigates policy hybridisation in the Finnish early childhood education. Specifically, it illuminates how the interplay between different imaginaries enabled the neoliberal imaginary to oust the social-democratic imaginary through a tripartite process in a case of local productivity…

  16. A Narrative Inquiry about Values in a Finnish Preschool: The Case of Traffic Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juutinen, Jaana; Viljamaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This research explored how values are communicated in everyday life at preschool. This narrative inquiry focused on how values are conveyed through the use of a material artefact, a chart with traffic lights, as a communication and pedagogical tool. Twenty children aged 3-4 years in one Finnish preschool were involved in the initial data…

  17. Implementing the Finnish Literacy Curriculum in a First-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…

  18. "Education Is Important, but..." Young People outside of Schooling and the Finnish Policy of "Education Guarantee"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Kivela, Suvi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early school leaving and dropout are widely recognized as problems, leading to further marginalization and exclusion of young people from society at large. The Finnish government has set a target that, by the year 2008, 96% of those who complete compulsory education will continue without interruption in secondary education or in the…

  19. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  20. Debating Educability: Diverging Social Representations of Abilities in Finnish Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    By surveying a representative sample of Finnish parents, this study set out to compare two social representations of intelligence current in our educational discourse: the established one, "the idea of natural giftedness", and an emerging one, "the idea of the multifariousness of abilities and support for social equality." It…

  1. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  2. Schooling as an Instrumental vs. a Terminal Value for Finnish 18-Year-Old Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maijaliisa Rauste-von

    1984-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of socialization processes, 182 Finnish students were asked--at ages 15 and 18--about the importance of schooling. At both ages 164 subjects considered schooling had terminal/instrumental value. By age 18 differences in other variables formed a consistent pattern, suggestive of two different life orientations toward…

  3. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  4. Finnish High School Students' Readiness to Adopt Online Learning: Questioning the Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    The Finnish high school system in rural areas is facing challenges because of a decreasing number of the students. This situation places new emphasis on online learning. Online learning offers new possibilities for high schools to provide equal learning opportunities for their students. This paper explores students' readiness to adapt their…

  5. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…

  6. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  7. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  8. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  9. Determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Finnish children: the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Sonja; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lindi, Virpi; Venäläinen, Taisa; Zaproudina, Nina; Mahonen, Anitta; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-03-28

    We studied vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentration, determinants of S-25(OH)D and risk factors for S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l in a population sample of Finnish children. We studied 184 girls and 190 boys aged 6-8 years, analysed S-25(OH)D by chemiluminescence immunoassay and assessed diet quality using 4-d food records and other lifestyle factors by questionnaires. We analysed the determinants of S-25(OH)D using linear regression and risk factors for S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l using logistic regression. Mean dietary intake of vitamin D was 5·9 (sd 2·1) µg/d. Altogether, 40·8 % of children used no vitamin D supplements. Of all children, 82·4 % did not meet the recommended total vitamin D intake of 10 µg/d. Milk fortified with vitamin D was the main dietary source of vitamin D, providing 48·7 % of daily intake. S-25(OH)D was <50 nmol/l in 19·5 % of children. Consumption of milk products was the main determinant of S-25(OH)D in all children (standardised regression coefficient β=0·262; P<0·001), girls (β=0·214; P=0·009) and boys (β=0·257; P=0·003) in multivariable models. Vitamin D intake from supplements (β=0·171; P=0·035) and age (β=-0·198; P=0·015) were associated with S-25(OH)D in girls. Children who drank ≥450 g/d of milk, spent ≥2·2 h/d in physical activity, had ≥13·1 h/d of daylight time or were examined in autumn had reduced risk for S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l. Insufficient vitamin D intake was common among Finnish children, one-fifth of whom had S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l. More attention should be paid to the sufficient intake of vitamin D from food and supplements, especially among children who do not use fortified milk products. PMID:26836317

  10. Association of Ketone Body Levels With Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in 9,398 Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Cederberg, Henna; Stančáková, Alena; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Paananen, Jussi; Civelek, Mete; Saleem, Niyas K.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Lusis, Aldons J.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Morken, Mario A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the levels of ketone bodies (KBs) with hyperglycemia and with 62 genetic risk variants regulating glucose levels or type 2 diabetes in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study, including 9,398 Finnish men without diabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with elevated levels of acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). AcAc and BHB predicted an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test, and AcAc predicted the conversion to type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort. Impaired insulin secretion, but not insulin resistance, explained these findings. Of the 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia, the glucose-increasing C allele of GCKR significantly associated with elevated levels of fasting BHB levels. Adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of genes involved in ketolysis were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index). In conclusion, high levels of KBs predicted subsequent worsening of hyperglycemia, and a common variant of GCKR was significantly associated with BHB levels. PMID:23557707

  11. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the relationship between caries, dental health habits and general health in 3-year-old Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dental health related habits, infectious diseases and long-term illness are associated with dental health at the age of 3 in first-born children resident in a Finnish province. The study was designed as a survey using stratified randomised cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. The results were analysed using polytomous logistic models. In the stepwise analysis the only statistically significant explanatory factors were the use of juice at night and dental cleanliness. Antibiotic treatment or long-term illness was not significantly associated with dental health.

  12. The use of negative inflections by Finnish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty expressing subject-verb agreement. However, in many languages, tense is fused with agreement, making it difficult to attribute the problem to agreement in particular. In Finnish, negative markers are function words that agree with the subject in person and number but do not express tense, providing an opportunity to assess the status of agreement in a more straightforward way. Fifteen Finnish-speaking preschoolers with SLI, 15 age controls, and 15 younger controls responded to items requiring negative markers in first person singular and plural, and third person singular and plural. The children with SLI were less accurate than both typically developing groups. However, their problems were limited to particular person-number combinations. Furthermore, the children with SLI appeared to have difficulty selecting the form of the lexical verb that should accompany the negative marker, suggesting that agreement was not the sole difficulty. PMID:24588468

  13. The Finnish sauna bath and its use in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Keast, M L; Adamo, K B

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish tradition of sauna bathing is meant to be an experience in relaxation, and the length of time spent in the sauna and the preferred temperature vary considerably among individuals. The pleasures of sauna bathing can be considered safe and without undue risk of cardiac complications even for CVD patients, providing bathing is conducted sensibly for an appropriate period of time, and extremes in temperature are voided.

  14. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  15. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    560 girls and 819 boys, ages 8 to 16 years and actively interested in Finnish baseball, were tested in small groups in three training-camp championship games with the modified Mehrabian and Epstein's Empathy Scale, and the Battle Self-esteem Inventory, Form B. Narcissism was estimated on the 1984 Emmons scale. The hypothesis that the most empathetic players compared with the least empathetic players have better self-esteem and less narcissism was confirmed.

  16. Experiences of Finnish Teachers Working with Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Compared with many European countries, Finland has a shorter history of immigration. During the last 20?years, Finland has become a more multicultural society. Together with rising levels of immigration, teachers' concerns regarding how to manage an increasingly diverse school population have arisen. There are an increasing number of students…

  17. Expressing communicative intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mother-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-11-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their country of origin; two bicultural and bilingual groups consisted of 18 Estonian and 18 Finnish families residing in Sweden. All the children were between 9;o and 13;0. The results revealed that the Estonian monocultural mothers were highly directive and direct: issuing behavioural directives most frequently and using the highest proportion of imperatives among all samples. Contrary to our expectations, the mothers who tended to be more concerned with controlling their children's behaviour also elicited conversation more frequently from teenagers by using a larger number of information requests. These requests seemed to serve as another form of attempted control over adolescents' behaviour--their communicative behaviour. The Swedish monocultural children were more active in controlling their mothers' behaviour than their counterparts, possibly illustrating the Swedish value of generational equality. PMID:15658746

  18. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): overview and design.

    PubMed

    Lampi, Katja M; Banerjee, P Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemelä, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2011-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between births from 1987 to 2005 ascertained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) and other national registers on treatment for this group of disorders. All subjects were members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC), which consists of virtually all births in Finland from 1983 to the present, and which includes archived maternal serum samples. This study also capitalizes on other registry information, such as systematically collected data on pregnancy, prenatal and neonatal complications and manual data collection from well-child clinics providing developmental data from birth to the age of 7 years. In this paper, we describe the methods used in the FIPS-A study, including a description of the national registers, available data and case ascertainment procedures. Finally, we discuss implications of the data for future work on uncovering putative aetiologies of ASD and key strengths and limitations of the design.

  19. Factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory among Finnish nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Kanste, Outi; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) among Finnish nursing staff. Although the factorial validity of the MBI-HSS has been studied across different countries, the factor structure has never been investigated among Finnish nursing staff. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nursing staff working in health-care organizations around Finland. The sample consisted of 627 nurses and nurse managers. The factor structure was studied by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The fit of the hypothesized three-factor model to the data was superior to the alternative one-factor and two-factor models. The three-factor structure (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment) showed the best fit, while the internal consistencies of the subscales were satisfactory. The MBI-HSS is a highly suitable instrument for measuring burnout among nursing staff and it is very applicable to Finnish health-care research.

  20. The Finnish lapphund retinal atrophy locus maps to the centromeric region of CFA9

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Wickström, Kaisa; Sargan, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background Dogs have the second largest number of genetic diseases, after humans. Among the diseases present in dogs, progressive retinal atrophy has been reported in more than a hundred breeds. In some of them, the mutation has been identified and genetic tests have allowed the identification of carriers, thus enabling a drastic reduction in the incidence of the disease. The Finnish lapphund is a dog breed presenting late-onset progressive retinal atrophy for which the disease locus remains unknown. Results In this study we mapped the progressive retinal atrophy locus in the Finnish lapphund using a DNA pooling approach, assuming that all affected dogs within the breed share the same identical-by descent-mutation as the cause of the disease (genetic homogeneity). Autosomal recessive inheritance was also assumed, after ruling out, from pedigree analysis, dominant and X-linked inheritance. DNA from 12 Finnish lapphund cases was mixed in one pool, and DNA from 12 first-degree relatives of these cases was mixed to serve as the control pool. The 2 pools were tested with 133 microsatellite markers, 3 of which showed a shift towards homozygosity in the cases. Individual genotyping with these 3 markers confirmed homozygosity for the GALK1 microsatellite only (chromosome 9). Further individual genotyping with additional samples (4 cases and 59 controls) confirmed the association between this marker and the disease locus (p < 0.001). Closely related to this breed are the Swedish lapphund and the Lapponian herder for which a small number of retinal atrophy cases have been reported. Swedish lapphund cases, but not Lapponian herder cases, had the same GALK1 microsatellite genotype as Finnish lapphund cases. Conclusion The locus for progressive rod-cone degeneration is known to be close to the GALK1 locus, on the telomeric region of chromosome 9, where the retinal atrophy locus of the Finnish lapphund has been mapped. This suggests that the disease in this breed, as well as in

  1. The Changing Role of Gesture in Linguistic Development: A Developmental Trajectory and a Cross-Cultural Comparison between British and Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, K. H.; Pine, K. J.; Thurnham, A. J.; Khan, C.

    2013-01-01

    We studied how gesture use changes with culture, age and increased spoken language competence. A picture-naming task was presented to British (N = 80) and Finnish (N = 41) typically developing children aged 2-5 years. British children were found to gesture more than Finnish children and, in both cultures, gesture production decreased after the age…

  2. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  3. Implications of the Bologna Process for Throughput in the Higher Education Sector: An Empirical Illustration Based on a Finnish-British Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates the differences between Finnish and British graduates in the higher education-to-work transition and related market mechanisms in the year 2000. Specifically, the differences between the Finnish and British students' academic careers and ability to find employment after graduation were evaluated in relation to the…

  4. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  5. From Sickness to Cure and Further: Construction of "Quality" in Finnish Higher Education Policy from the 1960s to the Era of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarinen, Taina

    2005-01-01

    This article looks into the discursive construction of "quality" and "assessment" in Finnish higher education policy from the 1960s onwards. The theoretical assumption is that the discourse of "quality" not only describes the developments in Finnish higher education policy, but also produces and reproduces our views on that policy and on the…

  6. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  7. Enrichment of rare variants in population isolates: single AICDA mutation responsible for hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Luca; Hautala, Timo; Hämäläinen, Sari; Syrjänen, Jaana; Viskari, Hanna; Almusa, Henrikki; Lepisto, Maija; Kaustio, Meri; Porkka, Kimmo; Palotie, Aarno; Seppänen, Mikko; Saarela, Janna

    2016-01-01

    Antibody class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation critically depend on the function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Rare variants in its gene AICDA have been reported to cause autosomal recessive AID deficiency (autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2)). Exome sequencing of a multicase Finnish family with an HIGM2 phenotype identified a rare, homozygous, variant (c.416T>C, p.(Met139Thr)) in the AICDA gene, found to be significantly enriched in the Finnish population compared with other populations of European origin (38.56-fold, P<0.001). The population history of Finland, characterized by a restricted number of founders, isolation and several population bottlenecks, has caused enrichment of certain rare disease-causing variants and losses of others, as part of a phenomenon called the Finnish Disease Heritage. Accordingly, rare founder mutations cause the majority of observed Finnish cases in these mostly autosomal recessive disorders that consequently are more frequent in Finland than elsewhere. Screening of all currently known Finnish patients with an HIGM2 phenotype showed them to be homozygous for p.(Met139Thr). All the Finnish p.(Met139Thr) carriers with available data on their geographic descent originated from the eastern and northeastern parts of Finland. They were observed to share more of their genome identity by descent (IBD) than Finns in general (P<0.001), and they all carried a 207.5-kb ancestral haplotype containing the variant. In conclusion, the identified p.(Met139Thr) variant is significantly enriched in Finns and explains all thus far found AID deficiencies in Finland. PMID:27142677

  8. Heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from Finnish reindeer in 1990-91 and 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Serum fatty acids in 8-year-old Finnish boys: correlations with qualitative dietary data and other serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Nikkari, T; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K; Vuori, I; Pyörälä, K; Uhari, M; Dahl, M; Lähde, P L; Pesonen, E; Suoninen, P

    1983-05-01

    To survey risk factors in coronary heart disease in Finnish children, fasting serum specimens from 244 healthy 8-yr-old boys were analyzed for the fatty acid composition of cholesterol esters (CE), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids (PL). A qualitative dietary survey was made by asking parents to answer a questionnaire including, among others, a question on the kind of fat usually used on bread by the child. The mean percentages of linoleate (18:2) in serum cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids were 53.1, 13.5, 11.5, and 22.7%, respectively, which represent an international average. The quality of dietary fat had a clear influence on serum fatty acids, eg, the content of 18:2 in CE was 56.8 +/- 3.6% in boys using soft vegetable margarine and 50.5 +/- 3.6% in those using butter. The former had also a marginally lower serum total cholesterol (4.87 +/- 0.86 mmol/l) than the latter (5.08 +/- 0.80 mmol/l). Serum total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the percentage of 18:2 in all four lipid fractions, the highest r values being with PL-18:2 (-0.41) and CE-18:2 (-0.24). Accordingly, serum cholesterol was lower in the highest CE-18:2 quartile (4.67 +/- 0.76 mmol/l) compared with the lowest (5.30 +/- 0.70 mmol/l; p less than 0.001). The results indicate that when serum fatty acids are used as indicators of the quality of dietary fat, a negative association between polyunsaturated fat and serum cholesterol may be demonstrable even within a free-living population.

  10. Plasma and urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Finnish women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Koskela, Anja; Samaletdin, Adile; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are shown to be good biomarkers of consumption of rye and whole-grain wheat products in man. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate AR metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk in Finnish women since intake of cereal fiber and its components has been proposed to reduce this risk through an effect on the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. This was a cross-sectional and observational pilot study. A total of 20 omnivores, 20 vegetarians, and 16 BC women (6-12 mo after operation) were investigated on 2 occasions 6 mo apart. Dietary intake (5-days record), plasma/urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA)] and plasma/urinary enterolactone were measured. The groups were compared using nonparametric tests. We observed that plasma DHBA (P = 0.007; P = 0.03), plasma DHPPA (P = 0.02; P = 0.01), urinary DHBA (P = 0.001; P = 0.003), urinary DHPPA (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), and cereal fiber intake (P = 0.007; P = 0.003) were significantly lower in the BC group compared to the vegetarian and omnivore groups, respectively. Based on measurements of AR metabolites in urine and in plasma, whole-grain rye and wheat cereal fiber intake is low in BC subjects. Thus, urinary and plasma AR metabolites may be used as potential biomarkers of BC risk in women. This novel approach will likely also facilitate studies of associations between rye and whole-grain wheat cereal fiber intake and other diseases. Our findings should, however, be confirmed with larger subject populations.

  11. Does the Finnish intervention prevent obstetric anal sphincter injuries? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Mette Østergaard; Madsen, Mia Lund; Skriver-Møller, Anne-Cathrine; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A rise in obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) has been observed and a preventive approach, originating in Finland, has been introduced in several European hospitals. The aim of this paper was to systematically evaluate the evidence behind the ‘Finnish intervention’. Design A systematic review of the literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Outcome measures The primary outcome was OASIS. Secondary outcomes were (perinatal): Apgar scores, pH and standard base excess in the umbilical cord, and (maternal): episiotomy, intact perineum, first and second-degree perineal lacerations, duration of second stage, birth position and women's perceptions/birth experiences. Methods Multiple databases (Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed and SveMed) were systematically searched for studies published up to December 2014. Both randomised controlled trials and observational studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies were excluded if a full-text article was not available. Studies were evaluated by use of international reporting guidelines (eg, STROBE). Results Overall, 1042 articles were screened and 65 retrieved for full-text evaluation. Seven studies, all observational and with a level of evidence at 2c or lower, were included and consistently reported a significant reduction in OASIS. All evaluated episiotomy and found a significant increase. Three studies evaluated perinatal outcomes and reported conflicting results. No study reported on other perineal outcomes, duration of the second stage, birth positions or women's perceptions. Conclusions A reduction in OASIS has been contributed to the Finnish intervention in seven observational studies, all with a low level of evidence. Knowledge about the potential perinatal and maternal side effects and women's perceptions of the intervention is extremely limited and the biological mechanisms underlying the Finnish intervention are not well documented

  12. Effects of biomass utilization on the carbon balance of Finnish forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievänen, Risto; Salminen, Olli; Kallio, Maarit

    2015-04-01

    The boreal forests cover three fourths of the land area of Finland. About 80 per cent of the total forest area is managed for commercial forestry. The forests produce timber for wood processing and pulp and paper industries and provide also bioenergy. The harvests of timber vary depending on demand of products of forest industry; the harvest level has been on average about 70 per cent of growth in recent years. The utilization of forest biomass is therefore the most important factor affecting the carbon balance of Finnish forests. We made projections of carbon balance of Finnish forests during 2012-2050 based on scenarios of timber and bioenergy demands. To assess the changes in carbon stock of forests, we combined three models: a large-scale forestry model, the soil carbon model Yasso07 for mineral soils, and a method based on emission factors for peatland soils. We considered two harvest scenarios based on the recent projections of plausible levels (min, max) of timber demand. For the bioenergy demand, we compared cases in which the wood energy use was low or high. In the past decades, the Finnish forests have been a steadily growing and substantial carbon sink. Its size has been more than 40% of the national GHG emissions during 1990-2012. The planned use of wood from the forests to forest and energy industry does not threaten the increasing trend of the forest sink; with the lowest use of forest biomass the sink may even match the national GHG emissions until 2050. The stock change of trees is the most important component of carbon balance of forests; it accounts for approximately 80 % of the total stock change. Trees and mineral soils act as carbon sinks and the drained peatland soils as a carbon source. By comparing the scenarios of wood energy use we conclude that the amount of carbon emissions avoided by replacing fossil fuels with stemwood is outweighed by the loss in carbon sequestration.

  13. Linnaemya bergstroemi n. sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae)--a new parasitoid fly from the Finnish Lapland.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Haarto, Antti

    2015-01-01

    A new tachinid species, Linnaemya bergstroemi n. sp., is described from the Finnish Lapland. The new species closely resembles the Nearctic species Linnaemya anthracina Thompson, but can be readily distinguished from it by the characters described in this paper. The taxonomic placement of the two species is discussed in the light of morphological and CoI sequence similarities with Linnaemya Robineau-Desvoidy species in the subgenera Ophina Robineau-Desvoidy and Bonellimyia Townsend. Known aspects of the new species' biology and distribution are reviewed. PMID:26701580

  14. DNA analysis in Finnish patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed Central

    Silander, K; Halonen, P; Sara, R; Kalimo, H; Falck, B; Savontaus, M L

    1994-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a dominantly inherited disorder that presents as recurrent mononeuropathies precipitated by apparently trivial traumas. The presence of a deletion in 17p11.2 was analysed in 13 Finnish families with HNPP. The deletion was found in all patients who were neurologically and neurophysiologically confirmed to have HNPP. In the problematic cases the detection of the gene defect is the method of choice in the diagnosis of HNPP. Analysis of DNA can also be used to detect clinically unaffected family members. Images PMID:7931393

  15. Sisterhood's ordeals: shared interests and divided loyalties in Finnish wartime nursing.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight early Finnish nursing in a special wartime context. Occupational development of nursing is envisioned by addressing at a more general level women's mutual relationships and the opportunities and obstacles of the process of occupational development. The article debates two main issues. Establishing occupational domains was a process of selecting suitable labour force and training women morally, as well. The hierarchical order of nursing is manifested especially in the questions of auxiliary labour and the so-called amateur scare. War was still a time of romanticism with visible military and religious models, but women also struggled for their right to have rights. PMID:11624266

  16. Rapid decline of dissolved nitrogen in Finnish lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekolainen, Seppo; Mitikka, Sari; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Johansson, Matti

    2005-03-01

    Since 1960s, phosphorus (P) has been considered to be most often the limiting factor for algal growth in freshwater lakes. Due to that, pollution control measures have been targeted to reduce P loading to lakes. In many countries these efforts have been successful: the P loadings, particularly through municipal waste waters have been reduced substantially, which has resulted in reduced P concentration of lake waters, and improvements in ecological quality of numerous lakes. Nitrogen reductions in wastewater treatment plants have started only in very recent years, and usually only in cities along the seashore. Analysis of the long-term lake monitoring data in Finland show a sharp decline of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, expressed as a sum of NO 2-N, NO 3-N and NH 4-N) during the 1990s. Most of these lakes are oligotrophic lakes with low human impact. Due to this, the relative contribution of air-borne nitrogen loading (deposition directly to the lake surface) is often higher than in lakes located in densely populated or in intensive agricultural regions. The DIN deposition monitoring results show approximately a 40% reduction during the same period as the decreasing DIN trend is observed in lakes. These trends in deposition can probably be explained by reductions in nitrogen emissions in Europe, in connection to air pollution control conventions, and in Eastern Europe also in connection to economical collapse at the beginning of 1990s. In many of the lakes with a significant decreasing trend, DIN concentrations in late summer are approaching very low levels (<20 μg l -1), indicating that nitrogen is possibly limiting algal growth at least seasonally. The observed trends are an example of how pollution control measures may result in a quick response, in this case unexpected, though not necessarily undesirable.

  17. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.

  18. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems.

  19. First meteorite recovery based on observations by the Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko; Moilanen, Jarmo; Kohout, Tomáš; Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovka, Valery; Midtskogen, V.; Kruglikov, Nikolai; Ischenko, Alexei; Yakovlev, Grigory; Grokhovsky, Victor; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Aikkila, Asko; Taavitsainen, Aki; Lauanne, Jani; Pekkola, Marko; Kokko, Pekka; Lahtinen, Panu; Larionov, Mikhail

    2014-02-01

    We present a summary of the trajectory reconstruction, dark flight simulations and pre-impact orbit for a bright fireball that appeared in the night sky over the Kola Peninsula, close to the Finnish border, on April 18 2014, at 22h14m13.0s (UTC). The fireball was instrumentally recorded in Finland from Kuusamo, Mikkeli and Muhos observing sites belonging to the Finnish Fireball Network. Additionally, a publicly available video made by Alexandr Nesterov in Snezhnogorsk (Russia), from the opposite side of the fireball track, was carefully calibrated and taken into account in the trajectory reconstruction. Based on a thorough analysis of the fireball, it was concluded that part of the meteoroid survived atmospheric entry and reached the ground. To further specify an impact area for a dedicated expedition, dark flight simulations were done to build a strewn field map showing the most probable distribution of fragments. A 5-day expedition with 4 participants from Russia and Finland took place at the end of May following snow melt and preceding vegetation growth. On May 29, 2014, a first 120.35 g meteorite fragment was found on a local forest road within the predicted impact area. A second 47.54 g meteorite fragment, fully covered with a fusion crust, was recovered nearby on the following day. Both pieces were preserved in very good condition without apparent weathering.

  20. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle.

    PubMed

    Velmala, R; Vilkki, J; Elo, K; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphism of casein genes was studied in half-sib families of artificial insemination bulls of the Finnish Ayrshire dairy breed. Ten grandsires and 300 of their sons were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: alpha s1-casein (B, C), beta-casein (A1, A2), the microsatellite within the kappa-casein gene (ms5, ms4) and kappa-casein (A, B, E). Nine different combinations of these alleles, casein haplotypes, were found. Associations between casein haplotypes and milk production traits (milk and protein yield, fat and protein percentage and milking speed) were studied with ordinary least-squares analysis to find a direct effect of the haplotypes or an association within individual grandsire families using the granddaughter design. Estimated breeding values of sons were obtained from cow evaluation by animal model. No direct effect of the casein haplotypes on the traits was found. Within grandsire families, in one out of four families the chromosomal segment characterized by haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) was associated with an increase in milk yield (P < 0.01) and a decrease in fat percentage (P < 0.01) when contrasted with haplotype 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). The results provide evidence that in the Finnish Ayrshire breed at least one quantitative trait locus affecting the genetic variation in yields traits is segregating linked to either haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) or 8 (B-A1-ms4-E).

  1. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters.

  2. Finnish physicians' experiences with computer-supported patient information exchange and communication in clinical work.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Johanna; Nieminen, Marko; Hypponen, Hannele; Laaveri, Tinja

    2011-01-01

    Several researchers share the concern of healthcare information systems failing to support communication and collaboration in clinical practices. The objective of this paper is to investigate the current state of computer-supported patient information exchange and associated communication between clinicians. We report findings from a national survey on Finnish physicians? experiences with their currently used clinical information systems with regard to patient information documentation, retrieval, management and exchange-related tasks. The questionnaire study with 3929 physicians indicated the main concern being cross-organisational patient information delivery. In addition, physicians argued computer usage increasingly steals time and attention from caring activities and even disturbs physician?nurse collaboration. Problems in information management were particularly emphasised among those physicians working in hospitals and wards. The survey findings indicated that collaborative applications and mobile or wireless solutions have not been widely adapted in Finnish healthcare and suggested an urgent need for adopting appropriate information and communication technology applications to support information exchange and communication between physicians, and physicians and nurses.

  3. Genetic parameters for claw health and feet and leg conformation traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Häggman, J; Juga, J; Sillanpää, M J; Thompson, R

    2013-04-01

    Genetic parameters for different claw disorders, overall claw health and feet and leg conformation traits were estimated for Finnish Ayrshire cows. The merged data set with records of claw health and feet and leg conformation traits consisted of 105,000 observations from 52,598 Finnish Ayrshire cows between 2000 and 2010. The binary claw health data and the linearly scored conformation data were analysed using an animal model and restricted maximum likelihood method by applying the statistical package ASReml. Binomial logistic models with mixed effects were used to estimate genetic parameters for sole haemorrhages, chronic laminitis, white-line separation, sole ulcer, interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, digital dermatitis, corkscrew claw and overall claw health. Estimated heritabilities for different claw disorders using a binomial logistic model ranged from 0.01 to 0.20. Estimated heritability for overall claw health using a binomial logistic model was 0.08. Estimated heritabilities for feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.07 to 0.39. The genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation traits ranged from -0.40 to 0.42. All phenotypic correlations were close to zero. The moderate genetic correlation, together with higher heritability of feet and leg conformation traits, showed that RLSV (rear leg side view) is a useful indicator trait to be used together with claw trimming information to increase the accuracy of breeding values for claw health in genetic evaluation.

  4. International student nurses' experiences of clinical practice in the Finnish health care system.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Lea-Riitta; Pitkäjärvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe international student nurses' experiences of their clinical practice in the Finnish health care system. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Fourteen international student nurses of African and Asian origin were interviewed, and the data were then analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that appreciative orientation, sense of belonging to the team, enhancing independent working, growing towards professionalism and working as a member of the team were descriptions of positive experiences. Descriptions of negative experiences were related to restricted learning and compromised human dignity, which lead to negative feelings of being an outsider, decreased self-esteem, sense of giving up and anticipation of difficulties. Despite the small sample size, the results indicate a need to develop clinical practice arrangements when the language of the learning environment is other than that of the student nurse. As the number of international students has increased in the Finnish health care sector and in nursing education, it is important to recognise the factors related to positive and negative experiences in clinical practice.

  5. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  6. Examining gambling-related crime reports in the National Finnish Police Register.

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Sanna-Mari; Kääriäinen, Juha; Lind, Kalle

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between gambling and criminal activity in the National Finnish Police Register. First, a method was created that enabled the search for gambling-related police reports in the National Finnish Police Register. The method is based on finding gambling-related police reports by using gambling-related headwords. Second, all police reports from 2011 that included any mention of gambling were read through (n = 2,233). Suspected gambling-related of crimes (n = 737) were selected from these reports. Those suspected gambling-related crimes were then described and categorized into six different categories: suspected online-related crimes; suspected crimes that were related to lifestyle-gaming; suspected crimes that involved a gambler as a victim of a crime; criminal activity related to problem gambling; casino-connected crimes, and intimate partnership violence resulting from gambling problems. This study, being the first in Finland, generated information on the connection between gambling and criminal activity from the perspective of police reports. Moreover, the study highlights methodological issues that are involved in studying police reports.

  7. Impact of agricultural practices on microbiology of hay, silage and flour on Finnish and French farms.

    PubMed

    Reboux, Gabriel; Reiman, Marjut; Roussel, Sandrine; Taattola, Kirsti; Millon, Laurence; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to microorganisms in farm environments may cause respiratory disorders, e.g. asthma, organic dust toxic syndrome and allergic alveolitis. By reducing microbiological deterioration of organic materials, some agricultural practices have a protective effect. Microbiological analyses were carried out on hay, silage and flour samples (n=107) from farms in Finland and France (n=23) that use different methods of haymaking. High concentrations of Absidia corymbifera were found in approximately 35 % of French hay samples and only 10 % of Finnish hay samples. Concentrations of Eurotium spp. were found in 20 % of hay samples from both regions. High concentrations of Wallemia sebi typified Finnish hay (38 %) more than French hay (8 %). Rhodotorula yeast was frequently and abundantly found in Finland, but never in France. The method used to make hay appeared to be the main factor affecting the microbiology of the hay. A. corymbifera and Eurotium spp. concentrations were smaller in low-density square bales than in others. In conclusion, our results emphasize the importance of good agricultural practice in the microbiological quality of fodder. PMID:17196000

  8. Fatal road accidents among Finnish military conscripts: fatigue-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Radun, Igor; Radun, Jenni E; Summala, Heikki; Sallinen, Mikael

    2007-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the current prevalence of personal car usage for holiday trips among Finnish conscripts and to analyze conscripts' fatal road accidents. The data included questionnaire data collected from 259 young conscripts at a garrison in southeastern Finland and data on 46 fatal road accidents caused by conscripts during the years 1991-2004, extracted from the national database of fatal road accidents studied in depth. The questionnaire data showed that one-third (35.9%) of young Finnish conscripts had used personal cars to travel to or from the garrison in the preceding 2 months. More than one-half of them reported driving while fatigued (a majority reported several occasions of such driving). In addition to those driving themselves, 41.6% of the conscripts rode at least occasionally as a passenger in a car driven by a fellow conscript. Analysis of the fatality data showed that one-half of the conscripts' fatal accidents occurred on the way to or from the garrison or while on duty. Falling asleep was the main cause of all conscripts' accidents (34.8%), with the largest proportion occurring when departing for leave (42.9%). Haste (including speeding) was the second greatest factor contributing to accidents occurring on the way to or from the garrison (26.1%), whereas drunk driving (22.7%) and suspected suicides (18.2%) were typical of accidents occurring on leave.

  9. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet. PMID:8269890

  10. PET studies on the memory processing of word pairs in bilingual Finnish-English subjects.

    PubMed

    Halsband, U; Krause, B J; Sipilä, H; Teräs, M; Laihinen, A

    2002-04-15

    This study examined the fundamental question whether verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Ten right-handed, male Finnish--English adult late bilinguals who had acquired the second language after the age of 10 were scanned whilst either encoding/retrieving word pairs in their mother tongue (Finnish) or in a foreign language (English). Within each language, subjects had to encode and retrieve four sets of 12 visually presented paired word associates which were not semantically related. Two sets consisted of highly imageable words (e.g. monkey-table; koira-lasi) and the other two sets of abstract word pairs (e.g. freedom-moral; uhka-suure). Presentation of pseudowords served as a reference condition. An emission scan was recorded after each intravenous administration of O-15 water. Encoding was associated with prefrontal and hippocampal activation. During memory retrieval, precuneus showed a consistent activation in both languages and for both highly imageable and abstract words. Although the brain mechanisms of the two languages share common components, differential activations were found in Broca's area and in the cerebellum as well as in the angular/supramarginal gyri according to the language used.

  11. A national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment.

    PubMed

    Takala, A; Korhonen-Yrjänheikki, K

    2013-12-01

    The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods.

  12. Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a Simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in a Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Programme for Screening of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dysglycaemia in Madrid, Spain: The SPREDIA-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Lunar, C.; Lahoz, C.; Mostaza, J. M.; Abánades-Herranz, J. C.; Laguna-Cuesta, F.; Estirado-de Cabo, E.; García-Iglesias, F.; González-Alegre, T.; Fernández-Puntero, B.; Montesano-Sánchez, L.; Vicent-López, D.; Cornejo-del Río, V.; Fernández-García, P. J.; Sánchez-Arroyo, V.; Sabín-Rodríguez, C.; López-López, S.; Patrón-Barandio, P.; Gómez-Campelo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a simplified FINDRISC score (MADRISC) in screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (UT2DM) and dysglycaemia. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with participants with UT2DM, ranged between 45–74 years and lived in two districts in the north of metropolitan Madrid (Spain). The FINDRISC and MADRISC scores were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method (ROC-AUC). Four different gold standards were used for UT2DM and any dysglycaemia, as follows: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, and OGTT or HbA1c. Dysglycaemia and UT2DM were defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The study population comprised 1,426 participants (832 females and 594 males) with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 6.1). When HbA1c or OGTT criteria were used, the prevalence of UT2DM was 7.4% (10.4% in men and 5.2% in women; p<0.01) and the FINDRISC ROC-AUC for UT2DM was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69–0.74). The optimal cut-off point was ≥13 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 65.1%). The ROC-AUC of MADRISC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72–0.81) with ≥13 as the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 84.8%, specificity = 54.6%). FINDRISC score ≥12 for detecting any dysglycaemia offered the best cut-off point when HbA1c alone or OGTT and HbA1c were the criteria used. Conclusions FINDRISC proved to be a useful instrument in screening for dysglycaemia and UT2DM. In the screening of UT2DM, the simplified MADRISC performed as well as FINDRISC. PMID:27441722

  13. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)-a randomized controlled lifestyle trial.

    PubMed

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-09-10

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  14. A Positive Psychological Viewpoint for Success at School--10 Characteristic Strengths of the Finnish High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Uusiautti, Satu

    2015-01-01

    People who exploit their strengths flourish; they are not only engaged with their goals, but also to their well-being and the content of life. In this study, interest focused on the high-achieving students in the Finnish general upper secondary education, in other words, on straight-A graduates' characteristic strengths. This was a narrative study…

  15. Sahkoisen Rahan Kuvaus Sanomalehdissa (Financial World and Data World: Names for Electric Money in the Finnish Media).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurminen, Tuula

    This article discusses the language related to electronic money in the Finnish media. The approach is linguistic and the theoretical framework is critical discourse analysis. The samples used in the analysis are from financial newspaper articles. The purpose is to compare the terminology used for traditional money with that used for electric…

  16. Adolescents' Physical Activity at Recess and Actions to Promote a Physically Active School Day in Four Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, H. L.; Hirvensalo, M. H.; Laine, K.; Laakso, L.; Hakonen, H.; Lintunen, T.; Tammelin, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    The national Finnish Schools on the Move programme support schools with their individual plans to promote school-based physical activity (PA). We examined the changes in adolescents' recess and overall PA in four lower secondary schools and described the school actions to promote students' PA and the local contact persons'…

  17. The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

    1987-01-01

    Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…

  18. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  19. New radiocarbon dates from Finnish mammoths indicating large ice-free areas in Fennoscandia during the Middle Weichselian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkonen, Pirkko; Pekka Lunkka, Juha; Jungner, Högne; Donner, Joakim

    1999-12-01

    New radiocarbon dates from Finnish subfossil mammoth material (Mammuthus sp.), transported by glacial ice, range in age from ca. 32000 to ca. 22500 yr BP. These results suggest that there was a larger ice-free area in Fennoscandia during the Middle Weichselian than previously assumed. In addition, two dates are also presented for bones found in clay with a different transport history.

  20. Does Structural Development Matter? The Third Mission through Teaching and R&D at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohtamäki, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    The latest policy trends of higher education institutions (HEIs) have increasingly highlighted the importance of external stakeholders' expertise and resources. This paper investigated how the third mission through teaching and research and development (R&D) at Finnish universities of applied sciences (UASs) is influenced by the structural…

  1. The effects of short-term selenium stress on Polish and Finnish wheat seedlings-EPR, enzymatic and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Łabanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kościelniak, Janusz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Kuliś, Ewa; Hartikainen, Helina

    2012-02-15

    Biochemical analyses of antioxidant content were compared with measurements of fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the alteration of radicals in wheat seedlings exposed to 2 days of selenium stress. Two genotypes of Polish and one of Finnish wheat, differing in their tolerance to long-term stress treatment, were cultured under hydroponic conditions to achieve the phase of 3-leave seedlings. Afterwards, selenium (sodium selenate, 100 μM concentration) was added to the media. After Se-treatment, all varieties showed an increase in carbohydrates (soluble and starch), ascorbate and glutathione content in comparison to non-stressed plants. These changes were more visible in Finnish wheat. On the basis of lipid peroxidation measurements, Finnish wheat was recognized as the genotype more sensitive to short-term Se-stress than the Polish varieties. The antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) increased in Polish genotypes, whereas they decreased in Finnish wheat plants cultured on Se media. The action of reactive oxygen species in short-term action of Se stress was confirmed by the reduction of PSII and PSI system activities (measured by fluorescence parameters and EPR, respectively). EPR studies showed changes in redox status (especially connected with Mn(II)/Mn(III), and semiquinone/quinone ratios) in wheat cell after Se treatment. The involvement of the carbohydrate molecules as electron traps in production of long-lived radicals is postulated. PMID:22153751

  2. How to Make the Neighbourhood School a School for All?: Finnish Teachers' Perceptions of Educational Reform Aiming towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkala, Suvi; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2016-01-01

    A new special education strategy was launched in Finland by the Ministry of Education in 2007. The new Basic Act was enacted in 2010 and the new national core curriculum concerning three-tiered support for pupils in 2011. Since the 1990s, teachers across Finland have participated in developing Finnish basic education towards greater inclusion. The…

  3. The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorders and Congenital Anomalies by Organ Systems in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Sourander, Andre; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Vanhala, Raija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with and without intellectual disability (ID) and congenital anomalies (CAs) by organ system. The sample included all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register during 1987-2000 and a total of four controls per…

  4. With the Eye and the Ear--Analytical and Intuitive Approaches in Piano Playing by Finnish Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a piano-playing subject called "keyboard harmony." The subject was initially developed in the 1980s to give (K-12) schoolteachers the skills needed for accompanying singing in classrooms. Since keyboard harmony today has an official status in all Finnish music schools, both piano and general music teachers ought…

  5. Bordetella holmesii DNA is not detected in nasopharyngeal swabs from Finnish and Dutch patients with suspected pertussis.

    PubMed

    Antila, Mia; He, Qiushui; de Jong, Caroline; Aarts, Ingrid; Verbakel, Harold; Bruisten, Sylvia; Keller, Suzanne; Haanperä, Marjo; Mäkinen, Johanna; Eerola, Erkki; Viljanen, Matti K; Mertsola, Jussi; van der Zee, Anneke

    2006-08-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a Gram-negative bacterium first identified in 1995. It can cause pertussis-like symptoms in humans. B. holmesii contains insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001, two frequently used targets in the PCR diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis infections. To investigate the prevalence of B. holmesii in Finnish and Dutch patients with pertussis-like symptoms and whether B. holmesii has caused any false-positive results in diagnostic PCRs, B. holmesii-specific real-time PCRs were developed. The Finnish methods were conventional IS481 PCR and B. holmesii-specific real-time PCR (LightCycler, Roche) targeting the B. holmesii recA gene. The Dutch methods were IS481 and IS1001 PCRs with conventional or real-time formats and B. holmesii-specific real-time PCR targeting the homologue of IS1001. Of 11,319 nasopharyngeal swabs, 2804 were collected from Finnish patients from 2000 to 2003, and 8515 from Dutch patients from 1992 to 2003. B. holmesii DNA was not found in the samples analysed. The results suggest that B. holmesii is not among the causative agents of pertussis-like symptoms in Finnish and Dutch patients and thus does not in practice confound IS481 and IS1001 PCRs.

  6. Teacher Students' MA Theses--A Gateway to Analytic Thinking about Teaching? A Case Study of Finnish Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maaranen, Katriina

    2010-01-01

    Finnish teacher education has been higher academic education since 1979. Thus, all primary school teachers graduate as Masters and they conduct an MA thesis. For this research 23 teachers were interviewed in order to determine their conceptions of reflection, teacher research and their future research intentions. These teacher students worked…

  7. Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas--Finnish University Employees' Experiences on the Governance of University Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne; Lehto, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the university workers of two Finnish universities experienced the range of neoliberal policymaking and governance reforms implemented in the 2000s. These reforms include quality assurance, system of defined annual working hours, outcome-based salary system and work time allocation system. Our point of view regarding…

  8. Implementing Technology Education in Finnish General Education Schools: Studying the Cross-Curricular Theme "Human Being and Technology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Järvinen, Esa-Matti; Rasinen, Aki

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture assigned the National Board of Education with the task of carrying out a nationwide evaluation of all seven cross-curricular themes. The evaluation is one of the largest education evaluation projects the National Board of Finland has ever organised. The present authors were invited to evaluate…

  9. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  10. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children…

  11. "Can There Be Such a Delightful Feeling as This?" Variations of Sexual Scripts in Finnish Girls' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvivuo, Pia; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Kontula, Osmo

    2010-01-01

    This study examined what kinds of sexual scripts were found in Finnish girls' narratives, what elements those scripts included and how different scripts were associated with sexually risky behavior. The data were comprised of the narratives of 173 14-15-year-old girls regarding their experiences in sexually motivating situations. The narratives…

  12. A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels in Childcare Contexts among Finnish and Dutch Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Gubbels, Jessica; Sääkslahti, Arja; Villberg, Jari; Kremers, Stef; Van Kann, Dave; Mehtälä, Anette; De Vries, Nanne; Poskiparta, Marita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine Finnish and Dutch three-year-old preschool children's physical activity (PA) levels and how levels vary across gender, location, time of day and social contexts in both countries. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  13. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  14. Finnish and UK English Pre-Teen Children's Text Message Language and Its Relationship with Their Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plester, B.; Lerkkanen, M.-K.; Linjama, L. J.; Rasku-Puttonen, H.; Littleton, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the style of text language used by Finnish pre-teen texters (n = 65) and determine how their text language related to their traditional literacy skills, and compare descriptively these results with earlier results from work with young English texters. Three kinds of text messages (natural texts, elicited…

  15. Health Promotional Education: Differences between School Nurses' Health Counselling and Teachers' Health Instruction in the Finnish ENHPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Jakonen, Sirkka; Vertio, Harri

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe school nurses' (N=24) and teachers' (N=25) opinions of how the health-related goals in their counselling and instruction were attained and to find out the possible differences between the two groups in the Finnish European Network of Health Promoting Schools. The data were collected by a questionnaire and…

  16. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  17. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  18. Home-School Collaboration in the View of Fourth Grade Pupils, Parents, Teachers, and Principals in the Finnish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Although Finland currently holds the top ratings in international comparisons ranking education and children's health, there is evidence that the health of Finnish adolescents is being threatened by increasing obesity, serious risk behavior, and other health problems. In addition, subjective well-being at school is regarded as low by students.…

  19. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  20. Developing a speech intelligibility test based on measuring speech reception thresholds in noise for English and Finnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Martti; Suni, Antti; Järveläinen, Hanna; Järvikivi, Juhani; Mattila, Ville-Veikko

    2005-09-01

    A subjective test was developed suitable for evaluating the effect of mobile communications devices on sentence intelligibility in background noise. Originally a total of 25 lists, each list including 16 sentences, were developed in British English and Finnish to serve as the test stimuli representative of adult language today. The sentences, produced by two male and two female speakers, were normalized for naturalness, length, and intelligibility in each language. The sentence sets were balanced with regard to the expected lexical and phonetic distributions in the given language. The sentence lists are intended for adaptive measurement of speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in noise. In the verification of the test stimuli, SRTs were measured for ten subjects in Finnish and nine subjects in English. Mean SRTs were -2.47 dB in Finnish and -1.12 dB in English, with standard deviations of 1.61 and 2.36 dB, respectively. The mean thresholds did not vary significantly between the lists or the talkers after two lists were removed from the Finnish set and one from the English set. Thus the numbers of lists were reduced from 25 to 23 and 24, respectively. The statistical power of the test increased when thresholds were averaged over several sentence lists. With three lists per condition, the test is able to detect a 1.5-dB difference in SRTs with the probability of about 90%.

  1. The Double Deficit Hypothesis in the Transparent Finnish Orthography: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Parrila, Rauno; Niemi, Pekka; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    We examined the double deficit hypothesis (Wolf & Bowers, 1999) and literacy development in a longitudinal dataset of 1,006 Finnish children who were nonreaders at school entry. A single phonological awareness (PA) deficit was a predictor of pseudoword spelling accuracy and reading fluency, and a single rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficit…

  2. The Associations between Seventh Grade Finnish Students' Motivational Climate, Perceived Competence, Self-Determined Motivation, and Fundamental Movement Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between motivational climate, perceived competence, self-determined motivation towards physical education (PE) and the fundamental movement skills of Finnish secondary school students. A sample of 370 seventh-grade PE students (girls n = 189; boys n = 181; mean age = 13.08; SD = 0.25)…

  3. On Errors Made by Finnish-Speaking and Swedish-Speaking University Students in Oral Production in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Anja

    A study of the interlanguage of bilinguals and multilinguals compared the oral French proficiency of 20 native Swedish-speaking and 20 Finnish-speaking university students as evidenced in error patterns in oral tests. With the exception of phonological and phonetic errors in pronunciation, errors were classified by word class (article, noun,…

  4. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  5. The Finnish Delphi Study: Forecasting the Extent of Information Technology Use in Libraries in 1996 and 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskiala, Sinnikka; Huhtanen, Anni

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Delphi study in which Finnish experts predicted the extent of information technology use in libraries and information centers. Predictions are summarized in the areas of workstations; fax and electronic mail; videotex; print, electronic, and optical publishing; indexing and storage of sounds and images; speech recognition and scanning…

  6. Who Is at Greatest Risk of Adverse Long-Term Outcomes? The Finnish from a Boy to a Man Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Jensen, Peter; Davies, Mark; Niemela, Solja; Elonheimo, Henrik; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study associations between comorbid psychopathology and long-term outcomes in a large birth cohort sample from age 8 to early adulthood. Method: The sample included long-term outcome data on 2,556 Finnish boys born in 1981. The aim was to study the impact of early childhood psychopathology types (externalizing versus internalizing…

  7. Even the Best Have Difficulties: A Study of Finnish Straight-A Graduates' Resource-Oriented Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Määttä, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    To achieve top scores, students need not only talents and study skills but also they have to conquer various adversities successfully. This research focused on the study paths, the concept adopted from Hickman, Bartholomew, Mathwig, and Heinrich (2008), of Finnish straight-A graduates in general upper secondary education. In this article, we refer…

  8. Precursors of Reading Skill from Infancy to First Grade in Finnish: Continuity and Change in a Highly Inflected Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silven, Maarit; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Voeten, Marinus

    2007-01-01

    The course of language acquisition from infancy to public primary school was followed in a sample of 56 Finnish children to examine precursors to reading at first grade. Structural equation modeling of continuity suggested effects from growth in early vocabulary to mastery of inflectional forms at preschool age. The early language directly…

  9. Fears for the Future among Finnish Adolescents in 1983-2007: From Global Concerns to Ill Health and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Pirjo; Solantaus, Tytti; Rimpela, Arja

    2012-01-01

    We examined how Finnish adolescents' fears for their future changed over a quarter of a century and how these changes reflect transformations of the adolescents' key contexts from the late-modernist perspective. Nationally representative samples of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-olds in 1983, 1997, and 2007 were surveyed using mailed questionnaires…

  10. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  11. Special Educators' Social Networks: A Multiple Case Study in a Finnish Part-Time Special Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomainen, Jenna; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the networking roles and practices of special educators with the methods of social network analysis. This multiple case study included three special educators in a Finnish part-time special education context. The results revealed that although the special educators had central positions in the formal teacher communities as…

  12. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  13. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  14. Grammar Is the Heart of Language: Grammar and Its Role in Language Learning among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaristo, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses views on grammar and its role in formal language learning amongst Finnish university students. The results are based on a questionnaire which was distributed to students at the University of Jyväskylä as part of institutional action research. The background to the project was a feeling amongst some teachers of…

  15. A longitudinal cohort study of Finnish patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: clinical, immunological, and epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Pertovaara, M; Pukkala, E; Laippala, P; Miettinen, A; Pasternack, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate outcome in a cohort of Finnish patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).
METHODS—Clinical and laboratory data from the time of diagnosis and follow up were collected from 110 patients with pSS (107 women, three men) diagnosed in 1977-1992 in central Finland. The standardised incidence ratio for cancers was determined as the ratio of the observed number of cases to the expected number based on regional population rates. Eighty one of the 93 patients still alive were interviewed, and clinical and laboratory examinations performed in 1994-1997.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (33 (22) v 45 (28) mm/1st h), serum IgG (18.8 (7.4) v 22.5 (8.5) g/l), and serum IgM (1.6 (1.1) v 2.0 (1.2) g/l) at the control visit were significantly (p<0.0001) lower than those at baseline. A similar change was observed in a subgroup of patients never treated with glucocorticosteroids or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Three non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were diagnosed (standardised incidence ratio 13; 95% confidence interval 2.7 to 38). In a logistic regression model, the patients with pSS with subsequent lymphoma were found to have higher baseline levels of serum β2 microglobulin than the others (odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.4).
CONCLUSION—The results suggest that mean concentrations of serum IgG and IgM in patients with pSS decline with time, possibly reflecting diminishing inflammatory activity. As in previous studies, the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in this cohort of patients with pSS was significantly higher than in the reference population.

 PMID:11302868

  16. Finnish occupational health nurses' view of work-related stress: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-03-01

    Occupational stress at work has been increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for chronic disease and poor quality of work life among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine how occupational health nurses in Finland manage work-related stress. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 354 Finnish occupational nurses who responded to the survey. No specific standardized tools to assess or handle work-related stress in occupational health services or their client companies were identified. Open-ended interviews together with burnout questionnaires were the most frequently used methods to assess the stress of employees. Interventions were directed at individual employees. A need for standardized stress assessment instruments and stress management by work organizations was found. Methods to cope with work-related stress should be developed by the occupational health team and companies' health resources departments to ensure the adoption of common protocols.

  17. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years).

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found. PMID:24439618

  18. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years).

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found.

  19. Representations of energy policy and technology in British and Finnish newspaper media: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, Tuula

    2014-04-01

    This article analyses media representations of the strengthening technological energy policy orientation in the UK and Finland. Drawing from over 1200 newspaper articles from 1991 to 2006, it scrutinises how energy policy in general and energy technologies in particular have been discussed by the media in these two countries, and how the media representations have changed over time. The results point to the importance of national political, economic and cultural features in shaping media discussions. At the same time, international political events and ideas of technology-driven economic growth have transformed media perceptions of energy technologies. While the British media have been rather critical towards national policies throughout the period of analysis, the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat has supported successive national governments. In both countries, energy technologies have increasingly become linked to global societal and political questions.

  20. Polarised Multiangular Reflectance Measurements Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Puttonen, Eetu

    2009-01-01

    The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces. PMID:22412342

  1. Testing the effort-reward imbalance model among Finnish managers: the role of perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Mäkikangas, Anne

    2008-04-01

    The present study is aimed at examining the combined effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OVC), and perceived organizational support (POS) on turnover intentions and work engagement, among Finnish managers (n = 1,301). Consequently, the study contributes to the research literature by examining how the ERI-outcomes relationship was dependent simultaneously on OVC and POS. The results showed that ERI x OVC x POS interaction was significant only for turnover intentions. The ERI-turnover intentions relationship was strongest under conditions of high OVC and low POS. In addition, the relationship between ERI and decreased work engagement, especially dedication, was strengthened among overcommitted managers, compared to their less committed counterparts. Altogether, the results indicate that interventions aimed at reducing turnover intentions and increasing work engagement by increasing ERI should consider OVC and POS. PMID:18393581

  2. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction. PMID:26419775

  3. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    PubMed

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed.

  4. Geomagnetically induced currents in the Finnish high-voltage power system: A geophysical review

    SciTech Connect

    Viljanen, A.; Pirjola, R. )

    1994-07-01

    In this work the authors consider geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power systems from the viewpoint of a geophysicist. Special attention is paid to the Finnish high-voltage power system, in which exact theoretical model calculations together with recordings have been performed for several years. Several examples are presented of theoretically computed GICs using different geophysical models for estimating the geoelectric field driving GICs. Statistical prediction of GICs is outlined referring to studies made in Finland. It is shown that a combination of GIC recordings at few sites with theoretical modelling of ionospheric currents and the earth's conductivity, and data of geomagnetic activity makes it possible to derive GIC statistics of the entire power system. Finally, the authors discuss requirements for a long-range prediction of GICs, which will obviously be a widely-studied topic in future. 48 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The effect of different types of Finnish bread on postprandial glucose response in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, L; Korpela, R; Mantere, S

    1985-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the fibre content of the bread and the effect of the state of graining on the postprandial blood glucose response in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. The breads were white wheat bread, mixed wholemeal wheat/rye bread, wholemeal rye bread and grained wholemeal rye bread. Finnish wholemeal rye bread induced a slower postprandial blood glucose response than the mixed wholemeal (wheat/rye) bread (P less than or equal to 0.05) and the white wheat bread (P less than or equal to 0.01). Grained wholemeal rye bread resulted in a similar blood glucose response to that from wholemeal rye bread.

  6. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction.

  7. Employees' Motivation for SPI: Case Study in a Small Finnish Software Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Anu; Sihvonen, Hanna-Miina

    In small software companies the resources available for SPI are often limited. With limited resources, the motivation of the employees becomes one of the key factors for SPI. In this article, the motivational factors affecting a small company's SPI efforts are discussed. In the research, we carried out interviews and a survey in a small Finnish software company considering the motivation towards SPI. The results are presented here and compared with earlier motivation research. There were differences revealed while comparing the motivating factors of smaller companies to those of larger ones. In large companies the focus seems to be on the business related motivators and in small ones the motivators related to comfortability of work are emphasized. Motivation survey and the interviews proved to be useful tools in planning the future SPI strategy. A lot of valuable information was discovered for planning and implementing the next steps of SPI.

  8. Optical laboratory facilities at the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Arctic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakkala, Kaisa; Suokanerva, Hanne; Matti Karhu, Juha; Aarva, Antti; Poikonen, Antti; Karppinen, Tomi; Ahponen, Markku; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Kontu, Anna; Kyrö, Esko

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the laboratory facilities at the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC, http://fmiarc.fmi.fi). They comprise an optical laboratory, a facility for biological studies, and an office. A dark room has been built, in which an optical table and a fixed lamp test system are set up, and the electronics allow high-precision adjustment of the current. The Brewer spectroradiometer, NILU-UV multifilter radiometer, and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer of the FMI-ARC are regularly calibrated or checked for stability in the laboratory. The facilities are ideal for responding to the needs of international multidisciplinary research, giving the possibility to calibrate and characterize the research instruments as well as handle and store samples.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Representations of energy policy and technology in British and Finnish newspaper media: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, Tuula

    2014-04-01

    This article analyses media representations of the strengthening technological energy policy orientation in the UK and Finland. Drawing from over 1200 newspaper articles from 1991 to 2006, it scrutinises how energy policy in general and energy technologies in particular have been discussed by the media in these two countries, and how the media representations have changed over time. The results point to the importance of national political, economic and cultural features in shaping media discussions. At the same time, international political events and ideas of technology-driven economic growth have transformed media perceptions of energy technologies. While the British media have been rather critical towards national policies throughout the period of analysis, the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat has supported successive national governments. In both countries, energy technologies have increasingly become linked to global societal and political questions. PMID:24681804

  11. Finnish nurses' interpretations of patient autonomy in the context of end-of-life decision making.

    PubMed

    Hildén, Hanna-Mari; Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to study how nurses interpret patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making. This study built on our previous quantitative study, which evaluated the experiences of and views on end-of-life decision making of a representative sample of Finnish nurses taken from the whole country. We performed qualitative interviews with 17 nurses and analysed these using discourse analysis. In their talk, the nurses demonstrated three different discourses, namely, the 'supporter', the 'analyst' and the 'practical' discourses, each of which outlined a certain position for patients and relatives, and a certain identity for the nurses in end-of-life decision making. The nurses' talk showed notable differences when compared with that of physicians, highlighting the differences that take place in respect of the image of a person's work, professional culture, professional identification and responsibilities. An important finding was that the nurses often described their participation in end-of-life decision making in terms of indirect influence.

  12. Testing the effort-reward imbalance model among Finnish managers: the role of perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Mäkikangas, Anne

    2008-04-01

    The present study is aimed at examining the combined effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OVC), and perceived organizational support (POS) on turnover intentions and work engagement, among Finnish managers (n = 1,301). Consequently, the study contributes to the research literature by examining how the ERI-outcomes relationship was dependent simultaneously on OVC and POS. The results showed that ERI x OVC x POS interaction was significant only for turnover intentions. The ERI-turnover intentions relationship was strongest under conditions of high OVC and low POS. In addition, the relationship between ERI and decreased work engagement, especially dedication, was strengthened among overcommitted managers, compared to their less committed counterparts. Altogether, the results indicate that interventions aimed at reducing turnover intentions and increasing work engagement by increasing ERI should consider OVC and POS.

  13. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  14. Targets of Online Hate: Examining Determinants of Victimization Among Young Finnish Facebook Users.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Pekka; Hawdon, James; Holkeri, Emma; Keipi, Teo; Näsi, Matti; Oksanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from routine activity theory (RAT), this article seeks to determine the crucial factors contributing to youth victimization through online hate. Although numerous studies have supported RAT in an online context, research focusing on users of particular forms of social media is lacking. Using a sample of 15- to 18-year-old Finnish Facebook users (n = 723), we examine whether the risk of online hate victimization is more likely when youth themselves produced online hate material, visited online sites containing potentially harmful content, and deliberately sought out online hate material. In addition, we examine whether the risk of victimization is higher if respondents are worried about online victimization and had been personally victimized offline. The discussion highlights the accumulation of online and offline victimization, the ambiguity of the roles of victims and perpetrators, and the artificiality of the division between the online and offline environments among young people. PMID:27302929

  15. Influence of strict regulations on the use of hearing protectors in the Finnish Defence Forces.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Kuokkanen, J T; Lehtomäki, K M

    1999-11-01

    The regulations concerning hearing protection during military training in the Finnish Defence Forces were renewed in 1989. The material of this prospective study concerns 912 consecutive conscripts (463 before and 449 after the new regulations) who were referred to the Central Military Hospital for acute acoustic trauma (AAT). We focused on three issues: (1) general habits regarding the use of hearing protection during shooting drills and combat training; (2) hearing protection at the moment of AAT; and (3) the cause of AAT. In combat training, the use of any hearing protectors was only 50% before the new regulations, but after they came into force the proportion was greater than 90%, and more effective protectors were used. However, at the time of AAT the hearing protection was absent in more than 80% of cases in both groups. The most common cause of AAT was small arms in both groups (83%). PMID:10578597

  16. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Design Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Results Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001), Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01), Narrative Memory (p<0.001) and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05) and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01). Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent. PMID:26829278

  17. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Saikku, L.; Antikainen, R.; Kauppi, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    In producing power, humans move the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from their long-term geological and biological stocks and release or emit them in soil, water, and the atmosphere. In Finland, peat combustion is an important driver of N and P fluxes from the environment to human economy. The flows of N and P in the Finnish energy system were quantified with partial substance flow analysis, and the driving forces of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were analyzed using the ImPACT model. In the year 2000 in Finland, 140,000 tonnes of nitrogen entered the energy system, mainly in peat and hard coal. Combustion released an estimated 66,000 tonnes of N as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and another 74,000 tonnes as elemental N{sub 2}. Most of the emissions were borne in traffic. At the same time, 6,000 tonnes of P was estimated to enter the Finnish energy system, mostly in peat and wood. Ash was mainly used in earth construction and disposed in landfills; thus negligible levels of P were recycled back to nature. During the twentieth century, fuel-borne input of N increased 20-fold, and of P 8-fold. In 1900-1950, the increasing use of hard coal slowly boosted N input, whereas wood fuels were the main carrier of P. Since 1970, the fluxes have been on the rise. NOx emissions leveled off in the 1980s, though, and then declined in conjunction with improvements in combustion technologies such as NOx removal (de-NOx) technologies in energy production and catalytic converters in cars.

  19. Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Sanna; Nikulin, Marjo; Berg, Seija; Parikka, Päivi; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa

    Farmers' exposure to airborne dust, fungi and possibly also to Fusarium toxins during the drying and milling of grain and feeding of cattle was studied on eight Finnish farms. Airborne viable and total spores were collected on polycarbonate filters. Spore concentrations and fungal flora were determined by cultivation and epifluorescence microscope counting. Eighteen airborne dust samples were taken on glass-fiber filters with a high-volume sampler, and biological toxicity was tested from those samples. In toxic dust samples, Fusarium toxins were analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fungi and Fusarium toxins were also analyzed in ten grain samples collected from the farms during the air sampling. Yeasts, as well as species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Absidia and Fusarium occurred in the air at all three stages of grain handling. Airborne spore concentrations ranged from 103 to 10 6 cfu m -3 for viable fungi and from 10 5 to 10 7 spores m -3 for total spores; airborne dust concentrations varied from 0.04 to 81.1 mg m -3. Low deoxynivalenol concentrations (3 and 20 ng m -3) were found in two air samples collected during milling. Fusarium spp. were identified in eight grain samples, and DON concentrations of 0.004-11 mg kg -1 were detected in all samples analyzed. Although any conclusion on Finnish farmers' exposure to mycotoxins cannot be done on the basis of this small data, it can be assumed that toxigenic fungi and Fusarium toxins may occur in the air and inhalation exposure of farmers to Fusarium toxins is possible in agricultural environment.

  20. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Ilari; Kämäräinen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa; Venäläinen, Ari; Peltola, Heli

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts of the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below -8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. The increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.

  1. Mapping of the locus for congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) on chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Kestilae, M.; Maennikkoe, M.; Tryggvason, K.

    1994-09-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease which forms a distinct entity among congenital nephrotic syndromes. It is characterized by massive proteinuria starting already in utero, large placenta and manifestation of nephrosis soon after birth. The incidence in Finland is about 1 in 8000 newborns, and the disease has been reported occasionally in other countries, particularly in Minnesota, USA. The gene defect in CNF is unknown, but the gene product is likely to be important for kidney development of glomerular filtration. We have used a random mapping approach in 17 Finnish CNF families resulting in the localization of the gene to chromosome 19q12-q13.1. Based on observed recombination events, the CNF locus is flanked by markers D19S191 and D19S224 corresponding to a region under 1 Mb in physical length. Cosmid contigs have been isolated from this region and at least two new polymorphic CA-repeat markers (MKMM1, MKMM2) have been identified from those clones. Statistically highly significant linkage disequilibrium can be observed with markers MKMM1, D19S224 and D19S220, the allelic association being about 65%. The most common haplotype, which was combined from these markers, is found in 60% of chromosomes carrying the CNF mutation. This work has enabled DNA-based diagnosis of CNF, and recently linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses were used in prenatal diagnostics in a family with one affected child and two healthy siblings. DNA isolated from chorion villus biopsy was analyzed using markers D19S191, MKMM1, D19S224 and D19S220, and the fetus was shown to have the same genotype as the affected child.

  2. The Finnish Forward Surgical Team Experience During EUFOR Operation RD Congo in 2006.

    PubMed

    Handolin, Lauri; Elomaa, Teemu

    2007-06-01

    The army Forward Surgical Team (FST) is a mobile surgical asset designed to provide life- and limbsaving combat surgery in remote and austere terrains. Operation EUFOR RDC in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2006 was the first one planned and conducted solely by the European Union Forces (EUFOR). The first two European FSTs reported in the present article were established by the Finnish Defence Forces.The Finnish FSTs were deployed for 4 months in Kinshasa. Three different deployment scenarios were trained; the equipments loaded on two trucks and carried by two C-130 aircrafts, the equipments loaded on two aircraft pallets (no trucks) and carried by one C-130 aircraft, and the equipments loaded on and carried by two CH-53 helicopters. The FSTs were deployed in three tactical and four reconnaissance operations. Due to the peacekeeping nature of the Operation, the surgical medical workload was light. The total number of patients treated by FSTs was 12,5 of them being due to trauma and 7 to medical condition. All trauma cases were of noncombat origin, and only one of them was severe.The European FST concept should be developed for future missions regarding the experiences gained during the reported deployment, the main goals being the mobility and the lightness of the unit. This kind of special trauma surgical asset, designed for remote theatres, will possibly be useful also in other emergency operations taking place in non-conventional circumstances; a concept of FST could easily be deployed in short notice to various accidental and natural disasters. PMID:26814487

  3. Dietary acrylamide exposure among Finnish adults and children: the potential effect of reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, T; Jestoi, M; Tapanainen, H; Valsta, L; Virtanen, S M; Sinkko, H; Kronberg-Kippilä, C; Kontto, J; Virtamo, J; Simell, O; Peltonen, K

    2011-11-01

    A deterministic exposure assessment using the Nusser method that adjusts for within-subject variation and for nuisance effects among Finnish children and adults was carried out. The food consumption data covered 2038 adults (25-74 years old) and 1514 children of 1, 3 and 6 years of age, with the data on foods' acrylamide content obtained from published Finnish studies. We found that acrylamide exposure was highest among the 3-year-old children (median = 1.01 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 97.5th percentile = 1.95 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and lowest among 65-74-year-old women (median = 0.31 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 97.5th percentile = 0.69 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)). Among adults, the most important source of acrylamide exposure was coffee, followed by casseroles rich in starch, then rye bread. Among children, the most important sources were casseroles rich in starch and then biscuits and, finally, chips and other fried potatoes. Replacing lightly roasted coffee with dark-roasted, swapping sweet wheat buns for biscuits, and decreasing the acrylamide content of starch-based casseroles and rye bread by 50% would result in a 50% decrease in acrylamide exposure in adults. Among children, substituting boiled potatoes for chips and other friend potatoes and replacing biscuits with sweet wheat buns while lowering the acrylamide content of starch-based casseroles by 50% would lead to acrylamide exposure that is only half of the original exposure. In conclusions, dietary modifications could have a large impact in decreasing acrylamide exposure.

  4. Investigating the spatial expression of millennial-scale Holocene climate changes: a multi-proxy lake sediment approach, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fower, D.; Wilson, G. P.; Pepin, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajärvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajävri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and δ18O analysis of its waters (-11.2‰) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is

  5. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  6. Early introduction of dairy products associated with increased risk of IDDM in Finnish children. The Childhood in Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S M; Räsänen, L; Ylönen, K; Aro, A; Clayton, D; Langholz, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Savilahti, E; Lounamaa, R; Tuomilehto, J

    1993-12-01

    Associations between infant-feeding patterns and risk of IDDM were investigated in a nationwide Finnish case-control study of 690 IDDM children < 15 yr of age. Each child was matched by date of birth and sex to a randomly selected population-based control child. Univariate analysis revealed that the risk of IDDM was increased by approximately 1.5 in children for whom breast-feeding was terminated at < 2 mo of age, doubled in those who were exclusively breast-fed for < 2 mo, and doubled in those who were introduced to dairy products at < 2 mo of age. In further multivariate analyses of these factors, it was found that introduction of dairy products at an early age was the most important risk factor, and the observed univariate effects of duration of breast-feeding variables were explained by their correlation with this factor. This is the first observational study to show that early introduction of dairy products is independently associated with an increased risk of IDDM. Adjustment for mother's education and age, child's birth order, or birth weight did not affect the results. PMID:8243824

  7. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variant m.15218A > G in Finnish epilepsy patients who have maternal relatives with epilepsy, sensorineural hearing impairment or diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) affect tissues with high energy demand. Epilepsy is one of the manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction when the brain is affected. We have studied here 79 Finnish patients with epilepsy and who have maternal first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy, sensorineural hearing impairment or diabetes mellitus. Methods The entire mtDNA was studied by using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and PCR fragments that differed in mobility were directly sequenced. Results We found a common nonsynonymous variant m.15218A > G (p.T158A, MTCYB) that occurs in haplogroup U5a1 to be more frequent in patients with epilepsy. The m.15218A > G variant was present in five patients with epilepsy and in four out of 403 population controls (p = 0.0077). This variant was present in two branches in the phylogenetic network constructed on the basis of mtDNA variation among the patients. Three algorithms predicted that m.15218A > G is damaging in effect. Conclusions We suggest that the m.15218A > G variant is mildly deleterious and that mtDNA involvement should be considered in patients with epilepsy and who have a maternal history of epilepsy, sensorineural hearing impairment or diabetes mellitus. PMID:23870133

  9. Combined Analysis of Genome Scans of Dutch and Finnish Families Reveals a Susceptibility Locus for High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Chromosome 16q

    PubMed Central

    Pajukanta, Päivi; Allayee, Hooman; Krass, Kelly L.; Kuraishy, Ali; Soro, Aino; Lilja, Heidi E.; Mar, Rebecca; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Nuotio, Ilpo; Laakso, Markku; Rotter, Jerome I.; de Bruin, Tjerk W. A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Peltonen, Leena

    2003-01-01

    Several genomewide screens have been performed to identify novel loci predisposing to unfavorable serum lipid levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that the accumulating data of these screens in different study populations could be combined to verify which of the identified loci truly harbor susceptibility genes. The power of this strategy has recently been demonstrated with other complex diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. We assessed the largely unknown genetic background of CHD by investigating the most common dyslipidemia predisposing to CHD, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), affecting 1%–2% of Western populations and 10%–20% of families with premature CHD. To be able to perform a combined data analysis, we unified the diagnostic criteria for FCHL and its component traits and combined the data from two genomewide scans performed in two populations, the Finns and the Dutch. As a result of our pooled data analysis, we identified three chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 2p25.1, 9p23, and 16q24.1, exceeding the statistical significance level of a LOD score >2.0. The 2p25.1 region was detected for the FCHL trait, and the 9p23 and 16q24.1 regions were detected for the low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) trait. In addition, the previously recognized 1q21 region also obtained additional support in the other study sample, when the triglyceride trait was used. Analysis of the 16q24.1 region resulted in a statistically significant LOD score of 3.6 when the data from Finnish families with low HDL-C were included in the analysis. To search for the underlying gene in the 16q24.1 region, we investigated a novel functional and positional candidate gene, helix/forkhead transcription factor (FOXC2), by sequencing and by genotyping of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the families. PMID:12638083

  10. Serological survey in the Finnish human population implies human-to-human transmission of Ljungan virus or antigenically related viruses.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, A J; Voutilainen, L; Lehmusto, R; Henttonen, H; Lappalainen, M; Kallio-Kokko, H; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    2016-04-01

    Ljungan virus (LV) is a picornavirus related to human parechoviruses (HPeV). The virus has been found in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and several other rodent species, and suggested to have zoonotic potential. Thus far, seroepidemiological data on LV infections in humans are scarce. In this study, we aimed to characterize the demographic and geographical distribution of LV-reactive antibodies in Finland, and to investigate its occurrence in patients suspected of having a rodent-borne disease, nephropathia epidemica (NE) caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Using an immunofluorescence assay (LV strain 145SLG), we screened human sera (n = 1378) and found LV-reactive antibodies in 36% of samples. The probability of possessing LV-reactive antibodies peaked at age of 14 years, suggesting that most infections occur in childhood. The prevalence of LV-reactive antibodies was significantly higher in the urbanized area surrounding Helsinki than in more rural Central Finland. These findings are uncharacteristic of a rodent-borne pathogen, and therefore we consider human-to-human transmission of one or several Ljungan-like viruses as a likely cause for most of the observed antibody responses. PMID:26489898

  11. Cultural perceptions of Finnish nursing students regarding people and nurses of the United States: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Joanne; Martin, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study measures cultural awareness through perceptions of 139 Finnish nursing students regarding American people and nurses. Inquiry was guided by cultural dimensions depicted in Leininger's Sunrise Model. Statements of highest agreement were that: U.S. citizens frequently initiate lawsuits, have strong national identity, eagerly try new technological equipment, U.S. nurses have less authority than physicians, the U.S. shares technological advances with Third World countries. Statements of lowest agreement were that health care is available to all U.S. citizens, U.S. people live healthy lifestyles, U.S. nurses have knowledge of other cultures and knowledge of international health care issues, and U.S. citizens are law abiding. Almost half of the responses indicated neither agree nor disagree, with means between 2.7 and 3.3. Responses of Finnish students indicated stereotypical views of U.S. citizens and nurses. PMID:15608101

  12. A premodern legacy: the "easy" criminalization of homosexual acts between women in the Finnish Penal Code of 1889.

    PubMed

    Löfström, J

    1998-01-01

    Homosexual acts between women were criminalized in Finland in the 1889 Penal Code which also criminalized men's homosexual acts for the first time explicitly in Finnish legislation. The inclusion of women in the Penal Code took place without much ado. In the article it is argued that the uncomplicated juxtaposing of men and women was due to the legacy of a cultural pattern where man and woman, as categories, were not in an all-pervasive polarity to each other, for example, in sexual subjectivity. A cultural pattern of low gender polarization was typical of preindustrial rural culture, and it can help us apprehend also certain other features in contemporary Finnish social and political life, for example, women obtaining a general franchise and eligibility for the parliament first in the world, in 1906. A modern image of "public man" and "private woman" was only making its way in Finnish society; hence, there was not much anxiety at women's entry in politics, or, for that matter, at their potential for (homo)sexual subjectivity becoming recognized publicly in criminal law.

  13. The effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system - What works, what doesn't, and what could be improved?

    SciTech Connect

    Poeloenen, Ismo; Hokkanen, Pekka; Jalava, Kimmo

    2011-03-15

    The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.

  14. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two

  15. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  16. Recovery from acidification of Finnish lakes: regional patterns and relations to emission reduction policy.

    PubMed

    Forsius, Martin; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Mannio, Jaakko; Syri, Sanna

    2003-07-01

    The regional-scale response of Finnish headwater lakes to changes in acidifying deposition loads was studied using data from a national deposition monitoring network (19 stations), acidification monitoring lakes (163 lakes) and results of a statistically based national lake survey (873 lakes). Data from 1990 to 1999 were used for statistical trend analysis. A deposition model was used to assess changes in S and N deposition for the year 2010, assuming emission reductions according to two international agreements. The deposition of sulfate and H(+) showed statistically significant (Kendall-tau, P<0.05) decreasing trends at nearly all deposition stations. For N compounds, nearly all slopes were negative, but rarely statistically significant. Sulfate concentrations have declined in all types of small lakes throughout Finland in the 1990s (significant decline in 64-85% of the lakes in three different lake regions), indicating a clear response to S emission reductions and declined sulfate deposition. Base cation concentrations decreased in both deposition and lake water, especially in southern Finland, but to a lesser extent than sulfate concentrations. The median slope of the trend for Gran alkalinity in lakes ranged between 0.98 and 2.1 microeq l(-1) a(-1). Some 1400 (27%) of Finnish headwater lakes of size 4-100 ha were estimated to show statistically significant increases in Gran alkalinity (recovery). No large changes were observed in the lake water TOC concentrations. The reduction in S deposition is the main driving factor for the lake acidification recovery process in Finland. Deposition model calculations showed that further large reductions in S deposition beyond the 1999 level are not likely to occur by the year 2010, particularly for southeastern Finland. The mean estimated S deposition change by 2010 for the three lake regions in Finland was only between -0.9 and -6.6% for the two policy scenarios (UN/ECE Gothenburg protocol, EU NEC-directive), respectively

  17. HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes and genotypes in Finnish patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laivoranta-Nyman, S; Mottonen, T; Hermann, R; Tuokko, J; Luukkainen, R; Hakala, M; Hannonen, P; Korpela, M; Yli-Kerttula, U; Toivanen, A; Ilonen, J; t and

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the contribution of HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes and their genotypic combinations to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, and to evaluate the various models for HLA associated risk for the disease in a series of Finnish patients. Methods: 322 Finnish patients with rheumatoid arthritis were typed for common north European HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes and compared with a series of 1244 artificial family based control haplotypes. Results: The association of the so called shared epitope (SE) haplotypes (DRB1*0401, *0404, *0408, and *01) with rheumatoid arthritis was confirmed. The DRB1*0401 haplotypes carried a far stronger risk for the disease than the (DRB1*01/10)-(DQA1*01)-DQB1*0501 haplotypes. Seven protective HLA haplotypes—(DRB1*15)-(DQA1*01)-DQB1*0602; (DRB1*08)-(DQA1*04)-DQB1*04; (DRB1*11/12)-DQA1*05-DQB1*0301; (DRB1*1301)-(DQA1*01)-DQB1*0603; (DRB1*1302)-(DQA1*01)-DQB1*0604; (DRB1*07)-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303; and (DRB1*16)- (DQA1*01)-DQB1*0502—were identified. In accordance with the reshaped shared epitope hypothesis, all the protective DRB1 alleles in these haplotypes share either isoleucine at position 67 or aspartic acid at position 70 in their third hypervariable region motif. However, differences in the disease risk of haplotypes carrying the same DR but different DQ alleles were also found: (DRB1*07)-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303 was protective, while (DRB1*07)-DQA1*0201-DQB1*02 was neutral. The same haplotypes carried different risks for rheumatoid arthritis depending on their combination in genotypes. Conclusions: When assessing the influence of HLA genes on the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, not only should the HLA-DR or -DQ alleles or haplotypes be unravelled but also the genotype. The effect of HLA class II region genes is more complicated than any of the existing hypotheses can explain. PMID:15479890

  18. Genetic Influences on Hand Osteoarthritis in Finnish Women – A Replication Study of Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hämäläinen, Satu; Solovieva, Svetlana; Vehmas, Tapio; Luoma, Katariina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Hirvonen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our aims were to replicate some previously reported associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes (A2BP1, COG5, GDF5, HFE, ESR1) with hand osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether genes (BCAP29, DIO2, DUS4L, DVWA, HLA, PTGS2, PARD3B, TGFB1 and TRIB1) associated with OA at other joint sites were associated with hand OA among Finnish women. Design We examined the bilateral hand radiographs of 542 occupationally active Finnish female dentists and teachers aged 45 to 63 and classified them according to the presence of OA by using reference images. Data regarding finger joint pain and other risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. We defined two hand OA phenotypes: radiographic OA in at least three joints (ROA) and symptomatic DIP OA. The genotypes were determined by PCR-based methods. In statistical analysis, we used SNPStats software, the chi-square test and logistic regression. Results Of the SNPs, rs716508 in A2BP1 was associated with ROA (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5–0.9) and rs1800470 in TGFB1 with symptomatic DIP OA (1.8, 1.2–2.9). We found an interaction between ESR1 (rs9340799) and occupation: teachers with the minor allele were at an increased risk of symptomatic DIP OA (2.8, 1.3–6.5). We saw no association among the dentists. We also found that the carriage of the COG5 rs3757713 C allele increased the risk of ROA only among women with the BCAP29 rs10953541 CC genotype (2.6; 1.1–6.1). There was also a suggestive interaction between the HFE rs179945 and the ESR1 rs9340799, and the carriage of the minor allele of either of these SNPs was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic DIP OA (2.1, 1.3–2.5). Conclusions Our results support the earlier findings of A2BP1 and TBGF1 being OA susceptibility genes and provide evidence of a possible gene-gene interaction in the genetic influence on hand OA predisposition. PMID:24825461

  19. Feeding in infancy and the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Finnish children. The 'Childhood Diabetes in Finland' Study Group.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S M; Räsänen, L; Aro, A; Ylönen, K; Lounamaa, R; Tuomilehto, J; Akerblom, H K

    1992-11-01

    In a case-control design the feeding in infancy of newly diagnosed 7- to 14-year-old diabetic children (n = 426) was compared with that of age- and sex-matched non-diabetic children (n = 426) randomly selected from the Finnish population registry. All 7- to 14-year-old diabetic children diagnosed from September 1986 to the end of April 1989 from all hospitals which treat diabetic children in Finland were invited to participate in the study. Breast-feeding was initiated in almost all children, but during the birth years of this study population (1972-1982), an increase was observed in the duration of breast-feeding (whether alone or in combination with supplementary feeding) and in the age of introduction of supplementary milk feeding. The risk of Type 1 diabetes was decreased in the children who were totally breast-fed for at least 2 months (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.98) or 3 months (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.95) or exclusively breast-fed for at least 2 months (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89) or 3 months (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93). Those children who were younger than 2 months (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.08-2.18) or 3 months (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.11-2.08) at the time when supplementary milk feeding was begun had an increased risk of Type 1 diabetes. These associations remained significant after adjusting for the mother's education. The results suggest that early infant feeding patterns are associated with the risk of Type 1 diabetes developing at the age of 7 to 14 years. PMID:1473321

  20. Epidemiology of Anorexia Nervosa in Men: A Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans W.; Susser, Ezra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in men, we screened Finnish male twins born in 1975–79. Methods and Findings Men (N = 2122) from FinnTwin16 birth cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by a questionnaire. The screen positives (N = 18), their male co-twins (N = 10) and those with lifetime minimum BMI≤17.5 (N = 21) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV anorexia nervosa. The incidence rate of anorexia nervosa for the presumed peak age of risk (10–24y) was 15.7 per 100 000 person-years; its lifetime prevalence was 0.24%. All probands had recovered from eating disorders, but suffered from substantial psychiatric comorbidity, which also manifested in their co-twins. Additionally, male co-twins displayed significant dissatisfaction with body musculature, a male-specific feature of body dysmorphic disorder. Conclusions Anorexia nervosa in males in the community is more common, transient and accompanied by more substantial comorbidity than previously thought. PMID:19204790

  1. Functional Antibodies Elicited by Two Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial▿

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Väkeväinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM197 (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  2. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans.

  3. Diet of Finnish children in relation to the family's socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K

    1995-06-01

    The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear. PMID:7676224

  4. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-05-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation. PMID:8199683

  5. Finnish and British mentors' conceptions of facilitating nursing students' placement learning and professional development.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Merja; Jamookeeah, David; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Pre-registration nursing students require varying levels of support during placement learning. Although they receive support from different stakeholders, the support provided by mentors is considered the most significant. Several challenges are encountered in the facilitation of students in placements, particularly in relation to mentors' roles in support and assessment. This phenomenographical study examines the conceptions of Finnish and British mentors regarding the facilitation of placement learning and professional development of pre-registration nursing students. The findings identified four main categories of description, which grouped the different ways mentors experienced the facilitation of students. Firstly, students should be the focus and respected as individual partners with personal learning goals. Secondly, placements must be fit for students' practice and learning. Thirdly, facilitation was seen as guided co-working and spurring to enable a student to attain stipulated nursing competencies. Finally, ongoing assessment of students' achievements, learning outcomes and professional attributes was viewed as significant. This study highlights the importance of human and pedagogical approaches in the facilitation of students' placement learning and professional development. Hence, mentors are required to have effective communication and evaluation skills, and should therefore be supported through mandatory mentor preparation programmes and updates developed in national and cross-cultural co-operation.

  6. A novel mutation W388X underlying properdin deficiency in a Finnish family.

    PubMed

    Helminen, M; Seitsonen, S; Jarva, H; Meri, S; Järvelä, I E

    2012-04-01

    Properdin deficiency is a rare immunological disorder inherited as an X-chromosomal recessive trait. Properdin deficiency poses a significant risk for severe meningococcal infections. About 20 mutations have been reported to underlie properdin deficiency. Here we report a large Finnish family with a novel mutation in the properdin gene (CFP). Based on the total absence of properdin activity in a 14-year-old male patient with an infection resembling meningococcal bacteraemia, the coding region and splice sites of the gene were sequenced. The mutation is located in exon 9 and changes guanine to adenine at nucleotide 1164 (c.1164G>A) that causes tryptophan to change to a premature stop codon (W388X). The mother of the patient was shown to be a carrier of the mutation. In total, the mutation was identified in six females and three young males in the family. The mutation must be inherited from the grandfather who had died of an unknown infectious disease. This is the first mutation of the properdin gene identified in Finland.

  7. Cupping as a part of living finnish traditional healing. A remedy against pain.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, O; Vaskilampi, T

    1982-01-01

    Wet cupping appears to be a living reminiscence of the traditional Finnish healing methods. Fifteen persons practicing or having practiced cupping were interviewed in Savo Province, Eastern Finland. The knowledge and skills of cupping appear to be transferred by personal apprenticeship within a family or from a neighbour. No written material is nowadays available and known to be used in learning. Cupping is considered by healers to be useful in the treatment of aching and pains of teeth, head, neck, shoulders, back and legs. Cuppers report cupping effective also in hypertension and skin diseases. On the other hand, the method is not regarded to be useful in problems of internal organs. Cupping is done after a sauna and bathing of the patient in a warm environment (in sauna). It is often preceded by massage. The small wounds in the cupping sites are made with the aid of a small knife. The healers have the opinion that bad blood must be removed from the superficial areas of the ailing parts of the body, The cupping sites were more or less specific to the ailments of the patient and the number of cups varied from patient to patient depending on the condition and size.

  8. Intestinal microbiome is related to lifetime antibiotic use in Finnish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J; Kekkonen, Riina A; Forslund, Kristoffer; Bork, Peer; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life antibiotic use is associated with increased risk for metabolic and immunological diseases, and mouse studies indicate a causal role of the disrupted microbiome. However, little is known about the impacts of antibiotics on the developing microbiome of children. Here we use phylogenetics, metagenomics and individual antibiotic purchase records to show that macrolide use in 2-7 year-old Finnish children (N=142; sampled at two time points) is associated with a long-lasting shift in microbiota composition and metabolism. The shift includes depletion of Actinobacteria, increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, decrease in bile-salt hydrolase and increase in macrolide resistance. Furthermore, macrolide use in early life is associated with increased risk of asthma and predisposes to antibiotic-associated weight gain. Overweight and asthmatic children have distinct microbiota compositions. Penicillins leave a weaker mark on the microbiota than macrolides. Our results support the idea that, without compromising clinical practice, the impact on the intestinal microbiota should be considered when prescribing antibiotics. PMID:26811868

  9. Injuries associated with the use of ejection seats in Finnish pilots.

    PubMed

    Visuri, T; Aho, J

    1992-08-01

    During the years 1958-91 17 Finnish pilots were forced to use ejection seats. The aircraft types were as follows: a) BA Hawk in 6 instances; b) a Mig 21-F-13 in 4; c) a Mig-21-Bis in 3; d) a Gnat Folland in 2; e) a Vampire Trainer in 1; and f) a MU-3 in 1 case. There were 3 ejections completed successfully, 12 pilots sustained slight injuries, and 5 pilots suffered major injuries--3 from compression fractures of the thoracic spine, 1 from fracture of the femur, and 1 from rupture of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. All major injuries were associated with Soviet aircraft. One BA-Hawk pilot died due to a direct impact against a tree after a low-altitude ejection. Two pilots launched the seat under negative G-forces. One of these became temporarily blind, and suffered a partial loss of vision for 3 months. Four Hawk pilots were saved during landing phase by a tandem ejection, receiving only minor injuries. PMID:1510649

  10. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. PMID:25648198

  11. Socially optimal drainage system and agricultural biodiversity: a case study for Finnish landscape.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Herzon, Irina; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-12-15

    This paper examines the socially optimal drainage choice (surface/subsurface) for agricultural crop cultivation in a landscape with different land qualities (fertilities) when private profits and nutrient runoff damages are taken into account. We also study the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage when the locations of the surface-drained areas in a landscape affect the provided biodiversity. We develop a general theoretical model and apply it to empirical data from Finnish agriculture. We find that for low land qualities the measurable social returns are higher to surface drainage than to subsurface drainage, and that the profitability of subsurface drainage increases along with land quality. The measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage under low land qualities are negative. For higher land qualities, these costs depend on the land quality and on the biodiversity impacts. Biodiversity conservation plans for agricultural landscapes should focus on supporting surface drainage systems in areas where the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity are negative or lowest.

  12. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-01-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation. PMID:8199683

  13. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-05-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation.

  14. Permafrost peatland dynamics during the last millennia in NE European Russia and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Väliranta, Minna; Piilo, Sanna; Amesbury, Matthew; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost peatlands cover vast areas in circum-Arctic regions. Since the 1980s, annual temperatures in these areas have risen by ca. 2 °C and warming is projected to continue. Accordingly, the large carbon store in these peatlands may therefore be threatened. Alternatively, warming may increase productivity more than decomposition and peat accumulation rates may increase. To better understand how high latitude permafrost peatlands have responded to recent warming and what might be their future fate, we carried out detailed studies on two permafrost peatlands in NE Russia and two in Finnish Lapland. Our study methods included high resolution testate amoeba, plant macrofossil, C/N analyses, together with 210Pb and radiocarbon dating. We reconstructed changes in hydrological conditions, plant composition, and peat and carbon accumulation rates. Our preliminary results showed large variations in peat accumulation rates even within a very small area. Furthermore, testate amoeba and plant macrofossil data suggest variations in hydrological conditions during the last millennia. In the future, we will compare our regional data derived from different peatlands to each other, to climate reconstructions and to measured meteorological data.

  15. Experiences of school bullying among internationally adopted children: results from the Finnish Adoption (FINADO) Study.

    PubMed

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Mäkipää, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The children were identified through official adoption organizations. The response rate in the target sample was 49.4%: the study sample consisted of 364 children (190 girls, 52.2%). The children's background factors and symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) were evaluated using a FINADO questionnaire. Their learning difficulties and social and language skills were assessed using a standardized parental questionnaire (Five to Fifteen). Of the participants, 19.8% reported victimization by peers while 8% had bullied others. Both victimization and bullying were associated with severe symptoms of RAD at the time of adoption (RR 2.68, 95%CI 1.50-4.77 and RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.17-3.69 for victimization and bullying, respectively). Lack of social skills was associated with victimization (RR 1.74, 95%CI 1.06-2.85) but not independently with being a bully (RR 1.50, 95%CI 0.91-2.45). In a multivariate analysis the child's learning difficulties and language difficulties were not associated with either bullying others or victimization.

  16. A 35-year follow-up study on burnout among Finnish employees.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, Jari J; Bakker, Arnold B; Jokisaari, Markku

    2011-07-01

    This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout.

  17. Orthodontic treatment practices in Finnish municipal health centres with differing timing of treatment.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, I; Pietilä, T; Svedström-Oristo, A-L; Varrela, J; Alanen, P

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare orthodontic practices in eight Finnish municipal health centres selected on the basis of an earlier survey to represent early and late timing of treatment. The health centres were grouped according to the mean age of starting treatment; earlier versus later than 9 years of age. A random sample of 16 and 18 year olds (n = 2325) living in these municipalities were invited for a clinical examination, and 1109 adolescents participated. The participants reported on their previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment by means of a questionnaire. Data on orthodontic treatment received were collected from the dental files of the adolescents who reported a treatment history and for those who did not recall exactly whether or not they had received orthodontic treatment. Analysis of the non-respondents was made on the basis of their dental files. Differences between the features of orthodontic treatment in the early and late starting health centres were analysed using a two-tailed t-test. In the early group, 70 per cent, and in the late group 42 per cent, of adolescents had a history of orthodontic treatment. General dentists carried out 90 per cent of the treatment in the early group and specialists every third treatment in the late group. An early start resulted in more frequent visits (P = 0.004) and a longer treatment duration (P < 0.001), while later timing resulted in an increase in the number of appliances (P < 0.001).

  18. Vertical and Horizontal Trust at Work as Predictors of Retirement Intentions: The Finnish Public Sector Study

    PubMed Central

    Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000–12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745

  19. ODIN/OSIRIS Level 2 retrieval and validation at Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A.; Hassinen, S.; Auvinen, H.; Kyrölä, E.; Karpetchko, A.; Haley, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    The Odin satellite launched on February 2001 carries two instruments, OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System) and SMR (Sub-Millimeter Radiometer). OSIRIS and SMR are both used for making aeronomical measurements whereas SMR makes astronomical measurements as well. In aeronomy mode both instruments use the limb scanning technique to retrieve vertical profiles of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Finland (Tekes) and France (CNES). OSIRIS measurements cover the altitude range from 7 to 60 km (or alternatively to 120 km). The Level 1 processing of the OSIRIS measurement data is done in Canada by University of Saskatchewan. The Level 2 processing is done separately by teams in Canada and Finland using different retrieval methods. In Finland the Level 2 processing is done by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) using the Modified Onion Peeling (MOP) method. The aim of the processing is to simultaneously retrieve vertical profiles of ozone, NO_2, BrO, OClO and aerosols. The profile of neutral air density is also retrieved. The processing takes place at Sodankylä processing center. The processed FMI Level 2 data will be compared with OSIRIS data processed with other retrieval methods e.g. the ozone profiles retrieved using the so-called Flittner method. The validation will also be done against other satellite instruments and various soundings. These validation results will be presented.

  20. Genetic component of identification, intensity and pleasantness of odours: a Finnish family study.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, Antti; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Kallela, Mikko; Wessman, Maija; Sammalisto, Sampo; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Palotie, Aarno; Peltonen, Leena; Tuorila, Hely; Perola, Markus

    2007-05-01

    Although potential odorant receptor genes have been identified, the precise genetic component of perception of odours is still obscure. Although there is some evidence for heritability of a few olfactory-related traits, no genome-wide search for loci harboring underlying genes has been published to date. We performed a genome-wide scan to identify loci affecting the identification, intensity and pleasantness of 12 odours (cinnamon, turpentine, lemon, smoke, chocolate, rose, paint thinner, banana, pineapple, gasoline, soap, onion) using 146 Finnish adults from 26 families. Several of these traits showed heritable variation in the families. Suggestive evidence of linkage was found for the pleasantness of cinnamon odour (h(2)=61%) on chromosome 4q32.3 (multipoint logarithm of the odds (LOD) score 3.01), as well as for the perceived intensity of paint thinner odour (h(2)=31%) on chromosome 2p14 (multipoint LOD score 2.55). As these loci do not contain any known human odorant receptor genes, they may rather harbor genes that affect the central processing than the peripheral detection of the odour signal. Thus, perception of odours is potentially modified by genes other than those encoding odorant receptors. PMID:17342154

  1. Descriptions of euthanasia as social representations: comparing the views of Finnish physicians and religious professionals.

    PubMed

    Jylhänkangas, Leila; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Utriainen, Terhi; Deliens, Luc

    2014-03-01

    In many western societies health professionals play a powerful role in people's experiences of dying. Religious professionals, such as pastors, are also confronted with the issues surrounding death and dying in their work. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the ways in which death-related topics, such as euthanasia, are constructed in a given culture are affected by the views of these professionals. This qualitative study addresses the ways in which Finnish physicians and religious professionals perceive and describe euthanasia and conceptualises these descriptions and views as social representations. Almost all the physicians interviewed saw that euthanasia does not fit the role of a physician and anchored it to different kinds of risks such as the slippery slope. Most of the religious and world-view professionals also rejected euthanasia. In this group, euthanasia was rejected on the basis of a religious moral code that forbids killing. Only one of the religious professionals - the freethinker with an atheist world-view - accepted euthanasia and described it as a personal choice, as did the one physician interviewed who accepted it. The article shows how the social representations of euthanasia are used to protect professional identities and to justify their expert knowledge of death and dying.

  2. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  3. Children's Experiences of Completing a Computer-Based Violence Survey: Finnish Child Victim Survey Revisited.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Monica; Ellonen, Noora

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of children as research subjects requires special considerations with regard to research practices and ethics. This is especially true concerning sensitive research topics such as sexual victimization. Prior research suggests that reflecting these experiences in a survey can cause negative feelings in child participants, although posing only a minimal to moderate risk. Analyzing only predefined, often negative feelings related to answering a sexual victimization survey has dominated the existing literature. In this article children's free-text comments about answering a victimization survey and experiences of sexual victimization are analyzed together to evaluate the effects of research participation in relation to this sensitive issue. Altogether 11,364 children, aged 11-12 and 15-16, participated in the Finnish Child Victim Survey in 2013. Of these, 69% (7,852) reflected on their feelings about answering the survey. Results indicate that both clearly negative and positive feelings are more prevalent among victimized children compared to their nonvictimized peers. Characteristics unique to sexual victimization as well as differences related to gender and age are also discussed. The study contributes to the important yet contradictory field of studying the effects of research participation on children. PMID:27472509

  4. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, T; Kontto, J; Jestoi, M; Valsta, L; Peltonen, K; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, SM; Sinkko, H; Kronberg-Kippilä, C; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers. Methods The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50–69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at baseline. Incident cases of cancer were identified through the national Finnish Cancer Registry. Results During an average 10.2 year follow-up 1703 lung cancers, 799 prostate cancers, 365 urothelial cancers, 316 colorectal cancers, 224 stomach cancers, 192 pancreatic cancers, 184 renal cell cancers, and 175 lymphomas were diagnosed. Dietary acrylamide intake was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer; relative risk (RR) in the highest vs. the lowest quintile in the multivariate-adjusted model was 1.18 ((95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.38, p for trend 0.11). Other cancers were not associated with acrylamide intake. Conclusions High acrylamide intake is associated with increased risk of lung cancer but not with other cancers in male smokers. PMID:20859673

  5. Detection of Novel Gene Variants Associated with Congenital Hypothyroidism in a Finnish Patient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Löf, Christoffer; Patyra, Konrad; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Undeutsch, Henriette; Jaeschke, Holger; Pajunen, Tuulia; Kero, Andreina; Krude, Heiko; Biebermann, Heike; Kleinau, Gunnar; Kühnen, Peter; Rantakari, Krista; Miettinen, Päivi; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Mustila, Taina; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Ojaniemi, Marja; Toppari, Jorma; Ignatius, Jaakko; Laakso, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is defined as the lack of thyroid hormones at birth. Mutations in at least 15 different genes have been associated with this disease. While up to 20% of CH cases are hereditary, the majority of cases are sporadic with unknown etiology. Apart from a monogenic pattern of inheritance, multigenic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in CH. The genetics of CH has not been studied in Finland so far. Therefore, multigenic sequencing of CH candidate genes was performed in a Finnish patient cohort with both familial and sporadic CH. Methods: A targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, covering all exons of the major CH genes, was applied for 15 patients with sporadic and 11 index cases with familial CH. Results: Among the familial cases, six pathogenic mutations were found in the TPO, PAX8, and TSHR genes. Furthermore, pathogenic NKX2.1 and TG mutations were identified from sporadic cases, together with likely pathogenic variants in the TG, NKX2.5, SLC26A4, and DUOX2 genes. All identified novel pathogenic mutations were confirmed by Sanger-sequencing and characterized in silico and/or in vitro. Conclusion: In summary, the CH panel provides an efficient, cost-effective, and multigenic screening tool for both known and novel CH gene mutations. Hence, it may be a useful method to identify accurately the genetic etiology for dyshormogenic, familial, or syndromic forms of CH. PMID:27373559

  6. A 35-year follow-up study on burnout among Finnish employees.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, Jari J; Bakker, Arnold B; Jokisaari, Markku

    2011-07-01

    This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout. PMID:21728440

  7. Finnish upper secondary students' collaborative processes in learning statistics in a CSCL environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleva Oikarinen, Juho; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-04-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in statistics. The main aim of this study is to examine how student collaboration occurs in learning statistics in a CSCL environment. The data include material from videotaped classroom observations and the researcher's notes. In this paper, the inter-subjective phenomena of students' interactions in a CSCL environment are analysed by using a contact summary sheet (CSS). The development of the multi-dimensional coding procedure of the CSS instrument is presented. Aptly selected video episodes were transcribed and coded in terms of conversational acts, which were divided into non-task-related and task-related categories to depict students' levels of collaboration. The results show that collaborative learning (CL) can facilitate cohesion and responsibility and reduce students' feelings of detachment in our classless, periodic school system. The interactive .pdf material and collaboration in small groups enable statistical learning. It is concluded that CSCL is one possible method of promoting statistical teaching. CL using interactive materials seems to foster and facilitate statistical learning processes.

  8. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J; Vesterinen, Eero J; Partio, Esa K; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained "unclassified Chlamydiales" and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to "uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks" and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  9. Socially optimal drainage system and agricultural biodiversity: a case study for Finnish landscape.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Herzon, Irina; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-12-15

    This paper examines the socially optimal drainage choice (surface/subsurface) for agricultural crop cultivation in a landscape with different land qualities (fertilities) when private profits and nutrient runoff damages are taken into account. We also study the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage when the locations of the surface-drained areas in a landscape affect the provided biodiversity. We develop a general theoretical model and apply it to empirical data from Finnish agriculture. We find that for low land qualities the measurable social returns are higher to surface drainage than to subsurface drainage, and that the profitability of subsurface drainage increases along with land quality. The measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage under low land qualities are negative. For higher land qualities, these costs depend on the land quality and on the biodiversity impacts. Biodiversity conservation plans for agricultural landscapes should focus on supporting surface drainage systems in areas where the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity are negative or lowest. PMID:25163598

  10. Intestinal microbiome is related to lifetime antibiotic use in Finnish pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Forslund, Kristoffer; Bork, Peer; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life antibiotic use is associated with increased risk for metabolic and immunological diseases, and mouse studies indicate a causal role of the disrupted microbiome. However, little is known about the impacts of antibiotics on the developing microbiome of children. Here we use phylogenetics, metagenomics and individual antibiotic purchase records to show that macrolide use in 2–7 year-old Finnish children (N=142; sampled at two time points) is associated with a long-lasting shift in microbiota composition and metabolism. The shift includes depletion of Actinobacteria, increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, decrease in bile-salt hydrolase and increase in macrolide resistance. Furthermore, macrolide use in early life is associated with increased risk of asthma and predisposes to antibiotic-associated weight gain. Overweight and asthmatic children have distinct microbiota compositions. Penicillins leave a weaker mark on the microbiota than macrolides. Our results support the idea that, without compromising clinical practice, the impact on the intestinal microbiota should be considered when prescribing antibiotics. PMID:26811868

  11. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  12. Strategic aspects of the purchasing process in the Finnish hearing instruments business.

    PubMed

    Petäjävaara, A

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Finnish hearing instrument market which, in the past decade, has been characterized by both closed and shared markets. Indicates there has been some formal competition, but real price competition has not influenced the resharing of market shares. Finds that the current recession has forced hospitals to re-evaluate their purchasing criteria. Investigates the process with the help of industrial marketing theories to determine the strategic means which can be used to create competitive advantages. The new automatic data-processing (ADP)-based high technology in the hearing-instrument business provides opportunities for identifying these advantages. Surveys the abilities of hearing-centre personnel in university hospitals to take advantage of ADP-based tools. Shows that hearing-centre personnel have a low level of ADP knowledge and, thus, a great need for ADP training. Discusses the ADP-based strategy chosen to be AP Medical Hearing Ltd's main strategy and emphasizes the importance of ADP-based training in high technology.

  13. Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI-polymorphism in Finnish premenopausal and postmenopausal women: its association with bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover, and intestinal calcium absorption, with adjustment for lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marika; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Outila, Terhi; Vanninen, Tarja; Ray, Carola; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Sixty percent to 80% of bone mass is suggested to be under polygenetic control, but the role of individual genes seems to be modest. Several studies have indicated that the vitamin D receptor ( VDR) gene has a role in the regulation of BMD and bone metabolism, but the results are very controversial. We studied the associations between BsmI-polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD and bone metabolism in 24 premenopausal (aged 22-45 years) and 69 postmenopausal (aged 48-65 years) Finnish women. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and bone turnover markers were measured, and the intestinal calcium absorption was investigated, using a method based on the absorption of non-radioactive strontium. The genotype distribution was 16%, BB; 34.5%, Bb; and 49.5%, bb, which differs from the genotype distribution found in other Caucasian populations, but is similar to earlier Finnish reports. The winter value of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) was highest for the BB genotype in both age groups (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]; premenopausal women P = 0.5, postmenopausal women P = 0.03, and for the groups combined P = 0.02). Lumbar spine BMD and intestinal strontium absorption were highest for the BB genotype in both age groups, but these results were nonsignificant. The markers of bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the VDR genotypes. The BB genotype had the best vitamin D status, which could explain the differences in calcium absorption between the genotypes. However, the conclusions of our study are limited because of the small number of subjects. PMID:12434167

  14. [Evaluation of Swedish and Finnish web portals for physicians. The usability is considerable but there are problems with privacy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Rovasalo, Aki

    2002-09-19

    A critical overview of Swedish and Finnish medical web portals for doctors is presented in this article. Three Swedish and three Finnish portals were analysed using 54 dichotomous questions, derived from the guidelines of the American Medical Association (AMA), and 17 technical heuristic questions for web usability. 34 portal features were cross-tabulated with all portals. None of the portals did adhere to the AMA guidelines perfectly. Several problems with advertising, sponsorship, and website privacy were observed. Besides professional functionalities, the portals provided services for personal communication and entertainment features. The incomplete correspondence between the AMA guidelines and the current praxis of Nordic web portals for doctors may have many reasons. However, it is safe to conclude that Swedish and Finnish portals for physicians have some severe publicistic or ethical problems. Every physician should note that website privacy is not enough respected. PMID:12389248

  15. [Evaluation of Swedish and Finnish web portals for physicians. The usability is considerable but there are problems with privacy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Rovasalo, Aki

    2002-09-19

    A critical overview of Swedish and Finnish medical web portals for doctors is presented in this article. Three Swedish and three Finnish portals were analysed using 54 dichotomous questions, derived from the guidelines of the American Medical Association (AMA), and 17 technical heuristic questions for web usability. 34 portal features were cross-tabulated with all portals. None of the portals did adhere to the AMA guidelines perfectly. Several problems with advertising, sponsorship, and website privacy were observed. Besides professional functionalities, the portals provided services for personal communication and entertainment features. The incomplete correspondence between the AMA guidelines and the current praxis of Nordic web portals for doctors may have many reasons. However, it is safe to conclude that Swedish and Finnish portals for physicians have some severe publicistic or ethical problems. Every physician should note that website privacy is not enough respected.

  16. Finnish women and men who self-report no sexual attraction in the past 12 months: prevalence, relationship status, and sexual behavior history.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.

  17. The effects of a HTR2B stop codon and testosterone on energy metabolism and beta cell function among antisocial Finnish males.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Saukkonen, Tero; Fex, Malin; Bennet, Hedvig; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Paunio, Tiina; Koskinen, Mika; Panarsky, Rony; Bevilacqua, Laura; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2016-10-01

    Herein, we examined insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity (IS), beta cell activity, and glucose metabolism in subjects with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and whether the serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor and testosterone have a role in energy metabolism. A cohort of subjects belonging to a founder population that included 98 ASPD males, aged 25-30, was divided into groups based on the presence of a heterozygous 5-HT2B receptor loss-of-function gene mutation (HTR2B Q20*; n = 9) or not (n = 89). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured in a 5 h oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and indices describing IR, IS, and beta cell activity were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) was also determined. Concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid, and testosterone levels from serum. An IR-like state comprising high IR, low IS, and high beta cell activity indices was observed among ASPD subjects without the HTR2B Q20* allele. By contrast, being an ASPD HTR2B Q20* carrier appeared to be preventive of these pathophysiologies. The HTR2B Q20* allele and testosterone predicted lower BMI independently, but an interaction between HTR2B Q20* and testosterone lead to increased insulin sensitivity among HTR2B Q20* carriers with low testosterone levels. The HTR2B Q20* allele also predicted reduced beta cell activity and enhanced glucose metabolism. Reduced 5-HT2B receptor function at low or normal testosterone levels may be protective of obesity. Results were observed among Finnish males having an antisocial personality disorder, which limits the generality.

  18. The effects of a HTR2B stop codon and testosterone on energy metabolism and beta cell function among antisocial Finnish males.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Saukkonen, Tero; Fex, Malin; Bennet, Hedvig; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Paunio, Tiina; Koskinen, Mika; Panarsky, Rony; Bevilacqua, Laura; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2016-10-01

    Herein, we examined insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity (IS), beta cell activity, and glucose metabolism in subjects with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and whether the serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor and testosterone have a role in energy metabolism. A cohort of subjects belonging to a founder population that included 98 ASPD males, aged 25-30, was divided into groups based on the presence of a heterozygous 5-HT2B receptor loss-of-function gene mutation (HTR2B Q20*; n = 9) or not (n = 89). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured in a 5 h oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and indices describing IR, IS, and beta cell activity were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) was also determined. Concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid, and testosterone levels from serum. An IR-like state comprising high IR, low IS, and high beta cell activity indices was observed among ASPD subjects without the HTR2B Q20* allele. By contrast, being an ASPD HTR2B Q20* carrier appeared to be preventive of these pathophysiologies. The HTR2B Q20* allele and testosterone predicted lower BMI independently, but an interaction between HTR2B Q20* and testosterone lead to increased insulin sensitivity among HTR2B Q20* carriers with low testosterone levels. The HTR2B Q20* allele also predicted reduced beta cell activity and enhanced glucose metabolism. Reduced 5-HT2B receptor function at low or normal testosterone levels may be protective of obesity. Results were observed among Finnish males having an antisocial personality disorder, which limits the generality. PMID:27420381

  19. Evaluation of HapMap data in six populations of European descent.

    PubMed

    Lundmark, Per E; Liljedahl, Ulrika; Boomsma, Dorret I; Mannila, Heikki; Martin, Nicholas G; Palotie, Aarno; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Spector, Tim D; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2008-09-01

    We studied how well the European CEU samples used in the Haplotype Mapping Project (HapMap) represent five European populations by analyzing nuclear family samples from the Swedish, Finnish, Dutch, British and Australian (European ancestry) populations. The number of samples from each population (about 30 parent-offspring trios) was similar to that in the HapMap sample sets. A panel of 186 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed over the 1.5 Mb region of the GRID2 gene on chromosome 4 was genotyped. The genotype data were compared pair-wise between the HapMap sample and the other population samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the data from different populations with respect to allele frequencies and to define the markers responsible for observed variance. The only sample with detectable differences in allele frequencies was that from Kuusamo, Finland. This sample also separated from the others, including the other Finnish sample, in the PCA analysis. A set of tagSNPs was defined based on the HapMap data and applied to the samples. The tagSNPs were found to capture the genetic variation in the analyzed region at r(2)>0.8 at levels ranging from 95% in the Kuusamo sample to 87% in the Australian sample. To capture the maximal genetic variation in the region, the Kuusamo, HapMap and Australian samples required 58, 63 and 73 native tagSNPs, respectively. The HapMap CEU sample represents the European samples well for tagSNP selection, with some caution regarding estimation of allele frequencies in the Finnish Kuusamo sample, and a slight reduction in tagging efficiency in the Australian sample.

  20. Trends in self-reported sleep problems, tiredness and related school performance among Finnish adolescents from 1984 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Puusniekka, Riikka; Jokela, Jukka; Villberg, Jari; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Paunio, Tiina; Välimaa, Raili; Tynjälä, Jorma

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate long-term trends in insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance among Finnish adolescents. A time-series from 1984 to 2011 was analysed from two large-scale survey studies, the Finnish School Health Promotion Study and the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. A total of 1,136,583 adolescents aged 11-18 years answered a standardized questionnaire assessing frequency of insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance. A clear approximately twofold increasing trend in insomnia symptoms and tiredness was found from the mid-1990s to the end of the 2000s. The increase was evident in all participating age groups and in both genders. After 2008, the increase seems to have stopped. Insomnia symptoms and tiredness were associated with lower school performance and they were more prevalent among girls (11.9 and 18.4%) compared to boys (6.9 and 9.0%, respectively). Unexpectedly, we also observed an increasingly widening gap in school performance between normally vigilant and chronically tired pupils. The underlying causes of these phenomena are unknown, but may concern changes in the broader society. The observed recent increasing trend in adolescents' sleep problems is worrisome: poor sleep quality has also been suggested to associate with clinical or subclinical mood or anxiety disorders and behavioural problems and predispose to sleep and psychiatric disorders later in life. Our results justify further studies and call for serious attention to be paid to adolescent's sleep in the Finnish educational system and society at large.