Science.gov

Sample records for finnish safety regulations

  1. Safety climate in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking companies.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Simo; Seppälä, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety.

  2. Patient safety incident prevention and management among Finnish dentists.

    PubMed

    Hiivala, Nora; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-11-01

    Assessing current patient safety incident (PSI) prevention measures and risk management practices among Finnish dentists. A total of 1041 dentists practicing in the private or public sectors in southern Finland completed an online questionnaire concerning PSI prevention, PSI-reporting systems, feedback and knowledge gained from device incidents and patient-generated safety information and the knowledge of national PS-guidance. The answers were handled anonymously. Statistical evaluations were performed using chi-square analysis. Dentists suggested multiple methods for preventing PSIs related to dental diagnostics, various treatments, equipment and devices, medications, communication, infection control and general practice safety. Preventive methods reported most frequently included working with caution and forethought, keeping accurate patient records and the availability of correct patient information. A special PSI-reporting system was used by less than one third of respondents. Feedback received on PS-related data and the utilization of guidebooks varied significantly between the studied dentist groups. Several PSI prevention techniques are already used in Finland. However, wide variation exists in PSI prevention and risk management practices among Finnish dentists. Systematic implementation of available safety methods would probably prevent several PSIs. The results indicate that the more dentists know about PS risks, the easier it is for them to recognize situations possibly leading to patient harm. Anonymous PSI reports, patient complaints and claims data should, therefore, be actively used for mutual learning. Increased PS education in dentistry is also needed.

  3. Learning Patient Safety in Academic Settings: A Comparative Study of Finnish and British Nursing Students' Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2015-06-01

    Globalization of health care demands nursing education programs that equip students with evidence-based patient safety competences in the global context. Nursing students' entrance into clinical placements requires professional readiness. Thus, evidence-based learning activities about patient safety must be provided in academic settings prior to students' clinical placements. To explore and compare Finnish and British nursing students' perceptions of learning about patient safety in academic settings to inform nursing educators about designing future education curriculum. A purpose-designed instrument, Patient Safety in Nursing Education Questionnaire (PaSNEQ) was used to examine the perceptions of Finnish (n = 195) and British (n = 158) nursing students prior to their final year of registration. Data were collected in two Finnish and two English nursing schools in 2012. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the differences. British students reported more inclusion (p < .001) of "gaining knowledge," "training skills," and "highlighting affirmative attitudes and motivation" related to patient safety in their programs. Both student groups considered patient safety education to be more valuable for their own learning than what their programs had provided. Training patient safety skills in the academic settings were the strongest predictors for differences (odds ratio [OR] = 34.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.39-162.83), along with work experience in the healthcare sector (OR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.39-6.58). To prepare nursing students for practical work, training related to clear communication, reporting errors, systems-based approaches, interprofessional teamwork, and use of simulation in academic settings requires comprehensive attention, especially in Finland. Overall, designing patient safety-affirming nursing curricula in collaboration with students may enhance their positive experiences on teaching and learning about patient safety. An international

  4. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  5. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  6. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  7. Finnish Students' Reasons for Their Achievement in Classroom Activities: Focus on Features That Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Perry, Nancy; Järvelä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how finnish students explain factors that contribute to their achievement in classroom learning activities and whether these factors are related to support of self-regulated learning (SRL) in classroom. Over seven weeks, 24 primary school students were videotaped during their typical classroom activities in…

  8. Finnish Students' Reasons for Their Achievement in Classroom Activities: Focus on Features That Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Perry, Nancy; Järvelä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how finnish students explain factors that contribute to their achievement in classroom learning activities and whether these factors are related to support of self-regulated learning (SRL) in classroom. Over seven weeks, 24 primary school students were videotaped during their typical classroom activities in…

  9. Occupational Health and Safety of Finnish Dairy Farmers Using Automatic Milking Systems.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Lunner-Kolstrup, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pipeline and parlor milking expose dairy farmers and workers to adverse health outcomes. In recent years, automatic milking systems (AMS) have gained much popularity in Finland, but the changes in working conditions when changing to AMS are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational health and safety risks in using AMS, compared to conventional milking systems (CMS). An anonymous online survey was sent to each Finnish dairy farm with an AMS in 2014. Only those dairy farmers with prior work experience in CMS were included in the final analysis consisting of frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. We received 228 usable responses (131 male and 97 female; 25.2% response rate). The majority of the participants found that AMS had brought flexibility to the organization of farm work, and it had increased leisure time, quality of life, productivity of dairy work, and the attractiveness of dairy farming among the younger generation. In addition, AMS reduced the perceived physical strain on the musculoskeletal system as well as the risk of occupational injuries and diseases, compared to CMS. However, working in close proximity to the cattle, particularly training of heifers to use the AMS, was regarded as a high-risk work task. In addition, the daily cleaning of the AMS and manual handling of rejected milk were regarded as physically demanding. The majority of the participants stated that mental stress caused by the monotonous, repetitive, paced, and hurried work had declined after changing to AMS. However, many indicated increased mental stress because of the demanding management of the AMS. Nightly alarms caused by the AMS, lack of adequately skilled hired labor or farm relief workers, and the 24/7 standby for the AMS were issues that also caused mental stress. Based on this study, AMS may have significant potential in the prevention of adverse health outcomes in milking of dairy cows. In addition, AMS may improve

  10. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  11. DOT regulations, safety relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G.B.

    1981-01-01

    This review of overpressure protective devices is based on the ASME guide for gas transmission and distribution piping systems of 1980. Analysis of overpressure protection methods in the industry has been increasing since 1970 to insure that provisions of Part. 192, Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, ''Transportation of natural and other gas by pipelines: minimum federal safety standards'', are being complied with or plans are being made to comply. The basic premise for protection against accidental overpressure is explained, i.e., the maximum allowable operating pressure in a gas system could be exceeded either at a compressor station or in a pipeline downstream of a pressure control devices; overpressure protection devices must be used on all of these installations with the exception of centrifugal compresssors. Four groups of locations where overpressure protection is needed are identified: compressor stations; gas holders, pipelines, and all facilities that might at times be bottle-tight; high pressure distribution systems; and low pressure distribution systems.

  12. Patient safety culture in two Finnish state-run forensic psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, Anssi; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Eronen, Markku; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture refers to the way patient safety is regarded and implemented within an organization and the structures and procedures in place to support this. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient safety culture, identify areas for improvement, and establish a baseline for improving state hospitals in Finland. Cross-sectional design data were collected from two state-run forensic hospitals in Finland using an anonymous, Web-based survey targeted to hospital staff based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The response rate was 43% (n = 283). The overall patient safety level was rated as excellent or very good by 58% of respondents. The highest positive grade was for "teamwork within units" (72%). The lowest rating was for "nonpunitive response to errors" (26% positive). Good opportunities for supplementary education had a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on 9 of 12 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture dimensions. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in patient safety culture were also found in the staff's educational background, manager status, and between the two hospitals. These findings suggest there are a number of patient safety problems related to cultural dimensions. Supplementary education was shown to be a highly significant factor in transforming patient safety culture and should therefore be taken into account alongside sufficient resources.

  13. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  14. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  15. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process.

  16. Safety and Environmental Regulation in Industrial Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    water program, the Federal water-pollution control program, registra- tion and regulation of pesticides , and radiation-protection stand- ards. Through... damage and health-and-safety issues were serious enough to receive national attention and resulted in legislation to bring about change. Particular...COSTS H ISTORICALLY, EPA REGULATIONS HAVE BEEN AIMED at industries whose processes have the potential for major environmen- tal damage . These industries

  17. Ways of regulating one's drinking: a factor analysis of a Finnish general population sample.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, Petri; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja

    2012-11-01

    This article studies the various ways of regulating drinking used by Finns and how these vary between men and women, and in different groups of age, educational attainment and alcohol consumption. The data consist of a cross-section of survey data collected in Finland in 2005. The response rate was 53%. The analysis was restricted to respondents who had used alcohol in the last 12 months and were between 15 and 71 years of age (n = 1013). A factor analysis was performed to discover underlying dimensions in the ways of regulation. In order to study the relationship between the ways of regulation and drinking habits, correlations and regression analyses were used. The ways of regulating one's drinking extracted to three factors which were named self-control, social control and external control. Self-control was the most common way of regulation. Stronger reliance on external control of drinking increased the probability of heavy alcohol use. These survey results indicate that external control of drinking, for example the restriction of availability of alcohol, could have a greater impact on heavy drinking than on moderate drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... titled: ``Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations'' seeking comments on the need for...

  19. Finnish discourses of the stakeholders on development of the implementation of EU legislation concerned with occupational safety and health in computer work.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    The overall research objective was to empirically develop the ideas around a system of occupational safety and health (OSH) practices in visual display unit (VDU) work, to describe their relationship with the OSH legislation and to explore how these best practices work to achieve positive results. The aim of the present study was to explore qualitative perceptions of the stakeholders (Finnish Employers' Associations, Employees Organizations and OSH Governmental Inspectorates) concerning the way that the OSH legislation on VDU work is being applied at work. Many stakeholders claim that technological advances require that in OSH the VDU legislation should be updated, especially that it should be clarified, e.g., when does the VDU worker have the right to obtain special eyeglasses needed for VDU work. Many stakeholders believe that additional guidelines concerning practical ergonomic arrangements in VDU work environment and eyeglasses of the VDU workers are needed. In VDU ergonomics, the co-operation between workplace and occupational health care professionals needs to be developed.

  20. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations. 176.4 Section 176.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... General § 176.4 Port security and safety regulations. (a) Each carrier, master, agent, and charterer of...

  1. Safety and Environmental Regulation in Industrial Mobilization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    1. OSHA and EPA: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. 9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ..............9 The Environmental Protection...quotes underscore the need for a comprehensive review of the impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Occupational Safety and Health...and Tomorrow THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION O N DECEMBER 29, 1970, THE CONGRESS ENACTED Public Law91-576, the Occupational Safety and

  2. Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

  3. 78 FR 11092 - Safety and Health Regulations for Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LABOR DEPARTMENT Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, revised as of July 1,...

  4. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  5. Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends

    SciTech Connect

    DeLooper, J.

    1994-07-01

    This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion`s safety and environmental potential.

  6. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  7. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  8. Youth Camp Safety & Health. Suggested State Statute & Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    To assist state regulatory agencies in development of comprehensive youth camp safety programs, this publication contains a brief suggested statute that could be used for initiation or modification of any state's youth camp safety programs and it outlines minimal regulations. Various categories of camps are covered--day, primitive, residential,…

  9. The Finnish "social wilderness"

    Treesearch

    Ville Hallikainen

    2000-01-01

    The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...

  10. Commercial space transportation regulation and its effects on space safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Norman C.; Lang, Derek E.

    1993-09-01

    Safety in space will become an increasingly important issue as the number of foreign space programs grow, and as the U.S. private sector increases its space activities. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is the federal agency responsible, under the Commercial Space launch Act of 1984, with regulation of the U.S. commercial space transportation industry in order to protect public health and safety, and safety of property. This paper discusses how the regulatory and licensing responsibilities of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation influence the safety of private sector launch operations in space. Of particular interest are impacts and benefits for commercial space services providers resulting from the government's safety research and technical safety evaluations.

  11. A comparison of some Mexican/U.S. safety regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bunner, W.R.

    1994-12-31

    In the US, safety and hygiene began to be enforced broadly with the formation of the US Department of Labor`s, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. In Mexico, the 1917 Constitution required companies to protect their workers against safety and hygiene hazards in the workplace. Additional requirements were added with the Federal Labor Law of 1931. General safety and hygiene regulations were added in 1934. Modern-day federal labor law in Mexico requires the creation of mixed safety and hygiene commissions in all industries. However, only about 114,000 workplaces have registered mixed commissions. In a similar vein, the most favored OSHA reform bill in the US proposes to require safety and health committees in all work places. At this time such committees are common in larger companies but not in smaller ones.

  12. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  13. Regulator Loss Functions and Hierarchical Modeling for Safety Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Baugh, Christine M; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2017-07-01

    Regulators must act to protect the public when evidence indicates safety problems with medical devices. This requires complex tradeoffs among risks and benefits, which conventional safety surveillance methods do not incorporate. To combine explicit regulator loss functions with statistical evidence on medical device safety signals to improve decision making. In the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample, we select pediatric inpatient admissions and identify adverse medical device events (AMDEs). We fit hierarchical Bayesian models to the annual hospital-level AMDE rates, accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. These models produce expected AMDE rates (a safety target), against which we compare the observed rates in a test year to compute a safety signal. We specify a set of loss functions that quantify the costs and benefits of each action as a function of the safety signal. We integrate the loss functions over the posterior distribution of the safety signal to obtain the posterior (Bayes) risk; the preferred action has the smallest Bayes risk. Using simulation and an analysis of AMDE data, we compare our minimum-risk decisions to a conventional Z score approach for classifying safety signals. The 2 rules produced different actions for nearly half of hospitals (45%). In the simulation, decisions that minimize Bayes risk outperform Z score-based decisions, even when the loss functions or hierarchical models are misspecified. Our method is sensitive to the choice of loss functions; eliciting quantitative inputs to the loss functions from regulators is challenging. A decision-theoretic approach to acting on safety signals is potentially promising but requires careful specification of loss functions in consultation with subject matter experts.

  14. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  15. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1981-08-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards.

  16. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards. PMID:7258443

  17. Safety Management Status among Nurses Handling Anticancer Drugs: Nurse Awareness and Performance Following Safety Regulations.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong Weon; Lee, Bo-Young; Kwon, Myung Soon; Jang, Ji-Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the actual conditions for safe anticancer drug management among nurses and the relationship between level of awareness and performance of anticancer drug safety regulations in terms of preparation, administration, and disposal. The respondents were 236 nurses working with chemotherapy in wards and outpatient clinics in five hospitals in and near Seoul. Safety regulations provided for the anticancer drug the Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA, 1999), as modified for an earlier study, were used. The results showed that the level of awareness and performance on the anticancer drug safety regulations indicate their preparation (3.38±0.55, 2.38±0.98), administration (3.52±0.46, 3.17±0.70), general handling and disposal (3.33±0.54, 2.42±0.90) on a scale 0 to 5. Also, there were significant differences in job positions, work experience, type of preparation, and continuing education and a positive relationship between the level of awareness and nursing performance. Thus, nurses should receive continuing education on the handling of anticancer drugs to improve the level of performance following safety regulations.

  18. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  19. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  20. Noncoding RNA-regulated gain-of-function of STOX2 in Finnish pre-eclamptic families

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Cees BM; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar J.; Thulluru, Hari K.; Mulders, Joyce; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; Sistermans, Erik A.; van Dijk, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The familial forms of early onset pre-eclampsia and related syndromes (HELLP) present with hypertension and proteinuria in the mother and growth restriction of the fetus. Genetically, these clinically similar entities are caused by different founder-dependent, placentally-expressed paralogous genes. All susceptibility genes (STOX1, lincHELLP, INO80B) identified so far are master control genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway, but act at different entry points. Many genes remain to be identified. Here we demonstrate that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) within intron 3 of the STOX2 gene on 4q35.1 acts as a permissive cis-acting regulator of alternative splicing of STOX2. When this lncRNA is mutated or absent, an alternative exon (3B) of STOX2 is included. This introduces a stop codon resulting in the deletion of a highly conserved domain of 64 amino acids in the C-terminal of the STOX2 protein. A mutation present within a regulatory region within intron 1 of STOX2 has the same effect after blocking with CRISPR technology: transcripts with exon 3B are upregulated. This proces appears related to transcriptional control by a chromatin-splicing adaptor complex as described for FGFR2. For STOX2, CHD5, coding for a chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein, qualifies as the chromatin modifier in this process. PMID:27555360

  1. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  2. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    PubMed

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  3. 75 FR 4305 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Chapter III Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Texting by Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory...

  4. Adipose stem cells: biology, safety, regulation, and regenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) biology, describes the current knowledge in the literature for the safety and regulation of ASCs, and provides a brief overview of the regenerative potential of ASCs. It is not an exhaustive listing of all available clinical studies or every study applying ASCs in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but is an objective commentary of these topics.

  5. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Finnish Science and Culture[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

  7. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance...

  9. 76 FR 77121 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11, 1624-AA00 Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area... Coast Guard is establishing both a safety zone and a Regulated Navigation Area on the Chicago Sanitary... this case because the safety zone and regulated navigation area (RNA) established by this rule...

  10. Patient safety culture in acute care: a web-based survey of nurse managers' and registered nurses' views in four Finnish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Hannele; Partanen, Pirjo; Kvist, Tarja; Miettinen, Merja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-12-01

    Nurse managers (NMs) and registered nurses (RNs) have key roles in developing the patient safety culture, as the nursing staff is the largest professional group in health-care services. We explored their views on the patient safety culture in four acute care hospitals in Finland. The data were collected from NMs (n = 109) and RNs (n = 723) by means of a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument and analyzed statistically. Both groups recognized patient safety problems and critically evaluated error-prevention mechanisms in the hospitals. RNs, in particular, estimated the situation more critically. There is a need to develop the patient safety culture of hospitals by discussing openly about them and learning from mistakes and by developing practices and mechanisms to prevent them. NMs have central roles in developing the safety culture at the system level in hospitals in order to ensure that nurses caring for patients do it safely.

  11. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  12. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-07

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  13. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  14. 49 CFR 397.2 - Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Federal motor carrier safety regulations. A motor carrier or other person to whom this part is applicable...

  15. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80 Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship... Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repair (APR 2005) Nothing contained in this contract shall...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80 Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship... Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repair (APR 2005) Nothing contained in this contract shall...

  17. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80 Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship... Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repair (APR 2005) Nothing contained in this contract shall...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80 Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship... Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repair (APR 2005) Nothing contained in this contract shall...

  19. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80 Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship... Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repair (APR 2005) Nothing contained in this contract shall...

  20. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  1. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  2. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  3. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  4. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... Israni by phone at 202-366-4571 or by e-mail at Mike.Israni@dot.gov . For all other information contact... regulate all smaller-diameter (less than 8\\5/8\\-inches diameter) rural low-stress pipelines located in...

  5. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... . For all other information contact Tewabe Asebe by phone at 202-366-4595 or by e-mail at tewabe.asebe... regulate all remaining rural low-stress pipelines (i.e., smaller-diameter--less than 8 \\5/8\\...

  6. 76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road Agricultural Equipment AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  7. 76 FR 50433 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road Agricultural Equipment AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air...

  9. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show safety zone on Lake Washington, Seattle, WA... enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter or transit this safety zone unless authorized by the Captain...

  10. 78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update special local regulations and permanent safety zones...

  11. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.804 Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. (a) General. Motor carriers and other persons subject to this part must comply...

  12. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.804 Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. Motor carriers and other persons subject to this part must comply with 49...

  13. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  15. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  16. 76 FR 80850 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to update recurring special local regulations and safety zones in the Coast Guard Captain of the Port (COTP) Northern New England Zone for annual recurring marine events. When these special local regulations or safety zones are subject to enforcement, this rule would restrict vessels from portions of water areas during these annual recurring events. The revised special......

  17. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA. 165.1319 Section 165.1319 Navigation and Navigable...

  18. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  19. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice.

  20. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY:...

  1. 76 FR 43604 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines, Correction AGENCY... error in the final rule regarding the compliance date for identifying all segments of a Category 3 low....gov . For all other information contact Tewabe Asebe by phone at 202-366-4595 or by e-mail at...

  2. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1318 Security and Safety Zone Regulations...

  4. Safety Research at Three Finnish Explosives Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    research I have used the idea of the internal control system ( Hovden and Tinmannesvik 1989), which means that the company itself works at getting a...the traditional inspection of the authorities. LITERATURE Hovden , J. and Tinmannsvik, R.K., (1989) Internal control: A strategy for Occupational

  5. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    PubMed

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  6. Effectiveness of Direct Safety Regulations on Manufacturers and Users of Industrial Machines: Its Implications on Industrial Safety Policies in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Heung

    2017-03-01

    Despite considerable efforts made in recent years, the industrial accident rate and the fatality rate in the Republic of Korea are much higher than those in most developed countries in Europe and North America. Industrial safety policies and safety regulations are also known to be ineffective and inefficient in some cases. This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of direct safety regulations such as safety certification, self-declaration of conformity, and safety inspection of industrial machines in the Republic of Korea. Implications on safety policies to restructure the industrial safety system associated with industrial machines are also explored. Analysis of causes in industrial accidents associated with industrial machines confirms that technical causes need to be resolved to reduce both the frequency and the severity of such industrial accidents. Statistical analysis also confirms that the indirect effects of safety device regulation on users are limited for a variety of reasons. Safety device regulation needs to be shifted to complement safety certification and self-declaration of conformity for more balanced direct regulations on manufacturers and users. An example of cost-benefit analysis on conveyor justifies such a transition. Industrial safety policies and regulations associated with industrial machines must be directed towards eliminating the sources of danger at the stage of danger creation, thereby securing the safe industrial machines. Safety inspection further secures the safety of workers at the stage of danger use. The overall balance between such safety regulations is achieved by proper distribution of industrial machines subject to such regulations and the intensity of each regulation. Rearrangement of industrial machines subject to safety certification and self-declaration of conformity to include more movable industrial machines and other industrial machines with a high level of danger is also suggested.

  7. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... regulation is necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential... approving a source for production of a critical safety item. No comments from small entities were...

  8. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that.... Facilities, infrastructure, and equipment shall be inspected prior to use to ensure safety and...

  9. 75 FR 66683 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act of 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that are intended... Requirements, to add section 246.270, Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for...

  10. [On meeting sanitary legal requirements in technical regulation of medical equipment safety].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K; Prokopenko, L V

    2007-01-01

    The article covered observance of sanitary legal requirements in special technical regulations "On requirements to medical equipment and medical products safety". The authors discussed problems of applied terminology, classification of medical products, occupational risk, control over observance of safety requirements on all stages of medical products circulation--design, production, usage.

  11. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Costs. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Costs and Cost Impacts of Marine Safety Regulations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD A09b 313 PHC SYSTEMS SERVICES Co MELEAN VA F/S S/4 L COM’MERCIAL VESSEL SAFETY. ECONOMIC COSTS. APPENDIX A. ESTXMATIO--ETC(U) DEC 79 C A CROOK, h...2ROCEDURES FOR QOSTS AND POST IMPACTS OF MARINE SAFETY REGULATIONS. " /..lanning Research Corporation Systems Services Company 7600 Old Springhouse...Research Corporation Systems Services Company 11. Con,.e’. o . 7600 Old Springhouse Road DOT-CG, 351-A McLean, VA 22102 13. Tlp. of Rep., end Peried

  12. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  13. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  14. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  15. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  16. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  17. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  18. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  19. Complying with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations: a guide for compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Nain, John

    2013-01-01

    In the compounding pharmacy, compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations is essential to protect employees and customers from exposure to hazardous substances and a dangerous environment, to avert heavy fines and penalties levied for noncompliance, and to fulfill the moral obligation of pharmacists to do no harm. Without adequate vigilance, compounders are vulnerable to lapses in adherence to Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the results of which can be dire in a climate of increased scrutiny about the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical compounding. Proactively addressing necessary compliance with essential safety regulations can only benefit compounders and their staff and clients, and guidance from an expert in Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements can be a key factor in accomplishing that goal.

  20. 78 FR 32990 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the... Alcatraz Island. (77 FR 41902) The special local regulation and safety zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the 34th America's...

  1. Regulating Space Assets Safety - China's Experience and Lex Ferenda of International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    With advantages of the fast development of space activities, the world witnesses more and more accidents and disasters relating to the space assets causing tremendous loss. No one can guarantee that the American and Russian satellites collision happened 2009 will never happen again. The regulations governing the space assets safety are inadequate both nationally and internationally. The further development of commercialization of space activities will give more pressure on the weakness of the already crowded space and of he already inadequate space regulations. As a quick developing space country, China has at least three levels of national regulations relating to space assets safety though the National Space Law will not promulgated in the soon future. All these regulations play very active roles in China's space activities, and may contribute to the future National Space Law. Based on the necessity of national and international regulations of space assets safety, this paper will clarify the status quo of China's regulations relating to the space assets safety, and explore the legal basis and possibility of international cooperation on space assets safety.

  2. Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5-year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction…

  3. Finnish radon situation analysed using national measurement database.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Mäkeläinen, I; Reisbacka, H; Arvela, H

    2011-05-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains the national indoor radon measurement database in Finland. The analysis of the database material supplements information on radon situation collected by random sampling surveys. The 92,000 dwellings in the database are not a representative sample of the Finnish housing stock. However, the bias is compensated by calculating radon parameters in 1-km(2) cells and weighting the cells by the number of dwellings in the cell. Both the database material and a recent random sampling survey show that radon concentrations in new Finnish houses have been decreasing since the 1990s. This positive trend is clearly stronger in radon-prone areas where preventive measures are nowadays commonly implemented in new construction. The changeover to mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation together with the increase in crawl-space foundations has also contributed to the decrease in the concentrations.

  4. Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lundén, Janne; Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel.

  5. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    Regulation Summary Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a hazardous fuel frequently shipped in large tankers to U.S. ports from overseas. While LNG has... gas (LNG) has long played a role in U.S. energy markets, but concerns about rising natural gas prices, current price volatility, and the possibility of...changes in U.S. energy policy legislation to reduce the nation’s demand for natural gas . Scope and Limitations This report focuses on industry and

  6. Violations of pesticide use and worker safety regulations in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Buhler, W G; Langley, R L; Luginbuhl, R C; Jones, J P; Burnette, J W

    2007-04-01

    In North Carolina, responsibility for providing training and enforcing various regulations related to pesticide use and agricultural worker safety rests with three state agencies. This article summarizes an 11-year history of enforcement procedures concerning agricultural pesticide use, the Worker Protection Standard, the Hazard Communication Standard, the Migrant Housing Act of North Carolina, and field sanitation standards. The difficulty of linking specific types of violations with worker safety is discussed.

  7. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  8. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cross-border reproductive care: quality and safety challenges for the regulator.

    PubMed

    Davies, Trish

    2010-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is increasing and poses legal, ethical, and moral challenges, not least for the organizations that regulate IVF. Fertility treatment in the U.K. is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which has focused on providing comprehensive information for people seeking CBRC, the standards of quality and safety they should expect, and issues of donor anonymity, surrogacy, multiple births, and PGD.

  10. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  11. Safety regulation for the design approval of special form radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woon-Kap

    2009-01-01

    Several kinds of special form radioactive sources for industrial, medical applications are being produced in Korea. Special form radioactive sources should meet strict safety requirements specified in the domestic safety regulations and the design of the sources should be certified by the regulatory authority, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Several safety tests such as impact, percussion, heating, and leak tests are performed on the sources according to the domestic regulations and the international safety standards such as ANSI N542-1977 and ISO 2919-1999(E). As a regulatory expert body, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) assesses various types of application documents, such as safety analysis report, quality assurance program, and other documents evidencing fulfillment of requirements for design approval of the special form radioactive sources, submitted by a legal person who intends to produce special form radioactive sources and then reports the assessment result to MEST. A design approval certificate is issued to the applicant by MEST on the basis of a technical evaluation report presented by KINS.

  12. 78 FR 29629 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is issuing a final rule that revises the...

  13. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.

  14. 77 FR 59818 - Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...This final rule makes technical corrections throughout title 49 CFR subtitle B, chapter III. The Agency is making minor editorial changes to add revised delegations of authority from the Secretary of Transportation (Secretary), correct errors and omissions, and improve clarity. This rule does not make any substantive changes to the affected parts of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs).

  15. 77 FR 27621 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast... local regulations and a safety zone in the Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War of... life on navigable waters before, during, and after War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations events...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA. 165.1319 Section 165.1319 Navigation and Navigable..., Seattle, WA. (a) Enforcement period. This section will be enforced annually during the last week in July...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA. 165.1319 Section 165.1319 Navigation and Navigable..., Seattle, WA. (a) Enforcement period. This section will be enforced annually during the last week in July...

  18. Coast Guard Regulations Applied to Offshore Drilling. Module SH-45. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on Coast Guard regulations applied to offshore drilling is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents requirements that apply to the design, construction, equipment, inspection, and operation of offshore drilling units. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  19. Employers' awareness and compliance with occupational health and safety regulations in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, S C; Lee, C C; Shiao, J S; Guo, Y L

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of employers' awareness and compliance with occupational health and safety (OHS) regulations was conducted in a representative group of employers randomly selected from the manufacturing industry in Taiwan. A total of 1,003 employers were interviewed by trained public health personnel. Ten questions related to perceptions of general OHS and five practices on OHS regulations were measured. The results of this study show that the employers were better aware of their responsibility for posting safety warnings, personal protection and providing safety and health equipment. They were less aware of their responsibility in minimizing injuries and accidents in the workplace and in not hiring someone who was found unfit for a certain job from pre-employment physical examination. Less than half of employers knew about regulations of environmental monitoring and even fewer had heard of Material Safety Data Sheets. Level of education and size of the plant were highly associated with employers' awareness of OHS and the awareness was the most significant predictor in the five practices of OHS regulations in this study. Promotion of employers' awareness of OHS in small sized industries in particular, is warranted to enhance better compliance, and a focus for these efforts is identified by this investigation.

  20. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas (LNG... deepwater port operations, and protect liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGCs) and deepwater port... natural gas carriers at one time. Neptune's operator plans to offload LNGCs by regasifying the...

  1. 78 FR 42012 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule with... the regulatory text of the Safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms ACOE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CSSC Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal CFR...

  2. 77 FR 22706 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the ``America's Cup Finals Match'' sailing regattas that may be conducted in the waters of San Francisco Bay... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's...

  3. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  4. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  5. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  6. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…

  7. Medical English for Finnish Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Collan, Y.; Lock, S. P.; Pyke, D. A.; Whimster, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Courses in medical editing and medical English are relatively new and infrequent. We have now provided seven of them for Finnish doctors who wished to publish their work in English, to present papers in English to conferences, to work in English-speaking countries—or who wanted to improve their knowledge of the language. Although such courses should be tailored to individual needs, most participants seem to have found them helpful, particularly the sessions spent in the language laboratories. We suggest that courses in medical English might be useful for both medical students and postgraduate doctors outside English-speaking countries. PMID:4821015

  8. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  9. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  10. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  11. Industrial responses to constrained OSHA regulation. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D H

    2000-01-01

    As part of the effort to reduce the size and economic impact of the federal establishment, congressional conservatives are proposing legislation to restrict the regulatory activity of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). These proposals push OSHA toward a purely consultative role, at a corresponding cost in direct regulatory capability. The Clinton administration's reinvention of government initiative is also moving OSHA toward a consultative role based on a strategy of cooperative compliance or industry self-regulation with a strong coercive foundation. Since both camps appear to agree that self-regulation can assure a safe and healthy workplace, the remaining debate concerns the extent to which coercive regulation is still needed. National survey data on the industrial provision of occupational safety and health services in the manufacturing sector were used to measure changes in industrial safety and health activity between 1972-74 and 1981-83. In conjunction with data on OSHA command-and-control regulatory activity from 1972 to 1979, these data permitted an examination of the relationship between command-and-control regulatory activities and changes in industrial behavior that could be regarded as a form of self-regulation. This analysis showed that coercive regulation by OSHA in the 1970s was significantly related to industry self-regulation efforts, although the relationship varied by industrial facility employment size and type of regulatory coercion. These results indicate that coercive regulation should be retained as an industrial incentive in any self-regulation policy paradigm. The results also provide evidence that OSHA regulatory policy should be based on anticipated differences in industrial response to various coercive measures.

  12. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  13. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  14. Preparing Safety Cases for Operating Outside Prescriptive Fatigue Risk Management Regulations.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; Mangie, Jim; Wu, Lora; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, Leigh; Phillips, Adrienne

    2017-07-01

    Transport operators seeking to operate outside prescriptive fatigue management regulations are typically required to present a safety case justifying how they will manage the associated risk. This paper details a method for constructing a successful safety case. The method includes four elements: 1) scope (prescriptive rules and operations affected); 2) risk assessment; 3) risk mitigation strategies; and 4) monitoring ongoing risk. A successful safety case illustrates this method. It enables landing pilots in 3-pilot crews to choose the second or third in-flight rest break, rather than the regulatory requirement to take the third break. Scope was defined using a month of scheduled flights that would be covered (N = 4151). These were analyzed in the risk assessment using existing literature on factors affecting fatigue to estimate the maximum time awake at top of descent and sleep opportunities in each break. Additionally, limited data collected before the new regulations showed that pilots flying at landing chose the third break on only 6% of flights. A prospective survey comparing subjective reports (N = 280) of sleep in the second vs. third break and fatigue and sleepiness ratings at top of descent confirmed that the third break is not consistently superior. The safety case also summarized established systems for fatigue monitoring, risk assessment and hazard identification, and multiple fatigue mitigation strategies that are in place. Other successful safety cases have used this method. The evidence required depends on the expected level of risk and should evolve as experience with fatigue risk management systems builds.Gander P, Mangie J, Wu L, van den Berg M, Signal L, Phillips A. Preparing safety cases for operating outside prescriptive fatigue risk management regulations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):688-696.

  15. Evaluation of Design Assurance Regulations for Safety of Space Navigation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, B.; Sarno, M.; De Andreis, C.

    2005-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), the European Community (EC), and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) are contributing to the development of a Global positioning and Navigation Satellite System, known as GNSS. The development programme is carried out in two main steps:• GNSS-1: the first-generation system, based on signals received from the GPS (USA) and GLONASS (Russia) constellations, and augmentation systems like EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service)• GNSS-2: the second-generation system, that will achieve the ultimate objective of European sovereignty for position determination, navigation and time dissemination. This system, named Galileo, comprises a global space and ground control infrastructure.The Galileo navigation signal will be used in the frame of safety-critical transport applications, thus it is necessary to assess the space safety assurance activity against the civil safety regulations and safety management system.. RTCA DO-254 and IEC 61508 standards, considered as part of best practice engineering references, for the development of safety- related systems in most applications, were selected during phases B2 and C0 of the Galileo project for this purpose.

  16. Nanotherapeutics: new challenges for safety and cost-effectiveness regulation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-02-19

    Nanotechnology is a revolutionary field of micro-manufacturing involving manipulation, by chemical or physical processes, of individual atoms and molecules. Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers, both in Australia and internationally, have significant investments in nanotechnology research and development. It is important that safety regulation of nanotherapeutics keep pace with this growing level of industry interest. A recent senate inquiry recommended the establishment of a working party, including representatives of the Therapeutic Goods Administration, to consider whether bulk materials classified as safe should be routinely reassessed for use at the nanoscale level by a permanent, distinct nanotechnology regulator. Safety regulation of nanotherapeutics may present unique risk assessment challenges, given the novelty and variety of products, high mobility and reactivity of engineered nanoparticles, and blurring of the diagnostic and therapeutic classifications of "medicines" and "medical devices". Nanotherapeutics is likely to make increasing claims on a particular area of Australian health care regulatory strength: scientific cost-effectiveness assessment of innovation in medical products. Any review of Australian regulation of nanotechnology should include a critical analysis of both safety issues and cost-effectiveness assessment systems for nanotherapeutics.

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  18. An Overview of Seafood Supply, Food Safety and Regulation in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Malik A.; Saputra, Themy; Szabo, Elizabeth A.; Nelan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012–2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW. Most of the outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 were related to ciguatera poisoning. The regulation of the seafood industry and the management of food safety is an example of the coordinated work of multiple government agencies and organizations in which NSW Food Authority is responsible for managing the overall risks through the Seafood Safety Scheme. Overall, seafood supply in NSW is of high quality and poses low food safety risk to consumers. PMID:28753923

  19. Research on online safety precaution technology of a high-medium pressure gas regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Xuhai; Li, Xiaxi; Zhao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    In view of some of the characteristics of a high-medium pressure gas regulator, such as small fault samples, many fault types and complex fault features etc, in order to improve the accuracy of fault precaution in this paper, a fault diagnosis method based on the combination of the improved wavelet packet and pressure harmonic distortion rate is proposed. On the basis of the harmonic distortion rate of the outlet pressure and the energy value of each frequency band obtained by improved wavelet packet decomposition, the rules for fault data were summarized. Finally, a safety precaution model of the high-medium pressure gas regulator is established.

  20. Normalization of Explosives Safety Regulations Between U.S. Navy and Australian Defence Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    of the host nation, unless the U.S. has control of the real estate, as under a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA); in the later case, the Navy...past two years to reach a consensus on the normalization of explosives safety regulations. This effort has demonstrated that the Australian...Operations (CNO) submitted a request to the DDESB in December 2009, for USN ships, as well as USN and USMC aircraft, to operate in Australia under

  1. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.

  2. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  3. The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies.

    PubMed

    Varonen, U; Mattila, M

    2000-11-01

    Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived by workers and the correlations between the safety climate, on the one hand, and the safety practices of the company, the safety level of the work environment and occupational accidents on the other. The variables used in this study were the same as those employed in two previous Finnish safety climate studies carried out in the plywood industry, shipyards, the forestry industry, building construction and stevedoring. The safety climate was measured by means of a questionnaire. Workers from four sawmills, two plywood factories and two parquet plants participated. The total number of participants was 508 in 1990 and 548 in 1993. The variables formed four factors, whose contents and reliabilities closely resembled the results obtained in the earlier studies. These results indicate that the structure of the safety climate among Finnish workers is quite stable. The safety climate correlated both with the safety level of the work environment and with the safety practices of the company, but the correlation between the safety climate and the safety of the work environment was stronger. This result differs from those of the previous studies, in which the safety climate was defined specifically in terms of an individual's perceptions of the safety practices of the company and of the behavior of other employees. The two safety climate factors that described a company's attitudes to safety and its safety precautions correlated with the accident rates. The better the safety climate of the company was, the lower was the accident rate. Four companies with an accident rate below the average for the wood

  4. 48 CFR 3052.217-99 - Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). 3052.217-99 Section 3052.217-99 Federal Acquisition... Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance... Health Regulations for Ship Repair (DEC 2003) Nothing contained in this contract shall relieve the...

  5. 48 CFR 3052.217-99 - Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). 3052.217-99 Section 3052.217-99 Federal Acquisition... Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance... Health Regulations for Ship Repair (DEC 2003) Nothing contained in this contract shall relieve the...

  6. 48 CFR 3052.217-99 - Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). 3052.217-99 Section 3052.217-99 Federal Acquisition... Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance... Health Regulations for Ship Repair (DEC 2003) Nothing contained in this contract shall relieve the...

  7. 48 CFR 3052.217-99 - Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). 3052.217-99 Section 3052.217-99 Federal Acquisition... Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance... Health Regulations for Ship Repair (DEC 2003) Nothing contained in this contract shall relieve the...

  8. 48 CFR 3052.217-99 - Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). 3052.217-99 Section 3052.217-99 Federal Acquisition... Department of Labor safety and health regulations for ship repairing (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance... Health Regulations for Ship Repair (DEC 2003) Nothing contained in this contract shall relieve the...

  9. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  10. Have government regulations improved workplace safety? A test of the asynchronous regulatory effects in China's coal industry, 1995-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.P.

    2009-07-01

    Empirical studies on the effectiveness of workplace safety regulations are inconclusive. This study hypothesizes that the asynchronous effects of safety regulations occur because regulations need time to become effective. Safety regulations will work initially by reducing the most serious accidents, and later by improving overall safety performance. The hypothesis is tested by studying a provincial level aggregate panel dataset for China's coal industry using two different models with different sets of dependent variables: a fixed-effects model on mortality rate, which is defined as fatalities per 1,000 employees; and a negative binominal model on the annual number (frequency) of disastrous accidents. Safety regulations can reduce the frequency of disastrous accidents, but have not reduced mortality rate, which represents overall safety performance. Policy recommendations are made, including shifting production from small to large mines through industrial consolidation, improving the safety performance of large mines, addressing consequences of decentralization, and facilitating the implementation of regulations through carrying on institutional actions and supporting legislation.

  11. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  12. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  13. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  14. Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017.

    PubMed

    Klieger, Sarah B; Gutman, Abraham; Allen, Leslie; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott

    2017-07-11

    (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on 1 February 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full data sets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (http://www.pdaps.org/; Archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6qv5CZNaZ on 2 June 2017). Twenty-eight states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All states protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources number of dispensaries per state and restricting proximity to various types of location. The federal ban in the United States on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  16. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  17. Changes in labor regulations during economic crises: does deregulation favor health and safety?

    PubMed

    Jhang, Won Gi

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory changes in Korea during the national economic crisis 10 years ago and in the current global recession were analyzed to understand the characteristics of deregulation in labor policies. Data for this study were derived from the Korean government's official database for administrative regulations and a government document reporting deregulation. A great deal of business-friendly deregulation took place during both economic crises. Occupational health and safety were the main targets of deregulation in both periods, and the regulation of employment promotion and vocational training was preserved relatively intact. The sector having to do with working conditions and the on-site welfare of workers was also deregulated greatly during the former economic crisis, but not in the current global recession. Among the three main areas of labor policy, occupational health and safety was most vulnerable to the deregulation in economic crisis of Korea. A probable reason for this is that the impact of deregulation on the health and safety of workers would not be immediately disclosed after the policy change.

  18. Safety and regulation of yeasts used for biocontrol or biopreservation in the food or feed chain.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Ingvar; Melin, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Yeasts have been important components of spontaneous fermentations in food and beverage processing for millennia. More recently, the potential of utilising antagonistic yeasts, e.g. Pichia anomala and Candida spp., for post-harvest biological control of spoilage fungi during storage of plant-derived produce ('biopreservation') has been clearly demonstrated. Although some yeast species are among the safest microorganisms known, several have been reported in opportunistic infections in humans, including P. anomala and bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More research is needed about the dominant pathogenicity and virulence factors in opportunistic yeasts, and whether increased utilisation of biopreservative yeasts in general could contribute to an increased prevalence of yeast infections. The regulatory situation for yeasts used in post-harvest biocontrol is complex and the few products that have reached the market are mainly registered as biological pesticides. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach to safety assessments of microorganisms intentionally added to food or feed, recently launched by the European Food Safety Authority, can lead to more efficient evaluations of new products containing microbial species with a sufficient body of knowledge or long-term experience on their safety. P. anomala is one of several yeast species that have been given QPS status, although the status is restricted to use of this yeast for enzyme and metabolite production purposes. With regard to authorisation of new biopreservative yeasts, we recommend that the possibility to regulate microorganisms for food biopreservation as food additives be considered.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  20. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...

  1. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...

  2. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...

  3. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...

  4. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...

  5. 77 FR 39398 - Safety Zone and Special Local Regulation; 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks and Spectator Viewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... immediately after the fireworks event. This regulation is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the... the event and immediate action is necessary to prevent possible loss of life or property. Also, a... significant effect on the human environment. This rule involves establishment of a temporary safety zone and...

  6. Health promotion in the Finnish shipping industry.

    PubMed

    Saarni, H; Laine, M; Niemi, L; Pentti, J

    2001-01-01

    In autumn 1997 a pilot project was started in Finland to develop methods for promoting the health of sailors. Four Finnish shipping companies, (4 cargo ships and 2 passenger-cruise ferries), with altogether 730 sailors participated in the project. Special attention was paid to individuals with health problems and those who generally did not take care of their own health or fitness. Three-quarters of the respondents saw their health as good and one fifth as fair. Thirty-four persons responded that their working capacity was poor. 154 sailors were selected into further physical fitness evaluations. The main task of the project team was to activate sailors to take care of their own health and well-being. The health-promoting activities were directed especially at those persons who needed it. Information lectures concerning healthier eating habits and meals were given. Anti-smoking and anti-alcohol drinking information was given. On board one cruise ferry a project was started on how to react as early as possible to alcohol abuse among seafarers. Courses on shore for sailors were arranged to improve their physical fitness and to increase their resting benefit between working periods at sea. The intervention time was one year. Information about smoking and alcohol led to reduced alcohol consumption. The sailors had started to exercise more often both on board ship and on shore. Those who had increased their physical exercise during free time more often found their own health and working ability to have improved than those who had not changed their exercise habits. It appeared that health intervention projects are really needed especially by older sailors. The results also showed that positive effects could be achieved in the fitness of sailors. Better fitness was good for their health and also increased the work safety.

  7. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  8. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  9. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  10. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  11. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  12. Stress among Finnish farm entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti

    2008-01-01

    The aims were to examine the prevalence of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs in 2004 (n = 1,182) and to compare the results with those for the general working population in 2003. The second aim was to analyze which factors were associated with the prevalence of stress. A stratified random sample of farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability, were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. Health and extension services should pay special attention to encouraging farm entrepreneurs to maintain their social relationships. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.

  13. How magnetic are Finnish hospitals measured by transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kvist, Tarja; Mäntynen, Raija; Turunen, Hannele; Partanen, Pirjo; Miettinen, Merja; Wolf, Gail A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-01-01

      The overall aim of this study was to examine nurses' and patients' perceptions of the Magnet model components of transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes in four Finnish hospitals and to determine if the evidence for transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes is the same or different in the four hospitals.   This report presents baseline measurements for a longitudinal study of the adaptation of the Magnet model in Finnish hospitals.   Web-based surveys and mailed questionnaires were used in 2008-2009 to collect data from patients (n = 2566) about their satisfaction with care, and from nursing staff about transformational leadership (n = 1151), job satisfaction (n = 2707) and patient safety culture (n = 925) in the selected hospitals.   Awareness of the work of nursing leaders was low. Nurses reported a high level of job satisfaction. Patient safety culture varied considerably between the four hospitals. Patients believed they generally received excellent quality care.   Leadership systems are in transition at the hospitals. Patient safety culture is a complex phenomenon that may be unfamiliar to respondents. The results of the study provide a baseline description to guide the journey toward development of Magnet standards.   Finnish nursing leaders, especially nursing directors, should increase their visibility by working more closely with their staff. They should also pay attention to giving direct feedback about work generally and patient safety issues in particular. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  15. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  16. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  17. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  18. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N; Berry, Sir Colin L; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Creppy, Edmond E; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L; Goodman, Jay I; Gori, Gio B; Greim, Helmut A; Joudrier, Philippe; Kaminski, Norbert E; Klaassen, Curtis D; Klaunig, James E; Lotti, Marcello; Marquardt, Hans W J; Pelkonen, Olavi; Sipes, I Glenn; Wallace, Kendall B; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-14

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks.(1) The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Revocation of General Safety Test Regulations That Are Duplicative of Requirements in Biologics License Applications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations by removing the general safety test (GST) requirements for biological products. FDA is finalizing this action because the existing codified GST regulations are duplicative of requirements that are also specified in biologics license applications (BLAs), or are no longer necessary or appropriate to help ensure the safety, purity, and potency of licensed biological products. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation, in response to the Executive order.

  20. Health, safety, self-regulation and the older driver: it's not just a matter of age.

    PubMed

    Donorfio, Laura K M; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F; Mohyde, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of age and health on patterns of driving and self-regulation among older adults who still drive. This analysis presents the results of a nationwide survey of drivers who are 50+(N=3,824, 53.11% response rate), focusing on questions about the impact of their self-reported health on attitudes toward and self-regulation of driving. The data indicate that as age increases, so too does reported self-regulation of driving, increasing sharply among those ages 70 and older. The data also indicate that respondent's reported confidence in driving and their enjoyment of driving decline as they age. Health status bears a significant relationship with all three of these variables, positively related to confidence in driving skills and to enjoyment in driving, but negatively related to self-regulation reports. As self-reported health declines, respondent's report engages in greater voluntary restrictions of their driving. All too often, the driving decision is linked primarily to chronological age. Analysis done here indicates that age alone is not the best indicator of self-regulation and how older adults change their driving behaviors. This research presents the results of a nationwide survey of 50+ drivers and their self-reported driving, self-regulation behaviors, and health status. Strong support was found for the argument that chronological age is not an adequate measure of self-regulating behaviors and driver safety among those 50+. In particular, it was found that a person's health status and the interaction between age and health are essential considerations in the decisions around self-regulation and driving. People tend to self-regulate more with age, but the effect becomes much more pronounced as health status declines. In the coming years, if older adults can't get to where they want to go and continue to be viable consumers in our national fabric, all industries will eventually suffer. Transportation is a key

  1. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the 'Robens Philosophy' of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961-1974.

    PubMed

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the 'modern' system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos-the 'Robens philosophy'-than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to 'self-regulation' heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated.

  2. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  3. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  4. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  5. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  6. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  7. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  8. Technology Education in the Finnish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamaki, Ari

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 300 technology teachers in Finnish primary schools received 212 responses indicating that woodworking was a predominant activity and the design-based teaching method was most common. Age, education, and experience of teachers was not related to technology-education practice. Familiarity with technological equipment was not considered…

  9. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  10. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  11. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  12. Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Dufva, Hannele

    2001-01-01

    Gives a summary of the theoretical approaches to the role of phonetics and phonology in language learning and teaching as developed by the Finnish-English cross-language project at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Analysis was extended over the chains of connected speech to deal with all the phenomena that give rhythm in speech. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  14. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  15. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  16. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  17. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  18. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  19. Draft Inventory of Finnish Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsila, Tapani, Comp.; And Others

    Media studied in this report include broadcasting (radio and television), press (newspapers and magazines), literature, motion pictures, and sound and video recordings. First, there is an overview of Finnish mass communications on a qualitative level. After this, quantitative data are presented, divided into categories of production and…

  20. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  1. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  2. Self‐Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator‐based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable “nanogelator” that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid‐like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self‐regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium‐, pyrrolidinium‐, or piperidinium‐based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti‐nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes. PMID:27774385

  3. Self-Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator-based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable "nanogelator" that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid-like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self-regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-, or piperidinium-based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti-nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes.

  4. Changes in technical regulations and drivers' safety in top-class motor sports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2007-12-01

    Motor racing is a dangerous sport and an inherently risky activity. The organisers of top-class motor sports championships, Formula One and MotoGP, have agreed on a set of regulations to reduce speed and improve safety over the last 10 years. These changes include limitations in weight, fuel and engine capacity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that most of the restrictions that have been introduced over the past 10 years have failed slow down vehicles, since the lap times have decreased almost linearly from 1995 to 2006 and drivers continue to die or to sustain serious injuries that keep them away from competition. Therefore, new and efficient measures should be adopted, such as lowering the cornering speed, having heavier and safer vehicles, having barriers surrounding the track to protect both spectators and competitors better, and having innovative clothing and protective devices to defend key anatomical structures while minimising the hindrance to the rider.

  5. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination.

  6. Changes in technical regulations and drivers' safety in top‐class motor sports

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2007-01-01

    Motor racing is a dangerous sport and an inherently risky activity. The organisers of top‐class motor sports championships, Formula One and MotoGP, have agreed on a set of regulations to reduce speed and improve safety over the last 10 years. These changes include limitations in weight, fuel and engine capacity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that most of the restrictions that have been introduced over the past 10 years have failed slow down vehicles, since the lap times have decreased almost linearly from 1995 to 2006 and drivers continue to die or to sustain serious injuries that keep them away from competition. Therefore, new and efficient measures should be adopted, such as lowering the cornering speed, having heavier and safer vehicles, having barriers surrounding the track to protect both spectators and competitors better, and having innovative clothing and protective devices to defend key anatomical structures while minimising the hindrance to the rider. PMID:17925386

  7. Obtaining compliance with occupational health and safety regulations: a multilevel study using self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Jonasi, Lorraine; Wild, T Cameron

    2010-08-01

    It was hypothesized that occupational health and safety (OHS) inspectors who prefer to use autonomy supportive tactics to resolve workplace conflicts (e.g. providing rationale, choices) would be more effective in resolving industry non-compliance with OHS regulations, compared to inspectors who prefer to use coercive tactics (e.g. deadlines, pressure). Preferences for resolving work conflicts were collected from 39 Canadian OHS inspectors and were linked to administrative records documenting 17,960 industry inspection episodes and 29,451 compliance orders issued by those inspectors from 2003-2006. Multilevel Poisson and negative binomial regression models examined associations between inspector autonomy-supportiveness and compliance outcomes, adjusting for covariates at the inspector level (e.g. job experience, number of inspection episodes) and at the worksite level (e.g. workplace safety record). Relative to coercive inspectors, autonomy-supportive inspectors issued fewer severe compliance orders and achieved compliance after fewer worksite visits. Use of autonomy-supportive approaches may reduce exposure to preventable injuries at non-compliant worksites.

  8. How changes in drug-safety regulations affect the way drug and biotech companies invest in innovation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Shelby D; Califf, Robert M; Schulman, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the economics of product development resulting from heightened safety regulations could have a sizable negative impact on drug and biotechnology companies' decisions about investing in innovation. We developed a model to compare the potential economic effects of pre- and postmarketing strategies to identify safety problems with new drugs. Although expanding Phase III clinical testing and postmarketing safety surveillance are not perfect substitutes, our findings suggest that even a large increase in funding for the latter will have a relatively small adverse impact on investment decisions by drug companies and venture capital firms, compared with the former.

  9. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  10. Early communication of drug safety concerns: a feasibility study on enhancing interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and regulators.

    PubMed

    Swain, Elizabeth; Morgan, Sarah; Brewster, Wendy; Kauser, Shahin

    2010-03-01

    The responsibility for monitoring the safety of marketed medicines is shared between regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry and is underpinned by legal obligations on both sides. Both marketing authorisation holders (MAHs) and regulators initially evaluate and investigate potential safety concerns, and then work together on further review as appropriate. We wanted to test the feasibility of enhanced interaction between MAH and regulator via a regular monthly, two-way communication of potential safety concerns between the MAHs and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). It was envisaged that such a process would aid prioritisation and planning by both parties, avoid duplication of effort and support a collaborative approach for decision making. Four MAHs took part in the pilot, which was conducted between July 2007 and June 2008. Potential safety concerns were exchanged on a monthly basis. The MAH/MHRA proposed a timeline for evaluation of each potential safety concern. The pilot did not include serious public health issues which are immediately reported to regulatory authorities. During the pilot, 136 potential safety concerns were exchanged. Thirteen per cent of these resulted in a change to product information for health professionals and patients. There was concurrence between the MAHs and MHRA on timelines proposed for evaluation. The pilot proved feasible for the companies involved and indicated potential benefits of a system for avoiding duplication of effort and supporting a collaborative approach to planning and prioritisation of investigation of potential safety concerns between pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.

  11. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  12. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  13. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  14. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms.

  15. New regulations on railroad bridge safety: opportunities and challenges for railroad bridge monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreu, Fernando; LaFave, James M.; Spencer, Billie F.

    2012-04-01

    New federal regulations now mandate North American railroad bridge owners to closely assess the structural capacity of their bridges. Consequently, railroad companies are currently looking into developing and exploring monitoring systems for specific bridges, to help them improve and develop bridge safety in order to help comply with this new rule. The first part of this paper explains the significance of the new federal law. The new rule comes from the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and it falls under the 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 213 and 2371. It requires railroad track owners to know the safe capacity of their bridges and to additionally conduct special inspections if either weather or other exceptional conditions make them necessary to ensure safe railroad bridge operations. The second part of this paper will cover past and current studies about the viability of bridge health monitoring, and actual structural monitoring experiences for railroad bridges. Finally, lessons learned from these monitoring examples, as well as recommendations for future applications, are suggested, including wireless monitoring strategies for railroad bridges such as: campaign sensing inspections (periodic monitoring); bridge replacement observations (short term monitoring); and permanent bridge instrumentation (long term monitoring).

  16. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  17. Nanotechnology research and regulation: A plan to ensure human and environmental safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Anitha

    The influence of nanotechnology spans numerous fields and is increasing rapidly due to the financial and research contributions to the field. The impact of nanotechnologybased products on human health and the environment is far from being understood. Research output related to environmental, health, and safety issues is too slow and far behind developments to address the vast number of types of nanoparticles and new uses being discovered. This thesis summarizes nanotechnology related regulations, applications, and current research related to environmental and human toxicity in order to put into perspective the gaping holes existing in the safe production, use, and disposal of nanotechnology. There were a number of conclusions that were determined following the literature survey of this thesis. There is currently a lack of international cooperation between regulatory agencies and research institutions who are involved with nanotechnology. The only entities that have made regulatory progress include the United States, European Union, and Australia. The toxicological impacts of nanotechnology are not fully understood due to the dearth of research, as well as the absence of testing and measuring infrastructure. Chapter 6 of this thesis proposes an effective and specific research strategy to expedite the creation of enforceable regulations in order to protect the environment, workers, and general public based on the conclusions described in the paragraph above. The strategy outlines the need for the development of an interagency committee, precationary limits, nanomaterial tracer system, nanomaterial data gathering, priority list, funds for toxicity research, and open database to information and materials. The aspects of the outline strategy will ensure the successful and efficient regulation of nanotechnology.

  18. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    PubMed

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  19. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    PubMed Central

    kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; nordén-hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. Results: All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions. PMID:25580175

  20. The (de)politicisation of nuclear power: The Finnish discussion after Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Ylönen, Marja; Litmanen, Tapio; Kojo, Matti; Lindell, Pirita

    2017-04-01

    When the Fukushima accident occurred in March 2011, Finland was at the height of a nuclear renaissance, with the Government's decision-in-principle in 2010 to allow construction of two new nuclear reactors. This article examines the nuclear power debate in Finland after Fukushima. We deploy the concepts of (de)politicisation and hyperpoliticisation in the analysis of articles in the country's main newspaper. Our analysis indicates that Finnish nuclear exceptionalism manifested in the safety-related depoliticising and the nation's prosperity-related hyperpoliticisation arguments of the pro-nuclear camp. The anti-nuclear camp used politicisation strategies, such as economic arguments, to show the unprofitability of nuclear power. The Fukushima accident had a clear effect on Finnish nuclear policy: the government programme of 2011 excluded the nuclear new build. However, in 2014 the majority of Parliament again supported nuclear power. Hence, the period after Fukushima until 2014 could be described as continued but undermined loyalty to nuclear power.

  1. 78 FR 38198 - Safety Zones & Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones for eleven fireworks displays and two swim... these fireworks displays and swim events. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter... Memorial Great South Date: July 12, 2013. Bay Cross Bay Swim. Time: 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: Waters...

  2. 77 FR 38499 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various fireworks displays' and swimming events' safety... these regattas, fireworks displays and swim events. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel... Huntington Bay Open Water Date: July 15, 2012. Championships Swim. Time: 7:15 a.m. to noon. Location:...

  3. 78 FR 41300 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety... Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island... unable to reschedule the event because of its previous history and present advertising of the...

  4. Opinion comparison concerning future information technology in Finnish community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anna Marietta; Hynninen, Jaana Tuulikki; Haikala, Veikko Ewald; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2010-12-01

    To compare the opinions of community pharmacy owners, managers and personnel concerning the key features of the future information technology system needed in Finnish community pharmacies. The study was targeted to the pharmacists working in community pharmacies as managers (owners and staff pharmacists with M.Sc. degree) or personnel responsible for dispensing and patient counselling (pharmacists with B.Sc. degree). A national cross-sectional survey to all of Finnish community pharmacy owners (n = 580) and staff pharmacists (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees, n = 1709) working in community pharmacies, was conducted in order to determine differences in opinions between these occupation groups with different professional duties. The response rates were 53% for pharmacy owners (n = 308) and 22% for staff pharmacists (n = 373). The main outcome measure was the perceived importance of 89 potential features for a new IT system ranked by using a five-point Likert scale. The responding community pharmacy managers and staff pharmacists had differences in their ranking of more than half (52%) of the potential features listed in the survey questionnaire. The features related to the pharmacy's internal processes, such as financial management, sales and marketing management and stock holding, were ranked significantly higher by the managers, while the personnel prioritized the features supporting pharmaceutical service provision and personnel management. The managers and personnel shared their opinion on the importance of features supporting drug information and patient counselling, medication safety and interprofessional collaboration. The managers and staff pharmacists have different views of the importance of IT features, reflecting their different professional duties in the community pharmacy. A high priority was given for the features familiar to the users and needed in their daily practice. This indicates the need for involving different occupation groups in planning the new IT

  5. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards their role in the euthanasia process.

    PubMed

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Gastmans, Chris; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Nurses' voices remain unheard in most debates about euthanasia, although their crucial role in the euthanasia process is widely acknowledged. Moreover, in Canadian euthanasia law, nurses have a more active role, which further highlights the need for knowledge about nurses' attitudes towards their role in the euthanasia process. What are Finnish nurses' attitudes towards their potential role in the euthanasia process? Which characteristics are associated with those attitudes? Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants and research context: 1003 nurses, recruited via social media and the members' bulletin of the Finnish Nurses Association. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Research Ethics of the university to which the first author was affiliated. The great majority (85.2%) of nurses felt that their perspective should be considered in decision-making related to euthanasia. Furthermore, most of the participants (74.7%) reported willingness to participate in the euthanasia process if it were legal, and 88.6% agreed that a nurse should be present when euthanasia is performed if the patient wishes so. Furthermore, over half agreed that some of the preparatory tasks were part of their job description. However, a minority (32.9%) agreed with a possible obligation to participate based on their profession. Nurses' age, religiosity and educational level influenced their attitudes in the current results. Despite the strong agreement on decision-making concerning euthanasia and participation in the euthanasia process, obligation to participate based on the profession was rejected by most participants. Nurses regarded themselves as consultants in the decision-making process, which may indicate their unwillingness to share the responsibility for the decision itself. Specific safety mechanisms should be considered to protect nurses who refuse to be involved in the euthanasia process due to harm that involuntary participation might

  6. Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and a substantial tsunami struck off the northeast coast of Japan. The Fukushima nuclear power plants were inundated and stricken, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Provisional regulation values for radioactivity in food and drink were set on 17 March and were adopted from the preset index values, except that for radioiodines in water and milk ingested by infants. For radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and transuranic α emitters, index values were defined in all food and drink not to exceed a committed effective dose of 5 mSv/year. Index values for radioiodines were defined not to exceed a committed equivalent dose to the thyroid of 50 mSv/year, and set in water, milk and some vegetables, but not in other foodstuffs. Index values were calculated as radioactive concentrations of indicator radionuclides ((131)I for radioiodines, (134)Cs and (137)Cs for radiocesiums) by postulating the relative radioactive concentration of coexisting radionuclides (e.g., (132)I, (133)I, (134)I, (135)I and (132)Te for (131)I). Surveys were thence conducted to monitor levels of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Provisional regulation values were exceeded in tap water, raw milk and some vegetables, and restrictions on distribution and consumption began on 21 March. Fish contaminated with radioiodines at levels of concern were then detected, so that the provisional regulation value for radioiodines in seafood adopted from that in vegetables were additionally set on 5 April. Overall, restrictions started within 25 days after the first excess in each food or drink item, and maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg for (131)I, and a total of 82,000 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs). This paper focuses on the logic behind such food safety regulations, and discusses its underlying issues. The outlines of the food monitoring results for 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions will also be described

  7. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable.

  8. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Safety Zones (Part 100.1306). CGD13-08-018 Umpqua River, OR......... Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 2/15.../2008 USCG-2008-0948 Shark River Channel, NJ.. Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/3/2008 USCG-2008-0981...).... 12/29/2008 USCG-2008-1246 Hood River, OR Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 7/9/2009 USCG-2008-1246 Hood...

  9. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  10. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (p<0.0001), 23.13% felt raising e-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation.

  11. Injury deaths among Finnish residents travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The increasing international mobility raises the possibility of foreign nationals dying abroad. Here, a descriptive, retrospective and population-based study of deaths abroad among Finnish residents from 1969 to 2007 is presented. The data were collected from the Statistics Finland data based on certificates of cause of death issued after repatriation of the corpse and after review of medical documents or a medico-legal autopsy. The frequency of injury deaths, proportional mortality rates (PMRs) and mortality risk estimates (MREs) were measured. During the study period, 6894 Finnish residents died abroad. Spain, Sweden and Thailand were the top three destination countries for number of deaths, accounting together for 40.3% of all the deaths. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of deaths. The overall injury deaths represented 26.7% of all deaths abroad and occurred at a higher proportion than in Finland (PMR: 3.3). The most common injury deaths were traffic accident and drowning, which together represented more than 50% of all unintentional injury deaths. High PMRs were found for traffic accidents in Russia, Germany and the US and for drowning in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. The MRE for injury deaths was 73.5 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Finnish travellers abroad are a population subgroup with a high risk of injury death. Common travel health interventions must be backed by actions to prevent injuries abroad, particularly traffic accident and drowning.

  12. Safety and efficacy of fertility-regulating methods: a decade of research.

    PubMed Central

    Skegg, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    An international venture was launched in 1985 to fill a recognized gap in post-marketing surveillance of fertility-regulating methods. For this purpose a new task force was set up by the Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, which is cosponsored by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and WHO. Research priorities were chosen and epidemiological studies inaugurated, involving a total of 47 countries--mostly from the developing world. Important progress has been made, especially in helping to define the beneficial and possible adverse effects of oral contraceptives on the risk of neoplasia; in showing that the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate protects against endometrial cancer and does not increase the overall risk of breast cancer, in clarifying which groups of women are susceptible to the rare cardiovascular complications of oral contraceptives (myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism); and in establishing the long-term effectiveness and safety of intrauterine devices. The research has already made a significant impact on family planning policies and practice. Critical appraisal of this venture, which has been modestly funded, confirms the value of mission-oriented research. It also illustrates the potential of collaboration that bridges the global divide between developing and developed countries. PMID:10534894

  13. Finnish Trauma Audit 2004: current state of trauma management in Finnish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Handolin, L; Leppäniemi, A; Vihtonen, K; Lakovaara, M; Lindahl, J

    2006-07-01

    There is great variation in the organisation of trauma care in European countries. The state of trauma care in Finnish hospitals has not been appropriately reviewed in the past. The aim of the present study conducted by the Finnish Trauma Association (FTA) was to assess the number of Finnish hospitals admitting severe trauma patients, and to evaluate the organisation and training of trauma care in those hospitals. In 2004, a telephone survey to all the Finnish hospitals was conducted, and information on the number of severe trauma patients treated per month, the organisation of acute trauma care, and the existence of multidisciplinary trauma care training was collected. Thirty-six Finnish hospitals admitted trauma patients. The range of estimated number of severely injured trauma patients treated in individual hospitals per month varied from 0.5 to 12, resulting in an estimated number of 1000-1300 patients with severe trauma treated in Finland every year (19-25/100.000 inhabitants). About 20% of the hospitals had a trauma team, and 25% had a systematic trauma education program. Only one hospital had established multidisciplinary and systematic trauma team training. The case load of severe trauma patients is low in most Finnish hospitals making it difficult to obtain and maintain sufficient experience. Too many hospitals admit too few patients, and only a few hospitals have been working on updating their trauma management protocols and education. There is an obvious need for leadership, discussion, legislation and initiatives by the professional organisations and the government to establish a modern trauma system in Finland.

  14. Global Space Safety Regulations and Standards: The Conflicting Perspectives of the 'Merchants', the 'Guardians' and the 'Civilian' Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2010-09-01

    This article seek to explore the difference in viewpoint and approach to space safety that is now developing with regard to those that wish to exploit space commercially(i.e. the Merchants) versus those that see space as an extension of national defense and area of strategic interest(i.e. the Guardians), and those that pursue space as an area of civil governmental activity and oversight(i.e. the Civil Space Advocates ).1 These “actors” in the field of space and the key “definers” of space policy in future decades often see the purpose and goals related to outer space activities in fundamentally different ways. They also have quite different views as to how best to regulate and develop space safety standards and practices. With the recent shift in U.S. space policy toward commercial human flight development these issues become of even greater import to the future of space safety development and its regulation. New technological, political, defense and economic opportunities may well likely lead to increasing conflicts over best forms of management practices, appropriate regulations and standards, best ways to finance and implement new space initiatives, and even the best way to establish priorities for new projects and initiatives. This article seeks to analyze in some detail the differences in perspective and approach for all three types of actors in the field of space safety.

  15. A Response to Proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Regulations on Employer-Sponsored Health, Safety, and Well-Being Initiatives.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify areas of consensus in response to proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 regulations on employer-sponsored health, safety, and well-being initiatives. The consensus process included review of existing and proposed regulations, identification of key areas where consensus is needed, and a methodical consensus-building process. Stakeholders representing employees, employers, consulting organizations, and wellness providers reached consensus around five areas, including adequate privacy notice on how medical data are collected, used, and protected; effective, equitable use of inducements that influence participation in programs; observance of reasonable alternative standards; what constitutes reasonably designed programs; and the need for greater congruence between federal agency regulations. Employee health and well-being initiatives that are in accord with federal regulations are comprehensive, evidence-based, and are construed as voluntary by employees and regulators alike.

  16. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  17. Safety assessment of a novel active ingredient, acetyl aspartic acid, according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Daly, P; Moran, G

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was proposed as a new novel active ingredient for use in cosmetics. The safety of A-A-A was assessed by following an in-house-developed 'New Ingredient Testing Strategy', which was designed in accordance with the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) notes of guidance and the requirements of Annex I of the EU Cosmetics Regulation. The aim of the project was to determine whether A-A-A was safe for use in cosmetics and to determine a maximum permitted safe level in the formulations. A literature review was conducted, consulting over 40 different information sources. This highlighted a number of gaps which required testing data. A-A-A was tested for phototoxicity according to OECD test guideline 432, skin irritation according to OECD test guideline 439 and eye irritation according to OECD test guideline 437. Dermal absorption of A-A-A was measured according to OECD test guideline 428 and was used to calculate the margin of safety (MoS). Finally, A-A-A was tested in a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and a 14-day in-use tolerance study. A-A-A was non-phototoxic and was non-irritating to skin and eyes in in vitro testing. Dermal absorption was calculated to be 5%. The MoS for A-A-A was 351, at a level of 5%, for all cosmetic product types, indicating no systemic safety toxicity concern. A-A-A at 5% under occlusive patch on a panel of 50 adult volunteers induced no skin irritation or allergic reaction in the HRIPT study. Finally, repeated application of A-A-A to the periocular area, twice per day for 14 days, in 21 female volunteers, demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated following dermatological and ophthalmological assessment in a cosmetic formulation. A-A-A was assessed as safe by the cosmetic safety assessor for use in cosmetics at a level of 5% in all cosmetic product types, in line with the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Regulation and in accordance with the SCCS notes of guidance. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic

  18. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  19. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  20. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  1. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  2. DEPTH--Developing Professional Thinking for Finnish Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Esa-Matti; Hintikka, Jouni; Karsikas, Arto

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish case contributing to the international DEPTH study was carried out within the Technology Education "NOW!" project at the University of Oulu. Nineteen project teachers participated in the study. The recent revision of the Finnish Basic Education Curriculum with the introduction of the cross-curricular theme "Humans and…

  3. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  4. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  5. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  6. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  7. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  8. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  9. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  10. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  11. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  12. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  13. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  14. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  15. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  16. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  17. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid protein and glucose examinations and tuberculosis:
Will laboratory safety regulations force a change of practice?

    PubMed

    Tormey, William P; O'Hagan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and glucose examinations are usually performed in chemical pathology departments on autoanalysers. Tuberculosis (TB) is a group 3 biological agent under Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament but in the biochemistry laboratory, no extra precautions are taken in its analysis in possible TB cases. The issue of laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens, when tuberculosis infection is in question is addressed in the context of ambiguity in the implementation of current national and international health and safety regulations. Additional protective measures for laboratory staff during the analysis of CSF TB samples should force a change in current laboratory practice and become a regulatory issue under ISO 15189. Annual Mantoux skin test or an interferon-γ release assay for TB should be mandatory for relevant staff. This manuscript addresses the issue of biochemistry laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens when tuberculosis infection is in question in the context of the ambiguity of statutory health and safety regulations.

  19. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... any items being purchased that are critical safety items so that the proper risk-based surveillance... This DFARS case was initiated at the request of the Defense Contract Management Agency so that when DoD requiring activities identify procurements involving critical safety items, the buying activities...

  20. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  1. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  2. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    PubMed

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ∼ε/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (Pω), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in Pω, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and Pω differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in Pω of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels.

  3. Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Finnish Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Kantala, T; Kinnunen, P M; Oristo, S; Jokelainen, P; Vapalahti, O; Maunula, L

    2017-05-01

    We investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Finnish veterinarians engaged in different practice specialties and evaluated the effect of different background factors on HEV exposure by examining total HEV antibodies in samples collected from the participants of the 2009 National Veterinary Congress in Helsinki, Finland. Finnish veterinarians commonly have total HEV antibodies with seroprevalence of 10.2%. Of the non-veterinarians, 5.8% were seropositive. Increasing age was associated with HEV seropositivity, and, surprisingly, the highest HEV seroprevalence (17.8%) among veterinarians was detected among small animal practitioners. Although no positive correlation between swine contacts and HEV seropositivity was found, 22.7% of veterinarians who had had needle stick by a needle that had previously been injected into a pig versus 9.0% of those who had not were seropositive, even though the finding was statistically non-significant (P = 0.07). Our results suggest that, although contact with swine is a known risk factor for HEV infection, the sources of HEV infections are probably numerous, including travelling abroad and possibly also other reservoirs of HEV than pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Cutin composition of five finnish berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

    2006-01-25

    The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains <50% polyester polymer cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.

  5. Viral safety of human plasma-derived medicinal products: impact of regulation requirements.

    PubMed

    Velthove, Karin J; Over, Jan; Abbink, Kristiena; Janssen, Mart P

    2013-07-01

    The viral safety of plasma-derived medicinal products is of paramount importance. This article aims to provide insight into the relative impact of different safety measures on achieving viral safety of finished products, derived from human plasma. Virus removal and/or inactivation during the production process is the most important safety measure, and model-based risk estimates show that with current safety measures, the risk of transmission of known blood-borne pathogens to plasma product recipients is extremely low. However, because the residual risk of virus transmissions is also influenced by the incidence rate of infection in the donor population, it makes sense to control these incidence rates, as well. The current measures are aiming in the right direction, but integration of guidelines is required to adequately address their common goal: controlling the risk of infectious disease transmission by plasma-derived medicinal products. By integration of guidelines, the combination of various types of safety measures to prevent virus transmission-donor selection, donation screening, quarantining, and virus removal and/or inactivation during production-may be consistently interpreted and adequately assessed.

  6. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".

  7. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  8. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  9. Safety aspects and implications of regulation of probiotic bacteria in food and food supplements.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Klein, Günter

    2008-08-01

    The application of living bacteria as probiotics in food or food supplements requires a careful safety assessment. This review summarizes key issues concerning the safety aspects of bacteria added to particular products marketed for improvement of general health or treatment of (post)infectious symptoms. The bacteria used in such products should be completely safe; however, it can be challenging to provide evidence for absence of all virulence properties. In some cases, virulence factors have been detected in probiotic bacterial strains, and the implications of these traits for safety assessments are discussed. Horizontal gene transfer can result in acquisition of virulence genes or antimicrobial resistance in probiotic bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance in these bacteria can possibly aid the spread of undesired resistance in intestinal bacterial populations. The relative risk of such gene transfers is considered. The generation of complete bacterial genome sequences can both resolve and create safety issues. Current practices of safety assessment procedures in the United States and the European Union are briefly reviewed and a future outlook is provided.

  10. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  11. Preliminary results of Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czobor, A.; Ádám, J.; Mihály, S.; Vass, T.; Parm, T.; Ollikainen, M.

    The Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign was carried out in Finland in August 1983 during 13 days. The campaign was organized by the Finnish Geodetic Institute. Three Hungarian JMR-1A receivers and one Finnish JMR-4 occupied 9 stations together with the 1st order triangulation network points of Finland. The data processing was performed in the Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Penc. The observation strategy, the methods of data processing and results obtained by GEODOP and SADOSA programs as well as the S-transformations are presented in this paper.

  12. Measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, H; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe measurement and control practices in Finnish wastewater networks. We have surveyed the 14 largest wastewater treatment plants in the country, which account for approximately 40% of total Finnish treatment capacity. It was found that these plants still only rely on a few, traditional measurement techniques. The treatment processes could be improved, and the treatment could be made more energy-efficient by installing modern instrumentation. We review some recent developments in wastewater plant instrumentation technology and suggest improvements to Finnish plants.

  13. Gene expression profiles in Finnish twins with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Särkijärvi, Silja; Kuusisto, Hanna; Paalavuo, Raija; Levula, Mari; Airla, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Elovaara, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Background Since genetic alterations influencing susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are as yet poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to identify genes responsible for MS by studying monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for MS. Methods In order to identify genes involved in MS development, the gene expression profiles in blood mononuclear cells obtained from eight MZ twin pairs discordant for MS were analyzed by cDNA microarray technology detecting the expression of 8 300 genes. The twins were collected from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and both affected subjects and their healthy siblings underwent neurological evaluation and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Gene expressions were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results It appeared that 25 genes were at least two-fold up-regulated and 15 genes down-regulated in 25% (2/8) of twins with MS when compared to their healthy siblings. Moreover, 6/25 genes were up-regulated in 40% of MS twins and one gene, interferon alpha-inducible protein (clone IFI-6-16) (G1P3), in 50% of them. The six most constantly expressed genes are (1) G1P3, (2) POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 1, (3) myxovirus resistance 2, (4) lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein-5, (5) hemoglobin alpha 2 and (6) hemoglobin beta. Conclusion Over two-fold up-regulation of these six genes in almost half of MZ twins with MS suggests their role in MS pathogenesis. Studies using MZ MS twins obtained from genetically homogeneous population offer a unique opportunity to explore the genetic nature of MS. PMID:16504146

  14. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  15. 75 FR 69360 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Award-Fee Reductions for Health and Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... reckless disregard for health or safety, causing serious bodily injury or death of Government personnel... caused serious bodily injury or death of Government personnel. II. Executive Order 12866 This is not a... bodily injury or death of Government personnel. However, pursuant to 41 U.S.C. 418b, DoD will...

  16. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  17. An Examination of Commercial Motor Vehicle Hours of Service Safety Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    predictors of truck driver safety performance . Accident Analysis & Prevention, 62(0), pp.17–25. 167 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8–98...disorientation while driving, and overall impaired performance (Williamson et al. 2011; Min 2009a). The majority of research has examined the factors

  18. Oral health problems in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, A; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H; Ankkuriniemi, O

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of oral health problems in 353 Finnish conscripts aged 21.0 (SD 1.2 years) was studied by means of a questionnaire and by investigating the dental records. One hundred five (30%) conscripts had seeked dental help during their 8 months' military service. Forty-four percent of these patients had dental caries as their main diagnosis; endodontic problems comprised 9% of all cases. The problems related to third molars were second in frequency, accounting for 27% of the conscripts treated. Six and one-half percent of the patients had lost serving time on dental grounds (mean absence 3.6 days), most often (90%) due to acute pericoronitis or post-operative status following third molar surgery.

  19. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  20. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Ville; Taipale, Vappu

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in which mental

  2. Auditor recommendations resulting from three clinical audit rounds in Finnish radiology units.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Kirsi; Metsälä, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of clinical audits performed in radiology units is to reduce the radiation dose of patients and staff and to implement evidence-based best practices. Purpose To describe auditor recommendations in three Finnish clinical audit rounds performed in 2002-2014, and to determine if auditor recommendations have had any impact on improving medical imaging practice. Material and Methods The retrospective observational study was performed in radiology units holding a radiation safety license issued by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. The data comprised a systematic sample (n = 120) of auditor reports produced in three auditing rounds in these units during the years 2002-2014. The data were analyzed by descriptive methods and by using the Friedman two-way ANOVA test. Results The number of auditor recommendations given varied between clinical audit rounds and according to the type of imaging unit, as well as according to calculation method. Proportionally, the most recommendations in all three clinical audit rounds were given about defining and using quality assurance functions and about guidelines and practices for carrying out procedures involving radiation exposure. Demanding radiology units improved their practices more than basic imaging units towards the third round. Conclusion Auditor recommendations help to address the deficiencies in imaging practices. There is a need to develop uniform guidelines and to provide tutoring for clinical auditors in order to produce comparable clinical audit results.

  3. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  4. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  5. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  6. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., DC Security Zone (Part 165). 1/25/2011 USCG-2011-0032 San Diego, CA Security Zone (Part 165). 2/8...)... 6/25/2011 USCG-2011-0152 Tennessee River Safety Zone (Part 165)... 3/7/2011 USCG-2011-0153 Lake...)... 4/12/2011 USCG-2011-0161 Port Everglades, FL....... Security Zone (Part 165). 4/25/2011...

  7. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  8. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulators must be located on top of the tank near the center of the car on a nozzle, mounting plate or recess in the shell. Through or stud bolts, if used, must not enter the tank. (b) Metal guard of...

  9. The Association between Motivation in School Physical Education and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the role of motivational climates, perceived competence and motivational regulations as antecedents of self-reported physical activity during junior high school years. The participants included 237 Finnish students (101 girls, 136 boys) that were 13 years old at the first stage of the…

  10. The Association between Motivation in School Physical Education and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the role of motivational climates, perceived competence and motivational regulations as antecedents of self-reported physical activity during junior high school years. The participants included 237 Finnish students (101 girls, 136 boys) that were 13 years old at the first stage of the…

  11. The Determinants of Federal and State Enforcement of Workplace Safety Regulations: OSHA Inspections 1990-2010*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    We explore the determinants of inspection outcomes across 1.6 million Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) audits from 1990 through 2010. We find that discretion in enforcement differs in state and federally conducted inspections. State agencies are more sensitive to local economic conditions, finding fewer standard violations and fewer serious violations as unemployment increases. Larger companies receive greater lenience in multiple dimensions. Inspector issued fines and final fines, after negotiated reductions, are both smaller during Republican presidencies. Quantile regression analysis reveals that Presidential and Congressional party affiliations have their greatest impact on the largest negotiated reductions in fines. PMID:24659856

  12. Older adults' safety perceptions of driving situations: towards a new driving self-regulation scale.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S; Lurie-Beck, Janine K

    2011-05-01

    The term 'driving self-restriction' is used in the road safety literature to describe the behaviour of some older drivers. It includes the notion that older drivers will avoid driving in specific, usually self-identified situations, such as those in which safety is compromised. We sought to identify the situations that older drivers report avoiding; and, to determine the adequacy of a key measure of such behaviour. A sample of 75 drivers aged 65 years and older completed Baldock et al.'s modification of the Driving Habits Questionnaire avoidance items (Baldock et al., 2006), the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire, and open-ended items that elicited written descriptions of the most and least safe driving situation. Consistent with previous results, we found a relatively low level of driving self-restriction and infrequent episodes of aggressive violations. However, when combined with the situation descriptions, these data suggest that Driving Habits Questionnaire did not cover all of the situations that older drivers might choose avoid. We suggest that a new avoidance scale is needed and we present a new item pool that may be used for this purpose.

  13. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... require texting while driving. (c) Prohibition against the use of hand-held mobile telephones. In... those regulations apply. (b) Prohibition against texting. In accordance with § 392.80 of the FMCSRs a... 42 CFR part 73 may not engage in, allow, or require use of a hand-held mobile telephone while driving. ...

  14. 78 FR 34887 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island Sound NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...)(3), the Coast Guard finds that good cause exists for making this rule effective less than 30 days... waters outside of the regulated areas. The COTP will cause public notifications to be made by...

  15. 77 FR 4501 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...: Inn Marin, 250 Entrada Dr., Novato, CA 94949; March 8, 2012: Waterfront Hotel, 10 Washington St... Coast Guard's ability and capacity to enforce event regulations over the time period proposed; (3..., local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted...

  16. Improving Food Safety in Meat and Poultry: Will New Regulations Benefit Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Roberts, Tanya; Jensen, Helen H.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System for meat and poultry processing will benefit consumers by reducing food-borne illnesses. The benefits are likely to exceed the additional costs from implementing the regulations. (SK)

  17. Improving Food Safety in Meat and Poultry: Will New Regulations Benefit Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Roberts, Tanya; Jensen, Helen H.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System for meat and poultry processing will benefit consumers by reducing food-borne illnesses. The benefits are likely to exceed the additional costs from implementing the regulations. (SK)

  18. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120... regulators must be located on top of the tank near the center of the car on a nozzle, mounting plate or recess in the shell. Through or stud bolts, if used, must not enter the tank. (b) Metal guard of...

  19. 77 FR 46285 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta scheduled for August 21-26, 2012, on the... zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta... published in association with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regattas. This program calendar...

  20. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Theodore, AL Security Zone (Part 165)... 7/22/2010 USCG-2010-0697 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)... 8/14/2010 USCG-2010-0698 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)... 8/14/2010 USCG-2010-0699...-2010-0729 Blynman Canal, MA Drawbridge Operations 8/8/2010 Regulation (Part 117). USCG-2010-0734 Lower...

  1. African perspectives on the need for global harmonisation of food safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Anelich, Lucia E C M

    2014-08-01

    Africa is a large continent consisting of 54 countries at different levels of development and reflecting numerous diverse cultures. Africa's agricultural potential is largely untapped, with approximately 60% of the world's non-cultivated arable land found in sub-Saharan Africa. Excluding South Africa, which is the largest economy in Africa and which has a well-established food sector with a substantial export market, economies in sub-Saharan Africa have been steadily growing at over 5% per annum. Whilst most African countries face many challenges, including weak infrastructure as well as political and economic instability, many changes are occurring, one of these being identifying specific commodities in a particular country which warrant substantial investment for growth into export opportunities. These opportunities create an immediate need for development of food standards, including food safety standards, based on scientific principles to enable regional and international trade in food, thereby assisting in ensuring Africa's role in the global food economy.

  2. NRC safety research in support of regulation - FY 1994. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, the tenth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1994. The goal of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is to ensure the availability of sound technical bases for timely rulemaking and related decisions in support of NRC regulatory/licensing/inspection activities. RES also has responsibilities related to the resolution of generic safety issues and to the review of licensee submittals regarding individual plant examinations. It is the responsibility of RES to conduct the NRC`s rulemaking process, including the issuance of regulatory guides and rules that govern NRC licensed activities.

  3. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  4. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2006 review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data-sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established, the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983–1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975–1979) included also assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations. PMID:23298696

  5. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  6. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  7. New modes of regulation for health and safety: post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of "softer" voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create "a culture of prevention." The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new "soft law" modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the "new" European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be "new," or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  8. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  9. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  10. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  11. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  12. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  13. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  14. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  15. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education.…

  16. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  17. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  18. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  19. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities.

  20. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved. PMID:21126368

  1. Finnish Research Activities relevant to IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Kauristie, K.; Vainio, R.

    Space physics is a traditional and strong field of research in Finland dating its early roots back to the mid-19th century i e several decennia before the First International Polar Year in 1882 Measurements of rapid variations of the geomagnetic field started in Helsinki already in 1844 and form now some of the longest and most uniform series of observations measuring the global state of the heliosphere Even further in the north at the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory SGO continuous measurements span more than 90 years Today space physics activities are conducted mainly in the Universities of Helsinki HU Oulu OU and Turku TU and in the Finnish Meteorological Institute FMI SGO which maintains a versatile set of ground-based instrumentation belongs to OU Although several fields of common interest exist each of these parties also have their own research areas and specific expertise TU has a strong experimental and theoretical program in solar energetic particles HU has a wide program in planetary research as well as in auroral magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and theoretical space plasma physics OU and SGO have a strong involvement in ionospheric physics as well as in solar-terrestrial and heliospheric physics HU has long been active in space weather projects while OU is a key player in space climate i e in the research of long-term changes in the Sun heliosphere and the near-Earth space As one part of this cosmic rays have been continuously measured in Oulu since 42 years In addition to the versatile ground-based instrumentation

  2. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  3. Global harmonization of food safety regulations: perspectives from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Japanese food self-sufficiency was only 39% on the basis of kcal in 2012, so Japan relies heavily on imported food. Hence the necessity of having international rules on the regulation of food contaminants is important especially for countries like Japan that depend on food imports. A One-Stop-Testing system is desired, in which the test result obtained from a single testing laboratory is accepted as valid worldwide. To establish this system, laboratory accreditation under international standards is a necessary step. Furthermore, the importance of supply of reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing for external quality control of each laboratory's analytical system is reviewed in connection with the experience of radioactive nuclide contamination resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011.

  4. Maximizing the Post-Approval Safety of Flibanserin: A Role for Regulators, Clinicians, and Patients.

    PubMed

    Baksh, Sheriza N; Gellad, Walid F; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-05-01

    In August 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made the controversial decision to approve flibanserin (Addyi®) for women experiencing hypoactive sexual desire disorder. A number of factors contributed to disagreements regarding the FDA's decision, including the product's two prior failed FDA reviews, the unmet need of women with this disorder, extensive advocacy and politicization surrounding the product's relevance to women and sexual health, the potential for widespread off-label use, and the product's tenuous risk/benefit profile. Despite that, attention now shifts to maximizing the safe use of the product, including the optimal means to avoid numerous drug-drug interactions as well as the concomitant use of alcohol, both of which potentiate the risks of dizziness, hypotension, and syncope. Although the FDA has implemented a comprehensive Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies program to maximize the product's safe use, patients, clinicians, and regulators must exhibit heightened vigilance early in the product's post-market life.

  5. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  6. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the ‘Robens Philosophy’ of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961–1974

    PubMed Central

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the ‘modern’ system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos—the ‘Robens philosophy’—than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to ‘self-regulation’ heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated. PMID:26858514

  7. Finnish Government reiterates its support for fifth nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In late February 1993, the Finnish government voted 11 to 6 in favor of supporting a fifth nuclear reactor for the country. The vote, which was viewed as a vote in principle to support the nuclear option, was taken at the behest of the Finnish utilities. It follows a parliamentary vote in November 1992 that opposed building new nuclear sites. Thus, the issue is now being discussed in committees, and a parliamentary vote whether or not to approve the government stance will take place later this spring.

  8. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  9. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2013-05-29

    Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100,000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse race betting and internet

  10. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100 000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. Method An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. Results A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse

  11. Ethnic identity among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada: some voices and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jurva, Katrina; Jaya, Peruvemba S

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity experiences of second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Canada. The study draws from interviews conducted among second-generation Finnish immigrant youth in Ottawa. How these individuals identify with the Finnish ethnic group and engage in ethnic culture may play a pivotal role in the continuance of Finnish culture in Canada. Therefore, it is necessary to understand not only whether second-generation Finnish immigrants identify with their ethnic group, but also how they do so. We found that the youth identified with their Finnish ethnicity on a symbolic level, participating occasionally in the local ethnic community, but not living within ethnic culture on a day-to-day basis. They identify strongly with being Canadian and have an appreciation of multiculturalism and contrast it with Finnish society when they visit Finland.

  12. Finnish women's experiences of antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Bondas, Terese

    2002-03-01

    to explore and describe women's experiences of antenatal care. semi-structured interviews, dialogical interviews and non-participant observation in two phases both during and after pregnancy were analysed according to Colaizzi's phenomenological method. four maternity clinics in one rural and one urban primary health care centre and one outpatient maternity clinic at a central hospital in Finland. in the first phase a purposive sample of nine women were interviewed at 36 weeks gestation, three weeks, three months and two and a half years after birth. In the second phase, data were collected for further breadth and depth and 31 women, who were going through different stages of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium participated. Data were collected by means of interviews supplemented by non-participatory observation. In the total sample of 40 Finnish women, one half was primigravidae and the other half multigravidae. a main thread running through the women's experiences of antenatal care were their needs and wishes that concerned the health of the unborn baby, but also the health and dignity of themselves and their family. The pregnant women wanted to share their pregnancy and childbirth story in a confident relationship based on humaneness and interest in a peaceful atmosphere. They needed protection safeguarded through scientifically based and humane surveillance, and professional competence was expected. They wanted to continuously participate in the new situations through knowledge in dialogues and they wanted to involve their family in the care on their own terms. The childbirth preparation groups had an important multidimensional role in the care. the findings challenge the antenatal care that so far has been focused on the physical health, the needs of the primigravida and a blurred family perspective. The family perspective implies knowing both the pregnant woman and her partner in terms of the pregnancy, the birth and a new parenthood. Humane

  13. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... security and safety zone is suspended. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— Federal Law Enforcement... passenger vessel security and safety zone, all vessels shall operate at the minimum speed necessary to...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security and safety zone is suspended. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— Federal Law Enforcement... passenger vessel security and safety zone, all vessels shall operate at the minimum speed necessary to...

  15. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a…

  16. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  17. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  18. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  19. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  20. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  1. Organizational ethics in Finnish intensive care units: staff perceptions.

    PubMed

    Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Mäkelä, Merja; McDaniel, Charlotte; Puukka, Pauli

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe ethical problems that are influenced by organizational factors in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). The goal was to help nurses and administrators to analyse intensive care work, and to improve nurses' work motivation. Through these means the ultimate goal is to improve the quality of patient care. Data were collected in 35 hospital ICUs by means of the Ethics Environmental Questionnaire (EEQ). This gained access to the population of 1047 Finnish intensive care nurses. The response rate was 77% (n = 814). Data analysis was carried out using SAS-6 statistical software. The results provided scores for the 20 EEQ items. Reliability according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. The results revealed that organizational factors in Finnish ICUs have both positive and negative dimensions. Positively, nurses have the opportunity to discuss ethical problems in their work units, whereas, negatively, respondents noted that there is much concern about earning money. Nurses' work in Finnish hospital ICUs is ethically challenging; it is similar to that found in other countries and thereby supports international application of these findings.

  2. Monitoring Finnish Owls 1982-1996: methods and results

    Treesearch

    Pertti Saurola

    1997-01-01

    In 1982, the Raptor Grid, a nation-wide program for monitoring birds of prey was started by the Finnish Ringing Centre. Voluntary banders were asked to select a 10 x 10 km study plot and find annually all active nests or at least occupied territories of birds of prey from their study plot (annual total averaged 120). Since 1986, additional...

  3. Changing Literacy Practices According to the Finnish Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how a teacher implemented principles of literacy teaching and learning set forth in the Finnish core curriculum in a first-grade classroom, focusing on two aspects of the curriculum: (1) "a community-oriented view of language," which can be understood from a socio-cultural perspective; and (2) "a broad conception of…

  4. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  5. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  6. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  7. The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

  8. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  9. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  10. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  11. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  12. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  13. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  14. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  15. Bridge Building for the Future of the Finnish Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the strategy process of Finnish polytechnics using the balanced scorecard approach. The study extends the balanced scorecard from the communication and implementation of this strategy to the planning of the strategy. Stakeholders formulated a strategic managerial plan for the network of all polytechnics in Finland by applying…

  16. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  17. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  18. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  19. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  20. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  1. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  2. Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant…

  3. The Predictiveness of the Finnish Matriculation: a Differential Psychology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtovaara, A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of part of a comprehensive research project concerning the Finnish matriculation examination. The goal of the project was to explore the matriculation examination as a series of tests indicative of ability differences between individuals, regardless of their causes. The…

  4. Linguistics in Language Teaching: The Case of Finnish and Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarsoly, Eszter; Valijarvi, Riitta-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of various linguistic sub-disciplines in teaching Finnish and Hungarian. We sketch the profile of the two languages, including difficulties in learning and teaching them, and the context in which they are taught in the UK. Using examples from our own teaching, we argue that a linguistically oriented approach is well…

  5. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  6. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  7. Work environment and occupational health of Finnish veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Reijula, Kari; Räsänen, Kimmo; Hämäläinen, Marjut; Juntunen, Kalevi; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Taskinen, Helena; Bergbom, Barbara; Rinta-Jouppi, Meeri

    2003-07-01

    Health and work environment of Finnish veterinarians was evaluated by The Finnish Veterinary Association and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was mailed in the spring of 2000 to all veterinarians under 65 years of age and working in Finland (n = 1169); 785 (67%) responded. A veterinarian's work was physically demanding, and often involved an elevated risk of accident. The risks were considered moderately or considerably high by over half of the respondents, and the highest risks occurred among veterinarians working in equine, mixed (both small and large animals), or in production animal practice. The veterinarians were committed to their work, although, at the same time they experienced work-related stress and fatigue. Particularly veterinarians working in towns, or those involved in education and research, reported the most stress. Serious work-related exhaustion was experienced most often by women in the youngest and by men in the oldest age groups. On average, the veterinarians spent over 100 hr a month on call. Over two-thirds of the participants in the survey reported their general state of health as good or fairly good, while less than 5% of the participants reported their health as rather poor or poor. The work of a Finnish veterinarian, the work environment, and the risks of the work varied greatly depending on the tasks assigned to the veterinarian. This has to be taken into consideration when occupational health services are planned for veterinarians. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Mass Communication Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    A suggested curriculum to be used to teach mass communications in Finnish comprehensive schools is described. Instead of concentrating on either an aesthetic or medium-bound (e.g., film education) approach, this curriculum focuses on the mass media as social institutions and on developing in young people a critical, thoughtful approach to mass…

  9. Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the…

  10. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a…

  11. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  12. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Coast Guard proposes to amend 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 as follows: PART 100--SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE... at any time it is deemed necessary to ensure the safety of life or property. (g) For all power boat... event in this subpart at any time it is deemed necessary to ensure the safety of life or property....

  13. Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended. Employment Standards Administration, Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-20

    On January 22, 1997, the Department issued a proposed rule to amend the regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act. 62 FR 3338-3435 (Jan. 22, 1997). When the comment period closed on August 21, 1997, the Department had received written submissions from almost 200 interested persons, including coal miners, coal mine operators, insurers, physicians, and attorneys. The Department also held hearings in Charleston, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. at which over 50 people testified. The Department carefully reviewed the testimony and the comments and, on October 8, 1999, issued a second notice of proposed rulemaking. 64 FR 54966-55072 (Oct. 8, 1999). In its second notice, the Department proposed changing several of the most important provisions in its initial proposal. The Department also explained its decision not to alter the original proposal with respect to other key regulations based on the comments received to date. Finally, the Department prepared an initial regulatory flexibility analysis. In order to ensure that small businesses that could be affected by the Department's proposal received appropriate notice of the Department's proposed changes, the Department mailed a copy of the second notice of proposed rulemaking to all coal mine operators contained in the databases maintained by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Department initially allowed interested parties until December 7, 1999 to file comments to its second proposal, but extended that period until January 6, 2000. The Department received 37 written submissions before the close of the comment period, from groups representing both coal miners and coal mine operators. The Department also received comments from individual miners, various coal mining and insurance companies, as well as from claims processing organizations, attorneys, and various professional organizations. The Department has carefully reviewed all of the comments, and is issuing its final rule. The rule contains a

  14. Infant-Guided, Co-Regulated Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Part II: Interventions to Promote Neuroprotection and Safety.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Catherine S

    2017-04-01

    Feeding skills of preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit are in an emergent phase of development and require careful support to minimize stress. The underpinnings that influence and enhance both neuroprotection and safety were discussed in Part I. An infant-guided, co-regulated approach to feeding can protect the vulnerable neonate's neurologic development, support the parent-infant relationship, and prevent feeding problems that may endure. Contingent interventions are used to maintain subsystem stability and enhance self-regulation, development, and coping skills. This co-regulation between caregiver and neonate forms the foundation for a positive infant-guided feeding experience. Caregivers select evidence-based interventions contingent to the newborn's communication. When these interventions are then titrated from moment to moment, neuroprotection and safety are fostered.

  15. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  16. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent fuel Management and on the safety of Radioactive Waste Management: A UK Regulator's Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.; Bacon, M.L.

    2006-07-01

    The UK fully supports the objective of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to achieve and maintain a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation, including where appropriate, safety-related co-operation. The UK's Health and Safety Executive, through its Nuclear Safety Directorate (NSD), has been committed to the Convention since the initial negotiations to set up the Convention and provided the president of the first review meeting in 2003. It would be wrong of any nation to believe that they have all the best solutions to managing spent fuel and radioactive waste. The process of compiling reports for the Convention review meetings provides a structured process through which every contracting party can review its provisions against a common set of standards and identify for itself possible areas of improvements. The sharing of reports and the asking and answering of questions then provides a further opportunity for both sharing of experience and learning. The UK was encouraged by the spirit of constructive discussion rather than negative criticism that pervaded the first review meeting that provided an incentive for all to learn and improve. While, as could be expected of the first meeting of such a group, not everything worked as well as could be hoped for, all parties seemed committed to learn from mistakes and to make the process more effective. Lessons were learned from the Nuclear Safety Convention on the process of submitting reports electronically and the UK actively supported aims to use IAEA requirements documents as an additional focus for reports. This should, we hope, provide for even better benchmarking of achievements and provide feedback for improvements of the IAEA requirements where appropriate. In summary, the UK finds the Joint Convention process to be a very

  17. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two

  18. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  19. [Peculiarities of regulation of legal relations in the field of environmental and hygiene safety of the population in The Russian Federation at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Karelin, A O; Eremin, G B; Lomtev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The results of the comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental security have been presented, theoretical and legal basis for the subsequent development of recommendations for the development and harmonization of legislation in the field of providing environmental security and environmental protection has been defined. The formation of ecological civil law and conceptual questions of territory development guaranteeing ecological safety have been considered. Objects of the study were international treaties, Constitution of Russian Federation, Law on Environmental Protection, Land Code and other laws containing positions concerning ecological safety and environmental protection. Identified as a result of the present study the contradictions in the area of law allow to develop and submit proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the field of environmental and hygienic safety.

  20. Safety: Preventive Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

  1. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  2. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804...

  3. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804 Amendment...

  4. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804 Amendment...

  5. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804 Amendment...

  6. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804 Amendment...

  7. 76 FR 69613 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... from the barge. 5.6 Hastings-on-Hudson, Hudson River Launch site: A barge Safety Zone. located in approximate position 40 59'44.5'' N 073 53'28'' W (NAD 1983), approximately 425 yards west of Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. This Safety Zone is a 360-yard radius from the barge. 5.7 Pier D, Hudson River...

  8. Finnish immigrants' experience of community pharmacy services in Spain: an example of a developing E.U. issue.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Minna Heleena; Lyles, Alan; Airaksinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Emigration within the European Union has increased, especially toward southern countries. This places complex demands on health care providers and community pharmacists, yet there is no E.U. policy that harmonizes health care services and pharmacy practice across member countries. This exploratory study examined immigrants' experiences with community pharmacy services. A survey of 1000 Finnish immigrants living in Spain's Costa del Sol region was performed in 2002, using a questionnaire that included structured and open-ended questions. Respondents were mostly satisfied with pharmacy services; however, some services had higher medication safety risks-related to medication counseling (for prescription and nonprescription medicines) and obtaining some prescription drugs without a prescription-due mainly to lack of a common language. Pharmacy services in the European Union may not provide adequate assurances of medication safety for immigrants. Consistent E.U.-wide minimum pharmacy practice standards for immigrant populations are needed.

  9. Molecular characterization of adenoviruses among finnish military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Rönkkö, Esa; Virkki, Maria; Nikkari, Simo; Ziegler, Thedi

    2016-04-01

    Although adenoviruses were identified as important respiratory pathogens many years ago, little information is available concerning the prevalence of different adenovirus serotypes, which are circulating and causing epidemics in Finnish military training centers. Over a period of five years from 2008 to 2012, 3577 respiratory specimens were collected from military conscripts presenting with symptoms compatible with acute respiratory tract infection. Upon initial testing for certain respiratory viruses by real-time PCR, 837 of these specimens were identified as adenovirus-positive. For 672 of these specimens, the serotype of the adenovirus responsible was successfully determined by DNA sequencing. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected in 1, 3, 181, and 487 samples, respectively. Adenovirus epidemics were observed during each year of this study. Based on these findings, adenovirus vaccination should be considered for military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces.

  10. Global harmonization of safety regulations for the use of industrial robots-permission of collaborative operation and a related study by JNIOSH

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Tsuyoshi; HOSHI, Toshiro; IKEDA, Hiroyasu; OKABE, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) partially amended the safety regulations for use of industrial robots so that “collaborative operation” could be performed at Japanese worksites as allowed in the ISO standard for industrial robots. In order to show global harmonization of Japanese legislation on machinery safety and problems with applying ISO safety standards to Japanese worksites, this paper reports the progress of a research study which have been conducted in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan from 2011 to the present at the request of MHLW to examine the necessity and effect of the amendment. In the first phase of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among domestic robot manufacturers and users. The obtained results revealed their potential demand for the collaborative operation and problems concerning their risk assessment and rule-based risk reduction. To solve the problems, we propose a method based on an investigation result of the regulatory framework for safety of machinery in the European Union. Furthermore, a model of robot system capable of demonstrating the collaborative operation and risk reduction measures which is being developed to support appropriate implementation of the amendment is also described. PMID:26118854

  11. Global harmonization of safety regulations for the use of industrial robots-permission of collaborative operation and a related study by JNIOSH.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hoshi, Toshiro; Ikeda, Hiroyasu; Okabe, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) partially amended the safety regulations for use of industrial robots so that "collaborative operation" could be performed at Japanese worksites as allowed in the ISO standard for industrial robots. In order to show global harmonization of Japanese legislation on machinery safety and problems with applying ISO safety standards to Japanese worksites, this paper reports the progress of a research study which have been conducted in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan from 2011 to the present at the request of MHLW to examine the necessity and effect of the amendment. In the first phase of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among domestic robot manufacturers and users. The obtained results revealed their potential demand for the collaborative operation and problems concerning their risk assessment and rule-based risk reduction. To solve the problems, we propose a method based on an investigation result of the regulatory framework for safety of machinery in the European Union. Furthermore, a model of robot system capable of demonstrating the collaborative operation and risk reduction measures which is being developed to support appropriate implementation of the amendment is also described.

  12. Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

  13. Mechanical restraint in adolescent psychiatry: a Finnish Register study.

    PubMed

    Hottinen, Anja; Välimäki, Maritta; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Puukka, Pauli; Noda, Toshie; Lindberg, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Little is known of the use of mechanical restraint in adolescent psychiatry. To investigate the frequency and features of mechanical restraint in the field of Finnish adolescent psychiatry. The data were collected in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, with seven closed and eight open wards for Finnish-speaking 13-17-year-old adolescents. The official restraint reports and the hospital files of the restraint patients from January 2009 to December 2009 were collected and analyzed. Among adolescents hospitalized in closed wards, the 1-year prevalence of mechanical restraint was 9.5%. Among all hospitalized adolescents, the prevalence was 6.9%. The number of mechanically restrained individuals per 100,000 13 to 17-year -old Finnish-speaking inhabitants was 57.1. The median duration of the restraint episode was 4 h and 50 min, but almost half of the mechanical restraint episodes lasted 8 h or more. A quarter of restraint episodes were not based on reasons mentioned in the Finnish Mental Health Act. The most frequent diagnostic categories of mechanically restrained adolescents were mood disorders followed by schizophrenia-related as well as behavioral and emotional disorders. Suicidality preceded 40% and violence 61% of restraint episodes. Boys were restrained during the first days of hospital treatment significantly more often than were girls, whereas one in four girls experienced her first episode of restraint after 1 month of hospitalization. Reducing the number and shortening the length of mechanical restraint episodes requires education of staff as well as projects focusing on reducing coercion. The clinical guidelines must be followed at grassroots level.

  14. Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

  15. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in Academic Departments with Graduate and Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landgrebe, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the University of Kansas chemistry department's safety program. Comprehensive regulation, undergraduate regulations, safety equipment, handling accidents, inspections, and training are addressed. (JN)

  17. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: a scientific review.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Brower-Toland, Brent; Jackson, Aimee L; Kier, Larry D

    2013-07-01

    Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants modified to express mediators of RNA-mediated gene regulation, including RNA interference (RNAi), a gene suppression mechanism that naturally occurs in plants and animals. The molecular mediators of RNAi, including long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA), occur naturally in foods; therefore, there is an extensive history of safe consumption. Systemic exposure following consumption of plants containing dsRNAs that mediate RNAi is limited in higher organisms by extensive degradation of ingested nucleic acids and by biological barriers to uptake and efficacy of exogenous nucleic acids. A number of mammalian RNAi studies support the concept that a large margin of safety will exist for any small fraction of RNAs that might be absorbed following consumption of foods from biotechnology-derived plants that employ RNA-mediated gene regulation. Food and feed derived from these crops utilizing RNA-based mechanisms is therefore expected to be as safe as food and feed derived through conventional plant breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attitudes to new smoking restrictions and second-hand smoke among young Finnish males.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Pentti; Toljamo, Tuula; Hamari, Anna; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2010-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the attitudes of young people to restrictions on smoking in public places and to environmental second-hand smoke in housing estates. The objective was to explore the attitudes of young male adults after the new smoke-free legislation was implemented in Finland. A survey of 1167 Finnish male military conscripts was performed. The main outcome variables were their attitudes to the new restrictions on smoking in public places and concerns about second-hand smoke in the home originating from their neighbours. Almost half of the youths (43.5%) reported that they supported the more restrictive smoking regulations, with 44.8% having a neutral view. Only 16.0% of the respondents were irritated about the second-hand smoke entering to their house from outside and 48.6% were not concerned about smoking in their neighbourhood. A total of 555 (47.6%) conscripts were current smokers. Current smokers were more often totally opposed to the legislation and had less negative views about the exposure to second-hand smoke than non-smokers. Strong nicotine dependence increased the feelings of anxiety and stigmatisation when the new restrictions were introduced. Finnish young men do accept new smoking restrictions. However, smoking with high nicotine dependence was surprisingly common among these young men and the negative attitude to the legislation can be traced to this group of smokers. The repulsion felt towards second-hand smoke by non-smokers represents an opportunity for public health initiatives to guarantee a smoke-free environment in public and private places.

  19. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  20. Troping on Prejudice: Stylised "Bad Finnish" Performances and Reflexivity among Adolescents in Eastern Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies reflexivity in interaction among adolescents in Helsinki in the light of stylised performances that are labelled by participants as "bad Finnish". Stylised "bad Finnish" can be seen as an enregistered discourse register. It is an emblem in which certain linguistic features are connected to ideas about certain…

  1. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  2. Finnish Students' School Engagement Profiles in the Light of PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo; Malin, Antero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Finnish students' school engagement profiles in the light of the data collected in the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2003. Even though Finnish students' cognitive achievement has proved excellent in various international assessments, their school engagement has not been flattering. The…

  3. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  4. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  5. Basic Mathematical Skills and Empowerment: Challenges and Opportunities in Finnish Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hannula, Aino; Saló i Nevado, Laia

    2010-01-01

    This paper first looks at the contexts and situation of Finnish adult education in basic mathematical skills. Challenges for and observations of adults' learning of basic mathematics in Finland will be illustrated. Studying mathematics and numeracy are considered against its role in social and personal empowerment. Case studies of Finnish adults'…

  6. The Interplay of Syntax and Discourse in the Explanation of Finnish-English Code-Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmari, Helena

    A study of intrasentential code-switching in 21 Finnish-English bilinguals focuses on the characteristics of two types of switches: those that are fluent and those that reflect repair phenomena. Data are drawn from naturally occurring conversations. Analysis highlights patterns in the use of Finnish case morphology in 550 instances of switched…

  7. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  8. Testing Finnish Schoolchildren's Learning of English Consonants. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisio, Risto; Valento, Eero

    The present study deals with two language skills, listening and speaking, and it is limited to single consonant phonemes only. The purpose is to try to find answers to the following problems: (1) Which Finnish consonants are given as substitutes for English consonants by Finnish pupils who have no previous (or practically no previous) knowledge of…

  9. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  10. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  11. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  12. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  13. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other…

  14. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  15. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  16. Attitudes and Motivational Factors behind Finnish Business Students' Choices of Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasz, Sabine; Schlabach, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study conducted at five Finnish business schools in 2009. The aim of the study was to provide a broad picture of different aspects connected with language education at universities. After an overview of the situation of language studies in Finnish business education, the results are presented of the analysis…

  17. Special Features of Assessment in Reading Comprehension in a Finnish University Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Marja-Liisa; Maijala, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Since Finnish is not an Indo-European language, studying foreign languages in general and then also studying special fields through the medium of foreign languages may provide an extra difficulty for Finnish students. Most university language centres in Finland have organized reading comprehension courses in several foreign languages for the…

  18. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  19. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  20. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  1. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  2. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  3. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  4. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other…

  5. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  6. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  7. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  8. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  9. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  10. Finnish Student Teachers' Perceptions on the Role of Purpose in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of the purposes that Finnish student teachers of different subjects (N = 372) have for teaching and how these perceptions could inform teacher education. Earlier studies have shown that both American and Finnish students have found the role of their teachers to be very important in teaching and learning purpose.…

  11. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  12. Finnish Student Teachers' Perceptions on the Role of Purpose in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of the purposes that Finnish student teachers of different subjects (N = 372) have for teaching and how these perceptions could inform teacher education. Earlier studies have shown that both American and Finnish students have found the role of their teachers to be very important in teaching and learning purpose.…

  13. The Acquisition Process of Finnish Morphology in 2-7-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Paula

    1982-01-01

    Some results of seven studies of children's native Finnish language acquisition from 1971-1980 are summarized, focusing on two aspects: the main features in the development of Finnish inflection forms in 2-7-year-old children, and selected information derived from children's errors at the various age levels. Subjects were 260 children attending…

  14. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  15. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  16. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…

  17. Morphological Parsing and the Use of Segmentation Cues in Reading Finnish Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Raymond; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    This eye movement study investigated the use of two types of segmentation cues in processing long Finnish compounds. The cues were related to the vowel quality properties of the constituents and properties of the consonant starting the second constituent. In Finnish, front vowels never appear with back vowels in a lexeme, but different quality…

  18. Morphological Parsing and the Use of Segmentation Cues in Reading Finnish Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Raymond; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    This eye movement study investigated the use of two types of segmentation cues in processing long Finnish compounds. The cues were related to the vowel quality properties of the constituents and properties of the consonant starting the second constituent. In Finnish, front vowels never appear with back vowels in a lexeme, but different quality…

  19. DEBARYOMYCES PHAFFII SP. N., A NEW YEAST ISOLATED FROM A FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Debaryomyces phaffii sp. n., a new yeast isolated from a Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:326–330. 1961.—A new species of Debaryomyces is described; it was isolated from Finnish soil, and is named Debaryomyces phaffii sp. n., in honor of Herman J. Phaff. Images PMID:13690637

  20. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  1. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  2. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  3. Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Finnish Compulsory Schooling: A National Model or Just Unintended Effects of Radical Decentralisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simola, Hannu; Rinne, Risto; Varjo, Janne; Pitkanen, Hannele; Kauko, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    This article traces quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) developments in Finnish compulsory schooling. The central question is this: Is there a Finnish model of QAE? We conclude that it may be a rhetorical overstatement to speak about a specific Finnish 'Model' of QAE in a strong sense. However, neither is it valid to conclude that what happens…

  4. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  5. An impact evaluation of a federal mine safety training regulation on injury rates among US stone, sand, and gravel mine workers: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Monforton, Celeste; Windsor, Richard

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed.

  6. An Impact Evaluation of a Federal Mine Safety Training Regulation on Injury Rates Among US Stone, Sand, and Gravel Mine Workers: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. Methods. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Results. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Conclusions. Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed. PMID:20466960

  7. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  8. 76 FR 53337 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... safety zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for regattas... prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the...

  9. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Salmela, Jukka; Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macroceranigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornusetigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophilaharuspica Plassmann is redescribed.

  10. Excellence through Special Education? Lessons from the Finnish School Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivirauma, Joel; Ruoho, Kari

    2007-05-01

    The present article focuses on connections between part-time special education and the good results of Finnish students in PISA studies. After a brief summary of the comprehensive school system and special education in Finland, PISA results are analysed. The analysis shows that the relative amount of special education targeted at language problems is highest in Finland among those countries from which comparative statistics are available. The writers argue that this preventive language-oriented part-time special education is an important factor behind the good PISA results.

  11. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  12. 77 FR 6954 - Special Local Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Federal Register. This regulation is part of a review and update of local regulations. Our intent is to... under section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, as supplemented by... entities. The term ``small entities'' comprises small businesses, not-for-profit organizations that are...

  13. Influence of English on Modern Finnish: Preliminary Report on a Research Programme. Further Contrastive Papers, Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 6. Reports from the Department of English, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; And Others

    A study of the influence of English on modern Finnish was designed to determine how Anglicisms are used, how they are understood, and how they are adapted to the Finnish language system. Features of present-day Finnish were analyzed to discover to what extent the Finnish language and the Finns' sense of language are changing. Anglicisms were…

  14. INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED AMONG FINNISH RADIATION WORKERS IN 2004-13 AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE RECORDED INDIVIDUAL DOSES.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, A; Lehtinen, M; Alén, R

    2016-09-01

    Investigations are sometimes required to verify dose assessments or, where the reliability of the original results is known to be in question, to replace them with an estimate of the dose. In Finland, such investigations are conducted by three different parties: the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the individual monitoring service (IMS) and the parties operating a radiation practice (the undertakings). The reasons for such investigations as well as the findings from them vary widely between different parties. To determine their usefulness, all investigations carried out on Finnish radiation workers by the STUK, the IMS and the undertakings during 2004-13 have been reviewed. This paper presents the number, reasons for and findings of these investigations. The effect of the investigations on the recorded individual doses as well as on the working methods and other aspects of radiation protection in the work environment are described.

  15. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent.

  16. 78 FR 46809 - Safety Zones and Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... seven safety zones for five fireworks displays and two swim events in the Sector Long Island Sound area...'30.95'' N, 073 39'22.23'' W (NAD 83). Table 2 to Sec. 165.151 1.1 Swim Across the Sound Date: August... Stonewall Swim Date: August 3, 2013. Time: 8:30 a.m. until 12:30 p.m. Location: All navigable waters of...

  17. The prevalence of stalking among Finnish university students.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to participate in a stalking survey. In total, 615 students participated. Almost one fourth of the respondents (22.3%) had experienced one episode (i.e., period of time) of stalking, and more than one fourth (26.2%) reported being stalked two or more episodes (i.e., periods of time) in their lifetime. More than half (55%) of the stalkers were acquaintances, 25% were ex-partners, and 19% were strangers. The mean duration of stalking was 10 months. Stalking duration was significantly associated with stalker gender and prior victim-stalker relationship. Almost half of those being stalked (46%) had been exposed to violent or threatening behavior. Ex-partner stalkers were most likely to use violence as well as a wide range of violent stalking methods. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent associations between stalking violence and stalking behaviors. Stalking is highly prevalent among Finnish university students; it is maintained, on average, for a relatively long period; and it often includes some form of violence and/or threats. The results suggest that health care professionals require screening methods and schooling concerning stalking.

  18. Genetic and genealogic study of 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Nystroem-Lahti, M; Peltomaeki, P.; Aaltonen, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    Two susceptibility loci for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have been identified: MSH2 on chromosome 2p and MLH1 on chromosome 3p. This study focuses on the role of the latter locus in 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds. Of 9 families in which linkage studies were possible, 8 revealed linkage to markers on 3p. A haplotype of alleles from 9 loci extending 10 cM around MLH1 was conserved in 5 kindreds. All families with the shared large haplotype as well as two other 3p-linked families with different disease haplotypes showed an identical germline mutation of MLH1. The mutation consists of a heterozygous deletion of 165 bp corresponding to an exon. An additional 24 kindreds that could not be studied for linkage were tested for the presence of the above described deletion, and the mutation was found in 6. The ancestries of all kindreds were traced 3 to 13 generations back using data from the church parish registers. Of the 13 families with the 165 bp deletion in MLH1, 10 originated in a limited area in south-central Finland. At least 8 of these kindreds had a common ancestry. The remaining kindreds with the MLH1 mutation originated from another small region some 200 km away. The kindreds that did not show the characteristic germline mutation originated more evenly in different parts of the country. Our results suggest that a single MLH1 mutation is a widespread cause of HNPCC in the Finnish population.

  19. Leadership styles of Finnish nurse managers and factors influencing it.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of their leadership styles and factors influencing it. It is a challenge for nurse managers to retain nurses in hospitals and to ensure a high quality of care in nursing practice. Leadership style is an important part of leadership. Knowledge concerning nurse managers' resonant and non-resonant leadership styles provides nurse managers with tools to reflect on their own leadership style. Open-ended, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers from five Finnish hospitals and two long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories of leadership style were discerned: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding. Factors that influence leadership style were identified: earlier superiors, values, information, cooperation, employees and education. The results of this study show that Finnish nurse managers use both resonant and non-resonant leadership styles. The findings of this study show that nurse managers use a variety of leadership styles. The study demonstrates the importance of knowledge about leadership styles and factors influencing it among nurse managers providing future leadership and management education.

  20. Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management.

  1. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  2. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  3. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  4. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  5. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  6. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  7. Assessing the effect of interaction between an FTO variant (rs9939609) and physical activity on obesity in 15,925 Swedish and 2,511 Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, A; Renström, F; Lyssenko, V; Brito, E C; Isomaa, B; Berglund, G; Nilsson, P M; Groop, L; Franks, P W

    2009-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that genotypes at the FTO locus interact with physical activity to modify levels of obesity-related traits. We tested this hypothesis in two non-diabetic population-based cohorts, the first from southern Sweden and the second from the Botnia region of western Finland. In total 2,511 Finnish and 15,925 Swedish non-diabetic middle-aged adults were genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaires and standard clinical procedures were conducted, including measures of height and weight and glucose regulation. Tests of gene x physical activity interaction were performed using linear interaction effects to determine whether the effect of this variant on BMI is modified by physical activity. The minor A allele at rs9939609 was associated with higher BMI in both cohorts, with the per allele difference in BMI being about 0.13 and 0.43 kg/m(2) in the Swedish and Finnish cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). The test of interaction between physical activity and the rs9939609 variant on BMI was not statistically significant after controlling for age and sex in either cohort (Sweden: p = 0.71, Finland: p = 0.18). The present report does not support the notion that physical activity modifies the effects of the FTO rs9939609 variant on obesity risk in the non-diabetic Swedish or Finnish adults studied here.

  8. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in Finnish and Swedish children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mecklin, Minna; Hesselmar, Bill; Qvist, Erik; Wennergren, Göran; Korppi, Matti

    2014-09-01

    There is no widely accepted consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis. This study describes current practices in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. A questionnaire on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in children below 2 years of age was sent to all Finnish and Swedish hospitals providing inpatient care for children. All 22 Finnish hospitals answered, covering 100% of the <12-month-old population and 21 of the 37 Swedish hospitals responded, covering 74%. The mean upper age limit for bronchiolitis was 12.7 months in Finnish hospitals and 12.5 months in Swedish hospitals. In both, laboured breathing, chest retractions and fine crackles were highlighted as the main clinical findings, followed by prolonged expiration. The mean value for the lowest acceptable saturation in room air was 94% in Finnish hospitals and 93% in Swedish hospitals. The most important factors influencing hospitalisation were young age, desaturation and inability to take oral fluids. Finnish doctors preferred intravenous routes, and Swedish doctors preferred nasogastric tubes for supplementary feeding. The first-line drug therapy was inhaled racemic adrenaline in Finland and inhaled levo-adrenaline in Sweden. The diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis is fairly similar in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  11. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  12. Safety regulations, firm size, and the risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Iledare, O.O.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.; Dismukes, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    The current expanded role of smaller independent oil producers in the OCS has led to concern about the possibility of increased risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico OCS. In addition, questions have been posed concerning the effects of the Minerals Management Service`s (MMS) safety regulations and inspection program, firm size, and industry practices on the risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico OCS. The specific purposes of the study reported in this paper were to ascertain (1) whether any empirical justification exists for the widespread concern that an increase in independents relative share of E&P operations in the Gulf OCS region will be detrimental to safety, and (2) whether MMS policies and safety programs have reduced the frequency or severity of accidents on the OCS. Our statistical and descriptive analyses of data on accidents from MMS provide no statistical evidence to support the apprehension that an expanded role for independents in E&P activity constitutes any major threat to safety on the OCS. Further, the results of our econometrics analysis confirm the expectation that the more effective MMS inspectors are at detecting incidents of noncompliance the lower the rate of accidents on the OCS is, ceteris paribus. In addition the results indicate that the variability in platform exposure years--cumulative age of operating platform--in comparison to other factors explains a significant portion of the variation in accidents per operating platform. That is, the platform aging process provides more opportunity for accidents than any other contributing factors. Our econometrics analysis also suggests that, if the other factors contributing to offshore accidents are held constant, the responsiveness of accident rate to drilling activity is inelastic while the response of accident rate to production activity levels is elastic.

  13. Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-18

    and Hazardous Material Safety Administration (§304). The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration ( PHMSA ), within the Department of...Transportation (DOT), is the lead federal regulator of pipeline safety. PHMSA uses a variety of strategies to promote compliance with its safety...relations; and monitoring compliance with security standards, requirements, and regulation. While PHMSA and TSA have distinct missions, pipeline safety

  14. Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Raven, Geoff; Givney, Rod

    2004-04-15

    During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full effect, rates of salmonellosis have not decreased (surveillance and reporting systems have remained unchanged). Using statistics gathered by the National Enteric Pathogens Surveillance Scheme, an attempt was made to link Salmonella serovars isolated from meat and poultry with those causing salmonellosis. Two periods were studied, 1993/1994, before regulations were introduced, and 2000/2001, when regulations should be having an effect. For red meat, the same serovars were prominent among the top 10 isolates both before and after regulation, and there was little linkage with salmonelloses. For poultry, frequently isolated serovars differed pre- and post-regulation, however, in both periods there was some linkage between serovars isolated from poultry and those causing salmonelloses. Using published and unpublished survey data, it was concluded that there had been improvements in microbiological quality of red meat and poultry over the same timeframe as regulatory changes. That these improvements apparently have not carried through to reduced case-rates for salmonellosis may be due to numerous causes, including lack of control in the food processing, food service and home sectors. The present paper illustrates difficulties faced by governments in measuring public health outcomes of changes to food hygiene regulation.

  15. No simple answers for the Finnish and Russian Karelia allergy contrast: Methylation of CD14 gene.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Siew-Kim; Mäkelä, Mika; Chandler, David; Schultz, En Nee; Jamieson, Sarra E; Goldblatt, Jack; Haahtela, Tari; LeSouëf, Peter; Zhang, Guicheng

    2016-11-01

    Finnish and Russian Karelian children have a highly contrasting occurrence of asthma and allergy. In these two environments, we studied associations between total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) with methylation levels in cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14). Five hundred Finnish and Russian Karelian children were included in four groups: Finnish children with high IgE (n = 126) and low IgE (n = 124) as well as Russian children with high IgE (n = 125) and low IgE (n = 125). DNA was extracted from whole blood cells and pyrosequenced. Three CpG sites were selected in the promoter region of CD14. Methylation levels in two of the three CpG sites were higher in the Finnish compared to Russian Karelian children. In the promoter area of CD14, the Finnish compared to Russian children with low IgE had a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in methylation levels at the Amp5Site 2. Likewise, the Finnish compared to Russian children with high IgE had a significant (p = 0.003) increase in methylation levels at the Amp5Site 3. In Russian children with low vs. high IgE, there were significant differences in methylation levels, but this was not the case on the Finnish side. In the regression analysis, adding the methylation variation of CD14 to the model did not explain the higher asthma and allergy risk in the Finnish children. The methylation levels in the promoter region of CD14 gene were higher in the Finnish compared to Russian Karelian children. However, the methylation variation of this candidate gene did not explain the asthma and allergy contrast between these two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  17. Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Regulated Monitoring Data.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-10-18

    Universal access to safe drinking water is prioritized in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Collecting reliable and actionable water quality information in low-resource settings, however, is challenging, and little is known about the correspondence between water quality data collected by local monitoring agencies and global frameworks for water safety. Using 42 926 microbial water quality test results from 32 surveillance agencies and water suppliers in seven sub-Saharan African countries, we determined the degree to which water sources were monitored, how water quality varied by source type, and institutional responses to results. Sixty-four percent of the water samples were collected from piped supplies, although the majority of Africans rely on nonpiped sources. Piped supplies had the lowest levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) compared to any other source type: only 4% of samples of water piped to plots and 2% of samples from water piped to public taps/standpipes were positive for FIB (n = 14 948 and n = 12 278, respectively). Among other types of improved sources, samples from harvested rainwater and boreholes were less often positive for FIB (22%, n = 167 and 31%, n = 3329, respectively) than protected springs or protected dug wells (39%, n = 472 and 65%, n = 505). When data from different settings were aggregated, the FIB levels in different source types broadly reflected the source-type water safety framework used by the Joint Monitoring Programme. However, the insufficient testing of nonpiped sources relative to their use indicates important gaps in current assessments. Our results emphasize the importance of local data collection for water safety management and measurement of progress toward universal safe drinking water access.

  18. U.S. Senate voting on health and safety regulation: the effects of ideology and interest-group orientations.

    PubMed

    Jones, W; Keiser, R

    1986-01-01

    Ideological and interest-group influences attempt to influence policy formulation during the legislative process. In health and safety policy-making these interest-group influences, which are some of the best organized groups, are related to ideological and interest-group orientations of the legislators themselves. The authors analyzed Senate health care voting in the 95th U.S. Congress. General ideology, structured along the left-right dimension was important, but it was not the overriding factor. The senators voted as supporters or opponents of environmentalism as much or even more than as adherents of either liberal or conservative beliefs.

  19. [Present day problems in the elaboration of documents regulating sanitary-epidemiological safety of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R

    2004-01-01

    The drastic urbanization of modern society, the wide use of new teaching methods and programs at the educational establishments, the emergence of new types of pre-school educational institutions (PEI), the change of age-specific composition of children in both PEI and educational establishments require that new documents on the basic types of educational establishments should be worked out. The financing of work into preparing sanitary legislative documents has not been solved so far. In connection with the adoption of the Federal Law "On Technical Regulation", while preparing the technical regulations, society is to guarantee a child the development environment, good growth conditions, including the optimum level of functions.

  20. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  1. 78 FR 31402 - Safety Zones and Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    .... Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, as supplemented by Executive Order 13563, Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review, and does not require an assessment of potential costs and benefits under...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the...

  3. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  4. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  5. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  6. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  7. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  8. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  9. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  10. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  11. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  12. Mortality by indicators of socioeconomic status among the Finnish elderly.

    PubMed

    Martelin, T

    1994-05-01

    Socioeconomic mortality differentials among the entire Finnish elderly population (those aged 60 years and over) during 1981-85 are examined on the basis of linked data, compiled by means of linking death records of 1981-85 to the 1980 census. Several indicators of socioeconomic position are used: own educational level and occupational class, spouse's education and class, household disposable income, and housing conditions. Marked differences are found according to each of the indicators. Mortality differentials tend to decrease with age and be more pronounced among men as compared to women. In most cases differences persist even when the other socioeconomic indicators are taken into account although they diminish. The interpretation of socioeconomic mortality differentials and the problems of measuring the socioeconomic status of the elderly are discussed.

  13. Computerized two-dimensional model for Finnish vowel identifications.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, O; Suonpää, J

    1983-01-01

    511 different vowel-like stimuli were produced using a computer and speech synthesizer OVE III B. Their first formant varied from 250 to 800 Hz and their second formant from 800 to 2 400 Hz, covering thus the formant frequencies of the eight Finnish vowels. The randomized stimuli were listened to by 32 young adults with normal hearing. The identifications were analyzed automatically with the computer and plotted on a two-dimensional plane as a function of F1 and F2. The resulting basic vowel identification chart demonstrates the areas where the stimuli were identified as a certain vowel. The chart offers the practical means for presentation and follow-up of individual articulatory and auditory capacities.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of dental emergencies in two Finnish cities.

    PubMed

    Widström, E; Pietilä, I; Nilsson, B

    1990-06-01

    According to the present clinical survey of dental emergencies treated by organised emergency services in two of the larger Finnish cities, the main causes (64 per cent) of the problems leading to these visits were caries and its consequences. In about 80 per cent of the 839 cases treated, the acute treatment was based on clinical examination only. Temporary fillings were provided for 19 per cent, permanent fillings for 8 per cent, endodontic treatment for 22 per cent and extractions for 14 per cent of the patients. Extractions were most often provided for patients who normally visited a dentist irregularly and these had a low mean number of teeth. Patients with pain lasting longer than a week were likely to receive endodontic treatment, whereas permanent fillings were provided for regular dental visitors who had their own dentists. About 90 per cent of the patients were considered to need other dental treatment in addition to the treatment of the acute condition.

  15. Quality and safety of herbal medical products: regulation and the need for quality assurance along the value chains

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines and products derived from them are a diverse group of products for which different (and often limited) levels of evidence are available. As importantly, such products generally vary in their composition and are at the end of an often poorly understood value chain, which often links producers in biodiversity rich countries with the large markets in the North. This paper discusses the current regulatory framework of such herbal medical products (with a focus on the UK) and using examples from our own metabolomic research on Curcumal longa L. (turmeric, Zingiberaceae) how value chains impact on the composition and quality (and thus the safety) of such products. Overall, our recent research demonstrates the need for studying the links between producers and consumers of commodities produced in provider countries and that plant metabolomics offer a novel way of assessing the chemical variability along a value chain. PMID:25581270

  16. Quality and safety of herbal medical products: regulation and the need for quality assurance along the value chains.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Herbal medicines and products derived from them are a diverse group of products for which different (and often limited) levels of evidence are available. As importantly, such products generally vary in their composition and are at the end of an often poorly understood value chain, which often links producers in biodiversity rich countries with the large markets in the North. This paper discusses the current regulatory framework of such herbal medical products (with a focus on the UK) and using examples from our own metabolomic research on Curcumal longa L. (turmeric, Zingiberaceae) how value chains impact on the composition and quality (and thus the safety) of such products. Overall, our recent research demonstrates the need for studying the links between producers and consumers of commodities produced in provider countries and that plant metabolomics offer a novel way of assessing the chemical variability along a value chain.

  17. Preparedness of Finnish Emergency Medical Services for Chemical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jama, Timo J; Kuisma, Markku J

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The preparedness level of Finnish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for treating chemical emergencies is unknown. The aim of this study was to survey the preparedness level of EMS systems for managing and handling mass-casualty chemical incidents in the prehospital phase in Finland. Hypothesis The study hypothesis was that university hospital districts would have better clinical capability to treat patients than would central hospital districts in terms of the number of patients treated in the field within one hour after dispatching as well as patients transported to hospital within one hour or two hours after dispatching. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a Webropol (Wuppertal, Germany) survey. All hospital districts (n=20) in continental Finland were asked about their EMS preparedness level in terms of capability of treating and transporting chemically affected patients in the field. Their capability for decontamination of affected patients in the field was also inquired. University hospital district-based EMS systems had at least 20% better absolute clinical capacity than central hospital-based EMS systems for treating chemically affected patients concerning all treatments inquired about, except the capacity for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in the field. Overall, there was a good level of preparedness for treating chemical accident patients with supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, and inhaled corticosteroids. Preparedness for providing antidote therapy in cases of cyanide gas exposure was, in general, low. The variation among the hospital districts was remarkable. Only nine of 15 central hospital district EMS had a mobile decontamination unit available, whereas four of five university hospital districts had one. Emergency Medical Services capacity in Finland for treating chemically affected patients in the field needs to be improved, especially in terms of antidote therapy. Mobile

  18. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  19. BAP1 Germline Mutations in Finnish Patients with Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Joni A; Markkinen, Salla; Wilska, Rosi; Saarinen, Silva; Raivio, Virpi; Täll, Martin; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Kivelä, Tero T

    2016-05-01

    Germline mutations of the BRCA1-associated protein-1 gene (BAP1) predispose carriers to uveal melanoma. We report the population-based frequency of germline pathogenic variants of BAP1 in Finnish patients with uveal melanoma who live in a high-risk region for this cancer. Cohort study. In Finland, uveal melanomas are treated centrally in the Ocular Oncology Service, Helsinki University Hospital. We collected clinical data and genomic DNA from 148 of 188 consecutive patients diagnosed from January 2010 through December 2012. Seven of these patients from 6 families had a history of uveal melanoma in 1 relative, and 2 patients from 2 additional families had such a history in 2 relatives. Sequencing BAP1. Pathogenic variants in BAP1. We found 2 different pathogenic variants in BAP1 in 3 patients. Two patients had a single nucleotide insertion in exon 14 resulting in a shift of reading frame. Both had a family history of uveal melanoma in at least 1 relative. One patient without a family history of uveal melanoma had a single nucleotide substitution in the conserved splice donor site of intron 2. BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome-related cancers were present in all 3 families. The overall frequency of BAP1 pathogenic variants was 2.0% (3/148; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-5.8), the frequency among patients 50 years of age or younger was 3.6% (1/28; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-18), and a pathogenic variant was detected in 2 of 8 families with a history of uveal melanoma. The frequency of BAP1 germline pathogenic variants in consecutive Finnish patients with uveal melanoma who come from a high-risk region for the development of this cancer is comparable with reports from other populations. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Causes of death and life span in Finnish gelsolin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eeva-Kaisa; Atula, Sari; Tanskanen, Maarit; Nikoskinen, Tuuli; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Kiuru-Enari, Sari

    2016-08-01

    Finnish type of hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominant disorder. Until recently, there has only been little knowledge of fatal complications of the disease and its possible impact on the patients' life span. We identified 272 deceased patients based on patient interviews and genealogical data. After collecting their death certificates, we recorded the patients' underlying and immediate causes of death (CoD) and life span and compared them to the general Finnish population. We then calculated proportional mortality ratios (PMR), standardised for age and sex, for the CoDs. The underlying CoD in 20% of the patients was AGel amyloidosis (PMR = 114.2; 95% CI: 85.6-149.4). The frequency of fatal cancers (10%) was significantly diminished (PMR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.31-0.69). Renal complications were overrepresented as the immediate CoD in female patients (PMR = 2.82 95% CI: 1.13-5.81). The mean life span for male patients was 73.9 years (95% CI: 72.0-75.6) and 78.0 years for female patients (95% CI: 76.4-79.5) compared to 72.1 and 80.1 years for the general population. Our results suggest that the disease increases the risk of fatal renal complications but does not substantially shorten the life span, possibly due to the significantly lower frequency of fatal cancers. Key Messages AGel amyloidosis may increase the risk of renal complications, especially among female patients. The frequency of fatal cancers is significantly lower. The patients' life span is comparable to that of the general population.