Science.gov

Sample records for finnish hessup population

  1. Unemployment, depressiveness and disability retirement: a follow-up study of the Finnish HeSSup population sample.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Tiina; Virtanen, Pekka; Vahtera, Jussi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2010-02-01

    Disability retirement because of depression is increasingly common in Finland. The rise of such retirement coincided with the rise of unemployment in the second half of the 1990s. In this study we sought potential connections between these two epidemics. We assumed that depressiveness incurs a higher risk of disability retirement among the unemployed than among the employed population. Data were derived from HeSSup Study, which follows a large population sample. A total of 14,487 participants responded in 1998 and in 2003 in postal surveys about their employment status. Their depressiveness was measured in 1998 with Beck's depression inventory. Labour market status in 1998 was classified as employed, short-term unemployed and long-term unemployed. In 2003 the status was dichotomised into disability retired or not. A total of 329 participants (2.3%) retired during the 5-year follow-up. The retirement percentage was 1.9 among the employed, 4.8 among short-term unemployed and 6.7 among long-term unemployed. The percentage for the employed ranged from 1.4 (no depressiveness) to 7.1 (severe depressiveness), for the short-term unemployed, the range was from 3.3 to 17.9% and for the long-term unemployed the range was from 2.6 to 14.2%. Retirement was more probable among unemployed participants than among employed (OR 2.24 [95% CI 1.50-3.36] for short-term and OR 2.82 [95% CI 1.93-4.13] for long-term unemployed), when employment status was adjusted by sociodemographic background and somatic comorbidity and interaction term employment status with depressiveness was taken into account. Moreover, the interaction of employment status and depressiveness with the probability of disability retirement was significant. Our final analysis also revealed that disability retirement was particularly common among the short-term unemployed with severe depressiveness. Among the long-term unemployed, in contrast, retirement was more common in the mildly depressed than in the severely

  2. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  3. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  4. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  5. Genetic diversity, population structure, effective population size and demographic history of the Finnish wolf population.

    PubMed

    Aspi, J; Roininen, E; Ruokonen, M; Kojola, I; Vilà, C

    2006-05-01

    The Finnish wolf population (Canis lupus) was sampled during three different periods (1996-1998, 1999-2001 and 2002-2004), and 118 individuals were genotyped with 10 microsatellite markers. Large genetic variation was found in the population despite a recent demographic bottleneck. No spatial population subdivision was found even though a significant negative relationship between genetic relatedness and geographic distance suggested isolation by distance. Very few individuals did not belong to the local wolf population as determined by assignment analyses, suggesting a low level of immigration in the population. We used the temporal approach and several statistical methods to estimate the variance effective size of the population. All methods gave similar estimates of effective population size, approximately 40 wolves. These estimates were slightly larger than the estimated census size of breeding individuals. A Bayesian model based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations indicated strong evidence for a long-term population decline. These results suggest that the contemporary wolf population size is roughly 8% of its historical size, and that the population decline dates back to late 19th century or early 20th century. Despite an increase of over 50% in the census size of the population during the whole study period, there was only weak evidence that the effective population size during the last period was higher than during the first. This may be caused by increased inbreeding, diminished dispersal within the population, and decreased immigration to the population during the last study period.

  6. Evidence for introgression in differentiated North-American and Finnish Drosophila montana populations.

    PubMed

    Päällysaho, Seliina; Vieira, Cristina P; Hoikkala, Anneli; Vieira, Jorge

    2005-03-01

    The virilis group species Drosophila montana is widely distributed around the northern hemisphere. Here we show that it consists of at least two well differentiated populations (Finnish and North-American populations) that have been diverging for the last 0.55-0.95 My. These populations show significant chromosomal, behavioural and morphological differences, but no apparent postzygotic isolation. Evidence for introgression is found for both Finnish and North-American populations at two out of the three X-linked genes (fused, elav and su(s)) studied here. In the light of these findings, previously reported evidence for selective sweeps in D. montana populations is re-evaluated.

  7. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2013-05-29

    Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100,000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse race betting and internet

  8. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100 000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. Method An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. Results A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse

  9. Finnish Disease Heritage II: population prehistory and genetic roots of Finns.

    PubMed

    Norio, Reijo

    2003-05-01

    In the second part of my review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), I discuss the settling of Finland; factors influencing the genes of a population, such as agriculture versus hunting/fishing/gathering, trading and cultural relations, wars and other kinds of violence, and bottlenecks; relatives of the Finns in the light of classical European studies, classical Finnish studies, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal studies; the genes of the Finns today, characterizing FDH, the east-west difference among Finns, and minorities in Finland, viz. the Lapps or Saami and Swedish-speaking Finns.

  10. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  11. Infant mortality and ethnicity in an indigenous European population: Novel evidence from the Finnish population register

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first analyses of infant mortality rates by indigenous ethnic group in Finland, a country that has one of the lowest relative numbers of infant deaths in the world. Using files from the Finnish population register, we identified both of the parents of children born in the period from 1975–2003 according to ethnic affiliation, socioeconomic profile, and demographic position. The infant mortality rate in homogamous Finnish unions is similar to that in homogamous Swedish unions, which reflects a lack of social disparities between the two groups. Surprisingly, infants from ethnically mixed unions have markedly lower mortality rates, with an adjusted rate ratio of 0.81 relative to homogamous Swedish unions (95% CI: 0.67–0.98). Although not empirically verified, we argue that the lower infant mortality rate in ethnically mixed unions may be due to lower levels of inbreeding, and hence related to historically low intermarriage rates between the two ethnic groups, remote consanguinities, and restricted inter-community gene flow. PMID:24572973

  12. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase.

  13. Finnish mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II population data.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Brandstätter, A; Pimenoff, V; Sistonen, P; Palo, J U; Parson, W; Sajantila, A

    2007-10-25

    We have analyzed the two hypervariable regions HVS-I and HVS-II of 200 Finnish male individuals for forensic purposes. The distribution of the haplotypes within Finland was determined by the geographical knowledge of the donors' maternal ancestors. In our population sample, we identified 135 different mtDNA haplotypes. Different mtDNA sequences were further divided to haplogroups using the EMPOP software. The most common haplogroups were H (40.0%) and U (27.5%). Subgroup U5b, which contains earlier described "Saami motif", consisted majority (65.5%) of the sample in the U haplogroup. Analysis of the mtDNA sequence hypervariable regions I and II showed that the mtDNA diversity within the Finnish population sample was comparable to other European populations and uniformly distributed. This is contrary to the Y-STR "minimal haplotype" diversity, which in Finland is lower than in any of the other European populations studied so far.

  14. Stroke morbidity in Swedish- and Finnish-speaking populations of Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Lehtonen, Aapo; Immonen-Raiha, Pirjo; Kaarisalo, Minna; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, K E Juhani; Salomaa, Veikko

    2009-04-01

    To examine differences in the morbidity and mortality of stroke between the Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations in Turku, taking into account the socioeconomic differences between these groups. The population-based FINMONICA and FINSTROKE stroke registers recorded 5,135 stroke events among persons aged 25-99 years in Turku during 1988-1998. Events in persons aged > or =75 years were not registered in 1993-1995. Information on these persons' native language and socioeconomic status (SES) (measured by taxable income, profession and years of education) were obtained by record linkage with the files of Statistics Finland. Swedish-speaking men had a lower attack rate of ischaemic stroke than Finnish-speaking men (270, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 214-326 versus 370, 95% CI 352-389, per 100,000 inhabitants per year) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. Among women, the attack rates of ischaemic stroke were similar in both language groups. The attack rate of ischaemic stroke was lower among Swedish-speaking than among Finnish-speaking men. This difference was not totally explained by the higher SES of the Swedish-speaking population.

  15. Founder representation and effective population size in old versus young breeds-genetic diversity of Finnish and Nordic Spitz.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, M; Anderson, H; Svevar, T; Kangasvuo, I; Donner, J; Pohjoismäki, J

    2017-10-01

    Finnish Spitz is 130-year-old breed and has been highly popular in Finland throughout its history. Nordic Spitz is very similar to Finnish Spitz by origin and use, but is a relatively recent breed with much smaller population size. To see how breed age and breeding history have influenced the current population, we performed comprehensive population genetic analysis using pedigree data of 28,119 Finnish and 9,009 Nordic Spitzes combined with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 135 Finnish and 110 Nordic Spitzes. We found that the Finnish Spitz has undergone repeated male bottlenecks resulting in dramatic loss of genetic diversity, reflected by 20 effective founders (fa ) and mean heterozygosity (Hz) of 0.313. The realized effective population size in the breed based on pedigree analysis (N¯ec) is 168, whereas the genetic effective population size (Neg ) computed the decay of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) is only 57 individuals. Nordic Spitz, although once been near extinction, has not been exposed to similar repeated bottlenecks than Finnish Spitz and had fa of 27 individuals. However, due to the smaller total population size, the breed has also smaller effective population size than Finnish Spitz (N¯ec = 98 and Neg  = 49). Interestingly, the r(2) data show that the effective population size has contracted dramatically since the establishment of the breed, emphasizing the role of breed standards as constrains for the breeding population. Despite the small population size, Nordic Spitz still maintains SNP heterozygosity levels similar to mixed breed dogs (mean Hz = 0.409). Our study demonstrates that although pedigree analyses cannot provide estimates of the present diversity within a breed, the effective population sizes inferred from them correlate with the genotyping results. The genetic relationships of the northern Spitz breeds and the benefits of the open breed registry are discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  17. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10⁻⁸) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P = 1.5×10⁻¹¹⁷). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10⁻⁴), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers.

  18. Distribution and Medical Impact of Loss-of-Function Variants in the Finnish Founder Population

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Elaine T.; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I.; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B.; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5–5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10−8) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P = 1.5×10−117). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10−4), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID

  19. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Sciatica in Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Lemmelä, Susanna; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Benner, Christian; Heliövaara, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (p<1x10-6) were replicated in 776 Finnish sciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981) at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08) and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively). The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04). Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6–7%) than in other European populations (1–2%). Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109) were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB), which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate. PMID:27764105

  20. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  1. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-05-26

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  2. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  3. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2012-11-23

    Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between sexes, such that girls more often than

  4. NPY Leu7Pro and alcohol dependence in Finnish and Swedish populations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanshan; Pollak, Lotta; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes; Taubman, Julie; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a modulator of alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism, and is potentially involved in alcohol dependence. A coding Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide of preproNPY has been described, and the Pro7 allele has been reported to correlate with increased alcohol consumption in non-dependent Finnish males. Recently, this polymorphism was also reported to be associated with an actual diagnosis of alcohol dependence. We compared Pro7 allele frequencies in one Finnish (n = 135) and one Swedish (n = 472) population of alcohol dependent individuals, and ethnically matched controls (Finns: n = 213; Swedes: n = 177) in whom alcohol dependence was established, or any diagnosis of substance disorder was excluded, respectively, through the use of structured face-to-face interviews. Pro7 frequencies in alcoholics were 5.2 and 4.1% in Finns and Swedes, respectively, similar to the 5.0-5.5% recently reported in European Americans in a Yale study. However, corresponding frequencies in the control populations were similar, at 6.1 and 5.9% in Finns and Swedes, respectively, yielding no association, in contrast with the Yale study, where an association was reported based on a 2.0% Pro7 frequency in European American controls. A meta-analysis of available data yields Pro7 frequencies of 4.7% both in Caucasian alcoholics and Caucasian controls. Pro7 does not seem to be associated with a diagnosis of alcoholism in Caucasian populations.

  5. Consumption of Wine with Meals and Subjective Well-being: A Finnish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Atte; Kokkonen, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    To examine in the general population the association of regular consumption of wine with meals, subjective well-being and risky drinking. A random sample of Finnish people aged 18-69 ('Finnish Drinking Habits Survey 2008', n = 2591, response rate 74%) were interviewed regarding psychological distress, self-efficacy, self-perceived health, uncontrolled drinking, negative events during drinking, hazardous drinking and consumption of alcohol. The analysis focused on comparison of those who drank wine at least once a week versus more seldom. Regression models adjusted for social determinants, smoking and chronic illness. Twelve percent of Finnish adults drank wine with meals at least once a week. Drinking wine with meals was an urban phenomenon and associated with higher socioeconomic status. Regular wine with meal drinkers reported better health, higher self-efficacy and less psychological distress than others even when various confounders were adjusted for. They also reported more risky drinking and higher yearly consumption than other alcohol consumers. Especially those who drank both wine and beer during meals had higher rates of risky drinking. Those restricting themselves to only wine with meals reported less hazardous drinking than the general population. Consumption of wine with meals was associated with high socioeconomic status and high subjective well-being. Risky drinking was prevalent among wine with meal drinkers, but only among those who drank both wine and beer with meals. Potential unknown confounders may exist, but the results underline a link between subjective well-being and drinking wine with meals. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. High prevalence of four long QT syndrome founder mutations in the Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    MARJAMAA, ANNUKKA; SALOMAA, VEIKKO; NEWTON-CHEH, CHRISTOPHER; PORTHAN, KIMMO; REUNANEN, ANTTI; KARANKO, HANNU; JULA, ANTTI; LAHERMO, PÄIVI; VÄÄNÄNEN, HEIKKI; TOIVONEN, LAURI; SWAN, HEIKKI; VIITASALO, MATTI; NIEMINEN, MARKKU S.; PELTONEN, LEENA; OIKARINEN, LASSE; PALOTIE, AARNO; KONTULA, KIMMO

    2009-01-01

    Aims Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited arrhythmia disorder with an estimated prevalence of 0.01%–0.05%. In Finland, four founder mutations constitute up to 70% of the known genetic spectrum of LQTS. In the present survey, we sought to estimate the actual prevalence of the founder mutations and to determine their effect sizes in the general Finnish population. Methods and results We genotyped 6334 subjects aged≥30 years from a population cohort (Health 2000 study) for the four Finnish founder mutations using Sequenom MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were measured from digital 12-lead ECGs, and QT intervals were adjusted for age, sex, and heart rate using linear regression. A total of 27 individuals carried one of the founder mutations resulting in their collective prevalence estimate of 0.4% (95% CI 0.3%–0.6%). The KCNQ1 G589D mutation (n=8) was associated with a 50 ms (SE 7.0) prolongation of the adjusted QT interval (P=9.0×10-13). The KCNH2 R176W variant (n=16) resulted in a 22 ms (SE 4.7) longer adjusted QT interval (P=2.1×10-6). Conclusion In Finland 1 individual out of 250 carries a LQTS founder mutation, which is the highest documented prevalence of LQTS mutations that lead to a marked QT prolongation. PMID:19160088

  7. Gender differences in health information behaviour: a Finnish population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Ek, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Narrowing the gaps in health outcomes, including those between men and women, has been a pronounced goal on the agenda of the Finnish health authorities since the mid-1980s. But still there is a huge gap in favour of women when it comes to life expectancy at birth. People's health information behaviour, that is how people seek, obtain, evaluate, categorize and use relevant health-related information to perform desired health behaviours, is a critical prerequisite to appropriate and consistent performances of these behaviours. With respect to gender, it has been noted that men often are unwilling and lack the motivation to engage with health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender affects health information behaviour in the Finnish population aged 18-65 years. The survey data were collected via a questionnaire which was posted to a representative cross section consisting of 1500 Finnish citizens. The statistical analysis consists of ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests. The results show that women were more interested in and reported much more active seeking of health-related information, paid more attention to potential worldwide pandemics and were much more attentive as to how the goods they purchase in everyday life affect their health than men did. Women also reported receiving far more informal health-related information from close family members, other kin and friends/workmates than men did. Thus, to succeed in public health promotion and interventions the measures taken should be much more sensitive to the gender gap in health information behaviour.

  8. Simulation of Finnish Population History, Guided by Empirical Genetic Data, to Assess Power of Rare-Variant Tests in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sophie R.; Agarwala, Vineeta; Flannick, Jason; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Altshuler, David; Flannick, Jason; Manning, Alisa; Hartl, Christopher; Agarwala, Vineeta; Fontanillas, Pierre; Green, Todd; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark; Poplin, Ryan; Shakir, Khalid; Fennell, Timothy; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Burtt, Noël; Gabriel, Stacey; Altshuler, David; Fuchsberger, Christian; Kang, Hyun Min; Sim, Xueling; Ma, Clement; Locke, Adam; Blackwell, Thomas; Jackson, Anne; Teslovich, Tanya; Stringham, Heather; Chines, Peter; Kwan, Phoenix; Huyghe, Jeroen; Tan, Adrian; Jun, Goo; Stitzel, Michael; Bergman, Richard N.; Bonnycastle, Lori; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S.; Scott, Laura; Mohlke, Karen; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Boehnke, Michael; Strom, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Grallert, Harald; Kriebel, Jennifer; Ried, Janina; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Kravic, Jasmina; Ladenvall, Claes; Toumi, Tiinamaija; Isomaa, Bo; Groop, Leif; Gaulton, Kyle; Moutsianas, Loukas; Rivas, Manny; Pearson, Richard; Mahajan, Anubha; Prokopenko, Inga; Kumar, Ashish; Perry, John; Chen, Jeff; Howie, Bryan; van de Bunt, Martijn; Small, Kerrin; Lindgren, Cecilia; Lunter, Gerton; Robertson, Neil; Rayner, Will; Morris, Andrew; Buck, David; Hattersley, Andrew; Spector, Tim; McVean, Gil; Frayling, Tim; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Finnish samples have been extensively utilized in studying single-gene disorders, where the founder effect has clearly aided in discovery, and more recently in genome-wide association studies of complex traits, where the founder effect has had less obvious impacts. As the field starts to explore rare variants’ contribution to polygenic traits, it is of great importance to characterize and confirm the Finnish founder effect in sequencing data and to assess its implications for rare-variant association studies. Here, we employ forward simulation, guided by empirical deep resequencing data, to model the genetic architecture of quantitative polygenic traits in both the general European and the Finnish populations simultaneously. We demonstrate that power of rare-variant association tests is higher in the Finnish population, especially when variants’ phenotypic effects are tightly coupled with fitness effects and therefore reflect a greater contribution of rarer variants. SKAT-O, variable-threshold tests, and single-variant tests are more powerful than other rare-variant methods in the Finnish population across a range of genetic models. We also compare the relative power and efficiency of exome array genotyping to those of high-coverage exome sequencing. At a fixed cost, less expensive genotyping strategies have far greater power than sequencing; in a fixed number of samples, however, genotyping arrays miss a substantial portion of genetic signals detected in sequencing, even in the Finnish founder population. As genetic studies probe sequence variation at greater depth in more diverse populations, our simulation approach provides a framework for evaluating various study designs for gene discovery. PMID:24768551

  9. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Rask, S; Sainio, P; Castaneda, A E; Härkänen, T; Stenholm, S; Koponen, P; Koskinen, S

    2016-04-18

    Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29-64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing). The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 %) and Kurdish origin men (32 %) and women (57 %) compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5-12 %). In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7-17 %) was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish), were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07-6.29, Kurds OR 7.40; 95 % CI 4.65-11.77). This study demonstrates

  10. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341

  11. Sense of mastery differences between working-age Swedish- and Finnish-speaking Finns: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Reini, Kaarina; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-06-01

    To examine the probability of a high sense of mastery in a population-representative sample of working-age people and to study the differences in mastery between Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns in particular. The data originates from the Western Finland Mental Health Surveys (2008-2014). Associations between sense of mastery and language groups were analyzed with logistic regressions. Swedish-speaking Finns have a higher sense of mastery and the association is mediated by social support. Moreover, a difference in a high sense of mastery is found between Swedish- and Finnish-speaking married women that are outside the labor market. Our findings imply that Finnish-speaking women that are outside the labor market, e.g. on maternity leave or taking care of the household, should be recognized in health and social care services as a group that can benefit from additional support.

  12. Living on the edge: reconstructing the genetic history of the Finnish wolf population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many western European carnivore populations became almost or completely eradicated during the last ~200 years, but are now recovering. Extirpation of wolves started in Finland in the 19th century, and for more than 150 years the population size of wolves has remained small. To investigate historical patterns of genetic variation, we extracted DNA from 114 wolf samples collected in zoological museums over the last ~150 years. Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to look at genotypic variation in this historical sample. Additionally, we amplified a 430 bp sequence of mtDNA control region from the same samples. Contemporary wolf samples (N = 298) obtained after the population recovery in the mid-1990s, were used as a reference. Results Our analyses of mtDNA revealed reduced variation in the mtDNA control region through the loss of historical haplotypes observed prior to wolf declines. Heterozygosity at autosomal microsatellite loci did not decrease significantly. However, almost 20% of microsatellite alleles were unique to wolves collected before the 1960s. The genetic composition of the population changed gradually with the largest changes occurring prior to 1920. Half of the oldest historical samples formed a distinguishable genetic cluster not detected in the modern-day Finnish or Russian samples, and might therefore represent northern genetic variation lost from today’s gene pool. Point estimates of Ne were small (13.2 and 20.5) suggesting population fragmentation. Evidence of a genetic population bottleneck was also detected. Conclusions Our genetic analyses confirm changes in the genetic composition of the Finnish wolf population through time, despite the geographic interconnectivity to a much larger population in Russia. Our results emphasize the need for restoration of the historical connectivity between the present wolf populations to secure long-term viability. This might be challenging, however, because the management policies between

  13. Living on the edge: reconstructing the genetic history of the Finnish wolf population.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Eeva; Harmoinen, Jenni; Ruokonen, Minna; Aspi, Jouni

    2014-03-28

    Many western European carnivore populations became almost or completely eradicated during the last ~200 years, but are now recovering. Extirpation of wolves started in Finland in the 19th century, and for more than 150 years the population size of wolves has remained small. To investigate historical patterns of genetic variation, we extracted DNA from 114 wolf samples collected in zoological museums over the last ~150 years. Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to look at genotypic variation in this historical sample. Additionally, we amplified a 430 bp sequence of mtDNA control region from the same samples. Contemporary wolf samples (N = 298) obtained after the population recovery in the mid-1990s, were used as a reference. Our analyses of mtDNA revealed reduced variation in the mtDNA control region through the loss of historical haplotypes observed prior to wolf declines. Heterozygosity at autosomal microsatellite loci did not decrease significantly. However, almost 20% of microsatellite alleles were unique to wolves collected before the 1960s. The genetic composition of the population changed gradually with the largest changes occurring prior to 1920. Half of the oldest historical samples formed a distinguishable genetic cluster not detected in the modern-day Finnish or Russian samples, and might therefore represent northern genetic variation lost from today's gene pool. Point estimates of Ne were small (13.2 and 20.5) suggesting population fragmentation. Evidence of a genetic population bottleneck was also detected. Our genetic analyses confirm changes in the genetic composition of the Finnish wolf population through time, despite the geographic interconnectivity to a much larger population in Russia. Our results emphasize the need for restoration of the historical connectivity between the present wolf populations to secure long-term viability. This might be challenging, however, because the management policies between Western and Eastern Europe often

  14. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  15. Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on reproduction traits in Finnish pig populations.

    PubMed

    Sironen, A I; Uimari, P; Serenius, T; Mote, B; Rothschild, M; Vilkki, J

    2010-03-01

    Reproduction traits play an important role in economically viable piglet production and are closely related to the quality and length of the productive life of the sow. A increased removal rate of young sows is undesirable not only because of the associated financial penalties incurred, but also because of ethical concerns. Candidate genes and gene pathways have been identified for fertility in model species, and recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms within these genes are associated with reproduction traits in American Yorkshire/Large White and Landrace populations. In this study we evaluated the impact of single polymorphisms (n = 7) in 7 candidate genes on reproductive efficiency in Finnish Yorkshire (n = 280) and Landrace (n = 271) populations: IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP5, CPTIA (carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I), COX2 (PG-endoperoxide synthase 2, also known as cyclooxygenase-2), and SLC22A5 [organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (solute carrier family member I), OCTN2]. In the Finnish Yorkshire population, only 4 of the analyzed markers were polymorphic. Significant effects on farrowing time were detected from the Yorkshire data, with polymorphisms within the genes CPT1A [a (allele substitution effect of allele A) = 2.97 d for age at first farrowing)], IGFBP3 (a = 0.54 d for farrowing interval of parities >1), and IGFBP5 (a = 3.22, 1.27, and 0.85 d for age at first farrowing and farrowing interval in the first and later parities, respectively). For the Landrace population, 6 markers were polymorphic, and significant effects were detected for traits affecting litter size. The polymorphism within the COX2 gene had an additive effect of 0.3 piglets for litter size in parities >1, and the IGFBP1 gene had an additive effect of 0.21, 0.26, and 0.11 piglets for litter size in the first parity, parities >1, and stillborn in parities >1, respectively. The additive effect of the SNP within the IGFBP2 gene was 0.16, 0.09, and 0.09 piglets for

  16. Epidemiology of Flexor Tendon Injuries of the Hand in a Northern Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Manninen, M; Karjalainen, T; Määttä, J; Flinkkilä, T

    2017-09-01

    Flexor tendon injuries cause significant morbidity in working-age population. The epidemiology of these injuries in adult population is not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries in a Northern Finnish population. Data on flexor tendon injuries, from 2004 to 2010, were retrieved from patient records from four hospitals, which offer surgical repair of the flexor tendon injuries in a well-defined area in Northern Finland. The incidence of flexor tendon injury as well as the gender-specific incidence rates was calculated. Mechanism of injury, concomitant nerve injuries, and re-operations were also recorded. The incidence rate of flexor tendon injury was 7.0/100,000 person-years. The incidence was higher in men and inversely related to age. The most common finger to be affected was the fifth digit. In 37% of injuries also digital nerve was affected. The most common finger to have simultaneous digital nerve injury was the thumb. Flexor tendon laceration is a relatively rare injury. It predominantly affects working-aged young males and frequently includes a nerve injury, which requires microsurgical skills from the surgeon performing the repair. This study describes epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries and therefore helps planning the surgical and rehabilitation services needed to address this entity.

  17. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-10-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  18. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28053971

  19. Weight Concerns Among Finnish Ever-Smokers: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Concern over weight gain after smoking cessation has been hypothesized to discourage quit attempts and consequently reduce smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns among a population-based sample of Finnish ever-smokers. Methods: Data were collected in conjunction with the National FINRISK 2007 Study from a population-based sample of 25- to 74-yearold Finns. These analyses were based on a subsample of 1,614 ever-smokers. Participants were divided into 4 groups (daily smokers, occasional smokers, recent quitters, and former smokers) based on the self-reported smoking status. Weight concerns were analyzed as a sum score including 6 items (range 0–24). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns, while adjusting for multiple confounders. Results: Smoking status was significantly associated with weight concerns, current daily smokers reporting the highest levels of weight concerns. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and health behavior), the weight concerns of daily smokers remained significantly higher in comparison with all other groups. Although women were more concerned about their weight than men, no gender-specific associations were found between weight concerns and smoking status. Conclusions: Current daily smokers are more concerned about their weight than recent quitters, as well as former and occasional smokers. Weight concerns should be taken into account in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:23547276

  20. The first detection of influenza in the Finnish pig population: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig

  1. APOE and AGT in the Finnish p.Arg133Cys CADASIL population.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, M; Mykkänen, K; Pescini, F; Rovio, S; Kääriäinen, H; Baumann, M; Pöyhönen, M; Viitanen, M

    2015-12-01

    CADASIL is an inherited systemic small vessel disease, the affected status of brain vessels leading to subcortical vascular dementia. The defective gene is NOTCH3 in which over 230 different pathogenic mutations have been identified. The clinical course of CADASIL is highly variable even within families. Previous studies have shown that additional genetic factors modify the phenotype. Altogether, 134 Finnish CADASIL patients with p.Arg133Cys mutation were analysed for possible associations between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, angiotensinogen (AGT) p.Met268Thr polymorphism or neutral p.Ala202Ala NOTCH3 polymorphism and earlier first-ever stroke or migraine. We found no association between the APOE genotypes, AGT polymorphism, NOTCH3 polymorphism and earlier first-ever stroke or migraine. The APOE, AGT and NOTCH3 polymorphism did not modify the onset of strokes or migraine in our CADASIL sample, which is one of the largest mutationally homogenous CADASIL populations published to date. International collaboration, pooled analyses and genomewide approaches are warranted to identify the genetic factors that modify the highly variable CADASIL phenotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population.

  4. Myocardial infarction events and cardiovascular risk factor levels in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations of Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo; Räihä, Ismo; Harald, Kennet; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, Juhani K E; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland is unique, because it has a higher socioeconomic status (SES) and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. We hypothesized that this minority may have a lower attack rate of coronary events and analysed whether this could be explained by their higher SES. METHODS. The population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registers recorded 4,845 MI events in Turku during 1988-1998. Individual-level indicators of SES were obtained from Statistics Finland. The population-based FINRISK surveys recorded cardiovascular risk factors and native languages of 10,432 people in 1987, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS. The age-standardized attack rate of MI was lower among the 35-64-year-old Swedish-speaking men than among Finnish-speaking men (rate ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.85) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants had higher age-, sex-, and SES-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower triglycerides, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants of Turku had lower MI morbidity and coronary mortality than the Finnish-speaking inhabitants. After controlling for SES, these differences remained significant among men, suggesting that other factors, such as differences in the risk factor profiles may also play a role.

  5. Protective Low-Frequency Variants for Preeclampsia in the Fms Related Tyrosine Kinase 1 Gene in the Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Lokki, A Inkeri; Daly, Emma; Triebwasser, Michael; Kurki, Mitja I; Roberson, Elisha D O; Häppölä, Paavo; Auro, Kirsi; Perola, Markus; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Salmon, Jane E; Meri, Seppo; Daly, Mark; Atkinson, John P; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. Predisposition to preeclampsia is in part heritable. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. We have sequenced 124 candidate genes implicated in preeclampsia to pinpoint genetic variants contributing to predisposition to or protection from preeclampsia. First, targeted exomic sequencing was performed in 500 preeclamptic women and 190 controls from the FINNPEC cohort (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium). Then 122 women with a history of preeclampsia and 1905 parous women with no such history from the National FINRISK Study (a large Finnish population survey on risk factors of chronic, noncommunicable diseases) were included in the analyses. We tested 146 rare and low-frequency variants and found an excess (observed 13 versus expected 7.3) nominally associated with preeclampsia (P<0.05). The most significantly associated sequence variants were protective variants rs35832528 (E982A; P=2.49E-4; odds ratio=0.387) and rs141440705 (R54S; P=0.003; odds ratio=0.442) in Fms related tyrosine kinase 1. These variants are enriched in the Finnish population with minor allele frequencies 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. They may also be associated with a lower risk of heart failure in 11 257 FINRISK women. This study provides the first evidence of maternal protective genetic variants in preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Genome-wide association study of sleep duration in the Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Ollila, Hanna M; Kettunen, Johannes; Pietiläinen, Olli; Aho, Vilma; Silander, Kaisa; Kronholm, Erkki; Perola, Markus; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Partonen, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Sallinen, Mikael; Härmä, Mikko; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina

    2014-12-01

    Sleep duration is genetically regulated, but the genetic variants are largely unknown. We aimed to identify such genes using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) combined with RNA expression at the population level, and with experimental verification. A GWAS was performed in a Finnish sample (n = 1941), and variants with suggestive association (P < 5 × 10(-5) ) were tested in a follow-up sample from the same population with sleep duration (n = 6834) and time in bed (n = 1720). Variants with pointwise association of P < 0.05 in the follow-up sample were analysed further. First, we correlated genotypes with transcript expression levels with sleep duration (n = 207). The expression levels of significant transcripts were further studied in experimental sleep restriction. Of the 31 variants with P < 5 × 10(-5) in the discovery sample, three variants showed nominal allelic association (P < 0.05) in the follow-up sample: rs10914351, near PTPRU (P = 0.049), rs1037079 in PCDH7-CENTD1 (P = 0.011) and rs2031573 near KLF6 (P = 0.044). The risk alleles for shorter sleep (rs2031573 and rs1037079) were also associated with higher KLF6 and PCDH7 expression levels (P < 0.05). Experimental sleep restriction increased the expression of KLF6 (P < 0.01). These data suggest that rs2031573 near KLF6 or related loci and rs1037079 between PCDH7-CENTD1 or related loci may contribute to the regulation of sleep duration via gene expression. These results illustrate the utility of combining different analytical approaches to identify genetic determinants for traits related to sleep physiology. However, additional studies are needed in order to understand the roles of KLF6 and PCDH7 in sleep regulation.

  7. Genetic differences at four DNA typing loci in Finnish, Italian, and mixed Caucasian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Krane, D E; Allen, R W; Sawyer, S A; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D L

    1992-01-01

    Highly polymorphic segments of the human genome containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been widely used to establish DNA profiles of individuals for use in forensics. Methods of estimating the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two randomly selected individuals have been subject to extensive debate regarding the possibility of significant substructure occurring within the major races. We have sampled two Caucasian subpopulations, Finns and Italians, at four commonly used VNTR loci to determine the extent to which the subgroups differ from each other and from a mixed Caucasian database. The data were also analyzed for the occurrence of linkage disequilibrium among the loci. The allele frequency distributions of some loci were found to differ significantly among the subpopulations in a manner consistent with population substructure. Major differences were also found in the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two individuals chosen at random from the same subpopulation. With respect to the Finnish and Italian subpopulations, the conventional product rule for estimating the probability of a multilocus VNTR match using a mixed Caucasian database consistently yields estimates that are artificially small. Systematic errors of this type were not found using the interim ceiling principle recently advocated in the National Research Council's report [National Research Council (1992) DNA Technology in Forensic Science (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington)]. The interim ceiling principle is based on currently available racial or ethnic databases and sets an arbitrary lower limit on each VNTR allele frequency. In the future the ceiling frequencies are expected to be established from more adequate data acquired for relevant VNTR loci from multiple subpopulations. Images PMID:1438254

  8. A genome-wide analysis of population structure in the Finnish Saami with implications for genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fransen, Erik; Hannula, Samuli; Van Laer, Lut; Van Eyken, Els; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Camp, Guy Van

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of patterns of genetic variation within and among human populations is a prerequisite for successful genetic association mapping studies of complex diseases and traits. Some populations are more favorable for association mapping studies than others. The Saami from northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula represent a population isolate that, among European populations, has been less extensively sampled, despite some early interest for association mapping studies. In this paper, we report the results of a first genome-wide SNP-based study of genetic population structure in the Finnish Saami. Using data from the HapMap and the human genome diversity project (HGDP-CEPH) and recently developed statistical methods, we studied individual genetic ancestry. We quantified genetic differentiation between the Saami population and the HGDP-CEPH populations by calculating pair-wise FST statistics and by characterizing identity-by-state sharing for pair-wise population comparisons. This study affirms an east Asian contribution to the predominantly European-derived Saami gene pool. Using model-based individual ancestry analysis, the median estimated percentage of the genome with east Asian ancestry was 6% (first and third quartiles: 5 and 8%, respectively). We found that genetic similarity between population pairs roughly correlated with geographic distance. Among the European HGDP-CEPH populations, FST was smallest for the comparison with the Russians (FST=0.0098), and estimates for the other population comparisons ranged from 0.0129 to 0.0263. Our analysis also revealed fine-scale substructure within the Finnish Saami and warns against the confounding effects of both hidden population structure and undocumented relatedness in genetic association studies of isolated populations. PMID:21150888

  9. A genome-wide analysis of population structure in the Finnish Saami with implications for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fransen, Erik; Hannula, Samuli; Van Laer, Lut; Van Eyken, Els; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of patterns of genetic variation within and among human populations is a prerequisite for successful genetic association mapping studies of complex diseases and traits. Some populations are more favorable for association mapping studies than others. The Saami from northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula represent a population isolate that, among European populations, has been less extensively sampled, despite some early interest for association mapping studies. In this paper, we report the results of a first genome-wide SNP-based study of genetic population structure in the Finnish Saami. Using data from the HapMap and the human genome diversity project (HGDP-CEPH) and recently developed statistical methods, we studied individual genetic ancestry. We quantified genetic differentiation between the Saami population and the HGDP-CEPH populations by calculating pair-wise F(ST) statistics and by characterizing identity-by-state sharing for pair-wise population comparisons. This study affirms an east Asian contribution to the predominantly European-derived Saami gene pool. Using model-based individual ancestry analysis, the median estimated percentage of the genome with east Asian ancestry was 6% (first and third quartiles: 5 and 8%, respectively). We found that genetic similarity between population pairs roughly correlated with geographic distance. Among the European HGDP-CEPH populations, F(ST) was smallest for the comparison with the Russians (F(ST)=0.0098), and estimates for the other population comparisons ranged from 0.0129 to 0.0263. Our analysis also revealed fine-scale substructure within the Finnish Saami and warns against the confounding effects of both hidden population structure and undocumented relatedness in genetic association studies of isolated populations.

  10. Association between vitamin b12 levels and melancholic depressive symptoms: a Finnish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An association between vitamin B12 levels and depressive symptoms (DS) has been reported in several epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin B12 levels in population-based samples with melancholic or non-melancholic DS as the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and different subtypes of DS has not been evaluated in previous studies. Methods Subjects without previously known type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register as a part of the Finnish diabetes prevention programme (FIN-D2D). The study population (N = 2806, participation rate 62%) consisted of 1328 men and 1478 women. The health examinations were carried out between October and December 2007 according to the WHO MONICA protocol. The assessment of DS was based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, cut-off ≥10 points). A DSM-IV- criteria based summary score of melancholic items in the BDI was used in dividing the participants with DS (N = 429) into melancholic (N = 138) and non-melancholic DS (N = 291) subgroups. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, t-test, permutation test, analysis of covariance, multivariate logistic regression analysis and multinomial regression model. Results The mean vitamin B12 level was 331±176 pmol/L in those without DS while the subjects with non-melancholic DS had a mean vitamin B12 level of 324 ± 135 pmol/L, and those with melancholic DS had the lowest mean vitamin B12 level of 292±112 pmol/L (p < 0.001 after adjusted for age, sex, use of antidepressive medication and chronic diseases sum index). The adjusted difference of vitamin B12 levels between the non-melancholic and the melancholic group was 33 pmol/L (95%CI 8 to 57, p = 0.008). Melancholic DS and vitamin B12 levels showed an independent linearly inverse association. The relative risk ratio (RRR) for melancholic DS was 2.75 (95%CI 1.66 to 4.56) in the lowest vitamin B12 level

  11. Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Adolescent Finnish Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Loo, Sandra K.; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Kaakinen, Marika; Humphrey, Lorie A.; McCracken, James T.; Varilo, Teppo; Yang, May H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Peltonen, Leena; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that ADHD is common among Northern Finnish adolescents and is related with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.

  12. L1 insertion within SPEF2 gene is associated with increased litter size in the Finnish Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Sironen, A; Uimari, P; Iso-Touru, T; Vilkki, J

    2012-04-01

    Immotile, short-tail sperm defect (ISTS) expanded in the Finnish Yorkshire population in the end of 1990s. The causal mutation for this defect is a recent L1 insertion within the SPEF2 gene in chromosome 16. Even though all homozygous boars are eliminated from the population because of infertility, the amount of affected boars increased rapidly until marker-assisted selection against the defect was established. To elucidate the associated effects of the ISTS defect on production traits, we have investigated the association of the L1 insertion and PRLR haplotype with reproduction traits in the Finnish Yorkshire population. Two data sets including 357 sows and 491 AI-boars were genotyped for the presence of the L1 insertion and analysed for association with reproduction traits. A Proc Mixed procedure (SAS Inc) and a software package for analysing multivariate mixed models (DMU) were used to study the effect of polymorphisms on reproduction traits. The L1-insertion within SPEF2 gene was associated with litter size in the first parity. The SPEF2 gene is located adjacent to a candidate gene for litter size in the pig, PRLR. Haplotypes within PRLR exon 10 were analysed in data set of 93 AI-boars for the association with reproduction traits. However, no associations were detected within the analysed data set indicating that PRLR sequence variants are not the causal cause for the identified effect on litter size.

  13. Health economic consequences of reducing salt intake and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the adult Finnish population: estimates based on the FINRISK and FINDIET studies.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, J A; Soini, E J O; Laaksonen, D E; Niskanen, L

    2011-10-01

    To predict the health economic consequences of modest reductions in the daily intake of salt (-1.0 g per day) and replacement of saturated fat (SFA, -1.0 energy percent (E%)) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, +1.0 E%) in the Finnish population aged 30-74 years. A Markov model with dynamic population structure was constructed to present the natural history of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) based on the most current information about the age- and sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and nutrient intake. To predict the undiscounted future health economic consequences of the reduction of dietary salt and SFA, the model results were extrapolated for the years 2010-2030 by replacing the baseline population in the year 2007 with the extrapolated populations from the official Finnish statistics. Finnish costs (€2009, societal perspective) and EQ-5D utilities were obtained from published references. During the next 20 years, a population-wide intervention directed at salt intake and dietary fat quality could potentially lead to 8000-13,000 prevented CVD cases among the Finnish adults compared the situation in year 2007. In addition, the reduced incidence of CVDs could gain 26,000-45,000 quality-adjusted life years and save €150-225 million over the same time period. A modest reduction of salt and replacement of SFA with PUFA in food products can significantly reduce the burden of CVD in the adult Finnish population. This impact may be even larger in the near future due to the ageing of Finnish population.

  14. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  15. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI.

  16. Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.

  17. The use of complementary and alternative medicine products in preceding two days among Finnish parents - a population survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has been extensively studied globally among adult and paediatric populations. Parents, as a group, had not been studied to assess their knowledge and attitude to CAM and general medicine use. This study is necessary since parents' attitude to medicine use is known to influence their child's attitude to medicine use later in life. We therefore aim to assess the extent and types of CAM use among Finnish parents, and to determine the factors that promote the CAM use. Also, we aim to determine parents' attitude to general medicine use. Methods Children less than 12 years old, as of spring 2007, were identified from the database of the Finnish Population Register Centre and were selected by random sampling. The parents of these children were identified and a questionnaire was sent to them. Only the parent who regularly takes care of the child's medicine was requested to fill the questionnaire. Cross-tabulations and Chi-square test were used to determine the associations between categorical variables. CAMs were defined as natural products that are not registered as medicines, such as homeopathic preparations, dietary food supplements, and traditional medicinal products. Results The response rate of the survey was 67% (n = 4032). The use of CAM was 31% in the preceding two days. The most commonly used CAM products were vitamins and minerals, followed by fish oils and fatty acids. Prescription and OTC medicines were used concomitantly with CAM by one-third of the parents. CAM was frequently used by parents over 30 years (33%), female parents (32%), highly educated parents (35%), and parents with high monthly net income (3000-3999 euros, 34%). The users of CAM had more negative attitudes towards medicines than non-users of CAM. Conclusions Our findings are in accordance with those of previous studies that women over 30 years of age with a high education and income typically use CAMs. Finnish parents seem to

  18. The age of human mutation: Genealogical and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CLN5 mutation in the Finnish population

    SciTech Connect

    Varilo, T; Savukoski, M.; Peltonen, L.

    1996-03-01

    Variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) is an autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathy of childhood enriched in the western part of Finland, with a local incidence of 1/1,500. We recently assigned the locus for vLINCL, CLN5, to 13q21.1-q32. In the present study, the haplotype analysis of Finnish CLN5 chromosomes provides evidence that one single mutation causes vLINCL in the Finnish population. Eight microsatellite markers closely linked to the CLN5 gene on chromosome 13q were analyzed, to study identity by descent by shared haplotype analysis. One single haplotype formed by flanking markers D13S160 and D13S162 in strong linkage disequilibrium (P < .0001) was present in 81% of disease-bearing chromosomes. Allele 4 at the marker locus D13S162 was detected in 94% of disease-bearing chromosomes. To evaluate the age of the CLN5 mutation by virtue of its restricted geographical distribution, church records were used to identify the common ancestors for 18 vLINCL families diagnosed in Finland. The pedigrees of the vLINCL ancestors merged on many occasions, which also supports a single founder mutation that obviously happened 20-30 generations ago (i.e., {approximately}500 years ago) in this isolated population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected with seven markers covering an extended genetic distance of 11 cM, which further supports the young age of the CLN5 mutation. When the results of genealogical and linkage disequilibrium studies were combined, the CLN5 gene was predicted to lie {approximately}200-400 kb (total range 30-1,360 kb) from the closest marker D13S162. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  20. Involvement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer in a western Finnish sub-population.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, K; Sauramo, S; Sarantaus, L; Vahteristo, P; Hartikainen, A; Vehmanen, P; Ignatius, J; Ollikainen, V; Kääriäinen, H; Vauramo, E; Nevanlinna, H; Krahe, R; Holli, K; Kere, J

    2001-02-01

    To date, two major familial breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified with hundreds of germ-line mutations, accounting for 5--10% of all breast cancer and 40--60% of all inherited breast cancer. Unexpectedly elevated incidence of breast cancer, especially in the older age classes, was observed in a Western Finnish region representing a relatively homogeneous population. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, which confer variable and/or age-dependent penetrance on carriers. Expecting a founder effect, we searched for geographical clustering of breast cancer cases and searched for associations between the affected phenotype and shared genomic segments in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic regions. Our haplotype association study did not reveal any founder effects for either BRCA1 or BRCA2. However, there were two mutations prevalent in this geographical area with minor founder effects, BRCA2 T8555G and 999del5. This is one of the few geographically ascertained, population-based studies that indicate an overall frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations at about 2--3% in all breast cancer cases. The geographical clustering of breast cancer cases was not explained by BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Socioeconomic variations in hysterectomy: evidence from a linkage study of the Finnish hospital discharge register and population census.

    PubMed

    Luoto, R; Keskimäki, I; Reunanen, A

    1997-02-01

    To explore variations in rates for hysterectomy in relation to social class, education, and family income. Retrospective analysis of the 1988 Finnish hospital discharge register linked individually to the 1987 population census. Finland. All women living in Finland aged 35 and over were the denominator population. The numerators were the 8663 women who underwent hysterectomy in 1988. The overall rate for hysterectomy was 63.5/10,000 women aged 35 and over. There was a marked positive correlation between disposable family income and hysterectomy rates even after age, hospital catchment area, education, and occupational status were adjusted for. However, no linear trend for overall hysterectomy rates was observed in relation to social class or education. Procedures due to myomas, accounting for 48% of all hysterectomies, were more frequent among women of high socioeconomic status according to all socioeconomic indicators. Larger proportions of hysterectomies for myoma were also performed in patients in private hospitals and in pay beds in public hospitals than in women in worse off groups. Unlike the findings in earlier studies from other countries, there was a positive correlation between income and hysterectomy rates as a result of the high numbers of hysterectomies performed to treat myoma in the well off women. The findings are discussed in terms of socioeconomic differences in the use of private gynaecological services, and factors, such as parity and use of hormonal replacement therapy, that affect the growth of myomas.

  2. Presence of atrial fibrillation is associated with liver stiffness in an elderly Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Käräjämäki, Aki Juhani; Kettunen, Olli; Lepojärvi, Samuli; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Huikuri, Heikki; Ukkola, Olavi

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic liver injury from different etiologies drives liver fibrosis. However, little is known about the associated factors, systemic factors in particular. Recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation have been shown to be associated with each other. Thereby, we aimed to study the association between atrial fibrillation and liver stiffness. Study Extensive clinical measurements including echocardiography of the heart, transient elastography (TE) of the liver and the presence of atrial fibrillation were determined in elderly Finnish study subjects (n = 76, mean age 73 years) from OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating the Risk of Atherosclerosis) study cohort. Half of the study subjects had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas others did not have any known hepatic morbidity. The present study was cross-sectional by nature. Results The subjects with atrial fibrillation had higher TE values (with atrial fibrillation TE = 9.3kPa, without atrial fibrillation TE = 6.3kPa, p = 0.018). When the cohort was divided to four subgroups (those without NAFLD or atrial fibrillation, with NAFLD but without atrial fibrillation, with both conditions, and with atrial fibrillation but without NAFLD), the TE value was the highest in the subjects with both conditions (5.3kPa, 7.4kPa, 10.8kPa and 7.8kPa, respectively, p = 0.019). Moreover, the higher the TE value, the more prevalent atrial fibrillation was (the atrial fibrillation prevalence by tertiles of TE 27% / 36% / 77%, p = 0.001). Likewise, the greater the TE value, the greater the left atrial diameter, a collateral of atrial fibrillation (left atrial diameters by tertiles of TE 39mm / 45mm / 48mm, p<0.001) was. All these p-values for continuous variables remained statistically significant even after adjustment for common clinically relevant risk factors. Conclusions There is an association between atrial fibrillation and liver stiffness. This novel association may have multiple

  3. µ-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Polymorphism A118G: Lack of Association in Finnish Populations with Alcohol Dependence or Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Kovanen, Leena; Aalto, Mauri; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Sinclair, David; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Koskinen, Seppo; Saarikoski, Sirkku T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The molecular epidemiological studies on the association of the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) and alcohol use disorders have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the possible association of A118G polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in three large cohort-based study samples. Methods: The association between the OPRM1 A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption was analyzed using three different population-based samples: (a) a Finnish cohort study, Health 2000, with 503 participants having a DSM-IV diagnosis for alcohol dependence and/or alcohol abuse and 506 age- and sex-matched controls; (b) a Finnish cohort study, FINRISK (n = 2360) and (c) the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n = 1384). The latter two populations lacked diagnosis-based phenotypes, but included detailed information on alcohol consumption. Results: We found no statistically significant differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between controls and subjects with alcohol dependence or abuse diagnoses. Likewise no significant effects were observed between the A118G genotype and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: These results suggest that A118G (Asn40Asp) polymorphism may not have a major effect on the development of alcohol use disorders at least in the Finnish population. PMID:23729673

  4. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  5. National diabetes prevention program (DEHKO): awareness and self-reported lifestyle changes in Finnish middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Wikström, K; Lindström, J; Tuomilehto, J; Saaristo, T E; Helakorpi, S; Korpi-Hyövälti, E; Oksa, H; Vanhala, M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Uusitupa, M; Peltonen, M

    2015-03-01

    The national development programme for the prevention and care of diabetes was carried out in Finland during 2000-2010. One of the programme goals was to raise awareness of diabetes and its risk factors in the whole population through various activities, e.g. media campaigns and health fares. In addition, a targeted implementation project on the prevention of type 2 diabetes, FIN-D2D, was carried out in selected districts during 2003-2008. The aim of this analysis was to examine the changes in overall awareness of the programme and its association with self-reported lifestyle changes within the adult population during the FIN-D2D project period in the FIN-D2D area compared with the area not participating in the FIN-D2D (the control area). Health behaviour and health among the Finnish Adult Population -postal survey. The structured questionnaire mailed to a random population sample included questions on participants' sociodemographic background, medical history, health habits, and recent lifestyle changes. Awareness of the national diabetes programme was also enquired. Data (n = 10 831) from the 2004-2008 postal surveys were used for this investigation. In the FIN-D2D area, 25% (347/1384) of men and 48% (797/1674) of women reported being aware of the programme. In the control area, the proportions were 20% (702/3551) and 36% (1514/4222), respectively. The overall awareness increased among both genders and in all areas during the project period, but the level of awareness was consistently higher in the FIN-D2D area. Female gender and higher age were associated with increasing awareness of the programme in both areas. Self-reported lifestyle changes were more common among women, but associated with the level of awareness of the programme more often among men than women. The awareness of diabetes and its risk factors increased among men and women in both implementation and control areas during the FIN-D2D project period. The activities of the implementation project

  6. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H. S.; Rissanen, H.; Bullard, K. M.; Knekt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; ‘abdominal height’ measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000–2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1–23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30–49 both for men (22.4 [20.5–24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3–22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6–23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8–21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30–39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3–22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7–22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5–22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4–20.8]). Finland’s early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25826163

  7. Cancer among the Sami--a review on the Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish Sami populations.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Sven; Soininen, Leena; Sjölander, Per; Eero, Pukkala

    2008-12-01

    The Sami are the Indigenous people of the northernmost parts of Sweden, Finland and Norway, and of the Kola Peninsula of Russia. The present review summarizes the main results from studies on cancer morbidity and mortality among the Sami and discusses these results in relation to exposure of known risk factors. Literature review. A systematic search over the time period 1966-2008 for relevant articles was conducted on MEDLINE. Updates and recalculations of some of the results from the original data were also done. Nine articles whose main focus is on cancer incidence or mortality among the Sami were identified. In all studies, the overall incidence of cancer or cancer mortality was lower among the Sami in comparison with the national populations. The differences were less striking in relation to regional reference populations, but the rates were still significantly lower for all populations of Sami, except for Swedish Sami women. Beyond the general trend of a lower cancer incidence among the Sami, there were some notable differences between the various Sami subpopulations. The risk of developing and dying from cancer is low among the Sami. A life-style that includes cancer-protective factors, such as certain dietary components and physical activity, is the most likely explanation for the lower incidence of cancer among the Sami.

  8. Senile systemic amyloidosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and dementia in a very old Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Maarit; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Tienari, Pentti; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Rastas, Sari; Sulkava, Raimo; Paetau, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are amyloid disorders, which typically manifest with old age. The aim of our study was to examine the possible association of these disorders in very old Finns. We performed a prospective, population-based post mortem study and used histological and immunohistochemical staining methods to verify the presence of these types of amyloid. All 63 subjects (59% of the 107 individuals 95 years of age or more, who died during the 10-year follow-up study), 53 women and 10 men), had been neurologically examined. The prevalence of SSA and its association with CAA, dementia, and neuropathologically verified AD was analyzed. Overall SSA occurred in 23 (37%) and CAA in 28 (44%) of the 63 subjects. At clinical examination 41 individuals (65%) were demented; 24 (38%) had Alzheimer's disease. SSA showed no association with the presence of CAA (P = 0.45), clinical dementia (P = 0.09), or Alzheimer's disease (P = 0.21), or sex (P = 0.53). Our prospective population based study shows that SSA and CAA are frequent in very old Finns, but they do not associate.

  9. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and inter-pregnancy weight change among women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Kalpana; Koponen, Päivikki; Härkänen, Tommi; Gissler, Mika; Kinnunen, Tarja I

    2017-05-01

    We studied the differences in the mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and mean inter-pregnancy weight change in women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and women in the general Finnish population. The population-based samples were from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the Health 2011 Survey conducted in six cities in Finland in 2010-2012. This study included women with at least one birth in Finland. Data on their previous pregnancies in Finland were obtained from the National Medical Birth Register for 318 Russian, 584 Somali and 373 Kurdish origin women and for 243 women in the general Finnish population (reference group). Data on pre-pregnancy weight and height were self-reported in early pregnancy. Linear logistic regression was the main method of analysis. The unadjusted mean pre-pregnancy BMI was higher in Somali (27.0 kg/m(2), p<0.001) and Kurdish (25.8 kg/m(2), p<0.001) women, but lower in Russian (22.2 kg/m(2), p<0.001) women than in the reference group (24.1 kg/m(2)). The adjusted coefficients for the difference in the mean pre-pregnancy BMI were -1.93 (95% CI -2.77 to -1.09) for Russian, 1.82 (95% CI 0.89-2.75) for Somali and 1.30 (95% CI 0.43-2.17) for Kurdish women compared with the reference group. Among women with at least two births, no statistically significant difference was observed in the mean inter-pregnancy weight change between the migrant groups and the reference group. Somali and Kurdish women had higher mean pre-pregnancy BMIs than women in the general Finnish population and may need special support and health promotion strategies for weight management.

  10. Are there associations between socio-economic status and known diabetes in an elderly Finnish population?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, L A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the associations between socio-economic status and type 2 diabetes in a non-institutionalised population aged 70 years or over. Diabetes was assessed on the basis of self-reports and additionally 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the subjects on diet treatment. Socio-economic status was assessed by questions on marital status, number of residents in household, basic education, self-rated income and economic status. In the population of 379 subjects (141 men), 14% (n = 19) of men and 19% (n = 46) of women had known diabetes. Known diabetes was less common among married compared to unmarried, widowed or divorced subjects. Diabetes was also more common among men with higher compared to lower level of basic education, while a reverse trend was seen among women. Women, who had been engaged in manual labour, had diabetes more often compared to those engaged in administrative work. Diabetes was more common among men who rated their income as good, but the opposite was true of women. Higher income among men and lower income among women were the most powerful variables associated with known diabetes. Known diabetes was more common in elderly women with lower socio-economic status, whereas the opposite was true of men. This finding suggests that the impact of the socio-economic changes that have taken place in Finland in the 20th century on the risk factors for diabetes has been greater among men with higher and women with lower socio-economic status.

  11. Culled males, infant mortality and reproductive success in a pre-industrial Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Helle, Samuli; Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical literature asserts that the sex ratio (i.e. M/F) at birth gauges the strength of selection in utero and cohort quality of males that survive to birth. We report the first individual-level test in humans, using detailed life-history data, of the ‘culled cohort’ hypothesis that males born to low annual sex ratio cohorts show lower than expected infant mortality and greater than expected lifetime reproductive success. We applied time-series and structural equation methods to a unique multigenerational dataset of a natural fertility population in nineteenth century Finland. We find that, consistent with culled cohorts, a 1 s.d. decline in the annual cohort sex ratio precedes an 8% decrease in the risk of male infant mortality. Males born to lower cohort sex ratios also successfully raised 4% more offspring to reproductive age than did males born to higher cohort sex ratios. The offspring result, however, falls just outside conventional levels of statistical significance. In historical Finland, the cohort sex ratio gauges selection against males in utero and predicts male infant mortality. The reproductive success findings, however, provide weak support for an evolutionarily adaptive explanation of male culling in utero. PMID:25621334

  12. Culled males, infant mortality and reproductive success in a pre-industrial Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Helle, Samuli; Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-22

    Theoretical and empirical literature asserts that the sex ratio (i.e. M/F) at birth gauges the strength of selection in utero and cohort quality of males that survive to birth. We report the first individual-level test in humans, using detailed life-history data, of the 'culled cohort' hypothesis that males born to low annual sex ratio cohorts show lower than expected infant mortality and greater than expected lifetime reproductive success. We applied time-series and structural equation methods to a unique multigenerational dataset of a natural fertility population in nineteenth century Finland. We find that, consistent with culled cohorts, a 1 s.d. decline in the annual cohort sex ratio precedes an 8% decrease in the risk of male infant mortality. Males born to lower cohort sex ratios also successfully raised 4% more offspring to reproductive age than did males born to higher cohort sex ratios. The offspring result, however, falls just outside conventional levels of statistical significance. In historical Finland, the cohort sex ratio gauges selection against males in utero and predicts male infant mortality. The reproductive success findings, however, provide weak support for an evolutionarily adaptive explanation of male culling in utero.

  13. Discrimination power of Investigator DIPplex loci in Finnish and Somali populations.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Anu M; Palo, Jukka U; Hedman, Minttu; Sajantila, Antti

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the suitability of the Investigator DIPplex insertion/deletion polymorphism (indel) kit for forensic casework was assessed through the genotyping of 151 Finns and 175 Somalis. Allele frequency and heterozygosity (H) of this 30-indel marker set were determined, and forensic efficacy was evaluated through estimation of discrimination power (DP), match probability (MP), typical paternity index (TPI), power of paternity exclusion (PE), and polymorphic information content (PIC). A high level of discrimination power was observed for the marker set in both sample groups (CDP>0.9999). East-west population substructure found previously in uniparental markers within Finland was not evident for this autosomal set (E-W F(ST)=0.003). High exclusion probability and low subdivision together demonstrate that these markers are well-suited for identification of individuals in Finland. However, values for typical paternity index and power of paternity exclusion were low (TPI range Finns=0.750-1.190, PE=0.996; TPI Somalis=0.680-1.090, PE=0.986) in comparison to standard STR sets, and thus indels are not recommended for use in paternity or kinship investigations, except as a supplement to other more powerful tools.

  14. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A

    2016-01-01

    New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21-74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  16. National Trends in Main Causes of Hospitalization: A Multi-Cohort Register Study of the Finnish Working-Age Population, 1976–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Kokkinen, Lauri; De Vogli, Roberto; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Background The health transition theory argues that societal changes produce proportional changes in causes of disability and death. The aim of this study was to identify long-term changes in main causes of hospitalization in working-age population within a nation that has experienced considerable societal change. Methodology National trends in all-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations for the five main diagnostic categories were investigated in the data obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seven-cohort sample covered the period from 1976 to 2010 and consisted of 3,769,356 randomly selected Finnish residents, each cohort representing 25% sample of population aged 18 to 64 years. Principal Findings Over the period of 35 years, the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases decreased. Hospitalization for musculoskeletal diseases increased whereas mental and behavioral hospitalizations slightly decreased. The risk of cancer hospitalization decreased marginally in men, whereas in women an upward trend was observed. Conclusions/Significance A considerable health transition related to hospitalizations and a shift in the utilization of health care services of working-age men and women took place in Finland between 1976 and 2010. PMID:25379723

  17. MixFit: Methodology for Computing Ancestry-Related Genetic Scores at the Individual Level and Its Application to the Estonian and Finnish Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Esko, Tõnu; Boomsma, Dorothea Irene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Spector, Tim D.; Perola, Markus; Metspalu, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data. Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition—multidimensional best fitting by MixFit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available computer programs and scripts one of which was developed in house (available at: www.geenivaramu.ee/en/tools/mixfit). PMID:28107396

  18. Men's sexual interest in children: one-year incidence and correlates in a population-based sample of Finnish male twins.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism.

  19. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    PubMed

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination.

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: findings from a Finnish general population sample and the Diabetes Prevention Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G; Lindström, Jaana; Hämäläinen, Helena; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Laakso, Mauri; Louheranta, Anne; Mannelin, Marjo; Rastas, Merja; Salminen, Virpi; Aunola, Sirkka; Sundvall, Jouko; Valle, Timo; Lahtela, Jorma; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2004-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in two independent Finnish study cohorts. The prevalence of the MetS by modified World Health Organization criteria was analyzed in different categories of glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional, population-based sample of 2,049 individuals (FINRISK) aged 45-64 years and in 522 participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In the FINRISK cohort, the MetS was present in 38.8% of the men and 22.2% of the women. The prevalence was 14.4 and 10.1% in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 74.0 and 52.2% in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, 84.8 and 65.4% in subjects with IGT, and 91.5 and 82.7% in subjects with type 2 diabetes in men and women, respectively. Among women, the prevalence of the MetS increased with increasing age. In the DPS cohort, the MetS was present in 78.4% of the men and 72.2% of the women with IGT. The MetS was extremely common in middle-aged subjects The high prevalence in men was mostly due to their high waist-to-hip ratio. The prevalence of the MetS increased in both sexes with deterioration in glucose regulation. Approximately 75% of the subjects with IGT had the MetS. Because the syndrome includes the major risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases and is the major antecedent for type 2 diabetes, concerted preventive action should be targeted to control all the features of the MetS.

  1. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Ayala-Castillo, Miguel; Forero-Naranjo, Leonardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in a Colombian population. METHODS: This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects (age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital’s database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. RESULTS: A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population. PMID:26675051

  2. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Ayala-Castillo, Miguel; Forero-Naranjo, Leonardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2015-12-10

    To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in a Colombian population. This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects (age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital's database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population.

  3. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms, smoking and breast cancer risk in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Pia; Heikinheimo, Liisa; Kataja, Vesa; Eskelinen, Matti; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Uusitupa, Matti; Vainio, Harri; Metsola, Katja; Hirvonen, Ari

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the associations between two CYP1A1 polymorphisms (Ile462Val and Thr461Asn) and one CYP1B1 polymorphism (Leu432Val) and breast cancer risk. The study population consisted of 483 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy population controls, all of homogenous Finnish origin. No statistically significant overall associations were found between the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genotypes and breast cancer risk. However, a significant increase in the breast cancer risk was seen for women who had smoked 1-9 cigarettes/day and carried the CYP1B1 432Val allele; the OR was 2.6 (95% CI 1.07-6.46) for women carrying the Leu/Val genotype and 5.1 (95% CI 1.30-19.89, P for trend 0.005) for women with the Val/Val genotype compared to similarly smoking women homozygous for the 432Leu allele. Furthermore, when CYP1B1 genotypes were combined with the previously analyzed N-acetyl transferase (NAT2) genotypes, a significant increase in breast cancer risk was found among women who had at least one CYP1B1 432Val allele together with the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03-2.24) compared to women carrying a combination of CYP1B1 Leu/Leu and NAT2 rapid acetylator genotypes. This risk was seen to be confined to ever smokers; the OR was 2.46 (95% CI 1.11-5.45) for ever smokers carrying at least one CYP1B1 432Val allele together with the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype compared to ever smokers with the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu and NAT2 rapid acetylator genotype combination. Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 polymorphism may be an important modifier of breast cancer risk in Finnish Caucasian women who have been exposed to tobacco smoke and/or carry the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype.

  4. Awareness and determinants of electronic cigarette use among Finnish adolescents in 2013: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Jaana Maarit; Ollila, Hanna; El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Pere, Lasse Antero; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Background A wide range of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now on the market. We studied e-cigarette awareness and use, determinants and sources of e-cigarettes, the e-liquids used in them and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements among adolescents in Finland. Among smokers, we studied the association of e-cigarette use and interest in smoking cessation. Method Data were obtained from a national survey of 12–18-year-old Finnish adolescents in 2013 (N=3535, response rate 38%). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Results Of the respondents, 85.3% knew what e-cigarettes were; 17.4% had tried them. E-liquids with nicotine were used most often (65.7%); also those who had never tried conventional cigarettes had used them. Of e-cigarette ever users, 8.3% had never tried smoking. Parents’ high level of education, being in employment, and intact family protected against children's e-cigarette use. In the final model, daily smoking (OR 41.35; 95% CI 25.2 to 67.8), snus use (2.96; 2.4–4.0), waterpipe use (2.21; 1.6–3.0), children's vocational education (2.06; 1.4–3.1) and poor school performance (1.92; 1.4–3.0) were associated with e-cigarette experimentation. Those smokers with most experience of e-cigarettes were least likely to consider smoking cessation. Conclusions Awareness and experimentation with e-cigarettes are high among adolescents, especially in older age groups and boys. Nicotine e-liquids are easy to acquire for youth. Having similar risk factors, e-cigarette use seems to follow the model of conventional smoking initiation. Among adolescent smokers, use of e-cigarettes does not clearly relate to interest in smoking cessation. Preventive policies are needed to protect the youth. PMID:24827977

  5. Awareness and determinants of electronic cigarette use among Finnish adolescents in 2013: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Jaana Maarit; Ollila, Hanna; El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Pere, Lasse Antero; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now on the market. We studied e-cigarette awareness and use, determinants and sources of e-cigarettes, the e-liquids used in them and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements among adolescents in Finland. Among smokers, we studied the association of e-cigarette use and interest in smoking cessation. Data were obtained from a national survey of 12-18-year-old Finnish adolescents in 2013 (N=3535, response rate 38%). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Of the respondents, 85.3% knew what e-cigarettes were; 17.4% had tried them. E-liquids with nicotine were used most often (65.7%); also those who had never tried conventional cigarettes had used them. Of e-cigarette ever users, 8.3% had never tried smoking. Parents' high level of education, being in employment, and intact family protected against children's e-cigarette use. In the final model, daily smoking (OR 41.35; 95% CI 25.2 to 67.8), snus use (2.96; 2.4-4.0), waterpipe use (2.21; 1.6-3.0), children's vocational education (2.06; 1.4-3.1) and poor school performance (1.92; 1.4-3.0) were associated with e-cigarette experimentation. Those smokers with most experience of e-cigarettes were least likely to consider smoking cessation. Awareness and experimentation with e-cigarettes are high among adolescents, especially in older age groups and boys. Nicotine e-liquids are easy to acquire for youth. Having similar risk factors, e-cigarette use seems to follow the model of conventional smoking initiation. Among adolescent smokers, use of e-cigarettes does not clearly relate to interest in smoking cessation. Preventive policies are needed to protect the youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The Finnish "social wilderness"

    Treesearch

    Ville Hallikainen

    2000-01-01

    The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...

  7. Impact of Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Finnish Children – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A.; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J. Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. Methods We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012–2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. Conclusions This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:25781031

  8. Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in Finnish children--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A; Virtanen, Mikko J; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012-2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes.

  9. Apolipoproteins and HDL cholesterol do not associate with the risk of future dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the National Finnish population study (FINRISK).

    PubMed

    Tynkkynen, Juho; Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Laatikainen, Tiina; Havulinna, Aki S; Sundvall, Jouko; Leiviskä, Jaana; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko

    2016-12-01

    Data on associations of apolipoproteins A-I and B (apo A-I, apo B) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are conflicting. Our aim was to examine, whether apo B, apoA-I, their ratio, or HDL-C are significant, independent predictors of incident dementia and AD in the general population free of dementia at baseline. We analyzed the results from two Finnish prospective population-based cohort studies in a total of 13,275 subjects aged 25 to 74 years with mainly Caucasian ethnicity. The follow-up time for both cohorts was 10 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia (including AD) (n = 220) and for AD (n = 154). Cumulative incidence function (CIF) analysis was also performed to adjust the results for competing risks of death. Adjusted for multiple dementia and AD risk factors, log-transformed apo A-I, log HDL-C, log apo B, and log apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with incident dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with AD risk when adjusted for competing risks but no other statistically significant associations were observed in the CIF analyses. Apo A-I, HDL-C, apo B, or apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with future dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with incident AD risk when adjusted for competing risks of death, but the finding is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Our study does not support the use of these risk markers to predict incident dementia or AD.

  10. Burnout and behavior-related health risk factors: results from the population-based Finnish Health 2000 study.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Kirsi; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Kouvonen, Anne; Rossi, Helena; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship between burnout and behavior-related health risk factors. We collected data from a population-based sample (n = 3264) through interviews, questionnaires, and health examinations. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were self-reported. Obesity was based on measurements at screening. Burnout and exhaustion were associated with a higher likelihood of risk factors. More specifically, burnout syndrome was related to low physical activity and obesity, exhaustion dimension to low physical activity and heavy drinking, cynicism dimension to low physical activity, and diminished professional efficacy to low physical activity, obesity, and lower likelihood of heavy drinking. Improving working conditions and psychoeducation on recommended ways of coping and recovery could help to prevent negative health consequences of chronic work stress.

  11. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of age-related nuclear cataract among the elderly Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Karppi, Jouni; Laukkanen, Jari A; Kurl, Sudhir

    2012-07-14

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cataractogenesis. Previous studies have shown that long-term dietary intake of antioxidants (lutein and zeaxanthin) may decrease the risk of age-related cataracts. The aim of the present study was to examine whether plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin are related to age-related nuclear cataract in the elderly population. Subjects were participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study and they were classified into tertiles according to plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin. The association of plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations with age-related nuclear cataract in 1689 elderly subjects (aged 61-80 years) was investigated in the present cross-sectional study by using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 113 cases of incident age-related cataracts were confirmed, of which 108 cases were nuclear cataracts. After adjustment for age, examination year, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, years of education, use of oral corticosteroids, history of diabetes and history of hypertension with current use of antihypertensive medication, subjects in the highest tertiles of plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin had 42 and 41 % lower risks of nuclear cataract, respectively, compared with those in the lowest tertiles (relative risk (RR) = 0·58, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P = 0·041 for lutein and RR = 0·59, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·99; P = 0·046 for zeaxanthin). In conclusion, we suggest that high plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were associated with a decreased risk of age-related nuclear cataract in the elderly population.

  12. Dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to obesity: A pooled analysis of three Finnish population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Niina E; Knekt, Paul; Kanerva, Noora; Valsta, Liisa M; Eriksson, Johan G; Rissanen, Harri; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Männistö, Satu

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL), and obesity remains unsolved. Sugar intake and obesity represent a timely topic, but studies on sugar subcategories are scarce. We aimed to study whether total carbohydrate, sucrose, lactose, fibre, dietary GI, and GL are associated with obesity in 25-79-year-old Finns. Our pooled analysis included three cross-sectional population-based studies: the DILGOM Study (n = 4842), the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n =1979), and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 5521). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were collected by standardised protocols. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. In the model, which included sex, age, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy intake, the likelihood of being obese (body mass index ⩾ 30 kg/m(2)) appeared lower in the highest quartiles of total carbohydrate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.74; P for trend < 0.0001), sucrose (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.47-0.61; P < 0.0001), and dietary GL (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P < 0.0001) compared to the lowest quartiles. In contrast, dietary GI did not associate with obesity. Fibre intake associated inversely with abdominal obesity (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; P < 0.001). The inverse sucrose-obesity relationship appeared stronger in high fruit consumers compared to low fruit consumers (P for interaction 0.02). CONCLUSIONS ALTHOUGH MOST OF THE STUDIED CARBOHYDRATE EXPOSURES WERE ASSOCIATED WITH A DIMINISHED LIKELIHOOD OF BEING OBESE, PROSPECTIVE STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO ASSESS TEMPORAL RELATIONS TO SUPPORT CAUSAL INFERENCE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia in Finnish children in a nation-wide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Palmu, Arto A.; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Nohynek, Hanna; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi M.; Jokinen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 using a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months). We estimated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on pneumonia among children to evaluate the public health impact of the vaccine. Methods We conducted a nation-wide population-based, observational study comparing rates of pneumonia in children before and after the NVP introduction. For the total (direct and indirect) effect, the cohort of vaccine-eligible children (born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed until the end of 2013 (age range 3–42 months). For the indirect effect, a cohort of older children (age range 7–71 months) not eligible for the PCV vaccination was followed from 2011 to 2013. Both cohorts were compared with two season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. Hospitals’ in- and outpatient discharge notifications with ICD-10 diagnoses compatible with pneumonia (J10.0, J11.0, J12-J18, J85.1 or J86) as set by the hospital pediatricians were collected from the national Care Register. The main outcome was hospital-treated primary pneumonia (HTPP), defined as primary diagnosis of pneumonia after in-patient hospitalization. We compared rates of pneumonia in the NVP target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The rate of HTPP episodes was 5.3/1000 person-years in the combined reference cohorts and 4.1/1000 person-years in the target cohort vaccine-eligible children. Compared with the reference cohort, the relative rate reduction in target cohort was 23% (95%CI 18–28) and the absolute reduction 1.3/1000 person-years. In the indirect effect evaluation, we observed continued increase in HTPP incidence until 2011 with a subsequent reduction of 18% (95%CI 10–25) during years 2012 to 2013. Number of empyema diagnoses remained low. Conclusions A substantial decrease in pneumonia rates was observed both among

  14. Finnish Science and Culture[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

  15. Menstrual disorders in adolescence: a marker for hyperandrogenaemia and increased metabolic risks in later life? Finnish general population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pinola, P; Lashen, H; Bloigu, A; Puukka, K; Ulmanen, M; Ruokonen, A; Martikainen, H; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Morin-Papunen, L

    2012-11-01

    population and in both study groups, there were significant correlations between body mass index (BMI) (and waist-to-hip ratio), hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic parameters. Symptomatic girls exhibited significantly higher serum concentrations of testosterone (P= 0.010), lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P =0.042) and higher free androgen indices [FAIs; geometric mean 3.38 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.27, 5.18) versus 3.08 (IQR: 2.15, 4.74), P= 0.002]. The two groups had comparable BMI and insulin sensitivity, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. There was a significant linear trend towards higher FAI values in the higher BMI quartiles in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic girls. In the whole population, there was a statistically significant linear decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001) and higher triglyceride concentrations (P =0.004) in the upper FAI quartile. Information regarding menstrual disorders in adolescence is a good marker of hyperandrogenaemia and may be an early risk factor for the development of PCOS in adulthood. The association between obesity, hyperandrogenism and metabolic risks is already evident in adolescence, which strengthens the importance of noting menstrual disorders at an early stage. BIAS, LIMITATIONS, GENERALIZABILITY: The cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow us to draw conclusions concerning the metabolic risks of this population in later life. The diagnosis of menstrual disorders was based on a questionnaire, suggesting a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. This study was not designed to diagnose PCOS, as ultrasonography was not available and there was no clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism (i.e. hirsutism). However, we were able to take into account potential confounding factors in the analyses. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland (project grants 104781

  16. Injury deaths among Finnish residents travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The increasing international mobility raises the possibility of foreign nationals dying abroad. Here, a descriptive, retrospective and population-based study of deaths abroad among Finnish residents from 1969 to 2007 is presented. The data were collected from the Statistics Finland data based on certificates of cause of death issued after repatriation of the corpse and after review of medical documents or a medico-legal autopsy. The frequency of injury deaths, proportional mortality rates (PMRs) and mortality risk estimates (MREs) were measured. During the study period, 6894 Finnish residents died abroad. Spain, Sweden and Thailand were the top three destination countries for number of deaths, accounting together for 40.3% of all the deaths. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of deaths. The overall injury deaths represented 26.7% of all deaths abroad and occurred at a higher proportion than in Finland (PMR: 3.3). The most common injury deaths were traffic accident and drowning, which together represented more than 50% of all unintentional injury deaths. High PMRs were found for traffic accidents in Russia, Germany and the US and for drowning in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. The MRE for injury deaths was 73.5 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Finnish travellers abroad are a population subgroup with a high risk of injury death. Common travel health interventions must be backed by actions to prevent injuries abroad, particularly traffic accident and drowning.

  17. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  18. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  19. Stress among Finnish farm entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti

    2008-01-01

    The aims were to examine the prevalence of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs in 2004 (n = 1,182) and to compare the results with those for the general working population in 2003. The second aim was to analyze which factors were associated with the prevalence of stress. A stratified random sample of farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability, were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. Health and extension services should pay special attention to encouraging farm entrepreneurs to maintain their social relationships. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.

  20. Education as a social pathway from parental socioeconomic position to depression in late adolescence and early adulthood: a Finnish population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Kaarina; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence for social differentials in the risk of depression in youth, and little is known about how education at this age influences the risk. We assess how parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and education predict depression from late adolescence to early adulthood, a time of major educational transitions. We followed a nationally representative 20 % sample of Finnish adolescents born in 1986-1990 (n = 60,829) over two educational transitory stages at the age of 17-19 and 20-23 covering the years 2003-2011. We identified incident depression using health care register data. We estimated the risk of depression by parental SEP and personal education using Cox regression, adjusting for family structure, parental depression and the individual's own psychiatric history. Lower parental income was associated with up to a twofold risk of depression. This effect was almost fully attributable to other parental characteristics or mediated by the individual's own education. Educational differences in risk were attenuated following adjustment for prior psychiatric history. Adjusted for all covariates, not being in education increased the risk up to 2.5-fold compared to being enrolled in general upper secondary school at the age of 17-19 and in tertiary education at the age of 20-23. Vocationally oriented women experienced a 20 % higher risk than their academically oriented counterparts in both age groups. Education constitutes a social pathway from parental SEP to the risk of depression in youth, whereby educational differences previously shown in adults are observed already before the establishment of adulthood SEP.

  1. The positive impact of general vitamin D food fortification policy on vitamin D status in a representative adult Finnish population: evidence from an 11-y follow-up based on standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D data.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Itkonen, Suvi T; Lundqvist, Annamari; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa; Dowling, Kirsten G; Hull, George Lj; Kröger, Heikki; Karppinen, Jaro; Kyllönen, Eero; Härkänen, Tommi; Cashman, Kevin D; Männistö, Satu; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2017-06-01

    Background: A systematic vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products and fat spreads was started in 2003 in Finland to improve vitamin D status. Objective: We investigated the effects of the vitamin D fortification policy on vitamin D status in Finland between 2000 and 2011.Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations of a nationally representative sample comprising 6134 and 4051 adults aged ≥30 y from the Health 2000 and Health 2011 surveys, respectively, were standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations.Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the mean S-25(OH)D increased from 48 nmol/L (95% CI: 47, 48 nmol/L) to 65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65, 66 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D supplement users increased from 11% to 41% (P < 0.001). When analyzing the effect of fortification of fluid milk products, we focused on supplement nonusers. The mean increase in S-25(OH)D in daily fluid milk consumers (n = 1017) among supplement nonusers was 20 nmol/L (95% CI: 19, 21 nmol/L), which was 6 nmol/L higher than nonconsumers (n = 229) (14 nmol/L; 95% CI: 12, 16 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). In total, 91% of nonusers who consumed fluid milk products, fat spreads, and fish based on Finnish nutrition recommendations reached S-25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L in 2011.Conclusions: The vitamin D status of the Finnish adult population has improved considerably during the time period studied. The increase is mainly explained by food fortification, especially of fluid milk products, and augmented vitamin D supplement use. Other factors, such as the difference in the ultraviolet radiation index between 2000 and 2011, may partly explain the results. When consuming vitamin D sources based on the nutritional recommendations, vitamin D status is sufficient [S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L], and supplementation

  2. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  3. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  4. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  5. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in Finnish and Swedish children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mecklin, Minna; Hesselmar, Bill; Qvist, Erik; Wennergren, Göran; Korppi, Matti

    2014-09-01

    There is no widely accepted consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis. This study describes current practices in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. A questionnaire on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in children below 2 years of age was sent to all Finnish and Swedish hospitals providing inpatient care for children. All 22 Finnish hospitals answered, covering 100% of the <12-month-old population and 21 of the 37 Swedish hospitals responded, covering 74%. The mean upper age limit for bronchiolitis was 12.7 months in Finnish hospitals and 12.5 months in Swedish hospitals. In both, laboured breathing, chest retractions and fine crackles were highlighted as the main clinical findings, followed by prolonged expiration. The mean value for the lowest acceptable saturation in room air was 94% in Finnish hospitals and 93% in Swedish hospitals. The most important factors influencing hospitalisation were young age, desaturation and inability to take oral fluids. Finnish doctors preferred intravenous routes, and Swedish doctors preferred nasogastric tubes for supplementary feeding. The first-line drug therapy was inhaled racemic adrenaline in Finland and inhaled levo-adrenaline in Sweden. The diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis is fairly similar in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  8. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  9. Organizational ethics in Finnish intensive care units: staff perceptions.

    PubMed

    Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Mäkelä, Merja; McDaniel, Charlotte; Puukka, Pauli

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe ethical problems that are influenced by organizational factors in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). The goal was to help nurses and administrators to analyse intensive care work, and to improve nurses' work motivation. Through these means the ultimate goal is to improve the quality of patient care. Data were collected in 35 hospital ICUs by means of the Ethics Environmental Questionnaire (EEQ). This gained access to the population of 1047 Finnish intensive care nurses. The response rate was 77% (n = 814). Data analysis was carried out using SAS-6 statistical software. The results provided scores for the 20 EEQ items. Reliability according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. The results revealed that organizational factors in Finnish ICUs have both positive and negative dimensions. Positively, nurses have the opportunity to discuss ethical problems in their work units, whereas, negatively, respondents noted that there is much concern about earning money. Nurses' work in Finnish hospital ICUs is ethically challenging; it is similar to that found in other countries and thereby supports international application of these findings.

  10. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to breast

  11. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  12. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  13. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Ville; Taipale, Vappu

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in which mental

  14. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  15. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  16. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  17. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…

  18. Medical English for Finnish Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Collan, Y.; Lock, S. P.; Pyke, D. A.; Whimster, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Courses in medical editing and medical English are relatively new and infrequent. We have now provided seven of them for Finnish doctors who wished to publish their work in English, to present papers in English to conferences, to work in English-speaking countries—or who wanted to improve their knowledge of the language. Although such courses should be tailored to individual needs, most participants seem to have found them helpful, particularly the sessions spent in the language laboratories. We suggest that courses in medical English might be useful for both medical students and postgraduate doctors outside English-speaking countries. PMID:4821015

  19. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  20. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2006 review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data-sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established, the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983–1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975–1979) included also assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations. PMID:23298696

  2. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…

  3. Screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Eastern Finnish breast/ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, J M; Kataja, V; Pirskanen, M; Arffman, A; Ristonmaa, U; Vahteristo, P; Ryynänen, M; Heinonen, S; Kosma, V-M; Mannermaa, A

    2007-10-01

    Familial aggregation is thought to account for 5-10% of all breast cancer cases, and high penetrance breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 explain < or =20% of these. Hundreds of mutations among breast/ovarian cancer families have been found in these two genes. The mutation spectrum and prevalence, however, varies widely among populations. Thirty-six breast/ovarian cancer families were identified from a population sample of breast and ovarian cancer cases among a relatively isolated population in Eastern Finland, and the frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations were screened using heteroduplex analysis, protein truncation test and sequencing. Five different mutations were detected in seven families (19.4%). Two mutations were found in BRCA1 and three in BRCA2. One of the mutations (BRCA2 4088insA) has not been detected elsewhere in Finland while the other four, 4216-2nt A-->G and 5370 C-->T in BRCA1 and 999del5 and 6503delTT in BRCA2, are recurrent Finnish founder mutations. These results add to the evidence of the geographical differences in distribution of Finnish BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. This screen also provides further evidence for the presumption that the majority of Finnish BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations have been found and that the proportion of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Finnish breast/ovarian cancer families is around 20%.

  4. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  5. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  6. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities.

  7. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  8. Language as a determinant of participation rates in Finnish health examination surveys.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    A high participation rate is considered as a prerequisite for representative survey results, especially when it is known that non-participation is selective. In many countries migration is increasing and the proportion of people speaking other language(s) than the official language(s) of the country is also increasing. How does this affect survey participation rates? Data from four cross-sectional health examination surveys (the FINRISK Study) were used to evaluate the effect of the registered mother tongue to participation in the survey. Finland has two official languages (Finnish and Swedish). Between 1997 and 2012, the proportion of the population with some other language as their registered mother tongue has increased significantly. Participation rates in the health surveys have been highest among the Finnish language group (68% in men in 1997 and 76% in women in 1997), while lowest among the foreign language group (43% in men in 1997 and 57% in women in 1997). In 2012, the participation rates had declined in all language groups: for men, 58%, 62% and 41% for Finnish, Swedish and foreign groups respectively, and for women 68%, 75% and 56%. The participation rate for the foreign language group was significantly lower than for the Finnish and Swedish groups. In future surveys it will be important to include actions to promote participation, e.g. providing survey material in several languages. These actions will increase costs but will be essential to ensure high participation rates and reliable results for the total population.

  9. Relationship between eating behavior, breakfast consumption, and obesity among Finnish and Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Järvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied. Univariate analysis examined the associations between breakfast consumption, family meals, emotional eating, bingeing, and weight status in both populations. Multiple logistic regression models focused on the relationship between breakfast consumption and overweight/obesity taking potential confounders into account. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with lower levels of overweight/obesity among Finnish and Greek boys, but not among girls. Adjusting for confounders did not change the result among Greek boys, but adjustment for father's body mass index, weight control, and fear of getting fat attenuated the association among Finnish boys. This study highlights the importance of breakfast consumption, particularly among male adolescents, in obesity prevention programs. Copyright © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  11. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  12. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  13. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  14. Technology Education in the Finnish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamaki, Ari

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 300 technology teachers in Finnish primary schools received 212 responses indicating that woodworking was a predominant activity and the design-based teaching method was most common. Age, education, and experience of teachers was not related to technology-education practice. Familiarity with technological equipment was not considered…

  15. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  16. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  17. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  18. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  19. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  20. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  1. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  2. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  3. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  4. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  5. Draft Inventory of Finnish Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsila, Tapani, Comp.; And Others

    Media studied in this report include broadcasting (radio and television), press (newspapers and magazines), literature, motion pictures, and sound and video recordings. First, there is an overview of Finnish mass communications on a qualitative level. After this, quantitative data are presented, divided into categories of production and…

  6. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  7. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  8. Genetic and genealogic study of 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Nystroem-Lahti, M; Peltomaeki, P.; Aaltonen, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    Two susceptibility loci for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have been identified: MSH2 on chromosome 2p and MLH1 on chromosome 3p. This study focuses on the role of the latter locus in 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds. Of 9 families in which linkage studies were possible, 8 revealed linkage to markers on 3p. A haplotype of alleles from 9 loci extending 10 cM around MLH1 was conserved in 5 kindreds. All families with the shared large haplotype as well as two other 3p-linked families with different disease haplotypes showed an identical germline mutation of MLH1. The mutation consists of a heterozygous deletion of 165 bp corresponding to an exon. An additional 24 kindreds that could not be studied for linkage were tested for the presence of the above described deletion, and the mutation was found in 6. The ancestries of all kindreds were traced 3 to 13 generations back using data from the church parish registers. Of the 13 families with the 165 bp deletion in MLH1, 10 originated in a limited area in south-central Finland. At least 8 of these kindreds had a common ancestry. The remaining kindreds with the MLH1 mutation originated from another small region some 200 km away. The kindreds that did not show the characteristic germline mutation originated more evenly in different parts of the country. Our results suggest that a single MLH1 mutation is a widespread cause of HNPCC in the Finnish population.

  9. The genetic relationship between the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps): analysis of nuclear DNA and mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lahermo, P.; Sajantila, A.; Sistonen, P.; Lukka, M.; Aula, P.; Peltonen, L.; Savontaus, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    The genetic relationships between two Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps), were studied by using PCR for six nuclear-DNA marker loci, mitochondrial restriction-site polymorphism, and sequence variation of a 360-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region. The allele frequencies of each of the nuclear-DNA marker loci and the frequencies of mtDNA restriction haplotypes were significantly different between the populations. The Saami showed exceptionally low variation in their mtDNA restriction sites. The 9-bp deletion common in East Asian populations was not observed, nor did the haplotype data fit into the haplogroup categorization of Torroni et al. The average number of nucleotide substitutions from the mtDNA haplotype data indicated that the Finnish Saami may be closer to the Finns than to the other reference populations, whereas nuclear DNA suggested that the Finns are more closely related to the European reference populations than to the Finnish Saami. The similarity of the Finns to the other Europeans was even more pronounced according to the sequence data. We were unable to distinguish between the Finns and either the Swiss or Sardinian reference populations, whereas the Finnish Saami clearly stood apart. The Finnish Saami are distinct from other Circumarctic populations, although two of the lineages found among the Saami showed closer relationship to the Circumarctic than to the European lineages. The sequence data indicated an exceptionally high divergence for the Saami mtDNA control lineages. The distribution of the pairwise nucleotide differences in the Saami suggested that this population has not experienced an expansion similar to what was indicated for the Finns and the reference populations. Images Figure 1 PMID:8651309

  10. The genetic relationship between the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps): analysis of nuclear DNA and mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Lahermo, P; Sajantila, A; Sistonen, P; Lukka, M; Aula, P; Peltonen, L; Savontaus, M L

    1996-06-01

    The genetic relationships between two Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps), were studied by using PCR for six nuclear-DNA marker loci, mitochondrial restriction-site polymorphism, and sequence variation of a 360-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region. The allele frequencies of each of the nuclear-DNA marker loci and the frequencies of mtDNA restriction haplotypes were significantly different between the populations. The Saami showed exceptionally low variation in their mtDNA restriction sites. The 9-bp deletion common in East Asian populations was not observed, nor did the haplotype data fit into the haplogroup categorization of Torroni et al. The average number of nucleotide substitutions from the mtDNA haplotype data indicated that the Finnish Saami may be closer to the Finns than to the other reference populations, whereas nuclear DNA suggested that the Finns are more closely related to the European reference populations than to the Finnish Saami. The similarity of the Finns to the other Europeans was even more pronounced according to the sequence data. We were unable to distinguish between the Finns and either the Swiss or Sardinian reference populations, whereas the Finnish Saami clearly stood apart. The Finnish Saami are distinct from other Circumarctic populations, although two of the lineages found among the Saami showed closer relationship to the Circumarctic than to the European lineages. The sequence data indicated an exceptionally high divergence for the Saami mtDNA control lineages. The distribution of the pairwise nucleotide differences in the Saami suggested that this population has not experienced an expansion similar to what was indicated for the Finns and the reference populations.

  11. Causes of death and life span in Finnish gelsolin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eeva-Kaisa; Atula, Sari; Tanskanen, Maarit; Nikoskinen, Tuuli; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Kiuru-Enari, Sari

    2016-08-01

    Finnish type of hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominant disorder. Until recently, there has only been little knowledge of fatal complications of the disease and its possible impact on the patients' life span. We identified 272 deceased patients based on patient interviews and genealogical data. After collecting their death certificates, we recorded the patients' underlying and immediate causes of death (CoD) and life span and compared them to the general Finnish population. We then calculated proportional mortality ratios (PMR), standardised for age and sex, for the CoDs. The underlying CoD in 20% of the patients was AGel amyloidosis (PMR = 114.2; 95% CI: 85.6-149.4). The frequency of fatal cancers (10%) was significantly diminished (PMR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.31-0.69). Renal complications were overrepresented as the immediate CoD in female patients (PMR = 2.82 95% CI: 1.13-5.81). The mean life span for male patients was 73.9 years (95% CI: 72.0-75.6) and 78.0 years for female patients (95% CI: 76.4-79.5) compared to 72.1 and 80.1 years for the general population. Our results suggest that the disease increases the risk of fatal renal complications but does not substantially shorten the life span, possibly due to the significantly lower frequency of fatal cancers. Key Messages AGel amyloidosis may increase the risk of renal complications, especially among female patients. The frequency of fatal cancers is significantly lower. The patients' life span is comparable to that of the general population.

  12. A cross-sectional comparative study of gut bacterial community of Indian and Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Shreyas V; Kumar, Himanshu; Chowdhury, Somak P; Dhotre, Dhiraj P; Endo, Akihito; Mättö, Jaana; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Rautava, Samuli; Joshi, Ruchi; Patil, Nitinkumar P; Patil, Ravindra H; Isolauri, Erika; Bavdekar, Ashish R; Salminen, Seppo; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2017-09-05

    The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in the compositional development of gut microbiota. Though well documented in western pediatrics population, little is known about how various host conditions affect populations in different geographic locations such as the Indian subcontinent. Given the impact of distinct environmental conditions, our study assess the gut bacterial diversity of a small cohort of Indian and Finnish children and investigated the influence of FUT2 secretor status and birth mode on the gut microbiome of these populations. Using multiple profiling techniques, we show that the gut bacterial community structure in 13-14-year-old Indian (n = 47) and Finnish (n = 52) children differs significantly. Specifically, Finnish children possessed higher Blautia and Bifidobacterium, while genera Prevotella and Megasphaera were predominant in Indian children. Our study also demonstrates a strong influence of FUT2 and birth mode variants on specific gut bacterial taxa, influence of which was noticed to differ between the two populations under study.

  13. Mortality by indicators of socioeconomic status among the Finnish elderly.

    PubMed

    Martelin, T

    1994-05-01

    Socioeconomic mortality differentials among the entire Finnish elderly population (those aged 60 years and over) during 1981-85 are examined on the basis of linked data, compiled by means of linking death records of 1981-85 to the 1980 census. Several indicators of socioeconomic position are used: own educational level and occupational class, spouse's education and class, household disposable income, and housing conditions. Marked differences are found according to each of the indicators. Mortality differentials tend to decrease with age and be more pronounced among men as compared to women. In most cases differences persist even when the other socioeconomic indicators are taken into account although they diminish. The interpretation of socioeconomic mortality differentials and the problems of measuring the socioeconomic status of the elderly are discussed.

  14. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable.

  15. BAP1 Germline Mutations in Finnish Patients with Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Joni A; Markkinen, Salla; Wilska, Rosi; Saarinen, Silva; Raivio, Virpi; Täll, Martin; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Kivelä, Tero T

    2016-05-01

    Germline mutations of the BRCA1-associated protein-1 gene (BAP1) predispose carriers to uveal melanoma. We report the population-based frequency of germline pathogenic variants of BAP1 in Finnish patients with uveal melanoma who live in a high-risk region for this cancer. Cohort study. In Finland, uveal melanomas are treated centrally in the Ocular Oncology Service, Helsinki University Hospital. We collected clinical data and genomic DNA from 148 of 188 consecutive patients diagnosed from January 2010 through December 2012. Seven of these patients from 6 families had a history of uveal melanoma in 1 relative, and 2 patients from 2 additional families had such a history in 2 relatives. Sequencing BAP1. Pathogenic variants in BAP1. We found 2 different pathogenic variants in BAP1 in 3 patients. Two patients had a single nucleotide insertion in exon 14 resulting in a shift of reading frame. Both had a family history of uveal melanoma in at least 1 relative. One patient without a family history of uveal melanoma had a single nucleotide substitution in the conserved splice donor site of intron 2. BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome-related cancers were present in all 3 families. The overall frequency of BAP1 pathogenic variants was 2.0% (3/148; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-5.8), the frequency among patients 50 years of age or younger was 3.6% (1/28; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-18), and a pathogenic variant was detected in 2 of 8 families with a history of uveal melanoma. The frequency of BAP1 germline pathogenic variants in consecutive Finnish patients with uveal melanoma who come from a high-risk region for the development of this cancer is comparable with reports from other populations. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Finnish Trauma Audit 2004: current state of trauma management in Finnish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Handolin, L; Leppäniemi, A; Vihtonen, K; Lakovaara, M; Lindahl, J

    2006-07-01

    There is great variation in the organisation of trauma care in European countries. The state of trauma care in Finnish hospitals has not been appropriately reviewed in the past. The aim of the present study conducted by the Finnish Trauma Association (FTA) was to assess the number of Finnish hospitals admitting severe trauma patients, and to evaluate the organisation and training of trauma care in those hospitals. In 2004, a telephone survey to all the Finnish hospitals was conducted, and information on the number of severe trauma patients treated per month, the organisation of acute trauma care, and the existence of multidisciplinary trauma care training was collected. Thirty-six Finnish hospitals admitted trauma patients. The range of estimated number of severely injured trauma patients treated in individual hospitals per month varied from 0.5 to 12, resulting in an estimated number of 1000-1300 patients with severe trauma treated in Finland every year (19-25/100.000 inhabitants). About 20% of the hospitals had a trauma team, and 25% had a systematic trauma education program. Only one hospital had established multidisciplinary and systematic trauma team training. The case load of severe trauma patients is low in most Finnish hospitals making it difficult to obtain and maintain sufficient experience. Too many hospitals admit too few patients, and only a few hospitals have been working on updating their trauma management protocols and education. There is an obvious need for leadership, discussion, legislation and initiatives by the professional organisations and the government to establish a modern trauma system in Finland.

  17. Germ-cell testicular cancer in offspring of Finnish immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Scott M; Granath, Fredrik; Ehlin, Anna; Sparén, Pär; Ekbom, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Variation in testicular cancer incidence can be used to assist in identification of risks. Finland has a significantly lower germ-cell testicular cancer risk than Sweden. Finns who immigrate to Sweden maintain their lower risk irrespective of age at immigration. We investigated difference in risk between Finland and Sweden by examining germ-cell testicular cancer incidence in males born in Sweden to Finnish immigrant parents. Swedish general population registers were used to identify 11,662 males born in Sweden where both Finnish parents immigrated to Sweden from Finland from 1969 or afterward. All of these offspring were at least 15 years old by final follow-up in 2001. Some six offspring (all diagnosed between ages 20 and 24 years) had a diagnosis of germ-cell testicular cancer. Comparison with the Swedish population rate produced standardized incidence ratios [SIR (95% confidence interval)] of 0.85 (0.31-1.84) for all the men and 1.75 (0.64-3.81) for the 20- to 24-year age group. SIRs calculated using the Finnish population rates produced an overall SIR (95% confidence interval) of 1.11 (0.41-2.41) and 2.95 (1.08-6.42) for the 20- to 24-year age group. Although the substantially reduced risk of testicular cancer previously observed in Finnish immigrant to Sweden was not found, this study had insufficient statistical power to conclude that environmental exposures explain the difference in germ-cell testicular cancer risk between Finland and Sweden.

  18. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  19. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  20. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  1. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  2. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  3. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  4. DEPTH--Developing Professional Thinking for Finnish Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Esa-Matti; Hintikka, Jouni; Karsikas, Arto

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish case contributing to the international DEPTH study was carried out within the Technology Education "NOW!" project at the University of Oulu. Nineteen project teachers participated in the study. The recent revision of the Finnish Basic Education Curriculum with the introduction of the cross-curricular theme "Humans and…

  5. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  6. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  7. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  8. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  9. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  10. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  11. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  12. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  13. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  14. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  15. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  16. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  17. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  18. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  19. Dental health and dental treatment needs among recruits of the Finnish Defence Forces, 1919-91.

    PubMed

    Ankkuriniemi, O; Ainamo, J

    1997-06-01

    The first two surveys of the dental health of young Finnish men were conducted in 1919 and 1965. The objective of four subsequent surveys (1976, 1981, 1986, and 1991) was to collect both interview and clinical examination data for the monitoring of changes in the oral health status of the recruits. A significant reduction in self-reported toothache, gingival bleeding, and number of decayed teeth was observed from 1976 to 1991. At examination, the numbers of decayed teeth, teeth indicated for extraction, teeth in need of fillings, and missing teeth decreased substantially, as did the teeth with visible plaque, subgingival calculus, and teeth with 4-mm or deeper periodontal pockets. This comprehensive series of successive cross-sectional oral health surveys clearly shows that since 1976 a significant decrease in oral disease and treatment needs has taken place among the Finnish population of young men.

  20. Social support as a predictor of disability pension: the Finnish Health 2000 study.

    PubMed

    Sinokki, Marjo; Hinkka, Katariina; Ahola, Kirsi; Gould, Raija; Puukka, Pauli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Virtanen, Marianna

    2010-07-01

    Social support at work and in private life was examined as a predictor of disability pension in the population-based Finnish Health 2000 study. Social support was measured in a nationally representative sample comprising of 3414 employees aged 30 to 64 years. Disability pensions extracted from the registers of the Finnish Centre for Pensions were followed up across 6 years. Low social support from supervisors was associated with disability pension with an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.38) when adjusted with sociodemographic and health behavior variables. After adjustment for baseline perceived health, the associations between supervisor support and disability pension strongly attenuated. Low social support from supervisors predicts forthcoming work disability but the relationship is affected by self-reported nonoptimal health at baseline.

  1. Establishing credibility, constructing understanding: The epistemic struggle over healthy eating in the Finnish dietetic blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Huovila, Janne; Saikkonen, Sampsa

    2016-07-01

    What constitutes healthy eating is experiencing ongoing public debate, and this debate is increasingly taking place on the Internet. In this article, using a dialectical approach to analyse rhetorical discourse, we investigated how six highly popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers construct dietetic credibility and understanding. Their argumentation is compared to that of two academic experts contributing to the blog of the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Theoretically, we draw on Michael Billig's notions on how thinking and understanding are pervasively argumentative and reflect wider socio-cultural contexts, and on the dilemmatic nature of common sense. We demonstrate how the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers rhetorically constructed a more particularistic and individualistic understanding of healthy eating in their argumentation in critical opposition to the universalistic and population-based understanding. In the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers argumentation, practical, subjective and moral knowledge was valued, alongside abstract, scientific knowledge. In contrast, the National Institute for Health and Welfare bloggers typically utilised population-based averages and causalities in their argumentation. We argue that arguing over healthy eating in the public domain is fundamentally an epistemic struggle, in which different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing are valued, and dilemmas related to healthy eating are deliberated.

  2. Mutations in CHMP2B are not a cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration in Finnish patients.

    PubMed

    Kaivorinne, A-L; Krüger, J; Udd, B; Majamaa, K; Remes, A M

    2010-11-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically complex disorder. The majority of mutations linked to FTLD families are found in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PGRN) genes. Mutations in the chromatin-modifying protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) have been identified in a few families. However, CHMP2B has been showed to be a rare cause of FTLD. Our aim was to determine the frequency of CHMP2B mutations in a clinical series of patients with FTLD in Northern Finland. We examined 72 (36 men) Finnish patients with FTLD. The mean age at onset was 58.9 (range 43–80). Symptoms of motor neuron disease (FTLDMND) were present in 12 patients (17%). Positive family history was detected in 28% of the patients. Mutations in MAPT and PGRN were excluded from these patients. All exons and exon–intron boundaries of the CHMP2B gene were sequenced. No pathogenic CHMP2B mutations were found. A rare polymorphism in the non-coding region of exon 1 (rs36098294) and three other previously reported polymorphisms were detected. Our results confirm that mutations in CHMP2B are not a common cause of FTLD. MAPT and PGRN mutations are also rare in Finnish population, suggesting that other, still unknown genetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of FTLD in Finnish population.

  3. Safety climate in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking companies.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Simo; Seppälä, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety.

  4. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  5. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    PubMed

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ∼ε/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (Pω), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in Pω, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and Pω differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in Pω of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Finnish Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Kantala, T; Kinnunen, P M; Oristo, S; Jokelainen, P; Vapalahti, O; Maunula, L

    2017-05-01

    We investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Finnish veterinarians engaged in different practice specialties and evaluated the effect of different background factors on HEV exposure by examining total HEV antibodies in samples collected from the participants of the 2009 National Veterinary Congress in Helsinki, Finland. Finnish veterinarians commonly have total HEV antibodies with seroprevalence of 10.2%. Of the non-veterinarians, 5.8% were seropositive. Increasing age was associated with HEV seropositivity, and, surprisingly, the highest HEV seroprevalence (17.8%) among veterinarians was detected among small animal practitioners. Although no positive correlation between swine contacts and HEV seropositivity was found, 22.7% of veterinarians who had had needle stick by a needle that had previously been injected into a pig versus 9.0% of those who had not were seropositive, even though the finding was statistically non-significant (P = 0.07). Our results suggest that, although contact with swine is a known risk factor for HEV infection, the sources of HEV infections are probably numerous, including travelling abroad and possibly also other reservoirs of HEV than pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Cutin composition of five finnish berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

    2006-01-25

    The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains <50% polyester polymer cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.

  8. Linkage analysis of putative schizophrenia gene candidate regions on chromosomes 3p, 5q, 6p, 8p, 20p and 22q in a population-based sampled Finnish family set.

    PubMed

    Hovatta, I; Lichtermann, D; Juvonen, H; Suvisaari, J; Terwilliger, J D; Arajärvi, R; Kokko-Sahin, M L; Ekelund, J; Lönnqvist, J; Peltonen, L

    1998-09-01

    During the past decade numerous studies have been published describing chromosomal regions potentially linked with schizophrenia. Unfortunately, none of these studies has been able to conclusively identify any specific gene that predisposes to schizophrenia. Typically evidence for linkage is seen on large chromosomal regions, as expected, containing tens or even hundreds of genes. Furthermore, attempts to replicate the findings have rarely been successful leaving a confusion about the existence of predisposing genes for schizophrenia in a particular region of the genome. We have carried out linkage analysis in a set of 62 pedigrees rising from a genetically isolated population of Finland with markers on six chromosomal regions earlier suggested to harbor predisposing genes for schizophrenia, namely 3p, 5q, 6p, 8p, 20p, and 22q. We were not able to find significant evidence for linkage on any of these chromosomal regions. However, some support for linkage was found on all studied chromosomal regions, except 3p.

  9. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    PubMed

    Anturaniemi, Johanna; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms)' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322) as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers) and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds) showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current household. The

  10. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding ‘Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms)’ using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322) as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers) and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds) showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current household

  11. Brief report: validity of Finnish registry-based diagnoses of autism with the ADI-R.

    PubMed

    Lampi, K M; Sourander, A; Gissler, M; Niemelä, S; Rehnström, K; Pulkkinen, E; Peltonen, L; Von Wendt, L

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the validity of registry-based diagnoses of autism in Finland using the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). This study was designed for the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), an ongoing research project where registry-based diagnoses will be used for epidemiological studies. In this small pilot study, a clinical sample of 95 subjects diagnosed with childhood autism or pervasive developmental disorder/pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD/PDD-NOS) or Asperger's syndrome according to the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) was gathered nationwide. A small control group consisting of siblings without any registered diagnoses of those being examined was also included in the study. Diagnoses were further re-evaluated by interviewing parents with the ADI-R. The mean scores of autistic subjects clearly exceeded cut-off limits for autism on all three ADI-R domains and 96% of the subjects with registered diagnosis of childhood autism fulfilled the criteria based on the instrument as well. These results suggest that the validity of Finnish registry-based diagnoses of childhood autism can be considered good. Our findings lay important groundwork for further population- based studies of the aetiology of autism. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  13. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  14. Preliminary results of Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czobor, A.; Ádám, J.; Mihály, S.; Vass, T.; Parm, T.; Ollikainen, M.

    The Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign was carried out in Finland in August 1983 during 13 days. The campaign was organized by the Finnish Geodetic Institute. Three Hungarian JMR-1A receivers and one Finnish JMR-4 occupied 9 stations together with the 1st order triangulation network points of Finland. The data processing was performed in the Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Penc. The observation strategy, the methods of data processing and results obtained by GEODOP and SADOSA programs as well as the S-transformations are presented in this paper.

  15. Measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, H; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks. We have surveyed the 14 largest wastewater treatment plants in the country, which account for approximately 40% of total Finnish treatment capacity. It was found that these plants still only rely on a few, traditional measurement techniques. The treatment processes could be improved, and the treatment could be made more energy-efficient by installing modern instrumentation. We review some recent developments in wastewater plant instrumentation technology and suggest improvements to Finnish plants.

  16. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%). © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects were aged 30–47 years. Peak VO2 as well as systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures were measured to calculate peak mean arterial pressure, CP and ECP. These parameters were assessed for correlation with sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, physical activity index (PAI), fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as the use of antihypertensive treatment. Results Sex, age and weight explained 36% of the variation in peak systolic blood pressure, and these factors in combination with height and the use of antihypertensive treatment explained 13% of the variation in peak diastolic blood pressure. Sex, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI and smoking explained 49% − 52% of the variation in peak CP. Sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI, smoking and insulin levels explained 21% − 49% of variation in ECP. Conclusions Subject demographics and lifestyle-related factors should be taken into account when exercise blood pressure response, CP and ECP are used to evaluate patients’ cardiac function in CPET. PMID:24621399

  18. Association between Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) Variations rs6277 and rs1800497 and Cognitive Performance According to Risk Type for Psychosis: A Nested Case Control Study in a Finnish Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Hugh; Barnett, Jennifer H; Miettunen, Jouko; Mukkala, Sari; Mäki, Pirjo; Liuhanen, Johanna; Murray, Graham K; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ollila, Hanna; Paunio, Tiina; Veijola, Juha

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research regarding the association between genes and cognitive intermediate phenotypes in those at risk for psychotic disorders. We measured the association between established psychosis risk variants in dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cognitive performance in individuals at age 23 years and explored if associations between cognition and these variants differed according to the presence of familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The subjects of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986). Using linear regression, we compared the associations between cognitive performance and two candidate DRD2 polymorphisms (rs6277 and rs1800497) between subjects having familial (n=61) and clinical (n=45) risk for psychosis and a random sample of participating NFBC 1986 controls (n=74). Cognitive performance was evaluated using a comprehensive battery of tests at follow-up. Principal components factor analysis supported a three-factor model for cognitive measures. The minor allele of rs6277 was associated with poorer performance on a verbal factor (p=0.003) but this did not significantly interact with familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The minor allele of rs1800497 was associated with poorer performance on a psychomotor factor (p=0.038), though only in those at familial risk for psychotic disorders (interaction p=0.049). The effect of two DRD2 SNPs on cognitive performance may differ according to risk type for psychosis, suggesting that cognitive intermediate phenotypes differ according to the type (familial or clinical) risk for psychosis.

  19. Oral health problems in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H; Ankkuriniemi, O

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of oral health problems in 353 Finnish conscripts aged 21.0 (SD 1.2 years) was studied by means of a questionnaire and by investigating the dental records. One hundred five (30%) conscripts had seeked dental help during their 8 months' military service. Forty-four percent of these patients had dental caries as their main diagnosis; endodontic problems comprised 9% of all cases. The problems related to third molars were second in frequency, accounting for 27% of the conscripts treated. Six and one-half percent of the patients had lost serving time on dental grounds (mean absence 3.6 days), most often (90%) due to acute pericoronitis or post-operative status following third molar surgery.

  20. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  1. Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lundén, Janne; Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel.

  2. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  3. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  4. Integrated primary health care: Finnish solutions and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Simo

    2009-01-01

    Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries. PMID:19590612

  5. The changing picture of substance abuse problems among Finnish prisoners.

    PubMed

    Lintonen, Tomi; Obstbaum, Yaira; Aarnio, Jorma; von Gruenewaldt, Virpi; Hakamäki, Sirpa; Kääriäinen, Juha; Mattila, Aino; Vartiainen, Heikki; Viitanen, Päivi; Wuolijoki, Terhi; Joukamaa, Matti

    2012-05-01

    Marginalized people are often absent from population surveys of substance use and from research based on care data. Special methods are needed to reach these small but very significant groups. This study analyses how patterns of intoxicant use have changed over time among one of the most marginalized group of people, the prisoners. Nationally representative samples of Finnish prisoners were examined: 903 prisoners in 1985, 325 prisoners in 1992, and 410 prisoners in 2006. Comprehensive field studies consisting of interviews and a clinical medical examination were used. In 1985, a diagnosis for alcoholism was given to 41% of the men and 36% of the women prisoners. An increase over time was observed, and in 2006, 52% of men and 51% of women prisoners were alcohol dependent. Dependence on a drug was diagnosed in 6% of men and 3% of women in 1985; this prevalence had increased to 58% of men and 60% of women in 2006. A dramatic change in prevalence of illegal drug use and drug addiction among prisoners has taken place in the past 20 years. Recognizing this shift from alcohol to other intoxicants is important since drugs are illegal substances and thus tend to lead to involvement with the judicial sector, thus stigmatizing and deepening the spiral of marginalization.

  6. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-03-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  7. Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Knekt, P; Seppänen, R; Aaran, R K

    1988-11-01

    The relationship between serum alpha-tocopherol level and many of its possible determinants was studied in 1,373 cancer-free Finnish men and women age 40-79 years. Dietary data were available from a subsample of 301 persons. The mean alpha-tocopherol level in the serum samples stored at -20 degrees C was 8.6 mg/liter among men and 10.5 mg/liter among women. Intake of margarine, vegetable oils, and green vegetables predicted the serum level of alpha-tocopherol. Altogether six food groups accounted for about 10% of the variation. The levels also varied with age, geographical area, type of population, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. They were positively correlated with serum cholesterol and serum vitamin A in both sexes, and with body mass index and serum selenium in men. Altogether these variables accounted for over 40% of the variation in alpha-tocopherol levels. The level of serum alpha-tocopherol, which is associated with the dietary intake of vitamin E, is dependent upon living conditions.

  8. Snuff use and smoking in Finnish olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Alaranta, A; Alaranta, H; Patja, K; Palmu, P; Prättälä, R; Martelin, T; Helenius, I

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of smoking and snuff use in Finnish elite athletes. Of all the athletes (n = 494) financially supported by the National Olympic Committee, 446 completed a structured questionnaire (response rate 90.3 %) in 2002. A control group (n = 1504, response rate 80.2 %) comprised an age-matched sample from the population-based sample collected by the National Public Health Institute. Any smoking was reported by 11.4 % of the athletes (3.6 % daily and 7.8 % occasionally) and by 38.3 % of the controls (28.1 % and 10.2 %). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, OR (95 % CI) for any smoking was highest 0.42 (0.23 - 0.77) for athletes in skill-based events and lowest 0.06 (0.02 - 0.17) for endurance athletes as compared with controls. Snuff use was reported by 24.6 % of the athletes (9.6 % daily and 15.0 % occasionally) and by 3.7 % of the controls (1.8 % and 1.9 %). The adjusted OR (95 % CI) for any snuff use was highest 15.6 (9.55 - 25.6) for team-sport athletes and lowest 3.33 (1.54 - 7.21) for endurance athletes as compared with controls. Although snuff use in the general female population is rare, also female athletes did use snuff. Though prevalence of daily smoking among athletes was one-seventh of the respective figure for the general population, prevalence of daily snuff use was five-fold that of controls. Tobacco free elite athletes are valuable in health counselling because athletes are considered role models influencing their peers and the sport. Sport associations are challenged to ban all forms of tobacco.

  9. Tuberculosis, Airway Obstruction and Mortality in a Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina; Heliövaara, Markku; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Puukka, Pauli; Vasankari, Tuula

    2017-04-01

    There is little long-term follow-up data concerning the association between past pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), airway obstruction and mortality. We aimed to analyse a national health examination survey data from 6701 adult Finns undergoing spirometry between 1978 and 1980 (follow-up through 2013). We identified TB either through a disease history or by a TB-indicative scar on a chest x-ray. We specified obstruction using the lower limit of normal (LLN) and classified severity using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages 1-4. After adjusting for smoking and other confounders, past TB associated with obstruction. Compared to non-TB patients, the adjusted odds ratio (OR; 95% CI) of obstruction reached 2.21 (1.52-3.21) among patients with a scar recorded by one radiologist, 2.48 (1.63-3.78) when recorded by both radiologists and 4.59 (2.86-7.37) among patients with a disease history. Among those with neither past TB nor obstruction, with past TB only, with an obstruction only and with both, we found hazard ratios (HRs; 95% CIs) for subsequent mortality of 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (1.03-1.20), 1.62 (1.31-2.00) and 1.77 (1.45-2.16), adjusted for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, education and general health. In conclusion, past TB strongly determines obstruction, although on its own quite weakly predicts premature death. TB and obstruction combined predict an additive mortality pattern.

  10. Age at immigration and duration of stay in relation to risk for testicular cancer among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Anders; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Montgomery, Scott M; Sparén, Pär

    2003-08-20

    Although the incidence of testicular cancer is increasing, substantial differences in incidence between countries and populations exist. These differences cannot be explained solely by genetic differences, but environmental exposures, particularly early exposures, have been implicated in the etiology of testicular cancer. To assess whether early exposures contribute to the incidence of testicular cancer, we identified 93 172 Finnish men who immigrated to Sweden between 1969 and 1996 and followed them for the occurrence of testicular cancer. The risk of testicular cancer was lower for Finnish immigrants to Sweden than for the Swedish general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21 to 0.53). The reduced risk was associated with both seminomas and non-seminomas. Neither age at immigration nor duration of stay in Sweden had any impact on the reduced risk. Although the type of environmental exposures remains unknown, the results strongly indicate that early exposures are major determinants for testicular cancer.

  11. Significant disparities in allergy prevalence and microbiota between the young people in Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Ruokolainen, L; Paalanen, L; Karkman, A; Laatikainen, T; von Hertzen, L; Vlasoff, T; Markelova, O; Masyuk, V; Auvinen, P; Paulin, L; Alenius, H; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; Mäkelä, M J; Zilber, E; Jousilahti, P; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2017-05-01

    Atopic allergy has been more common among schoolchildren in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. These adjacent regions show one of the most contrasting socio-economical differences in the world. We explored changes in allergy from school age to young adulthood from 2003 to 2010/2012 in these two areas. The skin and nasal microbiota were also compared. Randomly selected children from Finnish (n = 98) and Russian Karelia (n = 82) were examined in 2003, when the children were 7-11 years of age, and again in 2010 (Finnish Karelia) and 2012 (Russian Karelia). We analysed self-reported allergy symptoms and sensitization to common allergens by serum sIgE values. The skin (volar forearm) and nasal mucosa microbiota, collected in 2012 (aged 15-20 years), identified from DNA samples, were compared with multivariate methods. Asthma, hay fever, atopic eczema, self-reported rhinitis, as well as atopic sensitization, were threefold to 10-fold more common in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. Hay fever and peanut sensitization were almost non-existent in Russia. These patterns remained throughout the 10-year follow-up. Skin microbiota, as well as bacterial and fungal communities in nasal mucosa, was contrastingly different between the populations, best characterized by the diversity and abundance of genus Acinetobacter; more abundant and diverse in Russia. Overall, diversity was significantly higher among Russian subjects (Pskin < 0.0001, Pnasal-bacteria < 0.0001 and Pnasal-fungi < 0.01). Allergic diseases were not associated with microbial diversity in Finnish subjects. Differences in allergic phenotype, developed in early life, remain between populations. A parallel difference in the composition of skin and nasal microbiota suggests a potential underlying mechanism. Our results also suggest that high abundance and diversity of Acinetobacter might contribute to the low allergy prevalence in Russia. Implications of early-life exposure to Acinetobacter should be further

  12. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  13. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

    PubMed

    Huvinen, M; Pukkala, E

    2016-04-01

    Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 mutation screening in Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Kiiski, Johanna I; Ranta, Salla; Vilske, Sara; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Majority of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes have a role in DNA repair and the most important high-risk genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are specifically involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks. A central player in HRR is RAD51 that binds DNA at the damage site. The RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3 facilitate the binding of RAD51 to DNA. While germline mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are associated with high ovarian cancer risk and RAD51B polymorphisms with breast cancer, the contribution of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 is more unclear. To investigate the role of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 in breast cancer predisposition and to identify putative recurrent founder mutations in the Finnish population where such mutations have been observed in most of the currently known susceptibility genes, we screened 182 familial Finnish breast or ovarian cancer patients for germline variation in the RAD51and XRCC3 genes and 342 patients for variation in XRCC2, with a subset of the patients selected on the basis of decreased RAD51 protein expression on tumors. We also performed haplotype analyses for 1516 breast cancer cases and 1234 controls to assess the common variation in these genes. No pathogenic mutations were detected in any of the genes and the distribution of haplotypes was similar between cases and controls. Our results suggest that RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 do not substantially contribute to breast cancer predisposition in the Finnish population.

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  16. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  17. Human leucocyte antigens B*08, DRB1*03 and DRB1*13 are significantly associated with autoimmune liver and biliary diseases in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, E; Salmela, L; Peräsaari, J; Jaatinen, T; Tenca, A; Vapalahti, O; Färkkilä, M; Jalanko, H; Kolho, K-L

    2017-02-01

    The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype frequencies of the Finnish population are unique because of the restricted and homogenous gene population. There are no published data on HLA genotype associations in paediatric autoimmune liver diseases in Scandinavia. This study characterised the HLA genotypes of children with autoimmune liver or biliary disease in Finland. The study cohort comprised 19 paediatric patients (13 female) aged three years to 15 years treated for autoimmune liver or biliary disease at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, between 2000 and 2011, and followed up for four years and three months to 14.6 years. We genotyped HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 in the children, and the HLA antigen frequencies were compared with 19 807 records from the Finnish Bone Marrow Donor Registry. All paediatric patients with autoimmune liver or biliary disease had either autoimmune HLA haplotype B*08;DRB1*03 or DRB1*13. These were significantly more common among patients with autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis/primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome than the Finnish control population. HLA RB1*04 was not found in the study cohort. Our study found that B*08, DRB1*03 and DRB1*13 were significantly associated with autoimmune liver and biliary diseases in Finnish paediatric patients. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  19. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  20. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  1. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  2. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  3. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  4. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  5. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  6. Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among General Medical Outpatients in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Nkomazna, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14.4%) with no significant differences between the gender (20% versus 12.5%, P = 0.26). The area under curve for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.55–0.72) for the total population, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.56–0.75) for women, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52–0.83) for men. The optimal cut-off point for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 17 (sensitivity = 48% and specificity = 73%) for the total population, 17 (sensitivity = 56% and specificity = 66%) for females, and 13 (sensitivity = 53% and specificity = 77%) for males. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20% and 89.5%, respectively. The findings indicate that the Finnish questionnaire was only modestly effective in predicting undiagnosed diabetes among outpatients in Botswana. PMID:27738638

  7. Structure of the sense of coherence scale in a nationally representative sample: the Finnish Health 2000 survey.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G; Suominen-Taipale, Anna L; Uutela, Antti; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-06-01

    To examine the structure of the sense of coherence (SOC) scale in a general population. This study analysed the responses of 6,217 subjects aged 30 years and over who participated in the Finnish Health 2000 survey (response rate 77.4%). Participants completed an abbreviated 12-item version of the SOC scale. Two alternative structures were tested using confirmatory factor analysis: a one-factor model, with all scale items loaded onto a single latent factor representing the SOC construct, versus a second-order factor model, with scale items loaded onto their corresponding latent factors representing the three SOC components (comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness), which are, in turn, dependent on one single higher-order SOC construct. The one-factor model was fitted to the data after allowing the errors of comprehensibility item 5 and manageability item 6 to correlate, as was done in previous studies among Finnish adults. The comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) for the one-factor model were, respectively, 0.97-0.98, 0.96-0.97 and 0.05-0.09 across both sexes and three age groups. The second-order factor model had correlations between latent factors higher than 1, even after alternative model modifications, casting doubts on this more complex structure. These data suggest that the components of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness should be merged when measuring SOC with the 12-item SOC scale in the Finnish general population.

  8. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  9. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  10. Health promotion in the Finnish shipping industry.

    PubMed

    Saarni, H; Laine, M; Niemi, L; Pentti, J

    2001-01-01

    In autumn 1997 a pilot project was started in Finland to develop methods for promoting the health of sailors. Four Finnish shipping companies, (4 cargo ships and 2 passenger-cruise ferries), with altogether 730 sailors participated in the project. Special attention was paid to individuals with health problems and those who generally did not take care of their own health or fitness. Three-quarters of the respondents saw their health as good and one fifth as fair. Thirty-four persons responded that their working capacity was poor. 154 sailors were selected into further physical fitness evaluations. The main task of the project team was to activate sailors to take care of their own health and well-being. The health-promoting activities were directed especially at those persons who needed it. Information lectures concerning healthier eating habits and meals were given. Anti-smoking and anti-alcohol drinking information was given. On board one cruise ferry a project was started on how to react as early as possible to alcohol abuse among seafarers. Courses on shore for sailors were arranged to improve their physical fitness and to increase their resting benefit between working periods at sea. The intervention time was one year. Information about smoking and alcohol led to reduced alcohol consumption. The sailors had started to exercise more often both on board ship and on shore. Those who had increased their physical exercise during free time more often found their own health and working ability to have improved than those who had not changed their exercise habits. It appeared that health intervention projects are really needed especially by older sailors. The results also showed that positive effects could be achieved in the fitness of sailors. Better fitness was good for their health and also increased the work safety.

  11. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved. PMID:21126368

  12. Finnish Research Activities relevant to IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Kauristie, K.; Vainio, R.

    Space physics is a traditional and strong field of research in Finland dating its early roots back to the mid-19th century i e several decennia before the First International Polar Year in 1882 Measurements of rapid variations of the geomagnetic field started in Helsinki already in 1844 and form now some of the longest and most uniform series of observations measuring the global state of the heliosphere Even further in the north at the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory SGO continuous measurements span more than 90 years Today space physics activities are conducted mainly in the Universities of Helsinki HU Oulu OU and Turku TU and in the Finnish Meteorological Institute FMI SGO which maintains a versatile set of ground-based instrumentation belongs to OU Although several fields of common interest exist each of these parties also have their own research areas and specific expertise TU has a strong experimental and theoretical program in solar energetic particles HU has a wide program in planetary research as well as in auroral magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and theoretical space plasma physics OU and SGO have a strong involvement in ionospheric physics as well as in solar-terrestrial and heliospheric physics HU has long been active in space weather projects while OU is a key player in space climate i e in the research of long-term changes in the Sun heliosphere and the near-Earth space As one part of this cosmic rays have been continuously measured in Oulu since 42 years In addition to the versatile ground-based instrumentation

  13. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Arja; Rinne, Marjo; Vasankari, Tommi; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2010-01-29

    Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p < 0.001). Better HRQoL in terms of general health, physical functioning, mental health, and vitality were associated with better physical fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory. Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.

  14. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p < 0.001). Better HRQoL in terms of general health, physical functioning, mental health, and vitality were associated with better physical fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory. Conclusions Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL. PMID:20109241

  15. A diet following Finnish nutrition recommendations does not contribute to the current epidemic of obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Konttinen, Hanna; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the general public opinion is that nutritional recommendations promote obesity rather than prevent it. We created the Recommended Finnish Diet Score (RFDS) that illustrates the Finnish nutrition recommendations and assessed whether this score is associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). Cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Height, weight, WC and BF% were measured, and BMI values were calculated. The RFDS was developed based on the national nutrition recommendations. A large representative sample of the Finnish population. Men (n 2190) and women (n 2530) aged 25-74 years. The RFDS was inversely associated with WC in men (OR = 0·48, 95 % CI 0·28, 0·81, P < 0·05) and BF% in both men (OR = 0·44, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·82, P-trend < 0·05) and women (OR = 0·63, 95 % CI 0·37, 1·08, P-trend < 0·05). The inverse association of RFDS and BF% appeared stronger among older age groups (men: OR = 0·21 CI 0·07, 0·64, P-trend < 0·01; women: OR = 0·56, 95 % CI 0·25, 1·27, P-trend < 0·05) and among women with normal BMI (OR = 0·62, 95 % CI 0·36, 1·09, P-trend < 0·05). The RFDS was not associated with BMI. A diet following nutrition recommendations is likely to help to maintain normal WC and BF%. These findings could be useful for dietary counselling and the prevention of obesity.

  16. Gene expression profiles in Finnish twins with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Särkijärvi, Silja; Kuusisto, Hanna; Paalavuo, Raija; Levula, Mari; Airla, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Elovaara, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Background Since genetic alterations influencing susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are as yet poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to identify genes responsible for MS by studying monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for MS. Methods In order to identify genes involved in MS development, the gene expression profiles in blood mononuclear cells obtained from eight MZ twin pairs discordant for MS were analyzed by cDNA microarray technology detecting the expression of 8 300 genes. The twins were collected from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and both affected subjects and their healthy siblings underwent neurological evaluation and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Gene expressions were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results It appeared that 25 genes were at least two-fold up-regulated and 15 genes down-regulated in 25% (2/8) of twins with MS when compared to their healthy siblings. Moreover, 6/25 genes were up-regulated in 40% of MS twins and one gene, interferon alpha-inducible protein (clone IFI-6-16) (G1P3), in 50% of them. The six most constantly expressed genes are (1) G1P3, (2) POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 1, (3) myxovirus resistance 2, (4) lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein-5, (5) hemoglobin alpha 2 and (6) hemoglobin beta. Conclusion Over two-fold up-regulation of these six genes in almost half of MZ twins with MS suggests their role in MS pathogenesis. Studies using MZ MS twins obtained from genetically homogeneous population offer a unique opportunity to explore the genetic nature of MS. PMID:16504146

  17. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  18. Finnish Government reiterates its support for fifth nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In late February 1993, the Finnish government voted 11 to 6 in favor of supporting a fifth nuclear reactor for the country. The vote, which was viewed as a vote in principle to support the nuclear option, was taken at the behest of the Finnish utilities. It follows a parliamentary vote in November 1992 that opposed building new nuclear sites. Thus, the issue is now being discussed in committees, and a parliamentary vote whether or not to approve the government stance will take place later this spring.

  19. Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population growth influences many stressors on Narragansett Bay and its Watershed, including all landscape and chemical stressors discussed in other chapters of this report. In numerous ways, population growth affects the condition of the Bay ecosystem, Watershed ecosystem, and h...

  20. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  1. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  2. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    PubMed

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  3. Ethnic identity among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada: some voices and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jurva, Katrina; Jaya, Peruvemba S

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity experiences of second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada. The study draws from interviews conducted among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Ottawa. How these individuals identify with the Finnish ethnic group and engage in ethnic culture may play a pivotal role in the continuance of Finnish culture in Canada. Therefore, it is necessary to understand not only whether second-generation Finnish immigrants identify with their ethnic group, but also how they do so. We found that the youth identified with their Finnish ethnicity on a symbolic level, participating occasionally in the local ethnic community, but not living within ethnic culture on a day-to-day basis. They identify strongly with being Canadian and have an appreciation of multiculturalism and contrast it with Finnish society when they visit Finland.

  4. Finnish women's experiences of antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Bondas, Terese

    2002-03-01

    to explore and describe women's experiences of antenatal care. semi-structured interviews, dialogical interviews and non-participant observation in two phases both during and after pregnancy were analysed according to Colaizzi's phenomenological method. four maternity clinics in one rural and one urban primary health care centre and one outpatient maternity clinic at a central hospital in Finland. in the first phase a purposive sample of nine women were interviewed at 36 weeks gestation, three weeks, three months and two and a half years after birth. In the second phase, data were collected for further breadth and depth and 31 women, who were going through different stages of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium participated. Data were collected by means of interviews supplemented by non-participatory observation. In the total sample of 40 Finnish women, one half was primigravidae and the other half multigravidae. a main thread running through the women's experiences of antenatal care were their needs and wishes that concerned the health of the unborn baby, but also the health and dignity of themselves and their family. The pregnant women wanted to share their pregnancy and childbirth story in a confident relationship based on humaneness and interest in a peaceful atmosphere. They needed protection safeguarded through scientifically based and humane surveillance, and professional competence was expected. They wanted to continuously participate in the new situations through knowledge in dialogues and they wanted to involve their family in the care on their own terms. The childbirth preparation groups had an important multidimensional role in the care. the findings challenge the antenatal care that so far has been focused on the physical health, the needs of the primigravida and a blurred family perspective. The family perspective implies knowing both the pregnant woman and her partner in terms of the pregnancy, the birth and a new parenthood. Humane

  5. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a…

  6. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  7. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  8. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  9. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  10. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  11. Monitoring Finnish Owls 1982-1996: methods and results

    Treesearch

    Pertti Saurola

    1997-01-01

    In 1982, the Raptor Grid, a nation-wide program for monitoring birds of prey was started by the Finnish Ringing Centre. Voluntary banders were asked to select a 10 x 10 km study plot and find annually all active nests or at least occupied territories of birds of prey from their study plot (annual total averaged 120). Since 1986, additional...

  12. Changing Literacy Practices According to the Finnish Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how a teacher implemented principles of literacy teaching and learning set forth in the Finnish core curriculum in a first-grade classroom, focusing on two aspects of the curriculum: (1) "a community-oriented view of language," which can be understood from a socio-cultural perspective; and (2) "a broad conception of…

  13. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  14. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  15. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  16. The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

  17. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  18. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  19. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  20. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  1. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  2. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  3. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  4. Bridge Building for the Future of the Finnish Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the strategy process of Finnish polytechnics using the balanced scorecard approach. The study extends the balanced scorecard from the communication and implementation of this strategy to the planning of the strategy. Stakeholders formulated a strategic managerial plan for the network of all polytechnics in Finland by applying…

  5. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  6. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  7. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  8. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  9. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  10. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  11. Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant…

  12. The Predictiveness of the Finnish Matriculation: a Differential Psychology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtovaara, A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of part of a comprehensive research project concerning the Finnish matriculation examination. The goal of the project was to explore the matriculation examination as a series of tests indicative of ability differences between individuals, regardless of their causes. The…

  13. Linguistics in Language Teaching: The Case of Finnish and Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarsoly, Eszter; Valijarvi, Riitta-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of various linguistic sub-disciplines in teaching Finnish and Hungarian. We sketch the profile of the two languages, including difficulties in learning and teaching them, and the context in which they are taught in the UK. Using examples from our own teaching, we argue that a linguistically oriented approach is well…

  14. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  15. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  16. Work environment and occupational health of Finnish veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Reijula, Kari; Räsänen, Kimmo; Hämäläinen, Marjut; Juntunen, Kalevi; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Taskinen, Helena; Bergbom, Barbara; Rinta-Jouppi, Meeri

    2003-07-01

    Health and work environment of Finnish veterinarians was evaluated by The Finnish Veterinary Association and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was mailed in the spring of 2000 to all veterinarians under 65 years of age and working in Finland (n = 1169); 785 (67%) responded. A veterinarian's work was physically demanding, and often involved an elevated risk of accident. The risks were considered moderately or considerably high by over half of the respondents, and the highest risks occurred among veterinarians working in equine, mixed (both small and large animals), or in production animal practice. The veterinarians were committed to their work, although, at the same time they experienced work-related stress and fatigue. Particularly veterinarians working in towns, or those involved in education and research, reported the most stress. Serious work-related exhaustion was experienced most often by women in the youngest and by men in the oldest age groups. On average, the veterinarians spent over 100 hr a month on call. Over two-thirds of the participants in the survey reported their general state of health as good or fairly good, while less than 5% of the participants reported their health as rather poor or poor. The work of a Finnish veterinarian, the work environment, and the risks of the work varied greatly depending on the tasks assigned to the veterinarian. This has to be taken into consideration when occupational health services are planned for veterinarians. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Mass Communication Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    A suggested curriculum to be used to teach mass communications in Finnish comprehensive schools is described. Instead of concentrating on either an aesthetic or medium-bound (e.g., film education) approach, this curriculum focuses on the mass media as social institutions and on developing in young people a critical, thoughtful approach to mass…

  18. Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the…

  19. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a…

  20. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  1. The role of behaviour in inequality in increments of dental caries among Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Wael; Suominen, Anna L; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Aromaa, Arpo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from cross-sectional studies implies that dental behaviours partially explain inequalities in oral health. To assess whether dental behaviours completely eliminate inequality in increments of dental caries in a sample of Finnish adults. The baseline data were collected from the Health 2000 survey, a nationally representative survey of 8,028 individuals aged 30 years or older living in mainland Finland. Four years later, 1,248 subjects were invited for oral re-examination, and 1,049 agreed to participate (84% response rate). At baseline, participants provided information on demographics, education and dental behaviours (dental attendance, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, sugar consumption and daily smoking). Oral examinations at baseline and follow-up were identical. Adults with basic education had significantly greater increments of DMFT (incidence rate ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85) and DT (incidence rate ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.27-3.90) than those with high education. Adjusting for single behaviours attenuated but did not eliminate education inequality in DMFT and DT increments, tooth brushing having the greatest impact on inequality. Simultaneous adjustment for all behaviours eliminated the significant relationship between education and caries increment. Accounting for important dental behaviours appears to explain all education inequality in dental caries in Finnish adults. The results should be interpreted with caution when applied to less egalitarian populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971-1995. The subjects' occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer.

  3. High-resolution genetic mapping of the cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) gene in Amish and Finnish families

    SciTech Connect

    Sulisalo, T.; De La Chapelle, A. ); Francomano, C.A.; Maher, J.F.; McKusick, V.A. ); Sistonen, P. ); Kaitila, I. )

    1994-04-01

    The authors recently assigned the gene for cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) to chromosome 9 in Finnish families. Here they have extended and refined their previous linkage analyses by studying 22 Amish and 15 Finnish CHH families and by testing additional markers. The CHH gene maps to 9p in both series and shows no evidence of heterogeneity either within or between the populations. CHH is very closely linked to marker locus D9S163, with no recombinations observed and a combined maximum multipoint lod score of 26.30 for a location at D9S163. Although the odds against a location of the CHH gene between two more distal marker loci, D9S52 and D9S165, are only 48:1, the evidence provided by an observed recombination between the CHH locus and D9S165 and haplotype data at D9S165 and D9S163 in the Amish families allow this interval to be excluded as the location of CHH. They observed strong allelic association between CHH and D9S163 in both Amish and Finnish families, confirming the likely location of the CHH gene very close to this marker. Haplotype analysis of D9S163 and D9S165 in the Amish families suggests that only one mutation accounts for most CHH cases among them, as was expected and as is the case in Finland. The data do not support the previously suggested hypothesis of a reduced penetrance as an explanation for the deficiency of affected children in the Amish families. The authors conclude that CHH is a single disease entity in the Amish and Finnish families and that the CHH gene is very close to D9S163 in 9p21-p13. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Cancer incidence among Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers in 1967–2011: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry since the beginning of production in 1967. Methods The study cohort was made up of all persons employed by the Finnish stainless steel production chain from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel during the period 1967–2004, and it was divided into subcohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns of the subcohorts assessed in previous studies. Follow-up for cancer through the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry was performed using the personal identity code as key. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratios of observed numbers of cancer cases and numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. Results The overall cancer incidence was at the expected level. The lung cancer risk was decreased in the whole cohort (SIR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.08). The incidence of prostate cancer was significantly increased (1.31; 1.05 to 1.61) and that for kidney cancer was significantly decreased (0.38; 0.14 to 0.82). None of the department-specific SIRs for lung cancer were significantly different from 1.0. No cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses were observed among workers in the ferrochromium smelter or the stainless steel melting shop. Conclusions It is not likely that the occupational exposures in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry would have increased the risk of cancer. PMID:24253032

  5. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  6. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  7. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  8. Assessment of educational misclassification in register-based data on Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Jan; Weber, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    In population registers, information on completed schooling is either missing or misclassified for a large proportion of newly arrived immigrants. It is unclear how quickly the information is updated and whether misclassification, i.e., that the wrong level of education is recorded, biases empirical estimates. We use unique linked Swedish and Finnish register data to determine the extent of such mismeasurement. By running logistic regressions on zero earnings, we also illustrate how mismeasurement might influence the estimated effects of education on health or labour market outcomes. We find a considerable bias in estimates based on Swedish records of educational attainment during immigrants' first few years in the country. Misclassification is additionally very common, even when information on educational attainment exists. These findings suggest that research and policies using recently arrived immigrants' completed schooling as a determinant of socioeconomic integration need to be interpreted with care.

  9. Molecular characterization of adenoviruses among finnish military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Rönkkö, Esa; Virkki, Maria; Nikkari, Simo; Ziegler, Thedi

    2016-04-01

    Although adenoviruses were identified as important respiratory pathogens many years ago, little information is available concerning the prevalence of different adenovirus serotypes, which are circulating and causing epidemics in Finnish military training centers. Over a period of five years from 2008 to 2012, 3577 respiratory specimens were collected from military conscripts presenting with symptoms compatible with acute respiratory tract infection. Upon initial testing for certain respiratory viruses by real-time PCR, 837 of these specimens were identified as adenovirus-positive. For 672 of these specimens, the serotype of the adenovirus responsible was successfully determined by DNA sequencing. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected in 1, 3, 181, and 487 samples, respectively. Adenovirus epidemics were observed during each year of this study. Based on these findings, adenovirus vaccination should be considered for military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces.

  10. Finnish radon situation analysed using national measurement database.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Mäkeläinen, I; Reisbacka, H; Arvela, H

    2011-05-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains the national indoor radon measurement database in Finland. The analysis of the database material supplements information on radon situation collected by random sampling surveys. The 92,000 dwellings in the database are not a representative sample of the Finnish housing stock. However, the bias is compensated by calculating radon parameters in 1-km(2) cells and weighting the cells by the number of dwellings in the cell. Both the database material and a recent random sampling survey show that radon concentrations in new Finnish houses have been decreasing since the 1990s. This positive trend is clearly stronger in radon-prone areas where preventive measures are nowadays commonly implemented in new construction. The changeover to mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation together with the increase in crawl-space foundations has also contributed to the decrease in the concentrations.

  11. Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

  12. Mechanical restraint in adolescent psychiatry: a Finnish Register study.

    PubMed

    Hottinen, Anja; Välimäki, Maritta; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Puukka, Pauli; Noda, Toshie; Lindberg, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Little is known of the use of mechanical restraint in adolescent psychiatry. To investigate the frequency and features of mechanical restraint in the field of Finnish adolescent psychiatry. The data were collected in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, with seven closed and eight open wards for Finnish-speaking 13-17-year-old adolescents. The official restraint reports and the hospital files of the restraint patients from January 2009 to December 2009 were collected and analyzed. Among adolescents hospitalized in closed wards, the 1-year prevalence of mechanical restraint was 9.5%. Among all hospitalized adolescents, the prevalence was 6.9%. The number of mechanically restrained individuals per 100,000 13 to 17-year -old Finnish-speaking inhabitants was 57.1. The median duration of the restraint episode was 4 h and 50 min, but almost half of the mechanical restraint episodes lasted 8 h or more. A quarter of restraint episodes were not based on reasons mentioned in the Finnish Mental Health Act. The most frequent diagnostic categories of mechanically restrained adolescents were mood disorders followed by schizophrenia-related as well as behavioral and emotional disorders. Suicidality preceded 40% and violence 61% of restraint episodes. Boys were restrained during the first days of hospital treatment significantly more often than were girls, whereas one in four girls experienced her first episode of restraint after 1 month of hospitalization. Reducing the number and shortening the length of mechanical restraint episodes requires education of staff as well as projects focusing on reducing coercion. The clinical guidelines must be followed at grassroots level.

  13. Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

  14. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-07-01

    Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225.

  15. Impacts of the Finnish service screening programme on breast cancer rates

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Hakulinen, Timo; Heinävaara, Sirpa

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to examine impacts of the Finnish breast cancer (BC) screening programme on the population-based incidence and mortality rates. The programme has been historically targeted to a rather narrow age band, mainly women of ages 50–59 years. Methods The study was based on the information on breast cancer during 1971–2003 from the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry. Incidence, cause-specific mortality as well as incidence-based (refined) mortality from BC were analysed with Poisson regression. Age-specific incidence and routine cause-specific mortality were estimated for the most recent five-year period available; incidence-based mortality, respectively, for the whole steady state of the programme, 1992–2003. Results There was excess BC incidence with actual screening ages; incidence in ages 50–69 was increased 8% (95 CI 2.9–13.4). There was an increasing temporal tendency in the incidence of localised BC; and, respectively, a decrease in that of non-localised BC. The latter was most consistent in age groups where screening had been on-going several years or eventually after the last screen. The refined mortality rate from BC diagnosed in ages 50–69 was decreased with -11.1% (95% CI -19.4, -2.1). Conclusions The current study demonstrates that BC screening in Finland is effective in reducing mortality rates from breast cancers, even though the impact on the population level is smaller than expected based on the results from randomised trials among women screened in age 50 to 69. This may be explained by the rather young age group targeted in our country. Consideration whether to targeted screening up to age 69 is warranted. PMID:18226204

  16. Post-traumatic stress symptoms linked to hidden Holocaust trauma among adult Finnish evacuees separated from their parents as children in World War II, 1939-1945: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pentti

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long-term effects of diagnostic criteria on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) for a test group of Finnish evacuees from World War II and compare the outcome effect with a control group of children who lived in Finland during the war in 1939-1945. 152 participants were recruited by the local leader of the Finnish War Child Association in Sweden and Finland. The selected group answered questions on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the EMBU (Swedish acronym for "Own Memories of Parental Rearing"). Evidence suggests a link between childhood parental separation and termination of the internalized attachment hierarchy of origin in a detachment process among Finnish evacuees. Based on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Total (PCL-C) diagnosis an extreme traumatization for 36.7% of the test group subjects was identified, including a hidden Holocaust trauma in the population of Finnish evacuees. The study met the criteria for satisfying global evidence value. Sixty-five years after the end of World War II and in line with other studies on war children, the data show high levels of different trauma exposures from the war with 10.6 higher risk (odds ratio) for the exposed group of Finnish evacuees. Despite some limitations, the data highlight the need for further investigation into different parts of the detachment process among seriously traumatized groups to reveal resilience and other dimensions of importance in professional mental health creation.

  17. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  18. Lifestyle factors in relation to heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2011-09-01

    The role of lifestyle factors in explaining the risk of heart failure (HF) is not properly established. The national population-based study included 18 346 Finnish men and 19 729 women who were 25 to 74 years of age and free of HF at baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models was used to examine the association between lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index [BMI], physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, and alcohol consumption) and HF risk. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years (interquartile range, 5.9 to 20.9 years), 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Fruit consumption and alcohol consumption were dropped out of the analyses because no significant associations with the risk of HF were found. When 4 modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, BMI, physical activity, and vegetable intake) were included in the analysis, the multivariable-adjusted (age, education, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and histories of myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, diabetes and using antihypertensive drugs) hazard ratios (HRs) of HF associated with engaging in 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 healthy lifestyle factors were 1.00, 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.87), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58), 0.34 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.46), and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.56) (P<0.001 for trend) for men, and 1.00, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.85), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.67), 0.24 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.39), and 0.19 (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.40) (P<0.001 for trend) for women, respectively. The present study demonstrates an inverse association between healthy lifestyle patterns and the risk of HF in Finnish men and women.

  19. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  20. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  1. Troping on Prejudice: Stylised "Bad Finnish" Performances and Reflexivity among Adolescents in Eastern Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies reflexivity in interaction among adolescents in Helsinki in the light of stylised performances that are labelled by participants as "bad Finnish". Stylised "bad Finnish" can be seen as an enregistered discourse register. It is an emblem in which certain linguistic features are connected to ideas about certain…

  2. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  3. Finnish Students' School Engagement Profiles in the Light of PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo; Malin, Antero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Finnish students' school engagement profiles in the light of the data collected in the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2003. Even though Finnish students' cognitive achievement has proved excellent in various international assessments, their school engagement has not been flattering. The…

  4. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  5. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  6. Basic Mathematical Skills and Empowerment: Challenges and Opportunities in Finnish Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hannula, Aino; Saló i Nevado, Laia

    2010-01-01

    This paper first looks at the contexts and situation of Finnish adult education in basic mathematical skills. Challenges for and observations of adults' learning of basic mathematics in Finland will be illustrated. Studying mathematics and numeracy are considered against its role in social and personal empowerment. Case studies of Finnish adults'…

  7. The Interplay of Syntax and Discourse in the Explanation of Finnish-English Code-Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmari, Helena

    A study of intrasentential code-switching in 21 Finnish-English bilinguals focuses on the characteristics of two types of switches: those that are fluent and those that reflect repair phenomena. Data are drawn from naturally occurring conversations. Analysis highlights patterns in the use of Finnish case morphology in 550 instances of switched…

  8. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  9. Testing Finnish Schoolchildren's Learning of English Consonants. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisio, Risto; Valento, Eero

    The present study deals with two language skills, listening and speaking, and it is limited to single consonant phonemes only. The purpose is to try to find answers to the following problems: (1) Which Finnish consonants are given as substitutes for English consonants by Finnish pupils who have no previous (or practically no previous) knowledge of…

  10. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  11. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  12. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  13. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  14. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other…

  15. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  16. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  17. Attitudes and Motivational Factors behind Finnish Business Students' Choices of Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasz, Sabine; Schlabach, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study conducted at five Finnish business schools in 2009. The aim of the study was to provide a broad picture of different aspects connected with language education at universities. After an overview of the situation of language studies in Finnish business education, the results are presented of the analysis…

  18. Special Features of Assessment in Reading Comprehension in a Finnish University Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Marja-Liisa; Maijala, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Since Finnish is not an Indo-European language, studying foreign languages in general and then also studying special fields through the medium of foreign languages may provide an extra difficulty for Finnish students. Most university language centres in Finland have organized reading comprehension courses in several foreign languages for the…

  19. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  20. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  1. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  2. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  3. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  4. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  5. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other…

  6. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  7. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  8. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  9. Finnish Student Teachers' Perceptions on the Role of Purpose in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of the purposes that Finnish student teachers of different subjects (N = 372) have for teaching and how these perceptions could inform teacher education. Earlier studies have shown that both American and Finnish students have found the role of their teachers to be very important in teaching and learning purpose.…

  10. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  11. Finnish Student Teachers' Perceptions on the Role of Purpose in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of the purposes that Finnish student teachers of different subjects (N = 372) have for teaching and how these perceptions could inform teacher education. Earlier studies have shown that both American and Finnish students have found the role of their teachers to be very important in teaching and learning purpose.…

  12. The Acquisition Process of Finnish Morphology in 2-7-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Paula

    1982-01-01

    Some results of seven studies of children's native Finnish language acquisition from 1971-1980 are summarized, focusing on two aspects: the main features in the development of Finnish inflection forms in 2-7-year-old children, and selected information derived from children's errors at the various age levels. Subjects were 260 children attending…

  13. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  14. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  15. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…

  16. Morphological Parsing and the Use of Segmentation Cues in Reading Finnish Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Raymond; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    This eye movement study investigated the use of two types of segmentation cues in processing long Finnish compounds. The cues were related to the vowel quality properties of the constituents and properties of the consonant starting the second constituent. In Finnish, front vowels never appear with back vowels in a lexeme, but different quality…

  17. Morphological Parsing and the Use of Segmentation Cues in Reading Finnish Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Raymond; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    This eye movement study investigated the use of two types of segmentation cues in processing long Finnish compounds. The cues were related to the vowel quality properties of the constituents and properties of the consonant starting the second constituent. In Finnish, front vowels never appear with back vowels in a lexeme, but different quality…

  18. DEBARYOMYCES PHAFFII SP. N., A NEW YEAST ISOLATED FROM A FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Debaryomyces phaffii sp. n., a new yeast isolated from a Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:326–330. 1961.—A new species of Debaryomyces is described; it was isolated from Finnish soil, and is named Debaryomyces phaffii sp. n., in honor of Herman J. Phaff. Images PMID:13690637

  19. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  20. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  1. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  2. Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Finnish Compulsory Schooling: A National Model or Just Unintended Effects of Radical Decentralisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simola, Hannu; Rinne, Risto; Varjo, Janne; Pitkanen, Hannele; Kauko, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    This article traces quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) developments in Finnish compulsory schooling. The central question is this: Is there a Finnish model of QAE? We conclude that it may be a rhetorical overstatement to speak about a specific Finnish 'Model' of QAE in a strong sense. However, neither is it valid to conclude that what happens…

  3. Sexuality education: Finnish and Chilean experiences.

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Molina Cartes, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    All children and young people have the right to age-appropriate sexuality education regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ability or faith. Sexuality education provides knowledge, skills and positive values to determine and enjoy their sexuality, have safe, fulfilling relationships if one so wishes and decides, and to take responsibility for their own and for a possible partner's sexual health and well-being. Several international programs have been developed and recently published by the Population Council, IPPF and other coworkers, by UNICEF, and by WHO Europe. This chapter will briefly describe recent global development in sexuality education, and then, as examples, experience from two countries, Finland and Chile. The experiences from these school based programs suggest an important role of sexuality education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Finnish type of familial amyloidosis: cosegregation of Asp187----Asn mutation of gelsolin with the disease in three large families.

    PubMed Central

    Hiltunen, T; Kiuru, S; Hongell, V; Heliö, T; Palo, J; Peltonen, L

    1991-01-01

    Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF) is one of the familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) syndromes, a group of inherited disorders characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid and by clinical symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy. FAF, an autosomal dominant trait, belongs to those rare monogenic disorders which occur with increased frequency in the Finnish population: only single FAF cases have been reported from other populations. In most types of FAP syndromes the accumulating protein is a transthyretin variant. However, recent evidence has suggested that the amyloid peptides in FAF are related to gelsolin, an actin modulating protein. The gelsolin fragments isolated from at least one patient with amyloidosis have been reported to have an amino acid substitution, with asparagine replacing aspartic acid at position 187 of the plasma gelsolin. In this study allele-specific oligonucleotides were used to analyze three large FAF families with multiple affected individuals as well as healthy family members. We found the corresponding G-A mutation in nucleotide 654 of the plasma gelsolin gene to cosegregate with the disease. The result was confirmed by sequencing and strongly suggests that the mutation has caused all the FAF cases of these families. Since the disease is clustered in restricted areas on the southern coast of Finland, this mutation most probably causes the majority, if not all, of FAF cases in Finland. Images Figure 2 PMID:1652889

  5. Comparison of stroke mortality in Finnish-born migrants living in Sweden 1970-1999 and in Swedish-born individuals.

    PubMed

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2014-02-01

    A limited number of studies have been found on stroke mortality in migrants showing higher mortality for some groups. Influence of time of residence has been studied by one research group. An earlier study showed a significantly higher number of deaths in Diseases of the circulatory system in Finnish migrants compared with native Swedes. To test the hypothesis of a higher mortality in and a decrease in mortality over time in stroke among Finnish migrants in Sweden. The study was based on National Population data, the study population included 321,407 Swedish and 307,174 foreign born persons living in Sweden 1987-1999. Mean age was lower at time for death for Finnish migrants than native Swedes, men 5.1 years difference and women 2.3 years. The difference decreased over time. The risk of death by stroke was higher for migrants with short time of residence than with long time (≤10 years, OR 1.61-1.36 vs ≥11 year, OR 1.18). Migrants with short time of residence died 9.8-5.3 years earlier than native Swedes. The hypothesis was confirmed and an indication of adjustment to life in the new country was found. International studies show similar results for other migrant groups but further studies are needed to verify if the same pattern can be found in other migrants groups in Sweden and to generalise the findings.

  6. Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with physical fitness and cognitive symptoms in aging Finnish firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, H; Punakallio, A; Lusa, S; Sainio, M; Ponocny, E; Winker, R

    2012-05-01

    Monitoring cardiovascular risk factors is important in health promotion among firefighters. The assessment of arterial stiffness (AS) may help to detect early signs of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between aerobic fitness, cognitive symptoms and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a measure for AS among Finnish firefighters. The data are one part of a large 13-year follow-up study of the health and physical and mental capacity of Finnish professional firefighters. The subjects in this substudy comprised 65 male firefighters of a mean age of 48.0 (42-58) years in 2009. Their maximal oxygen uptake was successfully measured in two cross-sectional studies in 1996 and 2009, and they responded to questionnaires at both sessions, and their CAVI was measured in 2009. CAVI was calculated from the pulse waveform signal and pulse wave velocity. The lifestyle habits and subjective cognitive stress-related symptoms were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Muscular fitness was measured by the routine test battery used for Finnish firefighters. CAVI was related to age. About one-fifth of the firefighters had a CAVI of >8. Aerobic fitness was the main physiological factor correlating with increased CAVI. Interestingly, VO(2)max and the accelerated decrease in VO(2)max during a 13-year follow-up were associated with signs of impaired vascular function. The cognitive symptoms derived from the Profile of Mood States questionnaire (POMS) were mainly associated with stress and sleeping difficulties. No clear association with physical fitness was found in this population of fit firefighters. Among firefighters, the decrease in aerobic fitness predicts increased arterial stiffness. The speed of the age-related decline in maximal oxygen consumption is as important as absolute level. Against expectations, the cognitive function did not correlate with vascular health parameters. The cognitive symptoms, however, were only mild.

  7. The validation of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register data on stroke diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Hanna; Salomaa, Veikko; Torppa, Jorma; Sivenius, Juhani; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo

    2007-06-01

    Administrative registers, like hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers are used for the monitoring of disease incidences and in the follow-up studies. Obtaining reliable results requires that the diagnoses in these registers are correct and the coverage of the registers is high. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Finnish hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers stroke diagnoses against the population-based FINSTROKE register. All first stroke events from the hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers from the areas covered by the FINSTROKE register were obtained for years 1993-1998 and linked to the FINSTROKE register. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were calculated. A total of 3633 stroke events, 767 fatal and 2866 non-fatal strokes, were included in the registers. The sensitivity for all first stroke events was 85%, for fatal strokes 86% and for non-fatal strokes 85%. The positive predictive values for all first strokes was 86%, for fatal strokes 92% and for non-fatal strokes 85%. The sensitivity as well as the positive predictive values for subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracerebral haemorrhage was higher than for cerebral infarctions. There were no marked differences in the sensitivity or positive predictive values between men and women. The sensitivity and the positive predictive values of the Finnish hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers are fairly good. Finnish administrative registers can be used for the monitoring of stroke incidence, but the number of cerebral infarctions should be interpreted with caution.

  8. To Have or Not To Have a Pet for Better Health?

    PubMed Central

    Koivusilta, Leena K.; Ojanlatva, Ansa

    2006-01-01

    Background Pet ownership is thought to have health benefits, but not all scientific explorations have been founded on proper applications of representative samples or statistically correct methodologies. Databanks have been too small for proper statistical analyses; or, instead of a random sample, participation has been voluntary. The direction of causality has been evaluated incorrectly or control of relevant factors noted deficient. This study examined the associations of pet ownership with perceived health and disease indicators by taking into account socio-demographic background factors together with health risk factors, including exercise. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study used baseline data from the 15-year Health and Social Support Study (the HeSSup Study). The Finnish Population Register Centre was used to draw population-based random samples stratified according to gender and four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years). A total of 21,101 working-aged Finns responded to the baseline survey questionnaire of the 15-year HeSSup Study in 1998. Ordinal and binary logistic regression was used to analyze the cross-sectional data. Pet ownership was associated with poor rather than good perceived health. BMI surfaced as the risk factor most strongly associated with pet ownership. Conclusions/Significance Pet owners set in their ways and getting older were found to have a slightly higher BMI than the rest. Additional research is needed for the testing of hypotheses involving effects of pet ownership with various health dimensions within population groups that are composed of different kinds of background characteristics. PMID:17205113

  9. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Salmela, Jukka; Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macroceranigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornusetigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophilaharuspica Plassmann is redescribed.

  10. Excellence through Special Education? Lessons from the Finnish School Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivirauma, Joel; Ruoho, Kari

    2007-05-01

    The present article focuses on connections between part-time special education and the good results of Finnish students in PISA studies. After a brief summary of the comprehensive school system and special education in Finland, PISA results are analysed. The analysis shows that the relative amount of special education targeted at language problems is highest in Finland among those countries from which comparative statistics are available. The writers argue that this preventive language-oriented part-time special education is an important factor behind the good PISA results.

  11. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  12. ABH secretion polymorphism in Icelanders, Aland Islanders, Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi and Greenland Eskimos: a review and new data.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A W; Partanen, K; Frants, R R; Pronk, J C; Kostense, P J

    1986-01-01

    The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis

  13. Asthma and allergy in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Jokela, H

    1979-12-01

    We studied the occurrence of asthma, bronchial wheezing, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in 295 young men aged 18-19 years. The relationship of these symptoms to the immediate skin test reactivity was also determined. Symptoms indicating past or current allergy and bronchial wheezing were observed in 36%. The cumulative prevalence of asthma was 2.7%, bronchial wheezing 9% in addition, allergic rhinitis (including allergic conjunctivitis) 20%, and atopic dermatitis (including allergic urticaria) 20%. Positive immediate skin prick test reactions were observed in 50% of the population. Allergic rhinitis was most clearly connected with a positive skin test. This study shows that the respiratory disorders, generally considered to be allergic in origin, and atopic dermatitis are more common in Finland than has been assumed. The results are, however, in accordance with the observations made in other industrialized countries. Susceptibility to asthmatic reactions and allergic symptoms should be taken into account, more so than at present, when mudging the capability of a young man to manage compulsory military service.

  14. Drugs used in incident systemic lupus erythematosus - results from the Finnish nationwide register 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine the initial, first-year anti-rheumatic outpatient therapy in patients with incident SLE, as well as the concomitant use of drugs for certain comorbidities, compared to the use in the general population. The Finnish nationwide register data on special reimbursements for medication costs was screened to identify the inception cohort of 566 adult SLE patients (87% females, mean age 46.5 ± 15.9 years) over the years 2000-2007. The patients were linked to the national Drug Purchase Register. Of those, 90% had purchased at least once some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) during the first year. Hydroxychloroquine was the most common (76%), followed by azathioprine (15%) and methotrexate (13%). With the exception of increase in mycophenolate mofetil, the proportions remained stable over the whole study period 2000-2007. Drugs for cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and obstructive pulmonary disease were more frequently purchased than in the sex- and age-adjusted population, with rate ratios ranging from 1.6 to 7.8. Over the years 2000-2007, almost all the patients with incident SLE in Finland started with a DMARD. Higher percentages of SLE patients were on medication for several common chronic diseases than in the population as a whole.

  15. Two functional variants of the superoxide dismutase genes in Finnish families with asthma.

    PubMed

    Kinnula, V L; Lehtonen, S; Koistinen, P; Kakko, S; Savolainen, M; Kere, J; Ollikainen, V; Laitinen, T

    2004-02-01

    Functional polymorphisms in the genes encoding superoxide dismutases (SOD)-that is, superoxide scavenging antioxidant enzymes-may play an important role in the development of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma. The allele frequencies of two missense polymorphisms of SOD genes (Ala16Val in MnSOD (SOD2) and Arg213Gly in ECSOD (SOD3)) were investigated in Finnish patients with asthma and compared with family based controls. Both variants have been shown to be functionally interesting in the lung. The polymorphism at the exon-intron 3 boundary of a third SOD, CuZnSOD (SOD1), was also included in the analysis. None of the SOD genetic variants studied appeared to be major genetic regulators in the development of asthma. We could exclude all models of inheritance that increased the risk of asthma more than 1.2 fold for MnSOD*Val (frequency of allele 0.74 in the population) and more than 6.6 fold for ECSOD*Gly213 (frequency of allele 0.03 in the population) compared with non-carriers. For the intronic polymorphism in CuZnSOD, a relative risk of more than 3.3 (frequency of allele 0.10 in the population) could be excluded. It is highly unlikely that the functionally important genetic variants Ala16Val and Arg213Gly of SODs play a major role in the genetic susceptibility of asthma.

  16. Chromosome 1 loci in Finnish schizophrenia families.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, J; Hovatta, I; Parker, A; Paunio, T; Varilo, T; Martin, R; Suhonen, J; Ellonen, P; Chan, G; Sinsheimer, J S; Sobel, E; Juvonen, H; Arajärvi, R; Partonen, T; Suvisaari, J; Lönnqvist, J; Meyer, J; Peltonen, L

    2001-07-15

    We have earlier reported evidence for linkage to two regions on chromosome 1q32--q42 in schizophrenia families collected for two separate studies in Finland. Here we report the results of a fine mapping effort aimed at further definition of the chromosomal region of interest using a large, population-based study sample (221 families, 557 affected individuals). Most affecteds (78%) had a DSM-IV schizophrenia diagnosis and the remaining had schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We genotyped a total of 147 microsatellite markers on a wide 45 cM region of chromosome 1q. The results were analyzed separately for families originating from an internal isolate of Finland and for families from the rest of Finland, as well as for all families jointly. We used traditional two-point linkage analysis, SimWalk2 multipoint analysis and a novel gamete-competition association/linkage method. Evidence for linkage was obtained for one locus in the combined sample (Z(max) = 2.71, D1S2709) and in the nuclear families from outside the internal isolate (Z(max) = 3.21, D1S2709). In the families from the internal isolate the strongest evidence for linkage was obtained with markers located 22 cM centromeric from this marker (Z(max) = 2.30, D1S245). Multipoint analysis also indicated these loci. Some evidence for association with several markers was observed using the gamete-competition method. Interestingly, the strongest evidence for linkage in the combined study sample was obtained for marker D1S2709, which is an intragenic marker of the DISC1 gene, previously suggested as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. These results are consistent with the presence of susceptibility gene(s) in this chromosomal region, a result also implied in other recent family studies of schizophrenia.

  17. Influence of English on Modern Finnish: Preliminary Report on a Research Programme. Further Contrastive Papers, Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 6. Reports from the Department of English, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; And Others

    A study of the influence of English on modern Finnish was designed to determine how Anglicisms are used, how they are understood, and how they are adapted to the Finnish language system. Features of present-day Finnish were analyzed to discover to what extent the Finnish language and the Finns' sense of language are changing. Anglicisms were…

  18. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

  19. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  20. The prevalence of stalking among Finnish university students.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to participate in a stalking survey. In total, 615 students participated. Almost one fourth of the respondents (22.3%) had experienced one episode (i.e., period of time) of stalking, and more than one fourth (26.2%) reported being stalked two or more episodes (i.e., periods of time) in their lifetime. More than half (55%) of the stalkers were acquaintances, 25% were ex-partners, and 19% were strangers. The mean duration of stalking was 10 months. Stalking duration was significantly associated with stalker gender and prior victim-stalker relationship. Almost half of those being stalked (46%) had been exposed to violent or threatening behavior. Ex-partner stalkers were most likely to use violence as well as a wide range of violent stalking methods. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent associations between stalking violence and stalking behaviors. Stalking is highly prevalent among Finnish university students; it is maintained, on average, for a relatively long period; and it often includes some form of violence and/or threats. The results suggest that health care professionals require screening methods and schooling concerning stalking.

  1. Leadership styles of Finnish nurse managers and factors influencing it.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of their leadership styles and factors influencing it. It is a challenge for nurse managers to retain nurses in hospitals and to ensure a high quality of care in nursing practice. Leadership style is an important part of leadership. Knowledge concerning nurse managers' resonant and non-resonant leadership styles provides nurse managers with tools to reflect on their own leadership style. Open-ended, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers from five Finnish hospitals and two long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories of leadership style were discerned: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding. Factors that influence leadership style were identified: earlier superiors, values, information, cooperation, employees and education. The results of this study show that Finnish nurse managers use both resonant and non-resonant leadership styles. The findings of this study show that nurse managers use a variety of leadership styles. The study demonstrates the importance of knowledge about leadership styles and factors influencing it among nurse managers providing future leadership and management education.

  2. Patient safety incident prevention and management among Finnish dentists.

    PubMed

    Hiivala, Nora; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-11-01

    Assessing current patient safety incident (PSI) prevention measures and risk management practices among Finnish dentists. A total of 1041 dentists practicing in the private or public sectors in southern Finland completed an online questionnaire concerning PSI prevention, PSI-reporting systems, feedback and knowledge gained from device incidents and patient-generated safety information and the knowledge of national PS-guidance. The answers were handled anonymously. Statistical evaluations were performed using chi-square analysis. Dentists suggested multiple methods for preventing PSIs related to dental diagnostics, various treatments, equipment and devices, medications, communication, infection control and general practice safety. Preventive methods reported most frequently included working with caution and forethought, keeping accurate patient records and the availability of correct patient information. A special PSI-reporting system was used by less than one third of respondents. Feedback received on PS-related data and the utilization of guidebooks varied significantly between the studied dentist groups. Several PSI prevention techniques are already used in Finland. However, wide variation exists in PSI prevention and risk management practices among Finnish dentists. Systematic implementation of available safety methods would probably prevent several PSIs. The results indicate that the more dentists know about PS risks, the easier it is for them to recognize situations possibly leading to patient harm. Anonymous PSI reports, patient complaints and claims data should, therefore, be actively used for mutual learning. Increased PS education in dentistry is also needed.

  3. Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management.

  4. The Finnish disease heritage database (FinDis) update-a database for the genes mutated in the Finnish disease heritage brought to the next-generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Polvi, Anne; Linturi, Henna; Varilo, Teppo; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Byrne, Myles; Fokkema, Ivo F A C; Almusa, Henrikki; Metzidis, Anthony; Avela, Kristiina; Aula, Pertti; Kestilä, Marjo; Muilu, Juha

    2013-11-01

    The Finnish Disease Heritage Database (FinDis) (http://findis.org) was originally published in 2004 as a centralized information resource for rare monogenic diseases enriched in the Finnish population. The FinDis database originally contained 405 causative variants for 30 diseases. At the time, the FinDis database was a comprehensive collection of data, but since 1994, a large amount of new information has emerged, making the necessity to update the database evident. We collected information and updated the database to contain genes and causative variants for 35 diseases, including six more genes and more than 1,400 additional disease-causing variants. Information for causative variants for each gene is collected under the LOVD 3.0 platform, enabling easy updating. The FinDis portal provides a centralized resource and user interface to link information on each disease and gene with variant data in the LOVD 3.0 platform. The software written to achieve this has been open-sourced and made available on GitHub (http://github.com/findis-db), allowing biomedical institutions in other countries to present their national data in a similar way, and to both contribute to, and benefit from, standardized variation data. The updated FinDis portal provides a unique resource to assist patient diagnosis, research, and the development of new cures.

  5. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  6. Police-registered offenses and psychiatric disorders among young males : the Finnish "From a boy to a man" birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemelä, Solja; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Helenius, Hans; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Sourander, Andre

    2007-06-01

    To study associations between crime and psychiatric disorders among adolescent males in a representative population-based cohort study. The sample includes 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information on criminality consists of offenses registered in the Finnish National Police Register 1998-2001. Crime was classified according to frequency and type (drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses). Information on psychiatric diagnoses between 1999 and 2004 was collected from the Finnish National Military Register. Of the 2,712 boys, 22% had a crime registration during the 4-year period, and 10% had at least one psychiatric disorder according to the Military Register. Those with psychiatric disorders accounted for 49% of all crimes. Of those with more than five crimes (n = 98), 59% had psychiatric diagnoses. After adjusting for other crime types and childhood socio-economic status, property crime was independently associated with several diagnoses: antisocial personality (APD), substance use (SUD), psychotic, anxiety, and adjustment disorders. Drug offending was independently associated with APD, SUD, and psychotic disorder, and traffic offenses with APD. Youth crime is predominantly associated with antisocial personality and substance use disorders. Crime prevention efforts should focus on boys showing a risk for antisocial and substance use problems. In particular, property, drug, and repeat offenders need mental health and substance use assessment. There is a need to develop integrated mental health and substance use treatment services for young offenders within or alongside the criminal justice system.

  7. Assessing the effect of interaction between an FTO variant (rs9939609) and physical activity on obesity in 15,925 Swedish and 2,511 Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, A; Renström, F; Lyssenko, V; Brito, E C; Isomaa, B; Berglund, G; Nilsson, P M; Groop, L; Franks, P W

    2009-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that genotypes at the FTO locus interact with physical activity to modify levels of obesity-related traits. We tested this hypothesis in two non-diabetic population-based cohorts, the first from southern Sweden and the second from the Botnia region of western Finland. In total 2,511 Finnish and 15,925 Swedish non-diabetic middle-aged adults were genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaires and standard clinical procedures were conducted, including measures of height and weight and glucose regulation. Tests of gene x physical activity interaction were performed using linear interaction effects to determine whether the effect of this variant on BMI is modified by physical activity. The minor A allele at rs9939609 was associated with higher BMI in both cohorts, with the per allele difference in BMI being about 0.13 and 0.43 kg/m(2) in the Swedish and Finnish cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). The test of interaction between physical activity and the rs9939609 variant on BMI was not statistically significant after controlling for age and sex in either cohort (Sweden: p = 0.71, Finland: p = 0.18). The present report does not support the notion that physical activity modifies the effects of the FTO rs9939609 variant on obesity risk in the non-diabetic Swedish or Finnish adults studied here.

  8. No simple answers for the Finnish and Russian Karelia allergy contrast: Methylation of CD14 gene.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Siew-Kim; Mäkelä, Mika; Chandler, David; Schultz, En Nee; Jamieson, Sarra E; Goldblatt, Jack; Haahtela, Tari; LeSouëf, Peter; Zhang, Guicheng

    2016-11-01

    Finnish and Russian Karelian children have a highly contrasting occurrence of asthma and allergy. In these two environments, we studied associations between total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) with methylation levels in cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14). Five hundred Finnish and Russian Karelian children were included in four groups: Finnish children with high IgE (n = 126) and low IgE (n = 124) as well as Russian children with high IgE (n = 125) and low IgE (n = 125). DNA was extracted from whole blood cells and pyrosequenced. Three CpG sites were selected in the promoter region of CD14. Methylation levels in two of the three CpG sites were higher in the Finnish compared to Russian Karelian children. In the promoter area of CD14, the Finnish compared to Russian children with low IgE had a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in methylation levels at the Amp5Site 2. Likewise, the Finnish compared to Russian children with high IgE had a significant (p = 0.003) increase in methylation levels at the Amp5Site 3. In Russian children with low vs. high IgE, there were significant differences in methylation levels, but this was not the case on the Finnish side. In the regression analysis, adding the methylation variation of CD14 to the model did not explain the higher asthma and allergy risk in the Finnish children. The methylation levels in the promoter region of CD14 gene were higher in the Finnish compared to Russian Karelian children. However, the methylation variation of this candidate gene did not explain the asthma and allergy contrast between these two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours in Finnish workers exposed to ELF magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Juutilainen, J; Läärä, E; Pukkala, E

    1990-01-01

    The relative incidence of leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and central nervous system (CNS) tumours among workers presumably exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs) was studied. The study population consisted of all male industrial workers in Finland aged 25 to 64 years during 1971-1980 according to the Population Census in 1970. The occupations were grouped into three exposure categories according to the probability of exposure. The category of "probable" exposure included electrical occupations and the category of "possible" exposure included occupations where electric motors or welding are common. All other occupations were included to the category of "no exposure". Cancer incidence rates in different occupational groups during 1971-1980 were obtained after linking the census records with the national death certificates and the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry. The adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence limits) in the categories of "probable" and "possible" exposure were for all leukaemia 1.9 (1.0-3.5) and 1.4 (1.1-1.8), for AML 1.5 (0.5-4.7) and 1.4 (0.9-2.1), and for CNS tumours 1.3 (0.7-2.3) and 1.3 (1.0-1.6), respectively. The results are concordant with earlier studies suggesting elevated risk among workers exposed to ELF magnetic fields.

  10. A follow-up of cancer incidence among former Finnish dump site residents: 1999–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Background: In an analysis of the years 1976–1998, a 50% excess in cancer incidence was observed among residents in twelve blockhouses in Helsinki, Finland on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste. Objective: To assess cancer risk over a 13-year period 1999–2011 among residents formerly living in houses built on a dump area. Methods: All 1879 persons who ever lived in the former dump area were identified and the number of cancer cases in this population was obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results: After 5 years of residence at the dump site, the standardized incidence ratio of cancer (all sites combined) was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.94–1.79) in men and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.33–0.82) for women, in comparison with the general Helsinki population (1999–2011). No significant excess cancer risks were found. Conclusions: Residing on a former dump area was not found to result in an increased risk of cancer. PMID:25224807

  11. Sex Inequalities in Physical and Mental Functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese Civil Servants: Role of Job Demand, Control and Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR=2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR=1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR=1.91), followed by for British women (OR=1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work characteristics between

  12. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  13. Risk of schizophrenia and minority status: a comparison of the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972–1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24–0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41–1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males. PMID:25263996

  14. Risk of schizophrenia and minority status: a comparison of the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku

    2014-11-01

    Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972-1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males.

  15. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014

  16. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  17. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  18. Computerized two-dimensional model for Finnish vowel identifications.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, O; Suonpää, J

    1983-01-01

    511 different vowel-like stimuli were produced using a computer and speech synthesizer OVE III B. Their first formant varied from 250 to 800 Hz and their second formant from 800 to 2 400 Hz, covering thus the formant frequencies of the eight Finnish vowels. The randomized stimuli were listened to by 32 young adults with normal hearing. The identifications were analyzed automatically with the computer and plotted on a two-dimensional plane as a function of F1 and F2. The resulting basic vowel identification chart demonstrates the areas where the stimuli were identified as a certain vowel. The chart offers the practical means for presentation and follow-up of individual articulatory and auditory capacities.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of dental emergencies in two Finnish cities.

    PubMed

    Widström, E; Pietilä, I; Nilsson, B

    1990-06-01

    According to the present clinical survey of dental emergencies treated by organised emergency services in two of the larger Finnish cities, the main causes (64 per cent) of the problems leading to these visits were caries and its consequences. In about 80 per cent of the 839 cases treated, the acute treatment was based on clinical examination only. Temporary fillings were provided for 19 per cent, permanent fillings for 8 per cent, endodontic treatment for 22 per cent and extractions for 14 per cent of the patients. Extractions were most often provided for patients who normally visited a dentist irregularly and these had a low mean number of teeth. Patients with pain lasting longer than a week were likely to receive endodontic treatment, whereas permanent fillings were provided for regular dental visitors who had their own dentists. About 90 per cent of the patients were considered to need other dental treatment in addition to the treatment of the acute condition.

  20. Preparedness of Finnish Emergency Medical Services for Chemical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jama, Timo J; Kuisma, Markku J

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The preparedness level of Finnish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for treating chemical emergencies is unknown. The aim of this study was to survey the preparedness level of EMS systems for managing and handling mass-casualty chemical incidents in the prehospital phase in Finland. Hypothesis The study hypothesis was that university hospital districts would have better clinical capability to treat patients than would central hospital districts in terms of the number of patients treated in the field within one hour after dispatching as well as patients transported to hospital within one hour or two hours after dispatching. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a Webropol (Wuppertal, Germany) survey. All hospital districts (n=20) in continental Finland were asked about their EMS preparedness level in terms of capability of treating and transporting chemically affected patients in the field. Their capability for decontamination of affected patients in the field was also inquired. University hospital district-based EMS systems had at least 20% better absolute clinical capacity than central hospital-based EMS systems for treating chemically affected patients concerning all treatments inquired about, except the capacity for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in the field. Overall, there was a good level of preparedness for treating chemical accident patients with supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, and inhaled corticosteroids. Preparedness for providing antidote therapy in cases of cyanide gas exposure was, in general, low. The variation among the hospital districts was remarkable. Only nine of 15 central hospital district EMS had a mobile decontamination unit available, whereas four of five university hospital districts had one. Emergency Medical Services capacity in Finland for treating chemically affected patients in the field needs to be improved, especially in terms of antidote therapy. Mobile

  1. Opinion comparison concerning future information technology in Finnish community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anna Marietta; Hynninen, Jaana Tuulikki; Haikala, Veikko Ewald; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2010-12-01

    To compare the opinions of community pharmacy owners, managers and personnel concerning the key features of the future information technology system needed in Finnish community pharmacies. The study was targeted to the pharmacists working in community pharmacies as managers (owners and staff pharmacists with M.Sc. degree) or personnel responsible for dispensing and patient counselling (pharmacists with B.Sc. degree). A national cross-sectional survey to all of Finnish community pharmacy owners (n = 580) and staff pharmacists (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees, n = 1709) working in community pharmacies, was conducted in order to determine differences in opinions between these occupation groups with different professional duties. The response rates were 53% for pharmacy owners (n = 308) and 22% for staff pharmacists (n = 373). The main outcome measure was the perceived importance of 89 potential features for a new IT system ranked by using a five-point Likert scale. The responding community pharmacy managers and staff pharmacists had differences in their ranking of more than half (52%) of the potential features listed in the survey questionnaire. The features related to the pharmacy's internal processes, such as financial management, sales and marketing management and stock holding, were ranked significantly higher by the managers, while the personnel prioritized the features supporting pharmaceutical service provision and personnel management. The managers and personnel shared their opinion on the importance of features supporting drug information and patient counselling, medication safety and interprofessional collaboration. The managers and staff pharmacists have different views of the importance of IT features, reflecting their different professional duties in the community pharmacy. A high priority was given for the features familiar to the users and needed in their daily practice. This indicates the need for involving different occupation groups in planning the new IT

  2. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards their role in the euthanasia process.

    PubMed

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Gastmans, Chris; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Nurses' voices remain unheard in most debates about euthanasia, although their crucial role in the euthanasia process is widely acknowledged. Moreover, in Canadian euthanasia law, nurses have a more active role, which further highlights the need for knowledge about nurses' attitudes towards their role in the euthanasia process. What are Finnish nurses' attitudes towards their potential role in the euthanasia process? Which characteristics are associated with those attitudes? Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants and research context: 1003 nurses, recruited via social media and the members' bulletin of the Finnish Nurses Association. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Research Ethics of the university to which the first author was affiliated. The great majority (85.2%) of nurses felt that their perspective should be considered in decision-making related to euthanasia. Furthermore, most of the participants (74.7%) reported willingness to participate in the euthanasia process if it were legal, and 88.6% agreed that a nurse should be present when euthanasia is performed if the patient wishes so. Furthermore, over half agreed that some of the preparatory tasks were part of their job description. However, a minority (32.9%) agreed with a possible obligation to participate based on their profession. Nurses' age, religiosity and educational level influenced their attitudes in the current results. Despite the strong agreement on decision-making concerning euthanasia and participation in the euthanasia process, obligation to participate based on the profession was rejected by most participants. Nurses regarded themselves as consultants in the decision-making process, which may indicate their unwillingness to share the responsibility for the decision itself. Specific safety mechanisms should be considered to protect nurses who refuse to be involved in the euthanasia process due to harm that involuntary participation might

  3. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care.

  4. Finnish-Russian programme for the control of rabies (2005-2010).

    PubMed

    Metlin, A E; Rybakov, S S; Gruzdev, K N; Mikhalishin, V V; Huovilainen, A; Neuvonen, E

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish-Russian collaboration on rabies control began in 2000. This data summarizes the results of the scientific part of the programme, including rabies monitoring in Russia and the molecular epidemiological studies with field viruses.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

  6. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    PubMed

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    the costs and morbidity of asthma. The time, in the wake of the Asthma Programme, is now opportune for a national allergy programme, particularly as in the past few years, fundamentally more essential data on tolerance and its mechanisms have been published. In this review, the scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 is outlined. The focus is on tolerance and how to endorse tolerance at the population level.

  7. Hip fracture prevention with a multifactorial educational program in elderly community-dwelling Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, T; Löyttyniemi, E; Välimäki, M

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines suggest identification of women at fracture risk by bone density measurement and subsequently pharmacotherapy. However, most women who sustain a hip fracture do not have osteoporosis in terms of bone density. The present non-pharmacological intervention among elderly women unselected for osteoporosis reduced hip fracture risk by 55 % providing an alternative approach to fracture prevention. Hip fractures are expensive for society and cause disability for those who sustain them. We studied whether a multifactorial non-pharmacological prevention program reduces hip fracture risk in elderly women. A controlled trial concerning 60- to 70-year-old community-dwelling Finnish women was undertaken. A random sample was drawn from the Population Information System and assigned into the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Of the 2,547 women who were invited to the IG, 1,004 (39 %) and of the 2,120 invited to the CG, 1,174 (55 %) participated. The IG participated in a fracture prevention program for 1 week at a rehabilitation center followed by review days twice. The CG received no intervention. During the 10-year follow-up, both groups participated in survey questionnaire by mail. Outcome of interest was occurrence of hip fractures and changes in bone-health-related lifestyle. During the follow-up, 12 (1.2 %) women in the IG and 29 (2.5 %) in the CG sustained a hip fracture (P = 0.039). The determinants of hip fractures by stepwise logistic regression were baseline smoking (odds ratio (OR) 4.32 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.14-8.71), age OR 1.15/year (95 % CI 1.03-1.28), fall history OR 2.7 (95 % CI 1.24-5.9), stroke history OR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.19-7.54) and participating in this program OR 0.45 (95 % CI 0.22-0.93). Starting vitamin D and calcium supplement use was more common in the IG compared with the CG. The results suggest that this non-pharmacological fracture prevention program may reduce the risk of hip fractures in elderly

  8. Malocclusion traits and oral health-related quality of life in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Suominen, Anna L; Pietila, Terttu; Lahti, Satu

    2017-04-01

    normal overjet in a nationally representative population of Finnish adults ≥30 years. Other malocclusion traits were not associated with OHRQoL. However, all three malocclusion traits were associated with either physical or psychological or social disability domains of the OHRQoL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 Study.

    PubMed

    Sinokki, M; Hinkka, K; Ahola, K; Koskinen, S; Klaukka, T; Kivimäki, M; Puukka, P; Lönnqvist, J; Virtanen, M

    2009-08-01

    Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders are common mental health problems in the working population. However, the team climate at work related to these disorders has not been studied using standardised interview methods and it is not known whether poor team climate predicts antidepressant use. This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of Finnish employees. The nationally representative sample comprised 3347 employees aged 30-64 years. Team climate was measured with a self-assessment scale. Diagnoses of depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data on the purchase of antidepressant medication in a 3-year follow-up period were collected from a nationwide pharmaceutical register of the Social Insurance Institution. In the risk factor adjusted models, poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.36) but not with alcohol use disorders. The significance of the association between team climate and anxiety disorders disappeared when the model was adjusted for job control and job demands. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.30). A poor team climate at work is associated with depressive disorders and subsequent antidepressant use.

  10. Breeding for better eye health in Finnish blue fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Kempe, R; Strandén, I

    2016-02-01

    The frequency of eye infections in the Finnish blue fox population has increased during the past decade. Eye infection may incur economic losses to producers due to reduced selection intensity, but ethical aspects need to be considered as well because eye infection can be quite painful and reduce animal well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential for genetic selection against susceptibility to eye infection. The data were collected from 2076 blue foxes at the MTT fur animal research station. Genetic parameters were estimated using single- and multiple-trait animal models. The heritability estimate for eye infection was analysed as a binary trait (EYE) and was moderate (0.24 ± 0.07). EYE had a moderate antagonistic genetic correlation (-0.49 ± 0.20) with grading density (thick underfur). The genetic correlation of EYE with grading size or body condition score was estimated without precision, but all size traits had a low antagonistic phenotypic correlation with EYE. Our results suggest that there is genetic variance in susceptibility to EYE, indicating that eye health can be improved through selection. The current recommendation is that the sick animals should be culled immediately. If more efficient selection is needed, the selection index and multiple-trait animal models can be applied in breeding for better eye health.

  11. Psychiatric and neurological disorders are associated with bullous pemphigoid – a nationwide Finnish Care Register study

    PubMed Central

    Försti, Anna-Kaisa; Jokelainen, Jari; Ansakorpi, Hanna; Seppänen, Allan; Majamaa, Kari; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with increasing incidence. BP is associated with neurological disorders, but it has not been established, what subtypes of dementia and stroke are associated with BP, and what is the temporal relation between these diseases. Also, the association between BP and psychiatric disorders is controversial. We conducted a retrospective nationwide study, using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care diagnoses between 1987 and 2013. The study population of 4524 BP patients were compared with 66138 patients with basocellular carcinoma (BCC), neurological and psychiatric comorbid disorders were evaluated for both groups, and associations were estimated by Cox regression and logistic regression analyses. The strongest risk of developing BP was found after diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) (OR=5.9, 95% CI 3.9–8.5). Among psychiatric diseases, the corresponding risk was strongest in schizophrenia (OR=2.7, 95% CI 2.0–3.5), and as a novel finding, also personality disorders (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.3) preceded BP. In conclusion, many psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia, carry heightened risk for BP. Furthermore, several neurological diseases which cause central nervous system inflammation or degeneration were related to BP, and the association was strongest between MS and BP. PMID:27845416

  12. Reducing overdiagnosis by polygenic risk-stratified screening: findings from the Finnish section of the ERSPC

    PubMed Central

    Pashayan, Nora; Pharoah, Paul DP; Schleutker, Johanna; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo LJ; Määttänen, Liisa; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Eeles, Rosalind; Duffy, Stephen W; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Background: We derived estimates of overdiagnosis by polygenic risk groups and examined whether polygenic risk-stratified screening for prostate cancer reduces overdiagnosis. Methods: We calculated the polygenic risk score based on genotypes of 66 known prostate cancer loci for 4967 men from the Finnish section of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. We stratified the 72 072 men in the trial into those with polygenic risk below and above the median. Using a maximum likelihood method based on interval cancers, we estimated the mean sojourn time (MST) and episode sensitivity. For each polygenic risk group, we estimated the proportion of screen-detected cancers that are likely to be overdiagnosed from the difference between the observed and expected number of screen-detected cancers. Results: Of the prostate cancers, 74% occurred among men with polygenic risk above population median. The sensitivity was 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.65) and MST 6.3 (95% CI 4.2–8.3) years. The overall overdiagnosis was 42% (95% CI 37–52) of the screen-detected cancers, with 58% (95% CI 54–65) in men with the lower and 37% (95% CI 31–47) in those with higher polygenic risk. Conclusion: Targeting screening to men at higher polygenic risk could reduce the proportion of cancers overdiagnosed. PMID:26291059

  13. Bipolar disorder susceptibility region on Xq24-q27.1 in Finnish families.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, J M; Pekkarinen, P; Pajukanta, P; Kieseppä, T; Partonen, T; Paunio, T; Varilo, T; Perola, M; Lönnqvist, J; Peltonen, L

    2002-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common disorder characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The genetic background of BPD remains undefined, although several putative loci predisposing to BPD have been identified. We have earlier reported significant evidence of linkage for BPD to chromosome Xq24-q27.1 in an extended pedigree from the late settlement region of the genetically isolated population of Finland. Further, we established a distinct chromosomal haplotype covering a 19 cM region on Xq24-q27.1 co-segregating with the disorder. Here, we have further analyzed this X-chromosomal region using a denser marker map and monitored X-chromosomal haplotypes in a study sample of 41 Finnish bipolar families. Only a fraction of the families provided any evidence of linkage to this region, suggesting that a relatively rare gene predisposing to BPD is enriched in this linked pedigree. The genome-wide scan for BPD predisposing loci in this large pedigree indicated that this particular X-chromosomal region provides the best evidence of linkage genome-wide, suggesting an X-chromosomal gene with a major role for the genetic predisposition of BPD in this family.

  14. Hospital-treated suicide attempts among Finnish fire setters: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Annika; Tiihonen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Virkkunen, Matti; Lindberg, Nina

    2016-12-01

    High rates of attempted and completed suicide have been reported among offenders, but there has been little attention in this respect to fire setters specifically. Aim Our aim was to investigate hospital-treated suicide attempts among male fire setters. For each of a consecutive series of 441 pre-trial fire setters, four controls matched for age, gender and place of birth were randomly selected from the Central Population Register. Data on hospitalisation and causes of death over a 39-year period were obtained from the Finnish national registers. The prevalence of suicide attempts was significantly higher among fire setters than among controls. Approximately every fifth fire setter had made at least one suicide attempt which had required hospital treatment. The most common method chosen was intentional self-poisoning or exposure to noxious substances. More than 1 in 10 fire setters with at least one hospitalisation for suicide-related behaviour eventually completed suicide. More attention should be paid to detecting and managing suicidal behaviours among fire setters as they are a high-risk group and accurate identification of their needs in this respect may not only be life-saving but also reduce recidivism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  16. Digoxin and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaapu, Kalle J; Murtola, Teemu J; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-22

    Protective effects have been suggested for digoxin against prostate cancer risk. However, few studies have evaluated the possible effects on prostate cancer-specific survival. We studied the association between use of digoxin or beta-blocker sotalol and prostate cancer-specific survival as compared with users of other antiarrhythmic drugs in a retrospective cohort study. Our study population consisted of 6537 prostate cancer cases from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer diagnosed during 1996-2009 (485 digoxin users). The median exposure for digoxin was 480 DDDs (interquartile range 100-1400 DDDs). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis, 617 men (48 digoxin users) died of prostate cancer. We collected information on antiarrhythmic drug purchases from the national prescription database. Both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic drug usages were analysed using the Cox regression method. No association was found for prostate cancer death with digoxin usage before (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.80) or after (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.43-1.51) prostate cancer diagnosis. The results were also comparable for sotalol and antiarrhythmic drugs in general. Among men not receiving hormonal therapy, prediagnostic digoxin usage was associated with prolonged prostate cancer survival (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.86). No general protective effects against prostate cancer were observed for digoxin or sotalol usage.

  17. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Finnish Action Programme, interim report.

    PubMed

    Pietinalho, A; Kinnula, V L; Sovijärvi, A R A; Vilkman, S; Säynäjäkangas, O; Liippo, K; Kontula, E; Laitinen, L A

    2007-07-01

    The Finnish National Prevention and Treatment Programme for Chronic Bronchitis and COPD, launched in 1998, has, to date, been running for 6 years (2003). The goals of this action programme were to reduce the incidence of COPD and the number of moderate and severe cases of the disease, and to reduce both the number of days of hospitalisation and treatment costs. A prevalent implementation of over 250 information and training events started. Health centres and pharmacies appointed a person in charge of COPD patients. In order to improve the cooperation between primary and specialised care, two thirds of hospital districts created local COPD treatment chains. The early diagnosis of COPD by spirometric examination was activated during the programme. Number of health centres with available spirometric services increased to 95%. Before the start of the programme, approximately 5-9% of the adult population had COPD. During the whole programme, the proportion of male and female smokers decreased from 30% to 26% and from 20% to 19%, respectively. The total number of hospitalisation periods and days due to COPD decreased by 15% and 18%, respectively. Both the number of pensioners and daily sickness days due to COPD also decreased by 18%. Registered COPD induced deaths remained at their previous levels during the monitoring period, i.e. around 1000 deaths out of 5.2 millions annually. The measures recommended by the programme have been widely introduced but they need to be still more effective.

  18. Retrospective reports of parental physical affection and parenting style: a study of Finnish twins.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors.

  19. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  20. Common genetic effects of gender atypical behavior in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a study of Finnish twins.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Harlaar, Nicole; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The existence of genetic effects on gender atypical behavior in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood and the overlap between these effects were studied in a population-based sample of 3,261 Finnish twins aged 33-43 years. The participants completed items on recalled childhood behavior and on same-sex sexual interest and behavior, which were combined into a childhood gender atypical behavior and a sexual orientation variable, respectively. The phenotypic association between the two variables was stronger for men than for women. Quantitative genetic analyses showed that variation in both childhood gender atypical behavior and adult sexual orientation was partly due to genetics, with the rest being explained by nonshared environmental effects. Bivariate analyses suggested that substantial common genetic and modest common nonshared environmental correlations underlie the co-occurrence of the two variables. The results were discussed in light of previous research and possible implications for theories of gender role development and sexual orientation.

  1. Finnish immigrants' experience of community pharmacy services in Spain: an example of a developing E.U. issue.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Minna Heleena; Lyles, Alan; Airaksinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Emigration within the European Union has increased, especially toward southern countries. This places complex demands on health care providers and community pharmacists, yet there is no E.U. policy that harmonizes health care services and pharmacy practice across member countries. This exploratory study examined immigrants' experiences with community pharmacy services. A survey of 1000 Finnish immigrants living in Spain's Costa del Sol region was performed in 2002, using a questionnaire that included structured and open-ended questions. Respondents were mostly satisfied with pharmacy services; however, some services had higher medication safety risks-related to medication counseling (for prescription and nonprescription medicines) and obtaining some prescription drugs without a prescription-due mainly to lack of a common language. Pharmacy services in the European Union may not provide adequate assurances of medication safety for immigrants. Consistent E.U.-wide minimum pharmacy practice standards for immigrant populations are needed.

  2. Analysis of autism susceptibility gene loci on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q in Finnish multiplex families.

    PubMed

    Auranen, M; Nieminen, T; Majuri, S; Vanhala, R; Peltonen, L; Järvelä, I

    2000-05-01

    The role of genetic factors in the etiology of the autistic spectrum of disorders has clearly been demonstrated. Ten chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q have potentially been linked to autism.1-8 We have analyzed these chromosomal regions in a total of 17 multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish population by pairwise linkage analysis and sib-pair analysis. Mild evidence for putative contribution was found only with the 1p chromosomal region in the susceptibility to autism. Our data suggest that additional gene loci exist for autism which will be detectable in and even restricted to the isolated Finnish population.

  3. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  4. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  5. Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Frans Orsted

    2010-01-01

    The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

  6. Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Frans Orsted

    2010-01-01

    The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

  7. No change in prevalence of symptoms of COPD between 1996 and 2006 in Finnish adults – a report from the FinEsS Helsinki Study

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Pallasaho, Paula; Pietinalho, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence caused by smoking and other inhalational exposures in the general population is well-known worldwide. However, time trends are poorly known, due to lower number of high-quality studies especially following nationwide efforts on diminishing exposure levels. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD symptoms and their major determinants in Finnish adults in 1996 and 2006. Methods Two identical postal surveys were conducted among two random population samples from Helsinki using identical methodologies in 1996 and 2006, with 6,062 (76%) and 2,449 (62%) participants, respectively. Results The physician-diagnoses of COPD remained at 3.7%, whereas physician-diagnoses of asthma and use of asthma medicines increased in both genders. Current smoking reduced from 33.4 to 27.3% (p<0.001), and the amount of cigarettes smoked also reduced significantly. The crude prevalence of chronic productive cough was 12.1 and 11.1%, wheezing with dyspnoea without a cold (wheezing triad) 7.3 and 7.7%, and dyspnoea grade II 13.8 and 13.6%, in 1996 and 2006, respectively. Among subjects with physician-diagnosed COPD, the prevalences of chronic productive cough and recurrent wheeze reduced significantly, from 60.6 to 40.7% and 53.5 to 38.5%, respectively. Conclusion From 1996 to 2006, the prevalence of obstructive airway symptoms common in different phenotypes of COPD did not increase in Finnish adults. This suggests that the upward trend of COPD prevalence might have reached a plateau. Current smoking and the quantities smoked diminished suggesting a wider impact of stronger legislation and smoking-cessation efforts during the Finnish National Programme for COPD. PMID:27534614

  8. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as a Screening Tool for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Adineh, Hoseinali; Amini, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire is a screening tool to estimate risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the ability of FINDRISC to predict the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Iranian population without diabetes and MetS. METHODS: A total of 1,010 first-degree relatives of consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes, 30-70 years old (274 men and 736 women), without diabetes and MetS, were examined and followed up over 8.0 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD) for MetS incidence. The incidence of MetS was examined across quartiles of FINDRISC, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to assess the discrimination. At baseline and through follow-ups, participants underwent a standard 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Data for determining FINDRISC were available from each participant. RESULTS: During 8,089 person-years of follow-up, 69 men and 209 women without MetS and diabetes at baseline subsequently developed MetS. The incidence of MetS was 31.4 per 1000 person-years in men and 35.5 in women. The FINDRSC at baseline was significantly associated with MetS evolution. Participants in the top quartile of FINDRISC were 4.4 times more likely to develop MetS than those in the bottom quartile (rate ratio 4.4; 95% CI 2.7-7.0). The area under the ROC curve was 65.0% (95% CI 61.3-68.7). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that FINDRISC can be applied to detect MetS in a high-risk population. PMID:24841881

  9. 25-year trends and socio-demographic differences in response rates: Finnish adult health behaviour survey.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Hanna; Helakorpi, Satu; Talala, Kirsi; Helasoja, Ville; Martelin, Tuija; Prättälä, Ritva

    2006-01-01

    When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.

  10. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  11. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  12. Shaping professional identity for sustainability. Evidence in Finnish public catering.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Minna

    2009-08-01

    Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability.

  13. Management of work-related stress by Finnish occupational physicians.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, M; Liira, J

    2013-07-01

    Occupational stress is a serious threat to the well-being of employees and organizations and may cause ill-health and loss of productivity. Determining the methods that occupational health (OH) services and employers use to manage work-related stress can help to detect both barriers and facilitating factors for effective stress management. To examine stress management methods used by OH physicians in Finland. Anonymous, self-administered e-mail questionnaire to Finnish OH physicians. A total of 222 OH physicians responded. Neither OH services nor their client organizations used standardized tools to assess or manage work-related stress. Work-related stress was assessed using patient interviews. Physicians reported that the main method used to manage occupational stress was supporting the individual employee. Half of the physicians attempted to involve workplaces in stress management by asking their patients to contact their supervisors regarding stress issues. In order to tackle work-related stress consistently and effectively employers and OH services should have agreed standardized protocols for managing stress in the workplace.

  14. Men, masculinity and food: interviews with Finnish carpenters and engineers.

    PubMed

    Roos, G; Prättälä, R; Koski, K

    2001-08-01

    This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences.

  15. Auroral Workshop generates U.S.-Finnish teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, Mark

    Forty scientists from the United States and Finland met last spring at a workshop to develop collaborative studies of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to synthesize multiple ground-based and space-based data sets. The workshop also provided an opportunity to compare the output of new U.S. and Finnish Global Magnetohydrodynamic models with ground-based and satellite observations. Some of the missions and facilities that are providing new data within the United States and Finland include the Global Geospace Science/national Solar-Terrestrial Program Polar and Wind satellites, Interball, the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Ulysses, the Svalbard Radar, the new Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) station, digital all sky cameras, and the Magnetosphere Imager (MI) array in Finland. The workshop began with a discussion of dayside magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling. Dayside ionospheric transient signatures were divided into three types: auroral forms and convection velocity spikes, magnetic and convection events, and twin convection vortices. The three classes differ in size, location, repetition rates, and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) dependencies. Scientists are addressing whether the transient classes are related, what the transients' role is compared to that of permanent cusp features, and how transients affect mag-netospheric energetics.

  16. Clinical trials of live oral rotavirus vaccines: the Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, T

    1993-01-01

    Live oral candidate rotavirus vaccines of bovine (RIT 4237) or rhesus (RRV-1) origin and reassortants of RRV-1 expressing human serotype 1 (DxRRV) or serotype 2 (DS1xRRV) VP7 protein were evaluated for clinical efficacy in young children in successive trials from 1983 to 1989. In each study, the vaccinations were given before a rotavirus epidemic season and the follow-up of vaccinees covered two rotavirus epidemic seasons lasting up to 2-3 years of age. Serotype 1 rotavirus was predominant in each season. Protection rates against all rotavirus-associated diarrhoea ranged from 0 to 67% but were higher, up to 100%, against more severe rotavirus disease. All tested vaccines also showed efficacy for diarrhoea not apparently associated with rotavirus; therefore the clinical benefit of the vaccinations was greater than could be deduced from efficacy rates for rotavirus-associated diarrhoea alone. Each of the candidate vaccines could significantly reduce severe diarrhoea in Finnish children in the first 2 to 3 years of life. For optimal efficacy, the vaccines should be administered in the autumn before the regular epidemic season of rotavirus.

  17. The lifelong struggle of Finnish World War II veterans.

    PubMed

    Nivala, Sirkka; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    In many countries veterans from World War II are growing old. Research has shown that war experiences continue to impact those who have been involved in war for a long time. The present study targets old injured war veterans from World War II in Finland. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge of the impact of war experiences and injuries on the lifespan of Finnish war veterans. The method used was grounded theory. Data were collected by interviewing 20 aged war veterans in their homes. The analysis resulted in four categories, with also subcategories: (1) lost childhood and youth; (2) war traumas impacting life; (3) starting life from scratch; and (4) finding one's own place. A substantive theory of war veterans' lifelong struggle for freedom throughout the lifespan was outlined. The war overshadowed the whole lifespan of the veterans, but in old age they finally felt free. Since war experiences vary depending on historical context, a formal theory would require additional research.

  18. A mortality study of Finnish pulp and paper workers.

    PubMed Central

    Jäppinen, P

    1987-01-01

    Mortality among workers in the Finnish pulp and paper industry was evaluated in a retrospective cohort study of 3520 workers who had been employed continuously for at least one year between 1945 and 1961. Six subcohorts were formed according to six work areas: sulphite, sulphate, paper, and board mills, maintenance department, and power plant. National mortality rates were used for comparison. The mortality of a cohort of 1290 sawmill workers was also studied in order to have a socially, geographically, and occupationally similar group without the exposures typical of the pulp and paper industry for comparison. Smoking habits were surveyed. Mortality was followed up until 31 December 1981. Overall mortality for the entire cohort did not differ from that expected (1044 obs, 1029.4 exp, SMR 101), but there was an excess of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system among the men (489 obs, 404.9 exp, SMR 121). This was due to the excess of deaths from ischaemic heart disease found among the men at the sulphite, sulphate, and paper mills, maintenance department, and power plant, but not at the sawmill. The existing smoking data did not explain this finding and it may therefore be associated with occupational exposures. PMID:3663525

  19. Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rantakokko, Panu; Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Lappalainen, Antti; Mannio, Jaakko; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2010-05-15

    Organotin compounds (OTCs) leaching from the antifouling paints used in boats and ships have contaminated many water areas worldwide. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general view of the organotin contamination in fish in Finnish lake areas and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea using perch as the main indicator species. Perch sampling covered areas presumed as less contaminated and areas suspected as more contaminated. Besides perch, 12 other species were sampled from sites presumed as less contaminated. OTCs measured were mono-, di- and tributyltin, mono-, di-, and triphenyltin and dioctyltin. The sum concentration of OTCs (SigmaOTCs) in perch in the least contaminated areas of the Baltic Sea were around 20 ng/g fresh weight (fw) and less than 10 ng/g fw in lake areas. In heavily contaminated areas of the Baltic Sea 150-500 ng/g fw in perch were detected. In lake areas the maximum SigmaOTCs in perch was only 30 ng/g fw. With regard to the other species in the Baltic Sea, salmon, sprat, flounder, whitefish, vendace and lamprey contained low concentrations (SigmaOTCs mainly less than 20 ng/g fw), whereas in pike, pike-perch, burbot and bream concentrations were higher. SigmaOTCs in lake fish were generally lower than in the Baltic Sea. In a distance gradient study, SigmaOTCs in perch decreased quickly from nearly 200 ng/g fw at a contaminated harbor area to 35 ng/g fw during a distance of 5 km. Further decrease was slower and reached 15 ng/g fw at 100 km. In a size dependence study triphenyltin showed better correlation with the fish length than tributyltin for all species studied, i.e. for perch (0.16 vs 0.26), pike-perch (0.13 vs 0.24) and roach (0.46 vs 0.80). High correlation for roach may be partly explained by smaller number of samples collected and small length range.

  20. Sleep disruption, chronotype, shift work, and prostate cancer risk and mortality: a 30-year prospective cohort study of Finnish twins.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Markt, Sarah C; Koskenvuo, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disruption and shift work have been associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer remains limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife sleep- and circadian-related parameters and later prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,370 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Over the study period, 602 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between midlife sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, and shift work with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were employed to account for potential familial confounding. Compared to "definite morning" types, "somewhat evening" types had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1, 1.6). Chronotype significantly modified the relationship between shift work and prostate cancer risk (p-interaction <0.001). We found no significant association between sleep duration, sleep quality, or shift work and prostate cancer risk in the overall analyses and no significant association between any sleep- or circadian-related parameter and risk in co-twin analyses. Neither sleep- nor circadian-related parameters were significantly associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. The association between sleep disruption, chronotype, and shift work with prostate cancer risk and mortality has never before been studied in a prospective study of male twins. Our findings suggest that chronotype may be associated with prostate cancer risk and modify the association between shift work and prostate cancer risk. Future studies of circadian disruption and prostate cancer should account for this individual-level characteristic.

  1. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  2. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  3. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  4. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  5. How Do Language-Specifc Characteristics Affect the Acquisition of Different Relative Clause Types? Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Minna; Kidd, Evan; Lieven, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We report three studies (one corpus, two experimental) that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs) in Finnish-speaking children. Study 1 found that Finnish children's naturalistic exposure to RCs predominantly consists of non-subject relatives (i.e. oblique, object) which typically have inanimate head nouns. Study 2 tested…

  6. It Only Looks the Same from a Distance: How U.S., Finnish, and Irish Schools Support Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel; Budde, Melissa Adams; Massey, Dixie; Korkeamäki, Riku; Kennedy, Eithne; O'Rourke, Maria; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how U.S., Finnish, and Irish educators identified and supported struggling readers. Using Johnston's (2011) framework for evaluating reading interventions and activity theory (Engeström, 1999), we interviewed educators in four U.S., three Irish, and three Finnish schools. In the United States, the adoption of three…

  7. How Do Language-Specifc Characteristics Affect the Acquisition of Different Relative Clause Types? Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Minna; Kidd, Evan; Lieven, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We report three studies (one corpus, two experimental) that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs) in Finnish-speaking children. Study 1 found that Finnish children's naturalistic exposure to RCs predominantly consists of non-subject relatives (i.e. oblique, object) which typically have inanimate head nouns. Study 2 tested…

  8. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  9. Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Sointu, Erkko T.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among…

  10. Language Learning Strategies Use and Challenges Faced by Adult Arab Learners of Finnish as a Second Language in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naif, Ahmed H.; Saad, Noor Saazai Mat

    2017-01-01

    Adult Arab learners of Finnish as second language (FSL) often encounter communication difficulty when dealing with official documents. They also cannot help their children in their school homework. FSL proficiency is an essential requirement to get an employment and to obtain the Finnish citizenship. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of…

  11. It Only Looks the Same from a Distance: How U.S., Finnish, and Irish Schools Support Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel; Budde, Melissa Adams; Massey, Dixie; Korkeamäki, Riku; Kennedy, Eithne; O'Rourke, Maria; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how U.S., Finnish, and Irish educators identified and supported struggling readers. Using Johnston's (2011) framework for evaluating reading interventions and activity theory (Engeström, 1999), we interviewed educators in four U.S., three Irish, and three Finnish schools. In the United States, the adoption of three…

  12. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  13. How to Train Good Teachers in Finnish Universities? Student Teachers' Study Process and Teacher Educators' Role in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    Due to Finnish pupils' achievements in international comparisons, also Finnish teacher training has been widely acknowledged. Today's educational policies aim at making teacher training more effective in Finland. However, in order to realize this in practice, not only reforms in educational policy or institutions are enough. More attention should…

  14. Implications of the Bologna Process for Throughput in the Higher Education Sector: An Empirical Illustration Based on a Finnish-British Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates the differences between Finnish and British graduates in the higher education-to-work transition and related market mechanisms in the year 2000. Specifically, the differences between the Finnish and British students' academic careers and ability to find employment after graduation were evaluated in relation to the Finnish HE…

  15. Implications of the Bologna Process for Throughput in the Higher Education Sector: An Empirical Illustration Based on a Finnish-British Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates the differences between Finnish and British graduates in the higher education-to-work transition and related market mechanisms in the year 2000. Specifically, the differences between the Finnish and British students' academic careers and ability to find employment after graduation were evaluated in relation to the Finnish HE…

  16. "They Say I'm Stupid, but I Just Don't HEAR": Hearing-Impaired Adults' View of Finnish Society. Research Report 142.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta

    Experiences of Finnish adults with hearing impairments (n=186) and their views of Finnish society were studied, and methods of collecting data were compared. Study questions focused on knowledge about and satisfaction with Finnish society, participation in activities, and values and attitudes. Respondents who were deaf (n=77) and those who were…

  17. A large sample of finnish diabetic sib-pairs reveals no evidence for a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility locus at 2qter.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S; Hauser, E R; Magnuson, V L; Valle, T; Ally, D S; Karanjawala, Z E; Rayman, J B; Knapp, J I; Musick, A; Tannenbaum, J; Te, C; Eldridge, W; Shapiro, S; Musick, T; Martin, C; So, A; Witt, A; Harvan, J B; Watanabe, R M; Hagopian, W; Eriksson, J; Nylund, S J; Kohtamaki, K; Tuomilehto-Wolf, E; Boehnke, M

    1998-01-01

    In the first reported positive result from a genome scan for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Hanis et al. found significant evidence of linkage for NIDDM on chromosome 2q37 and named the putative disease locus NIDDM1 (Hanis et al. 1996. Nat. Genet. 13:161-166). Their total sample was comprised of 440 Mexican-American affected sib-pairs from 246 sibships. The strongest evidence for linkage was at marker D2S125 and best estimates of lambdas (risk to siblings of probands/population prevalence) using this marker were 1.37 under an additive model and 1.36 under a multiplicative model. We examined this chromosomal region using linkage analysis in a Finnish sample comprised of 709 affected sib-pairs from 472 sibships. We excluded this region in our sample (multipoint logarithm of odds score /= 1.37. We discuss possible reasons why linkage to 2q37 was not found and conclude that this region is unlikely to be playing a major role in NIDDM susceptibility in the Finnish Caucasian population. PMID:9710438

  18. Indolepropionic acid and novel lipid metabolites are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Vanessa D.; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Lankinen, Maria A.; Shi, Lin; Kuusisto, Johanna; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; Rolandsson, Olov; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Nordin, Elise; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Landberg, Rikard; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hanhineva, Kati; Uusitupa, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Wide-scale profiling technologies including metabolomics broaden the possibility of novel discoveries related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). By applying non-targeted metabolomics approach, we investigated here whether serum metabolite profile predicts T2D in a well-characterized study population with impaired glucose tolerance by examining two groups of individuals who took part in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS); those who either early developed T2D (n = 96) or did not convert to T2D within the 15-year follow-up (n = 104). Several novel metabolites were associated with lower likelihood of developing T2D, including indole and lipid related metabolites. Higher indolepropionic acid was associated with reduced likelihood of T2D in the DPS. Interestingly, in those who remained free of T2D, indolepropionic acid and various lipid species were associated with better insulin secretion and sensitivity, respectively. Furthermore, these metabolites were negatively correlated with low-grade inflammation. We replicated the association between indolepropionic acid and T2D risk in one Finnish and one Swedish population. We suggest that indolepropionic acid, a gut microbiota-produced metabolite, is a potential biomarker for the development of T2D that may mediate its protective effect by preservation of β-cell function. Novel lipid metabolites associated with T2D may exert their effects partly through enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:28397877

  19. Late-life coronary heart disease mortality of Finnish war veterans in the TAMRISK study, a 28-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kunnas, Tarja; Solakivi, Tiina; Renko, Jaana; Kalela, Anne; Nikkari, Seppo T

    2011-02-01

    Wartime stress has been associated with increased late-life mortality of all causes of death. We evaluated whether wounded Finnish World War II veterans who were alive at the age of 55 have increased long-term coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Health survey data were recorded in 1980 from 667 men, aged 55 years. Of them 102 had been wounded or injured in action during 1939-1945. The remaining participants served as the comparison group. The death certificates during a 28-year follow-up were obtained from the national statistics centre. Statistical comparisons were done by Cox proportional hazard regression model. There were altogether 140 deaths from CHD. In men who had been wounded or injured in action the crude CHD mortality rate per 10,000 population was 2843, while in the comparison group the corresponding figure was 1961. Men who had been wounded or injured in action were 1.7 times (95% CI 1.1-2.5; p = 0.01) more likely to die from CHD than the comparison group. Physical trauma at young adulthood may extend to lifelong effects on health. This study suggests that being physically wounded or injured in war may lead to increased CHD mortality in late adulthood in a Finnish population.

  20. Making bullying prevention a priority in Finnish schools: the KiVa antibullying program.

    PubMed

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal and bullying specific actions to prevent the emergence of new cases of bullying, stop ongoing bullying, and reduce the negative consequences of victimization. The program has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial involving 234 Finnish schools and during broad dissemination across Finnish schools (the evaluation involving almost one thousand schools) with positive findings. The program content and the implementation model are presented in this article, and the findings from the evaluation studies are summarized.

  1. Gelsolin-related familial amyloidosis, Finnish type, in a Portuguese family: clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Isabel; Sales-Luis, Maria Lurdes; De Carvalho, Mamede; Evangelista, Teresinha; Fernandes, Rui; Paunio, Tiina; Kangas, Hannele; Coutinho, Paula; Neves, Carlos; Saraiva, Maria João

    2003-12-01

    We report a Portuguese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy related to gelsolin. There were no known Finnish ancestors, but the same mutation as described in Finnish patients (G654A) was carried. Clinical and neurophysiological investigations were performed in four patients. Corneal lattice dystrophy affected all four patients; an axonal lesion of the facial nerve occurred in three patients; visual tract involvement was documented in one case; and corticospinal and posterior column dysfunction was present in one patient. Polarizing microscopy of skin and muscle samples demonstrated amyloid deposits in two patients; anti-gelsolin immunohistochemistry was positive for amyloidogenic gelsolin. The Finnish mutation of gelsolin protein (G654A) was detected in five family members. The utility of neurophysiological testing in the evaluation and follow-up of this type of amyloidosis is discussed.

  2. Sickness absence among Finnish special and general education teachers.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, J; Kivimäki, M; Pentti, J; Suominen, S; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M

    2011-10-01

    Although teaching is considered a high-stress profession, research on stress-related outcomes among teachers, such as absence from work due to illness (i.e. sickness absence), remains scarce. It is possible that teachers are not a homogeneous group but include subgroups with particularly high risk of sickness absence, such as special education teachers. To examine differences in sickness absence rates between special and general education teachers in a large cohort of 2291 Finnish lower secondary school teachers. Register data on teachers' job titles, sociodemographic characteristics and sickness absence were obtained from 10 municipal employers' registers. Indices of sickness absence included rates of short-term (1-3 days) and long-term (>3 days) absence spells during 2003-05. With multi-level models adjusted for individual- and school-level covariates, we found that although the absolute level of sickness absence was higher among women than among men, male special education teachers were at a 1.36-fold (95% CI: 1.15-1.61) increased risk of short-term and a 1.33-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.76) increased risk of long-term sickness absence compared with male teachers in general education. Among women, there were no differences in sickness absence between special and general education teachers. Compared to male teachers in general education, male teachers in special education appear to have an excess risk of absence from work due to illness. Future studies should examine the causes for this excess risk and determine the need for preventive interventions.

  3. Repatriation and identification of the Finnish World War II soldiers.

    PubMed

    Palo, Jukka U; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-08-01

    To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals.

  4. Hypertension guideline implementation: experiences of Finnish primary care nurses.

    PubMed

    Alanen, Seija; Ijäs, Jarja; Kaila, Minna; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    Evidence-based guidelines on hypertension have been developed in many western countries. Yet, there is little evidence of their impact on the clinical practices of primary care nurses. We assessed the style of implementation and adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in 32 Finnish health centres classified in a previous study as 'disseminators' (n = 13) or 'implementers' (n = 19). A postal questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n = 409) working in the outpatient services in these health centres. Additionally, senior nursing officers were telephoned to enquire if the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. Questionnaires were returned from 327 nurses (80.0%), while all senior nursing officers (n = 32) were contacted. The majority of nurses were of the opinion that the HT Guideline has been adopted into clinical practice. The recommendations in the HT Guideline were adopted in clinical practice with varying success, and slightly more often in implementer health centres than in disseminator health centres. Nurses in implementer health centres more often agreed that multiple channels had been used in the implementation (P < 0.001). According to senior nursing officers the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors in about a half of the health centres, clearly more often in implementer health centres (P < 0.001). The HT Guideline was well adopted into clinical practice in Finland. The implementation of the HT Guideline had an impact on clinical practices, and on creating a new division of labour between nurses and doctors.

  5. Tooth loss and liver cancer incidence in a Finnish cohort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Petrick, Jessica L; Abnet, Christian C; Graubard, Barry I; Murphy, Gwen; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096). We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. As a sensitivity analysis, we conducted a nested case-control study within the original cohort to assess confounding by hepatitis B or C virus infection and seropositivity of H. pylori. A total of 213 incident primary liver cancers occurred during a mean follow-up of 17 years. Among these cases, having 11-31 permanent teeth lost (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.98) or all 32 teeth lost (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.10) was each associated with higher risk of liver cancer, compared to those having 0-10 teeth lost. Adjusting for H. pylori seropositivity yielded a small attenuation of the effect estimate. Greater number of teeth lost was associated with higher risk of primary liver cancer in our study. The role of periodontal infection in the development of liver cancer warrants further investigation.

  6. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. SP2 is a unique instrument that can give detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). As expected, the measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The log-normally distributed rBC core size was relatively constant with an average geometric mass mean diameter of 194 nm. On the average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 and the average rBC core size in these particles was half of the total size (coated to core diameter ratio was 2.0). These numbers mean that the core was larger and had a significantly thicker coating than in typical particles closer to their source regions. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) showed a factor of five difference, which could not be fully explained without assuming that a part of the absorbing material is non-refractory. Finally, climate implications of five different rBC mixing state representations were quantified using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state (separate non-absorbing and coated rBC particles) means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with that of an homogenous aerosol containing the same amounts of rBC and non-absorbing material.

  7. Determinants of breast-feeding in a Finnish birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ahonen, Suvi; Arkkola, Tuula; Uusitalo, Liisa; Pietinen, Pirjo; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2010-04-01

    To assess milk feeding on the maternity ward and during infancy, and their relationship to sociodemographic determinants. The validity of our 3-month questionnaire in measuring hospital feeding was assessed. A prospective Finnish birth cohort with increased risk to type 1 diabetes recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and age-specific dietary questionnaires. Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) project, Finland. A cohort of 5993 children (77 % of those invited) participated in the main study, and 117 randomly selected infants in the validation study. Breast milk was the predominant milk on the maternity ward given to 99 % of the infants. Altogether, 80 % of the women recalled their child being fed supplementary milk (donated breast milk or infant formula) on the maternity ward. The median duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 1.4 months (range 0-8) and that of total breast-feeding 7.0 months (0-25). Additional milk feeding on the maternity ward, short parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, small gestational age and having no siblings were associated with a risk of short duration of both exclusive and total breast-feeding. In the validation study, 78 % of the milk types given on the maternity ward fell into the same category, according to the questionnaire and hospital records. The recommendations for infant feeding were not achieved. Infant feeding is strongly influenced by sociodemographic determinants and feeding practices on the maternity wards. Long-term breast-feeding may be supported by active promotion on the maternity ward.

  8. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed

    Kvist, Tarja; Mäntynen, Raija; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-10-02

    Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is a complex, continuously changing work

  9. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  10. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  11. Congenital chloride diarrhoea. Clinical analysis of 21 Finnish patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, C; Perheentupa, J; Launiala, K; Hallman, N

    1977-01-01

    Clinical findings in 21 Finnish children with congenital chloride diarrhoea are reported. Inheritance of this disease by the autosomal recessive mode is established. All children were born 1-8 weeks prematurely. Hydramnios was present in every case and no meconium was observed; intrauterine onset of diarrhoea is thus apparent. In most cases the diarrhoea or passing of large volumes of "urine" was noted on the first day of life and the abdomen was usually large and distended. The neonatla weight loss was abnormally large, and was associated with hypochloraemia and hyponatraemia. Some infants survived the neonatal period without adequate therapy. They presented later with failure to thrive and usually had hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia, and metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperaldosteronism. However, these features may be absent and the diagnosis is based on a history of hydramnios and diarrhoea, and a faecal Cl- concentration which always exceeds 90 mmol/l when fluid and electrolyte deficits have been corrected. Lower faecal Cl- concentrations were seen only in chronic hypochloraemia, which is also associated with achloriduria. Adequate treatment consists of full continuous replacement of the faecal losses of water, NaCl, and KCl. This should be given intravenously in the early neonatal period; later a solution can be taken orally with meals. The dose has to be adjusted to maintain normal serum electrolyte concentrations, normal blood pH, and some chloriduria. This therapy prevents the renal lesions and the retarded growth and psychomotor development which were seen in the children who were diagnosed late and in those who received inadequate replacement therapy. The watery diarrhoea persists and increases slightly with age, though patients learn to live with their disease and to make an adequate social adjustment. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 PMID:324405

  12. Impulse control disorders and depression in Finnish patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Martikainen, Kirsti; Vahlberg, Tero; Voon, Valerie; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2012-02-01

    Impulse control disorders occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the frequencies have been investigated mainly in patients from secondary or tertiary care centers, and thus, the prevalence rates in general community are not known. Our objective was to study the prevalence rates of impulse control disorders and related factors in a large, non-selected sample of Parkinson's disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among Parkinson's disease patients from Finnish Parkinson Association [n = 575; 365 men, 240 women, median age 64 (range 43-90) years]. Problem and pathological gambling were estimated with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, risk for impulse control disorders with the validated Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease, and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of pathological gambling was 7.0%. The overall frequency of a positive screen for an impulse control disorder was 34.8%, and 12.5% of the patients screened positive for multiple disorders. Depressive symptoms were statistically the most important factor in explaining variance in impulse control disorder risk, even more than sex, age, age of disease onset, alcohol use, or medication. The high proportion of patients screened positive for impulse control disorders in a non-selected sample emphasize the importance of routine screening of these disorders in Parkinson's disease. Pathological gambling prevalence in Parkinson's disease is seven times higher than in the general population in Finland. The results underline the importance of depression in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Finnish norms for young children on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Borg, Anne-Mari; Kaukonen, Pälvi; Joukamaa, Matti; Tamminen, Tuula

    2014-10-01

    Early recognition of children's mental health problems is crucial. Although the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a commonly used screening method, further research is needed on its validity and norms for young children. The aims of the study were to confirm the adjusted lower (normal/borderline) and upper (borderline/abnormal) cut-offs for the SDQ in a Finnish community sample of 4-9-year-old children, and to explore the SDQ's ability to identify the children with mental health problems. Parents and teachers completed the SDQs (n = 2666). The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was administered to parents and teachers of 646 children. The overall participation rate was 57%. The suggested cut-offs for the SDQ total difficulties scale rated by parents and teachers were 2-5 points lower than the corresponding published British norms. The sensitivity for the total score normal/borderline cut-off (9/10) was 76% in the parent and 66% in the teacher reports and for the borderline/abnormal cut-off (11/12) 90% and 70% respectively. The respective specificity values were 69%, 63%, 74% and 66%. The area under curve (AUC) values of the higher cut-offs were good for parent (0.87) and satisfactory for teacher rated (0.76) total scores. The presence of a DAWBA-rater assigned diagnosis in the abnormal group compared with the normal group was sixfold in the parent and threefold in the teacher reported SDQs. The suggested cut-offs were clearly lower than the British norms. Yet the properties of the method's discriminative validity were acceptable. Population specific norms, taking into account both the culture and children's age, seem necessary for screening and for international comparisons of the method's validity properties.

  14. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A.; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  16. Genetic factors in evolution of sleep length--a longitudinal twin study in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Genetic factors affect many aspects of sleep, such as sleep length. We investigated the contribution of genetic factors to stability and change of sleep length among adults over a 15-year period. In this representative follow-up study we used the Finnish Twin Cohort as the study population. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 1975 (response rate 89%, 11,041 twin pairs; age ≥18 years), 1981 (84%, 9323; ≥24 years) and 1990 (77%, 4507; 33-60 years). Sleep was categorized as short (<7 h), average or long (>8 h). Pairwise similarity in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was examined at each survey by age group and sex. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects. The proportion of variance in sleep length at one point in time that was accounted for by genetic effects was very stable over the study period, being 0.31 in 1975, 0.32 in 1981 and 0.30 in 1990. Longitudinal genetic modelling indicated that the correlations of genetic effects between the three measurement points were high: 0.85 between 1975 and 1981; 0.93 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.76 between 1975 and 1990. Despite a high contribution of environmental effects, their correlations over time were modest: 0.31 between 1975 and 1981; 0.33 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.18 between 1975 and 1990. In conclusion, genetic factors have a modest but stable effect on the evolution of sleep length over a long time span in adults. Multiple measures are a more robust basis for genetic analyses than a single cross-sectional measure.

  17. High tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin concentrations in Finnish adults--time for new booster recommendations?

    PubMed

    Olander, R-M; Auranen, K; Härkänen, T; Leino, T

    2009-08-27

    The tetanus and diphtheria vaccination programme in Finland has been running for 50 years. After primary doses, tetanus boosters have been offered to men in military service and decennial boosters recommended for all through the adult life. For 30 years a diphtheria booster was only offered to men in the military service. Not until 1989 diphtheria-tetanus (dT) and diphtheria (d) booster vaccines for adolescence and adults were introduced. In this study serum samples of 990 subjects from 30 years of age, participating in a population survey in 2000-2001, were used to assess the tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin concentrations. More than 70% of the adults up to 50 years of age were fully protected (antitoxin concentrations >0.1 IU mL) against tetanus and diphtheria. Of these adults more that 76% had antitoxin concentrations >1 IU/mL against tetanus, indicating long-term protection but also an increased risk for hyperimmunisation. A comparison of this study and two immunogenicity studies conducted in Finland in 1987-1988 and 1995-1996 shows the impact of an active decennial dT adult booster programme in a country with a high primary tetanus and diphtheria vaccination coverage in infants since the 1950s. Recommendations for limited decennial boosters by increase the time interval between dT boosters up to 20 years as suggested by this study and also studies performed, e.g., in Denmark and Portugal should be considered. Finnish adults born before 1930 should, however, still be vaccinated with decennial boosters, especially against tetanus.

  18. Decline in the incidence of schizophrenia in Finnish cohorts born from 1954 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, J M; Haukka, J K; Tanskanen, A J; Lönnqvist, J K

    1999-08-01

    The declining incidence of schizophrenia observed in several countries is believed by many to merely reflect methodological problems in the studies performed. We report the first nationwide historical cohort study of changes in the incidence of schizophrenia, in which many of the previous methodological problems were overcome. We used the Finnish Population Register to identify everyone born in Finland from 1954 to 1965. These persons were followed up from their 16th to their 26th birthdays, and all cases of schizophrenia (International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 295) that emerged were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Register, the Pension Register, and the Free Medicine Register. Persons for whom an age of onset could be defined were included in the analyses (n = 5645). We used the Poisson regression model to estimate the effects of age, sex, birth cohort, period of diagnosis, and season of birth on the incidence of schizophrenia. The relative importance of cohort and period were assessed using an age-period-cohort model. The incidence declined significantly in each successive cohort, from 0.79 to 0.53 per 1000 among males and from 0.58 to 0.41 per 1000 among females. The effects of cohort and period on the change were both significant. The incidence of schizophrenia has declined in Finland. This was partly caused by confounding factors, as reflected in the significant period effect. The significant birth cohort effect suggests that the intensity or frequency of one or more risk factors for schizophrenia has decreased.

  19. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): study design and progress.

    PubMed

    Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Mangialasche, Francesca; Nissinen, Aulikki; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-11-01

    Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland. Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score ≥6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures. Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle-related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014. The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. "Holy anorexia"-relevant or relic? Religiosity and anorexia nervosa among Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Pyry; Harrasova, Gulnara; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of "holy anorexia," religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values.

  2. Food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish 1-6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kyttälä, Pipsa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Tapanainen, Heli; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2010-06-01

    To study food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish children aged 1-6 years and to assess the effect of age and sex on food consumption and nutrient intake. Cross-sectional samples of children participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort study in Finland. The study population comprised healthy children recruited in the nutrition study within the DIPP study in 1998-2003. Three-day food records (2535 in total) from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-year-old children were kept between the years 2003 and 2005. The energy-adjusted consumption of fruits and berries, cereal products, infant formulas and meat dishes was higher and the consumption of vegetables, salads, breads, dairy products, fat spreads, drinks, sweets and sugar was lower among 1-year-old children than older age groups (P for all <0.05). The mean daily energy intake increased with age and was higher among boys than girls in all age groups, except among the 2-year-olds (P for all <0.05). The diet of the 2-6-year-old children contained too much saturated fat and sucrose, and too little PUFA compared with the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The intakes of most vitamins and minerals met the recommendations. However, the intakes of vitamin D, E and iron fell below the recommended levels. The nutrient density of the diet decreased after the age of 1 year at the time that the children adapted to the regular family diet. In order to improve the diet of young children, it is essential to evaluate the diet of the whole family.

  3. The adoption of a controlled nursing vocabulary in Finnish scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Junttila, Kristiina; Pekkala, Eila; Saranto, Kaija; Ensio, Anneli; Tallberg, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    "Hoidokki" is a Finnish controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval purposes. Its second edition includes nearly 1000 terms. In this study, the congruence between the key words of three Finnish scientific nursing journals and the vocabulary was explored. Also, the content of the vocabulary was validated. The data included key words (N=208) used in 49 articles of three scientific journals in 2006. Two experts used content analysis to judge each key word and inter-rater reliability was calculated. Delphi-method was used to evaluate the potential new terms.

  4. [Graduate schools under change--case report on a Finnish national graduate school].

    PubMed

    Helve, Otto; Lauronen, Jouni; Remes, Anne M; Heikinheimo, Markku; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The independent status of Finnish doctoral programmes is changing as the funding is being transferred to the universities. The role of universities is correspondingly becoming stronger. The universities will establish a new organization for research training. We wanted to elucidate the significance of the nationally networked Finnish national graduate school of clinical medicine for research training. As an example we used the doctoral programme of the national graduate school of clinical medicine. The quality of research training as well as the continuation of training organizations created by nationally networked doctoral programmes must be guaranteed.

  5. Background factors affecting dental caries in permanent teeth of Finnish and Soviet children.

    PubMed

    Honkala, E; Kolmakow, S; Nyyssönen, V; Kuzmina, E; Vasina, S

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between some general background factors and caries experience in two groups of Finnish children (from Helsinki and Kuopio) and Soviet children (Moscow and Leningrad). A total of 1187 schoolchildren, ages seven, nine and twelve years, were examined and information about their health habits was gathered by questionnaire. Questions included use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened coffee and tea, toothbrushing frequency and mother's education. Except for age, the factors that explain caries experience clearly differ in Finnish and Soviet children.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  7. Conflicts, burnout, and bullying in a Finnish and a Polish company: a cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Varhama, Lasse M; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of conflicts, burnout, and bullying among employees of two similar companies, one situated in Poland (n=66) and the other in Finland (n=330) was investigated with the Psychosocial Workplace Inventory of Björkqvist and Osterman. Both companies were of Finnish ownership and manufacturers in heavy industry. They were similar in most respects, such as organization, production and marketing. Significant differences were found between the two companies. Polish workers had higher scores on conflicts and self-experienced bullying, while Finnish workers reported higher burnout, both self-experienced and observed by others.

  8. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  9. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. The SP2 provides detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). The measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The rBC mass was log-normally distributed showing a relatively constant rBC core mass mean diameter with an average of 194 nm (75-655 nm sizing range). On average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 (integrated over 350-450 nm particle diameter range) and the average particle diameter to rBC core volume equivalent diameter ratio was 2.0 (averaged over particles with 150-200 nm rBC core volume equivalent diameters). These average numbers mean that the observed rBC core mass mean diameter is similar to those of aged particles, but the observed particles seem to have unusually high particle to rBC core diameter ratios. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) using an Aethalometer and a MAAP showed that eBC was larger by a factor of five. The difference could not be fully explained without assuming that only a part of the optically detected light absorbing material is refractory and absorbs light at the wavelength used by the SP2. Finally, climate implications of five different black carbon mixing state representations were compared using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with

  10. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  11. Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mönkäre, Tiina J; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A

    2016-01-01

    A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (<20mm) was on average 45±7% of the content of landfill and in Lohja 58±11%. Sieving showed that 86.5±5.7% of the FF was smaller than 11.2mm and the fraction resembled soil. The total solids (TS) content was 46-82%, being lower in the bottom layers compared to the middle layers. The organic matter content (measured as volatile solids, VS) and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of FF were lower in the old landfill (VS/TS 12.8±7.1% and BMP 5.8±3.4 m(3)CH4/t TS) than in the new landfill (VS/TS 21.3±4.3% and BMP 14.4±9.9 m(3)CH4/t TS), and both were lower compared with fresh MSW. In the Kuopio landfill materials were also mechanically sieved in the full scale plant in two size fraction <30 mm (VS/TS 31.1% and 32.9 m(3)CH4/t TS) and 30-70 mm (VS/TS 50.8% and BMP 78.5m(3)CH4/t TS). The nitrogen (3.5±2.0 g/kg TS), phosphorus (<1.0-1.5 g/kg TS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2.77±1.77 kg/t TS) contents were low in all samples. Since FF is major fraction of the content of landfill, the characterization of FF is important to find possible methods for using or disposing FF mined from landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moral Functioning: Navigating the Messy Landscape of Values in Finnish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Haho, Annu

    2017-01-01

    This article employs a narrative approach to explore educators' moral functioning in Finnish preschools. Our study is theoretically inspired by notions drawn from feminist and sociocultural studies, according to which education is understood as an entirely moral phenomenon. Within a holistic framework, moral functioning is understood as a concept…

  13. Distributed Leadership as Administrative Practice in Finnish Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jonna; Venninen, Tuulikki; Ojala, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the professional development towards distributed leadership among different organizational levels in Finnish day care centres within the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim of the study was to monitor the progress of professional development between educational administration and practitioners. The data was based on…

  14. Exploring the Moral and Distributive Levers for Teacher Empowerment in the Finnish Policy Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok; Hjertø, Kjell Brynjulf; Tihveräinen, Saku Petteri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between school leadership practices and teacher empowerment in the Finnish policy culture. Specifically, moral leadership and distributed leadership enacted by school principals are tested in a simultaneous design as predictor to two distinct yet related aspects of teachers' sense…

  15. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  16. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemela, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmaki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between…

  17. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  18. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the…

  19. Comparison of the Classroom Practices of Finnish and Icelandic Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savola, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers in Finland and Iceland are on different tracks. Based on a recent video study, the classroom practices of Finnish mathematics teachers seem to be rather traditional. This is in contrast to the Icelandic teachers many of whom use progressive-minded, learner-based instructional strategies. The classroom practices in Finland…

  20. The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyblom, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…

  1. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  2. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  3. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  4. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…

  5. Biodiversity in Finnish wilderness areas: Historical and cultural constraints to preserve species and habitats

    Treesearch

    Anna-Liisa Sippola

    2002-01-01

    The present status of species and habitats in Finnish wilderness areas is largely a consequence of past administrative, use, and management traditions in northern Finland. The existing wilderness legislation sets a framework for management, but historical uses and administrative decisions have influenced many prevailing practices. In addition, management of many uses...

  6. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  7. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  8. Students' Views on Thesis Supervision in International Master's Degree Programmes in Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippou, Kalypso; Kallo, Johanna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs an intercultural perspective to examine students' views on master's thesis supervision and the roles and responsibilities of supervisors and students. The 302 respondents who answered the online questionnaire were enrolled in international master's degree programmes in four Finnish universities. The study revealed asymmetric…

  9. Implementing the Finnish Literacy Curriculum in a First-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…

  10. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in…

  11. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…

  12. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  13. A Narrative Inquiry about Values in a Finnish Preschool: The Case of Traffic Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juutinen, Jaana; Viljamaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This research explored how values are communicated in everyday life at preschool. This narrative inquiry focused on how values are conveyed through the use of a material artefact, a chart with traffic lights, as a communication and pedagogical tool. Twenty children aged 3-4 years in one Finnish preschool were involved in the initial data…

  14. From Canon to Chaos Management: Blogging as a Learning Tool in a Modern Finnish Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Elina; Vaarala, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the teaching experiment implemented in summer 2013 in a modern Finnish literature course organised by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre. In order to break away from the traditional conception of literature and text, students' independent blogging was chosen as the…

  15. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  16. Non-Linear Modeling of Growth Prerequisites in a Finnish Polytechnic Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of…

  17. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  18. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  19. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  20. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…