Science.gov

Sample records for finnish safety regulations

  1. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  2. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  3. Influence of strict regulations on the use of hearing protectors in the Finnish Defence Forces.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Kuokkanen, J T; Lehtomäki, K M

    1999-11-01

    The regulations concerning hearing protection during military training in the Finnish Defence Forces were renewed in 1989. The material of this prospective study concerns 912 consecutive conscripts (463 before and 449 after the new regulations) who were referred to the Central Military Hospital for acute acoustic trauma (AAT). We focused on three issues: (1) general habits regarding the use of hearing protection during shooting drills and combat training; (2) hearing protection at the moment of AAT; and (3) the cause of AAT. In combat training, the use of any hearing protectors was only 50% before the new regulations, but after they came into force the proportion was greater than 90%, and more effective protectors were used. However, at the time of AAT the hearing protection was absent in more than 80% of cases in both groups. The most common cause of AAT was small arms in both groups (83%). PMID:10578597

  4. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  5. Patient safety culture in two Finnish state-run forensic psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, Anssi; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Eronen, Markku; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture refers to the way patient safety is regarded and implemented within an organization and the structures and procedures in place to support this. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient safety culture, identify areas for improvement, and establish a baseline for improving state hospitals in Finland. Cross-sectional design data were collected from two state-run forensic hospitals in Finland using an anonymous, Web-based survey targeted to hospital staff based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The response rate was 43% (n = 283). The overall patient safety level was rated as excellent or very good by 58% of respondents. The highest positive grade was for "teamwork within units" (72%). The lowest rating was for "nonpunitive response to errors" (26% positive). Good opportunities for supplementary education had a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on 9 of 12 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture dimensions. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in patient safety culture were also found in the staff's educational background, manager status, and between the two hospitals. These findings suggest there are a number of patient safety problems related to cultural dimensions. Supplementary education was shown to be a highly significant factor in transforming patient safety culture and should therefore be taken into account alongside sufficient resources. PMID:24256983

  6. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  7. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  8. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  9. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process. PMID:19080048

  10. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  11. New safety rules challenge U. K. operators, regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J. )

    1994-08-15

    Offshore safety regulations based on lessons learned from the Piper Alpha blast of 1988 have been in operation in the U.K. for a year. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 make operators of fixed and mobile installations (the duty holders'') responsible for producing a formal safety assessment, or safety case, for each installation. After the end of November 1995 it will be an offense to operate an installation without a safety case which has been approved by the government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Producing safety cases for installations is a major task for duty holder, while assessing them is a huge under taking for HSE's Offshore Safety Division (OSD). This paper reviews how HSE has established management arrangements to handle safety cases, considers progress in assessment, highlights some of the important lessons learned, and look to the future.

  12. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  13. 78 FR 11092 - Safety and Health Regulations for Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LABOR DEPARTMENT Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, revised as of July 1,...

  14. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  15. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 1 (Keynote session, environmental and safety regulations update, management strategies update, safety regulations) and Volume 2 (Environmental regulations)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes generated from a conference on the environment and safety aspects of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. This volume presents papers on environmental and safety regulations, methods for developing safety programs, hazardous operations/training regulations, and management planning strategies to meet these regulations. Papers discuss remediation of contaminated sites, emergency response planning, pending and developing regulations, and waste management practices.

  16. Youth Camp Safety & Health. Suggested State Statute & Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    To assist state regulatory agencies in development of comprehensive youth camp safety programs, this publication contains a brief suggested statute that could be used for initiation or modification of any state's youth camp safety programs and it outlines minimal regulations. Various categories of camps are covered--day, primitive, residential,…

  17. Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Gasson, M; Burke, D

    2001-03-01

    Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

  18. A comparison of some Mexican/U.S. safety regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bunner, W.R.

    1994-12-31

    In the US, safety and hygiene began to be enforced broadly with the formation of the US Department of Labor`s, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. In Mexico, the 1917 Constitution required companies to protect their workers against safety and hygiene hazards in the workplace. Additional requirements were added with the Federal Labor Law of 1931. General safety and hygiene regulations were added in 1934. Modern-day federal labor law in Mexico requires the creation of mixed safety and hygiene commissions in all industries. However, only about 114,000 workplaces have registered mixed commissions. In a similar vein, the most favored OSHA reform bill in the US proposes to require safety and health committees in all work places. At this time such committees are common in larger companies but not in smaller ones.

  19. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards. PMID:7258443

  20. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  1. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  2. Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintauro, Stephen J.; Krahl, Augusta G.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for…

  3. Safety regulation and firm size: effects of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, G.R.; Nelson, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    The Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 has contributed to the decline in mine productivity, which must be weighed against safer working conditions for the miners. There may be some overstatement of the benefits if only fatalities are considered, however, because there was an increase in non-fatal accidents after 1970. Safety regulations have forced the closure of some small mines and raised some questions about the tradeoffs necessary when work safety reduces competition. A review of pertinent legislation, a hedonic wage-differential model, and the effects of union wage policy are applied to these questions. 4 tables. (DCK)

  4. Noncoding RNA-regulated gain-of-function of STOX2 in Finnish pre-eclamptic families

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Cees BM; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar J.; Thulluru, Hari K.; Mulders, Joyce; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; Sistermans, Erik A.; van Dijk, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The familial forms of early onset pre-eclampsia and related syndromes (HELLP) present with hypertension and proteinuria in the mother and growth restriction of the fetus. Genetically, these clinically similar entities are caused by different founder-dependent, placentally-expressed paralogous genes. All susceptibility genes (STOX1, lincHELLP, INO80B) identified so far are master control genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway, but act at different entry points. Many genes remain to be identified. Here we demonstrate that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) within intron 3 of the STOX2 gene on 4q35.1 acts as a permissive cis-acting regulator of alternative splicing of STOX2. When this lncRNA is mutated or absent, an alternative exon (3B) of STOX2 is included. This introduces a stop codon resulting in the deletion of a highly conserved domain of 64 amino acids in the C-terminal of the STOX2 protein. A mutation present within a regulatory region within intron 1 of STOX2 has the same effect after blocking with CRISPR technology: transcripts with exon 3B are upregulated. This proces appears related to transcriptional control by a chromatin-splicing adaptor complex as described for FGFR2. For STOX2, CHD5, coding for a chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein, qualifies as the chromatin modifier in this process. PMID:27555360

  5. Noncoding RNA-regulated gain-of-function of STOX2 in Finnish pre-eclamptic families.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Cees Bm; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar J; Thulluru, Hari K; Mulders, Joyce; van de Vrugt, Henri J; Sistermans, Erik A; van Dijk, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The familial forms of early onset pre-eclampsia and related syndromes (HELLP) present with hypertension and proteinuria in the mother and growth restriction of the fetus. Genetically, these clinically similar entities are caused by different founder-dependent, placentally-expressed paralogous genes. All susceptibility genes (STOX1, lincHELLP, INO80B) identified so far are master control genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway, but act at different entry points. Many genes remain to be identified. Here we demonstrate that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) within intron 3 of the STOX2 gene on 4q35.1 acts as a permissive cis-acting regulator of alternative splicing of STOX2. When this lncRNA is mutated or absent, an alternative exon (3B) of STOX2 is included. This introduces a stop codon resulting in the deletion of a highly conserved domain of 64 amino acids in the C-terminal of the STOX2 protein. A mutation present within a regulatory region within intron 1 of STOX2 has the same effect after blocking with CRISPR technology: transcripts with exon 3B are upregulated. This proces appears related to transcriptional control by a chromatin-splicing adaptor complex as described for FGFR2. For STOX2, CHD5, coding for a chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein, qualifies as the chromatin modifier in this process. PMID:27555360

  6. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  7. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    PubMed

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  8. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  9. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  10. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  11. [Implementation in Finnish].

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Raija; Mäntyranta, Taina; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Komulainen, Jorma; Kaila, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Implementation research examines and promotes the uptake of research findings in various operational environments. The concepts of implementation research in Finnish are not yet established. In support of the research field we describe the Finnish equivalents of the central terms related to knowledge translation in healthcare and the frame of reference of Implementation research, with the national Current Care Guidelines as the starting point. The frame of reference is based on literature, experiences of the authors, iterative modification of the frame of reference on the basis of discussions, and results of expert inquiry. The frame of reference describes seven objects of evaluation, examples of research set-ups and methods as well as tools. PMID:27319083

  12. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  13. 78 FR 32990 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ....regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-0551 in the ``Keyword'' box, and then clicking ``Search.'' They are also... Alcatraz Island. (77 FR 41902) The special local regulation and safety zone regulate the...

  14. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  15. 49 CFR 397.2 - Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Federal motor carrier safety regulations. A motor carrier or other person to whom this part is...

  16. Finnish care integrated?

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, J. Jouni

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology. PMID:16896395

  17. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. 177.804 Section 177.804 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY...

  18. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  19. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  20. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  1. 78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update special local regulations and permanent safety...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  3. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice. PMID:17381811

  4. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,…

  5. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  6. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that.... Facilities, infrastructure, and equipment shall be inspected prior to use to ensure safety and...

  7. Comparative policy analysis of coal-mine safety regulation in the United States and Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The study concerns an analysis of the factors which influence death rates in coal mines in the United States and Poland. The study uses multiple regression and time series analysis on data since the end of World War II. A formal causal model is derived from political economy literatures and safety studies to analyze the determinants of death rates. Independent variables hypothesized to affect death rate include government regulation, numerous technical safety measures, profit, production, productivity, legislation and differences between the two countries' industrial and planning systems and ideologies. Death rate was reduced dramatically in Poland by the mid-1950s, due primarily to stringent safety regulations, and extensive safety training programs for workers. American death rate remained much higher than Polish death rate until the late 1970s, due to weaker legislation and regulations. Fines, closure orders, and safety training most strongly reduce American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing death rates. Political values and regulation stringency are more favorable to safety in Poland than in the United States.

  8. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    .../2008 USCG-2008-0948 Shark River Channel, NJ.. Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/3/2008 USCG-2008-0981... 165)...... 3/6/2009 USCG-2009-0095 White River Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/22/2008 USCG-2009-0096...)...... 7/2/2009 USCG-2009-0564 Great Lakes Special Local Regulation 6/26/2009 (Part 100)....

  9. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  10. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  11. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  12. The Finnish Day Care System and the Needs of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Eeva; Tamminen, Merja

    The Finnish family and day care, the child behavior and growth environment, and the development of day care are discussed in this paper. The Finnish family and day care is discussed in relation to policies regarding the Finnish family, the Finnish day care system, the basis of Finnish day care education, and ecological views in day care education.…

  13. 76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... Regulations to operators of certain farm vehicles and off-road agricultural equipment. The public comment... determine whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for...

  14. Regulating Space Assets Safety - China's Experience and Lex Ferenda of International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    With advantages of the fast development of space activities, the world witnesses more and more accidents and disasters relating to the space assets causing tremendous loss. No one can guarantee that the American and Russian satellites collision happened 2009 will never happen again. The regulations governing the space assets safety are inadequate both nationally and internationally. The further development of commercialization of space activities will give more pressure on the weakness of the already crowded space and of he already inadequate space regulations. As a quick developing space country, China has at least three levels of national regulations relating to space assets safety though the National Space Law will not promulgated in the soon future. All these regulations play very active roles in China's space activities, and may contribute to the future National Space Law. Based on the necessity of national and international regulations of space assets safety, this paper will clarify the status quo of China's regulations relating to the space assets safety, and explore the legal basis and possibility of international cooperation on space assets safety.

  15. Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5-year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction…

  16. Challenges in Developing Competency-based Training Curriculum for Food Safety Regulators in India

    PubMed Central

    Thippaiah, Anitha; Allagh, Komal Preet; Murthy, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1) Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2) Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3) Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level), II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing) were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting. PMID:25136155

  17. The precautionary principle and the regulation of U.S. food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Soule, Ed

    2004-06-01

    This article probes the advisability of regulating U.S. food and drug safety according to the precautionary principle. To do so, a precautionary regulatory regime is formulated on the basis of the beliefs that motivate most proponents of this initiative. That hypothetical regime is critically analyzed on the basis of an actual instantiation of a similarly stylized initiative. It will be argued that the precautionary principle entails regulatory constraints that are apt to violate basis tenets of political legitimacy. The modifications that would change this finding would also change precautionary regulation to the point that it would be indistinguishable from orthodox safety protocols. It is concluded on the basis of its impoverished content that the precautionary principle should not be taken seriously as a formal approach to the regulation of U.S. food and drug safety.

  18. Inconsistencies among European Union Pharmaceutical Regulator Safety Communications: A Cross-Country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefèvre, Jérémie H.; Downing, Nicholas; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6%) medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%), three of the four for 25 (47.2%), two of the four for 6 (11.3%), and one of the four for 5 (9.4%). Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1%) were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9%) by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2%) by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8%) by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. Conclusions Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined. PMID:25333986

  19. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  20. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  1. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

  2. 77 FR 15323 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may...; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... special local regulations and safety zone in the Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War...

  3. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... a proposed rule at 76 FR 14641 on March 17, 2011, to add a contract clause that clearly identifies... published at 76 FR 14642 on March 17, 2011. Briefly, the combination of the actions of the design control... Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS Case 2010-D022) AGENCY:...

  4. 76 FR 31279 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for limited distances... concerning off-road construction equipment. Questions 6 and 7 from 49 CFR 383.3 and Questions 7 and 8 for...

  5. 76 FR 50433 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... vehicles (76 FR 31279). Recognizing that changes in regulatory guidance (if implemented by a State) could... generally local--5 to 10 miles--on rural roads with little traffic. They stated that FMCSA has...

  6. 78 FR 13576 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... amended in the March 23, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR 16932). The Coast Guard revised the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District...

  7. 78 FR 29629 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ..., 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR 16932). The Coast Guard revised the list of permanent safety... and Fireworks Displays within the Fifth Coast Guard District'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 13576... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and...

  8. Coast Guard Regulations Applied to Offshore Drilling. Module SH-45. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on Coast Guard regulations applied to offshore drilling is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents requirements that apply to the design, construction, equipment, inspection, and operation of offshore drilling units. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  9. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public....O. 12777, sec. 2; E.O. 13286, sec. 34, 68 FR 10619; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas...

  10. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.

  11. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    .... L. 108-136), section 802, entitled ``Quality Control in Procurement of Aviation Critical Safety... weapon system which, if it failed, could cause catastrophic damage, unacceptable risk of personal injury, or loss of life. Implementing regulations established processes for designated design...

  12. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Carrier Safety Regulations. Motor carriers and other persons subject to this part must comply with 49 CFR part 383 and 49 CFR parts 390 through 397 (excluding §§ 397.3 and 397.9) to the extent those... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier...

  13. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Washington, WA...... Special Local Regulation (Part 8/31/2008 100). USCG-2008-0734 Lake Washington, WA... Building ground floor, room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 between 9 a.m. and 5.../2007 165). COTP San Francisco Bay 07-043 South Lake Tahoe, CA..... Safety Zones (Parts 147 and...

  14. 77 FR 22706 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... public input, we proposed a special local regulation and safety zone on January 30, 2012 (77 FR 4501)....

  15. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  16. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  17. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  18. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development. PMID:25819212

  19. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam’s pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk–benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes. PMID:22690037

  20. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education--How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and…

  1. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future. PMID:15876212

  2. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  3. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  4. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  5. Have government regulations improved workplace safety? A test of the asynchronous regulatory effects in China's coal industry, 1995-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.P.

    2009-07-01

    Empirical studies on the effectiveness of workplace safety regulations are inconclusive. This study hypothesizes that the asynchronous effects of safety regulations occur because regulations need time to become effective. Safety regulations will work initially by reducing the most serious accidents, and later by improving overall safety performance. The hypothesis is tested by studying a provincial level aggregate panel dataset for China's coal industry using two different models with different sets of dependent variables: a fixed-effects model on mortality rate, which is defined as fatalities per 1,000 employees; and a negative binominal model on the annual number (frequency) of disastrous accidents. Safety regulations can reduce the frequency of disastrous accidents, but have not reduced mortality rate, which represents overall safety performance. Policy recommendations are made, including shifting production from small to large mines through industrial consolidation, improving the safety performance of large mines, addressing consequences of decentralization, and facilitating the implementation of regulations through carrying on institutional actions and supporting legislation.

  6. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  7. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  8. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  9. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  10. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

  11. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  12. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  13. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  14. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  15. [Efficacy and safety in the new regulation of pharmaceutical products in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Hans; Salas, Sofía; Figueroa, Linder; Gutiérrez, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, pharmaceutical products (FP) are authorized after their risk-benefit profile has been assessed, taking into account efficacy, safety and quality parameters. In 2009, it was established in Peru that all pharmaceutical products to be commercialized should show proof of their efficacy and safety. According to the new regulation, in effect as of 2012, the pharmaceutical specialties (FS) have been grouped into three categories: category 1, if included in the National List of Essential Medicines; category 2, if authorized in countries with high health surveillance; and category 3, if not included in categories 1 or 2. The scientific documentation to be submitted for the registration or re-registration of the product in the regulatory entity will depend on its FS category. PMID:23338643

  16. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  17. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  18. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  19. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  20. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  1. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-09-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012.

  2. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  3. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo…

  4. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  5. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  6. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  9. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  10. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  11. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Asbestos Program 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Koskinen, K; Tossavainen, A; Karjalainen, A; Rinne, J P; Rantanen, J

    1995-07-01

    In 1987-1992, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) implemented a nationwide asbestos program aimed at preventing asbestos-related risks in good cooperation with governmental authorities, industry, trade unions, the health care and insurance systems, and mass media. The goals were to minimize all exposure to asbestos, identify people exposed at work, and improve the diagnostics of asbestos diseases, especially cancers. The program entailed several concrete actions and extensive dissemination of information, training, services, and scientific research. As proposed by the State Asbestos Committee, new use of asbestos products was banned and strict regulations were applied to renovation and inspection of old buildings. The screening study of asbestos-induced diseases included 18,943 current and retired workers from house building, shipyard, and asbestos industries. Pleural and parenchymal changes were found in 4,133 persons (22%), who were referred to further clinical examinations as suspected cases of an occupational disease. It was estimated that past exposure of asbestos among the Finnish population of 5 million causes > 150 mesotheliomas and lung cancers annually, totalling > 2,000 asbestos-induced cancer deaths by the year 2010. Although several major control actions were made or started during the program, the bulk of the preventive work still lies ahead.

  12. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  13. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher education policy,…

  14. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  15. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  16. Spoken Finnish: Book One [and] Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    This course in spoken Finnish is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book I and Book II, combined in this text, are divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3)…

  17. Technology Education in the Finnish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamaki, Ari

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 300 technology teachers in Finnish primary schools received 212 responses indicating that woodworking was a predominant activity and the design-based teaching method was most common. Age, education, and experience of teachers was not related to technology-education practice. Familiarity with technological equipment was not considered…

  18. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  19. Neurolinguistic Aspects of Finnish Posterior Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi

    Examination of the lexical errors (phonological paraphasias and neologisms) of two posterior aphasic patients who are speakers of Finnish, a highly synthetic language, revealed that the lexical difficulties generally typical of posterior aphasics were found in these patients as well. The typical lexical difficulties clustered around open class…

  20. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  1. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  2. Cardiac repolarisation and drug regulation: assessing cardiac safety 10 years after the CPMP guidance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2007-01-01

    December 2007 marks the 10-year anniversary of the first regulatory guidance for evaluation of drug-induced QT interval prolongation. A decade on, it seems surprising that this document, which was released by the Committee on Proprietary Medicinal Products, caused such acrimony in the industry. Sponsors now routinely evaluate their new drugs for an effect on cardiac electrophysiology in preclinical studies, in addition to obtaining ECGs in all phases of drug development and conducting a formal thorough QT study in humans.However, concurrently, new concerns have also emerged on broader issues related to the cardiovascular safety of drugs because of their potential to shorten the QT interval as well as to induce proischaemic, profibrotic or prothrombotic effects. Drugs may also have an indirect effect by adversely affecting one or more of the cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. through fluid retention or induction of dyslipidaemia). In addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists and cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective inhibitors, three other drugs, darbepoetin alfa, pergolide and tegaserod, provide a more contemporary regulatory stance on tolerance of cardiovascular risk of drugs and their benefit-risk assessment. This recent, more assertive, risk-averse stance has significant implications for future drug development. These include the routine evaluation of cardiovascular safety for certain classes of drugs. Drugs that are intended for long-term use will almost certainly require long-term clinical evaluation in studies that enrol populations that most closely resemble the ultimate target population. Novel mechanisms of action and biomarkers by themselves are no guarantee of improved safety or benefits. Even some traditional biomarkers have come to be viewed with scepticism. Requirements for more extensive and earlier postmarketing assessment of clinical benefits and rare, but serious risks associated with new medicinal products should create a new standard

  3. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  4. Changes in technical regulations and drivers' safety in top‐class motor sports

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2007-01-01

    Motor racing is a dangerous sport and an inherently risky activity. The organisers of top‐class motor sports championships, Formula One and MotoGP, have agreed on a set of regulations to reduce speed and improve safety over the last 10 years. These changes include limitations in weight, fuel and engine capacity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that most of the restrictions that have been introduced over the past 10 years have failed slow down vehicles, since the lap times have decreased almost linearly from 1995 to 2006 and drivers continue to die or to sustain serious injuries that keep them away from competition. Therefore, new and efficient measures should be adopted, such as lowering the cornering speed, having heavier and safer vehicles, having barriers surrounding the track to protect both spectators and competitors better, and having innovative clothing and protective devices to defend key anatomical structures while minimising the hindrance to the rider. PMID:17925386

  5. Self‐Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator‐based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable “nanogelator” that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid‐like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self‐regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium‐, pyrrolidinium‐, or piperidinium‐based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti‐nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes. PMID:27774385

  6. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  7. On-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1996-08-01

    As one of the standing committees under the American Petroleum Institute (API) General Committee of Refining, the Central Committee on Training and Development has several goals. These include improving plant operations and maintenance, reducing occupational injuries and illnesses, reducing the incidence of fires, maintaining effective environmental controls, and improving plant security. An additional responsibility is to develop cost and resource effective training materials. One of the activities the committee uses to achieve its goal is by sponsoring a series of biannual regional training conferences that attract participants from a variety of refineries and petrochemical plants. During the 1995 Spring Conferences, conference attendees were asked if on-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health was being utilized to assist compliance efforts and to achieve cost and resource effective training. In general, use of on-shift training is increasingly finding acceptance among the sites. One west coast refiner reported that their refinery had implemented a program of on-shift training for plant personnel on all environmental, safety and health regulations, and had achieved nearly one-hundred percent compliance through the first quarter of the effort.

  8. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  9. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  10. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  11. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    .../2011 USCG-2011-0213 Erie Basin, NY Safety Zone (Part 165)... 6/11/2011 USCG-2011-0217 Knoxville, TN... Safety Zone (Part 165)... 4/12/2011 USCG-2011-0273 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/14/2011 (Part.../28/2011 USCG-2011-0282 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/27/2011 (Part 165). ]...

  12. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  13. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. PMID:25881665

  14. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Regulation PHMSA estimates the 30-year net present values \\5\\ of compliance costs for this final rule to be... the regulation would cause is also unknown. The final 30-year net present values of benefits of this... present value of benefits of this final rule is $326.5 million. PHMSA expects the regulatory changes...

  15. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... low-stress pipeline. Costs of the Regulation PHMSA estimates the 30-year net present values \\3\\ of... by OMB Circular No. A-94 for 30-year net present values. Subpart A--General Subpart B--Annual... Regulation The 30-year net present value of benefits of this NPRM is $326.5 million. PHMSA expects...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement...

  19. 77 FR 50373 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Cup Race Management DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed...'' regatta scheduled to occur August 21-26, 2012 (77 FR 41902). That rule created a special local regulation... temporary safety zone to govern these events from noon to 5 p.m. (77 FR 41902); however, the events...

  20. Staff empowerment in Finnish intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Suominen, T; Leino-Kilpi, H; Merja, M; Doran, D I; Puukka, P

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe staff empowerment in Finnish intensive care units. The data were collected with a questionnaire comprising demographic background and empowerment items. The concept of empowerment was divided into three components: behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment. The questionnaire was sent to all registered nurses at Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). Eight hundred and fourteen replied, giving a response rate of 77%. The ICU nurses demonstrated confidence in their own skills and competencies, although least so in the domain of outcome empowerment. Experience of behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment increased linearly with age. The length of nursing experience was positively associated with behavioural, verbal and outcome empowerment. Experience in ICU nursing correlated positively with verbal and outcome empowerment. Motivation, job satisfaction, respect of job autonomy and the fact that the job of ICU nurses commanded respect in society were associated with behavioural, verbal, and outcome empowerment.

  1. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  2. Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and a substantial tsunami struck off the northeast coast of Japan. The Fukushima nuclear power plants were inundated and stricken, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Provisional regulation values for radioactivity in food and drink were set on 17 March and were adopted from the preset index values, except that for radioiodines in water and milk ingested by infants. For radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and transuranic α emitters, index values were defined in all food and drink not to exceed a committed effective dose of 5 mSv/year. Index values for radioiodines were defined not to exceed a committed equivalent dose to the thyroid of 50 mSv/year, and set in water, milk and some vegetables, but not in other foodstuffs. Index values were calculated as radioactive concentrations of indicator radionuclides ((131)I for radioiodines, (134)Cs and (137)Cs for radiocesiums) by postulating the relative radioactive concentration of coexisting radionuclides (e.g., (132)I, (133)I, (134)I, (135)I and (132)Te for (131)I). Surveys were thence conducted to monitor levels of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Provisional regulation values were exceeded in tap water, raw milk and some vegetables, and restrictions on distribution and consumption began on 21 March. Fish contaminated with radioiodines at levels of concern were then detected, so that the provisional regulation value for radioiodines in seafood adopted from that in vegetables were additionally set on 5 April. Overall, restrictions started within 25 days after the first excess in each food or drink item, and maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg for (131)I, and a total of 82,000 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs). This paper focuses on the logic behind such food safety regulations, and discusses its underlying issues. The outlines of the food monitoring results for 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions will also be described.

  3. Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The strategy for preventing occupational disease and injury in the coal mining industry employs several elements. Standards are set and enforced; technical assistance, research, and development are provided; and surveillance is conducted. Compensation for black lung is a vivid reminder of the consequences of failure to prevent disease. And, workers are represented by a union that encourages active participation in all aspects of this strategy. There are significant problems in each of these elements. Regulatory reform threatens to weaken many standards, there is a decline in government research budgets, surveillance is not well monitored, and compensation for black lung is significantly more difficult to obtain now than in the past. Moreover, the conservative governments of the past decade are not friendly towards unions. Nevertheless, the fundamental structure of disease and injury prevention remains intact and, more importantly, it has a historical record of success. The Mine Safety and Health Act provided for a wide array of basic public health measures to prevent occupational disease and injury in the mining industry. These measures have been effective in reducing both risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable coal mine dust. They are also associated with temporary declines in productivity. In recent years, however, productivity has increased, while risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable dust have declined. At individual mines, productivity with longwall mining methods appear to be associated with increases in exposure to respirable dust. These trends are not inconsistent with similar trends following implementation of regulations by OSHA. When OSHA promulgated regulations to control exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, enforcement of the standard promoted significant efficiencies in vinyl chloride production (5).21 references.

  4. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show... area is designated as a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by...

  5. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  6. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  7. Safety and efficacy of fertility-regulating methods: a decade of research.

    PubMed Central

    Skegg, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    An international venture was launched in 1985 to fill a recognized gap in post-marketing surveillance of fertility-regulating methods. For this purpose a new task force was set up by the Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, which is cosponsored by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and WHO. Research priorities were chosen and epidemiological studies inaugurated, involving a total of 47 countries--mostly from the developing world. Important progress has been made, especially in helping to define the beneficial and possible adverse effects of oral contraceptives on the risk of neoplasia; in showing that the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate protects against endometrial cancer and does not increase the overall risk of breast cancer, in clarifying which groups of women are susceptible to the rare cardiovascular complications of oral contraceptives (myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism); and in establishing the long-term effectiveness and safety of intrauterine devices. The research has already made a significant impact on family planning policies and practice. Critical appraisal of this venture, which has been modestly funded, confirms the value of mission-oriented research. It also illustrates the potential of collaboration that bridges the global divide between developing and developed countries. PMID:10534894

  8. Global Space Safety Regulations and Standards: The Conflicting Perspectives of the 'Merchants', the 'Guardians' and the 'Civilian' Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2010-09-01

    This article seek to explore the difference in viewpoint and approach to space safety that is now developing with regard to those that wish to exploit space commercially(i.e. the Merchants) versus those that see space as an extension of national defense and area of strategic interest(i.e. the Guardians), and those that pursue space as an area of civil governmental activity and oversight(i.e. the Civil Space Advocates ).1 These “actors” in the field of space and the key “definers” of space policy in future decades often see the purpose and goals related to outer space activities in fundamentally different ways. They also have quite different views as to how best to regulate and develop space safety standards and practices. With the recent shift in U.S. space policy toward commercial human flight development these issues become of even greater import to the future of space safety development and its regulation. New technological, political, defense and economic opportunities may well likely lead to increasing conflicts over best forms of management practices, appropriate regulations and standards, best ways to finance and implement new space initiatives, and even the best way to establish priorities for new projects and initiatives. This article seeks to analyze in some detail the differences in perspective and approach for all three types of actors in the field of space safety.

  9. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  10. The Significance of the Youth Society Movement in Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Youth Society movement on Finnish cultural life is widespread. Three main areas can be observed in all Youth Society activities: moral education of Finnish youth, extending ideas of national awakening to everyone, and a tendency to bring different social circles closer together. (JOW)

  11. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  12. The Influence of Swedish on the English of Finnish Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan

    A study of the effects of learning Swedish as a third language on the previously-learned English of native Finnish-speaking students examined 10,000 English-language school-leaving examinations of Finnish students for possible examples of Swedish influence in vocabulary, grammar, and word order. The examinations were those graded by a native…

  13. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  14. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  15. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  16. BASIC COURSE IN FINNISH. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEHTINEN, MERI; SEBEOK, THOMAS A.

    THIS TEXTBOOK IS INTENDED AS AN INTENSIVE FIRST-YEAR FINNISH COURSE ON THE ADULT LEVEL. THE INTRODUCTION PROVIDES AN EXPLANATION OF THE AURAL-ORAL APPROACH USED IN THE COURSE AS WELL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE SOUND SYSTEM OF FINNISH AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PRONUNCIATION. THE 33 LESSON UNITS, FIVE OF WHICH ARE REVIEW UNITS, FOLLOW A GENERAL FORMAT--(1)…

  17. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  18. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  19. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...-2010-0079 Port Arthur, TX Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 2/2/2010 USCG-2010-0080 Sabine, TX Security Zone...-0107 Sabine, TX Security Zone (Part 165)... 2/11/2010 USCG-2010-0108 Charleston, WV Safety Zone (Part...). USCG-2010-0218 Sabine, TX Security Zone (Part 165)... 4/1/2010 USCG-2010-0219 Waterway, TX...

  20. 76 FR 77121 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., gametes, and juvenile fish across the barriers see 70 FR 76694, 75 FR 754, and 75 FR 75145, which were... RNA on December 28, 2005 (70 FR 76694). That RNA is located at 33 CFR 165.923. Because the safety... zone. The first temporary RNA and safety zone were established on January 6, 2010 (75 FR 754)....

  1. Offshore safety regulations in Norway: from model to system in erosion.

    PubMed

    Ryggvik, H

    2000-01-01

    There are indications that the Norwegian oil province has experienced a decrease in incidents since the introduction of its external control system, which gives industry an important role in setting and maintaining safety standards. This article argues that much of the veneration of the Norwegian model is based on a misreading of the Norwegian offshore health and safety system. The author suggests that improvements in offshore safety in Norway were not caused by the adoption of the internal control system alone, but rather by a number of factors which included the introduction of the stringent Norwegian Work Environment Act, which gives union representatives the right to stop work when they feel safety is jeopardized, as well as the maintenance of strong offshore unions with a comprehensive network of trade union-appointed safety representatives.

  2. Finnish perspectives of wireless in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Alasaarela, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Wireless solutions are a good choice for healthcare development in Finland. A survey of 135 experts in Finland show that (1) the competences needed for developing wireless solutions exist (2) the Finnish healthcare system is integrated enough and (3) the technology industry in this area is too weak for global marketing. The following recommendations can be concluded: (1) Cooperate internationally (2) Develop integrated solutions and health managing concepts for the important health problems (such as diabetes), (3) Harness the healthcare system to act as a test bed for new solutions and (4) Help companies to grow and take global roles. PMID:19906633

  3. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  4. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  5. 75 FR 66683 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 246 and 252 RIN 0750-AG73 Defense Federal Acquisition... Case 2009-D029) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement section 807 of the National...

  6. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  7. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population". PMID:25971137

  8. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".

  9. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  10. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  11. 77 FR 27621 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Harbor, the Northwest Harbor, the Patapsco River, and the Chesapeake Bay. DATES: This rule is effective... Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 15323... clear passage of participating vessels, a safety buffer around the participating vessels while they...

  12. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  13. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  14. The Association between Motivation in School Physical Education and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the role of motivational climates, perceived competence and motivational regulations as antecedents of self-reported physical activity during junior high school years. The participants included 237 Finnish students (101 girls, 136 boys) that were 13 years old at the first stage of the…

  15. The Determinants of Federal and State Enforcement of Workplace Safety Regulations: OSHA Inspections 1990-2010*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    We explore the determinants of inspection outcomes across 1.6 million Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) audits from 1990 through 2010. We find that discretion in enforcement differs in state and federally conducted inspections. State agencies are more sensitive to local economic conditions, finding fewer standard violations and fewer serious violations as unemployment increases. Larger companies receive greater lenience in multiple dimensions. Inspector issued fines and final fines, after negotiated reductions, are both smaller during Republican presidencies. Quantile regression analysis reveals that Presidential and Congressional party affiliations have their greatest impact on the largest negotiated reductions in fines. PMID:24659856

  16. 77 FR 73311 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...'' scheduled to occur in July, August, and September, 2013 (77 FR 41902). Among the regulations established by... published on July 17, 2012, (77 FR 41902), make the following correction: Sec. 100.T11-0551B 0 1. On page... coordinates of the transit zone established for the 2013 America's Cup events. This document corrects...

  17. Improving Food Safety in Meat and Poultry: Will New Regulations Benefit Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Roberts, Tanya; Jensen, Helen H.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System for meat and poultry processing will benefit consumers by reducing food-borne illnesses. The benefits are likely to exceed the additional costs from implementing the regulations. (SK)

  18. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  20. 77 FR 4501 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ..., an email address, or a telephone number in the body of your document so that we can contact you if we... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meetings We will hold three... subject to COTP determination. Images of the primary and contingent regulated areas are available in...

  1. 77 FR 41902 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MEP Marine Event... FR 4501. The Coast Guard provided a 90-day period for public comment on the proposed ] regulations... northwest to position 37 49'14'' N, 122 25'12'' W located south of Alcatraz Island, running west to...

  2. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipyard Employment (29 CFR part 1915); or (c) Any other applicable Federal, State, and local laws, codes... Repairing. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Department of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Labor...

  3. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipyard Employment (29 CFR part 1915); or (c) Any other applicable Federal, State, and local laws, codes... Repairing. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Department of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Labor...

  4. 75 FR 31836 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... published a final rule on September 27, 2002 (67 FR 61212), revising the regulations in 49 CFR part 393....100 (reference 62 FR 16419, dated April 4, 1997) is no longer valid and is hereby withdrawn. General Amendments to Part 393 FMCSA published a final rule on August 15, 2005 (70 FR 48008), amending part 393...

  5. 77 FR 46285 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta scheduled for August 21-26, 2012, on the... zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta... published in association with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regattas. This program calendar...

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  7. Confidence in biopreparedness authorities among Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Vartti, Anne-Marie; Aro, Arja R; Jormanainen, Vesa; Henriksson, Markus; Nikkari, Simo

    2010-08-01

    A large sample of Finnish military conscripts of the armored brigade were questioned on the extent to which they trusted the information given biopreparedness authorities (such as the police, military, health care, and public health institutions) and how confident they were in the authority's ability to protect the public during a potential infectious disease outbreak, from either natural or deliberate causes. Participants answered a written questionnaire during their initial health inspection in July 2007. From a total of 1,000 conscripts, 953 male conscripts returned the questionnaire. The mean sum scores for confidence in the information given to biopreparedness authorities and the media on natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range = 0-30) were 20.14 (SD = 7.79) and 20.12 (SD = 7.69), respectively. Mean sum scores for the respondents' confidence in the ability of the biopreparedness authorities to protect the public during natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range 0-25) were 16.04 (SD = 5.78) and 16.17 (SD = 5.89). Most respondents indicated that during a natural outbreak, they would have confidence in information provided by a health care institution such as central hospitals and primary health care centers, whereas in the case of bioterrorism, the respondents indicated that they would have confidence in the defense forces and central hospitals. PMID:20731266

  8. African perspectives on the need for global harmonisation of food safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Anelich, Lucia E C M

    2014-08-01

    Africa is a large continent consisting of 54 countries at different levels of development and reflecting numerous diverse cultures. Africa's agricultural potential is largely untapped, with approximately 60% of the world's non-cultivated arable land found in sub-Saharan Africa. Excluding South Africa, which is the largest economy in Africa and which has a well-established food sector with a substantial export market, economies in sub-Saharan Africa have been steadily growing at over 5% per annum. Whilst most African countries face many challenges, including weak infrastructure as well as political and economic instability, many changes are occurring, one of these being identifying specific commodities in a particular country which warrant substantial investment for growth into export opportunities. These opportunities create an immediate need for development of food standards, including food safety standards, based on scientific principles to enable regional and international trade in food, thereby assisting in ensuring Africa's role in the global food economy.

  9. NRC safety research in support of regulation - FY 1994. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, the tenth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1994. The goal of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is to ensure the availability of sound technical bases for timely rulemaking and related decisions in support of NRC regulatory/licensing/inspection activities. RES also has responsibilities related to the resolution of generic safety issues and to the review of licensee submittals regarding individual plant examinations. It is the responsibility of RES to conduct the NRC`s rulemaking process, including the issuance of regulatory guides and rules that govern NRC licensed activities.

  10. African perspectives on the need for global harmonisation of food safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Anelich, Lucia E C M

    2014-08-01

    Africa is a large continent consisting of 54 countries at different levels of development and reflecting numerous diverse cultures. Africa's agricultural potential is largely untapped, with approximately 60% of the world's non-cultivated arable land found in sub-Saharan Africa. Excluding South Africa, which is the largest economy in Africa and which has a well-established food sector with a substantial export market, economies in sub-Saharan Africa have been steadily growing at over 5% per annum. Whilst most African countries face many challenges, including weak infrastructure as well as political and economic instability, many changes are occurring, one of these being identifying specific commodities in a particular country which warrant substantial investment for growth into export opportunities. These opportunities create an immediate need for development of food standards, including food safety standards, based on scientific principles to enable regional and international trade in food, thereby assisting in ensuring Africa's role in the global food economy. PMID:24903260

  11. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  12. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  13. New modes of regulation for health and safety: post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of "softer" voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create "a culture of prevention." The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new "soft law" modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the "new" European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be "new," or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  14. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  15. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  16. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  17. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher…

  18. Probiotics for animal nutrition in the European Union. Regulation and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria Rosa; Aranzazu Martínez, Maria

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are alive micro-organisms, generally bacteria but also yeasts than, when ingested alive in sufficient amount, they have a positive effect on the health going beyond the nutritional ones commonly known. Probiotics may operate through a nutritional and/or health or sanitary effect. Micro-organisms used in animal feed in the EU are mainly bacterial strains of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the types Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and strains of yeast belonging to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species and kluyveromyces. While most of the species and genera are apparently safe, certain micro-organisms may be problematic, particularly the enterococci, which may harbour transmissible antibiotic resistance determinants and bacilli, specially those belonging to the Bacillus cereus group that are known to produce enterotoxins and an emetic toxin. The history and the current legislation in the European Union on probiotics feed additives including the requirements for the safety assessment for the target animal species, consumers, workers, and environment are presented. PMID:16563585

  19. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  20. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  1. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities. PMID:10827305

  2. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland. PMID:27081893

  3. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  4. Finnish nurses' attitudes to pain in children.

    PubMed

    Salanterä, S

    1999-03-01

    This study measured the attitudes of Finnish paediatric nurses to children in pain and the connection between nurses' attitudes, nurses' attributes and nurses' own view of their knowledge and ability to take care of children in pain. The measurements were based on a purpose-designed instrument consisting of a 41-item Likert-type questionnaire and demographic data. The convenience sample consisted of paediatric nurses at all five university hospitals in Finland (n = 303). The response rate was 87%. ANOVA and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were used as statistical methods. The results show that, taken as a whole, the attitudes of these nurses do not hinder effective pain management but there are some misconceptions that need further attention. It also emerged that such attributes as nurses' age, education, experience, place of work and field of expertise do not have a significant effect on nurses' attitudes. Nurses working in operating theatres felt they had a limited scope to work together with parents and in some hospitals nurses felt they had limited scope to work together with other staff groups. The units differed significantly in nurses' views about the unit's possibilities to provide treatment for pain. The findings of this study indicate that although nurses' attitudes to pain management are mainly positive, there is much variation in how they feel they can actually provide quality care to control pain. More attention should be paid to training nurses and to providing knowledge about the treatment of pain in children. Future research should look at nurses' existing knowledge base as well as their activities in the assessment and management of pain. PMID:10210472

  5. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  6. Global harmonization of food safety regulations: perspectives from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Japanese food self-sufficiency was only 39% on the basis of kcal in 2012, so Japan relies heavily on imported food. Hence the necessity of having international rules on the regulation of food contaminants is important especially for countries like Japan that depend on food imports. A One-Stop-Testing system is desired, in which the test result obtained from a single testing laboratory is accepted as valid worldwide. To establish this system, laboratory accreditation under international standards is a necessary step. Furthermore, the importance of supply of reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing for external quality control of each laboratory's analytical system is reviewed in connection with the experience of radioactive nuclide contamination resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011.

  7. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Types Persist in Finnish Chicken Production

    PubMed Central

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks. PMID:25700264

  8. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  9. Change detection for Finnish CORINE land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, Markus; Härmä, Pekka; Hatunen, Suvi; Teiniranta, Riitta; Kallio, Minna; Järvenpää, Elise

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the ideas, data and methods to produce Finnish Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC2006) classification. This version is based on use of existing national GIS data and satellite images and their automated processing, instead of visual interpretation of satellite images. The main idea is that land use information is based on GIS datasets and land cover information interpretation of satellite images. Because Finland participated to CLC2000-project, also changes between years 2000 and 2006 are determined. Finnish approach is good example how national GIS data is used to produce data fulfilling European needs in bottom-up fashion.

  10. Finnish Government reiterates its support for fifth nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In late February 1993, the Finnish government voted 11 to 6 in favor of supporting a fifth nuclear reactor for the country. The vote, which was viewed as a vote in principle to support the nuclear option, was taken at the behest of the Finnish utilities. It follows a parliamentary vote in November 1992 that opposed building new nuclear sites. Thus, the issue is now being discussed in committees, and a parliamentary vote whether or not to approve the government stance will take place later this spring.

  11. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the ‘Robens Philosophy’ of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961–1974

    PubMed Central

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the ‘modern’ system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos—the ‘Robens philosophy’—than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to ‘self-regulation’ heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated. PMID:26858514

  12. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  13. The [14C-N-methyl]-erythromycin breath test dosimetry complies with the French regulations for radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Salvat, Cécile; Mouly, Stéphane; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Simoneau, Guy; Duet, Michèle; Nataf, Valérie; Bailliart, Olivier; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2003-06-01

    The [14C-N-methyl]-erythromycin breath test (14C-ERMBT) is one of the most valuable probes for liver cytochrome P450-3A4 activity in humans. In order to extend the use of this test in France, we herein provide safety data regarding either patient dosimetry or worker exposure to [14C-N-methyl]-erythromycin. In order to determine the maximum radiation exposure for patient and nuclear medicine technician following one intravenous 14C-ERMBT [111 kiloBequerel (kBq)], we have used the dosimetric data gathered in animal studies and extrapolated to humans using a weight-based method, approximate data provided by the French Society of Radioprotection and erythromycin pharmacokinetics in humans, considering always the worst conditions for the patient and worker exposure determination. The radioactivity administered to a patient after one 14C-ERMBT was equal to 108.8 kBq (i.e. 98% of the total radioactivity in the 14C-erythromycin vial) leading to a patient effective dose of 20 microsievert (microSv) and a maximum effective dose after 14CO2 inhalation by the exposed worker of 16 microSv compared with a mean individual annual effective dose from natural and artificial radioactivity exposure of 3500 microSv in France. The 14C-ERMBT is safe and complies with the European regulations regarding the administration of 14C-labelled compounds in humans. It can therefore be used in clinical research in France without any particular safety requirement.

  14. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  15. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious…

  16. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  17. The Predictiveness of the Finnish Matriculation: a Differential Psychology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtovaara, A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of part of a comprehensive research project concerning the Finnish matriculation examination. The goal of the project was to explore the matriculation examination as a series of tests indicative of ability differences between individuals, regardless of their causes. The…

  18. Bridge Building for the Future of the Finnish Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the strategy process of Finnish polytechnics using the balanced scorecard approach. The study extends the balanced scorecard from the communication and implementation of this strategy to the planning of the strategy. Stakeholders formulated a strategic managerial plan for the network of all polytechnics in Finland by applying…

  19. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  20. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  1. Holistic School Pedagogy and Values: Finnish Teachers' and Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the components of holistic school pedagogy as identified by a sample of Finnish secondary school teachers and students from two schools. Holistic pedagogy concerns the development of the whole student and acknowledges the cognitive, social, moral, emotional and spiritual dimensions of education. The data…

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Virus Strains from Finnish Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y.; Siikamäki, Heli; Saarinen, Auli; Piiparinen, Heli; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2008-01-01

    We characterized 11 dengue virus (DENV) isolates obtained from Finnish travelers during 2000–2005 using monoclonal antibodies and phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of DENV isolated from travelers contributes to the global picture of strain distribution and circulation. The isolates included all serotypes, including a DENV-2 isolate from Ghana. PMID:18258084

  3. Finnish Children's Views on the Ideal School and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Marjaana

    2010-01-01

    This grounded-theory study involved how Finnish children describe their ideal school and learning environment and considers how their notions should be valued in the development of schools to better respond to the challenges of the future. The school children, aged 10-12 years, participated in the study by writing a story about a school in which…

  4. Active Learning in a Finnish Engineering University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Debra; Ahonen, Anna-Maija

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the use of active learning techniques in an upper-level engineering course at the Helsinki University of Technology. The paper describes how these techniques were introduced and successfully used within the Finnish university classroom. The cultural subtext is explored and attention is given to teaching techniques…

  5. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  6. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  7. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a desirable…

  8. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  9. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  10. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  11. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  12. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  13. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  14. Some Perspectives on Global Education in Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudas, Anna-Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses global education in Finnish basic education with the help of two major publications in the field: the National Core Curriculum (2004) and the Global Education Programme (2007). The core values and goals of these documents are considered in the light of selected learning theories, and ongoing research is presented which…

  15. A Special Education Teacher's Networks: A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomainen, Jenna; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzed a special education (SE) teacher's activity within his workplace community and external professional network in a Finnish special education context. The nature of the SE teacher's networks and his networking role were examined using an interview and a questionnaire, completed by the teachers working in the community…

  16. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  17. Students' Experiences of Workplace Learning in Finnish VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Anne; Tynjala, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish vocational education and training system underwent remarkable transformations at the turn of the century. One of the biggest changes was introducing compulsory and guided on-the-job learning periods in all study programmes. In this article students' experiences of on-the-job learning and in particular of integrating school-based and…

  18. Changing Literacy Practices According to the Finnish Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how a teacher implemented principles of literacy teaching and learning set forth in the Finnish core curriculum in a first-grade classroom, focusing on two aspects of the curriculum: (1) "a community-oriented view of language," which can be understood from a socio-cultural perspective; and (2) "a broad conception of…

  19. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  20. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two

  1. Randomized phase 2 trial of NP001–a novel immune regulator: Safety and early efficacy in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gilbert; Katz, Jonathan S.; Barohn, Richard J.; Gopalakrishnan, Vidhya; Cudkowicz, Merit; Zhang, Jane R.; McGrath, Michael S.; Ludington, Elizabeth; Appel, Stan H.; Azhir, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of NP001, a novel immune regulator of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages, for slowing progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: This was a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of NP001 in 136 patients with ALS of <3 years' duration and forced vital capacity ≥70%. Participants received NP001 2 mg/kg, NP001 1 mg/kg, or placebo for 6 months. Safety, tolerability, and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed throughout the study. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated using the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) slope and change from baseline, with and without matched historical placebo controls, after 6 months of treatment. A post hoc analysis of the percentage of patients (“responders”) whose ALSFRS-R did not change from baseline was also conducted. Results: NP001 was generally safe and well-tolerated, except for infusion site pain and dizziness. No significant slowing of decline in the primary or secondary measures was observed. However, slowing of progression was observed in the high-dose group in patients with greater inflammation (wide range C-reactive protein). Moreover, NP001 may have dose dependently halted symptom progression in a subset of patients. More than 2 times as many patients on high-dose NP001 (25%) did not progress during 6 months of treatment compared with those on placebo (11%). Most “responders” had an elevated biomarker of inflammation, interleukin-18, and were positive for lipopolysaccharide at baseline, which decreased after treatment with NP001. Conclusion: The arresting of progression of ALS symptoms by NP001 in a subset of patients with marked neuroinflammation, as observed here, will represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with ALS, if confirmed. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with ALS, NP001 is safe and did not significantly slow progression of the

  2. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Coast Guard proposes to amend 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 as follows: PART 100--SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE... at any time it is deemed necessary to ensure the safety of life or property. (g) For all power...

  3. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exterior water. Potable water is water treated and stored aboard the vessel that is suitable for human... vessels are prohibited from transiting the safety zone with any non-potable water on board if they intend to release that water in any form within, or on the other side of the safety zone. Non-potable...

  4. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well. PMID:15943388

  5. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health.

  6. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. PMID:22269485

  7. Global harmonization of safety regulations for the use of industrial robots-permission of collaborative operation and a related study by JNIOSH

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Tsuyoshi; HOSHI, Toshiro; IKEDA, Hiroyasu; OKABE, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) partially amended the safety regulations for use of industrial robots so that “collaborative operation” could be performed at Japanese worksites as allowed in the ISO standard for industrial robots. In order to show global harmonization of Japanese legislation on machinery safety and problems with applying ISO safety standards to Japanese worksites, this paper reports the progress of a research study which have been conducted in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan from 2011 to the present at the request of MHLW to examine the necessity and effect of the amendment. In the first phase of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among domestic robot manufacturers and users. The obtained results revealed their potential demand for the collaborative operation and problems concerning their risk assessment and rule-based risk reduction. To solve the problems, we propose a method based on an investigation result of the regulatory framework for safety of machinery in the European Union. Furthermore, a model of robot system capable of demonstrating the collaborative operation and risk reduction measures which is being developed to support appropriate implementation of the amendment is also described. PMID:26118854

  8. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  9. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  10. 33 CFR 165.T09-1054 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arch). (2) Regulations. (i) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound... navigation area. (1) The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago...

  11. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  12. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  13. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: a scientific review.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Brower-Toland, Brent; Jackson, Aimee L; Kier, Larry D

    2013-07-01

    Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants modified to express mediators of RNA-mediated gene regulation, including RNA interference (RNAi), a gene suppression mechanism that naturally occurs in plants and animals. The molecular mediators of RNAi, including long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA), occur naturally in foods; therefore, there is an extensive history of safe consumption. Systemic exposure following consumption of plants containing dsRNAs that mediate RNAi is limited in higher organisms by extensive degradation of ingested nucleic acids and by biological barriers to uptake and efficacy of exogenous nucleic acids. A number of mammalian RNAi studies support the concept that a large margin of safety will exist for any small fraction of RNAs that might be absorbed following consumption of foods from biotechnology-derived plants that employ RNA-mediated gene regulation. Food and feed derived from these crops utilizing RNA-based mechanisms is therefore expected to be as safe as food and feed derived through conventional plant breeding.

  14. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The…

  15. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  16. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  17. Risk-Taking Abilities for Everyone? Finnish Entrepreneurship Education and the Enterprising Selves Imagined by Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Katri; Korhonen, Maija; Raty, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the spread of the neo-liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition "Good Enterprise!" written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their…

  18. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  19. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of "Finnish education…

  20. Russian Pupils in Finnish Schools--Problems Created by Differences in Pedagogical Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laihiala-Kankainen, Sikka

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a 1997-98 pilot study that asked five Finnish teachers working with immigrant children to discuss problems of Russian-speaking students in Finnish classrooms. Russian-speaking students were also interviewed. Problem areas included social relationships, teacher and learner roles, the teaching/learning process, and parent/school…

  1. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  2. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

  3. THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINNISH LANGUAGE. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAKULINEN, LAURI

    THIS INDIANA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND REVISION OF THE FINNISH ORIGINAL "SUOMEN KIELEN RAKENNE JA KEHITYS," (OTAVA, HELSINKI, 1941 AND 1946). CHAPTERS IN PART I TREAT--(1) THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF FINNISH, (2) HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY, (3) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OR PARTS OF SPEECH, AND (4) INFLECTION AND DERIVATION. CHAPTERS…

  4. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  5. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  6. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  7. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  8. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  9. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  10. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  11. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  12. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…

  13. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  14. The Letter-Sound Generalization of First, Second, and Third Grade Finnish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Richard L.

    To find how well children learn letter-sound correspondences when an orthography is highly regular, and how this ability relates to socioeconomic status (SES) and to reading ability, 240 Finnish children were tested for letter-sound generalizations. The test consisted of 25 synthetic words, constructed to look like Finnish words and to contain the…

  15. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  16. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  17. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research. PMID:25787905

  18. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  19. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  20. Balantidium coli-infection in a Finnish horse.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Kummala, Elina; Sukura, Antti

    2008-11-25

    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan that inhabits the large intestine of swine, man, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Frequently this organism is associated with enteric diseases in man and nonhuman primates, with rare manifestations of disease in swine and other mammalian species. This report describes a case of B. coli-induced enteric disease in a 15-yr-old, mare, Finnish Horse after an acute onset of colic. Severe hemorrhagic and eosinophilic colitis with intense infiltration of intralesional B. coli-like ciliated protozoan were found histologically. PMID:18922641

  1. 77 FR 39398 - Safety Zone and Special Local Regulation; 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks and Spectator Viewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... enhance safety and improve the visual effect of the fireworks for the 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP...'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 69613). In that rulemaking, the Coast Guard established a...

  2. 76 FR 53337 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ..., fireworks displays and swim events. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable... event dates for the following reasons. Sponsors for Waves of Hope Swim, Stonewall Swim, Hartford Dragon... fireworks and swim events. Marine events are frequently held on the navigable waters within the COTP...

  3. 77 FR 52604 - Special Local Regulations; Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... inclement weather, the regulation will be enforced on the rain date indicated in tables below. These regulations were published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012 (77 FR 6954). Table 1 to Sec. 165.151 August 8.5 Old Black Point Beach Association Date: August 18, 2012. Fireworks. Rain Date: August 19,...

  4. 78 FR 46809 - Safety Zones and Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... by inclement weather, the regulation will be enforced on the rain date indicated in tables below. These regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31402). ] Table to Sec... Association Date: August 17, 2013. Fireworks. Rain Date: August 18, 2013. Time: 8:30 p.m. to 10:30...

  5. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound barge tows that consist of barges carrying... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  6. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) All up-bound and down-bound barge tows that consist of barges carrying... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  7. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.13 apply. (ii) Vessels that comply with the following restrictions are permitted to transit the RNA: (A) Vessels must be greater than 20 feet in length. (B) Vessels must not be a... following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

  8. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent. PMID:25559698

  9. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent.

  10. Unemployment and health: experiences narrated by young Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Söderlund, Maud; Nyström, Lisbet; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  11. Healthy lifestyles of former Finnish world class athletes.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Kaprio, J; Sarna, S

    1994-02-01

    Recently, Sarna et al. (Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25:237-244, 1993) reported increased mean life expectancy in former world class athletes. Because lifestyle is associated with longevity, we have examined whether health habits of former Finnish male athletes (N = 1274; present mean age: 57.5, range: 36-94 yr) differed from those of noncompetitive referents (N = 788; mean age: 55.7, range: 39-87 yr). The athletes had represented Finland in international competitions in endurance (N = 177), power (N = 454), or other ("mixed") events (N = 643) from 1920-1965. Data on physical characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and health habits were obtained from questionnaires. All dependent variables in an analysis of covariance and in a logistic regression analysis were adjusted for age and occupation. Both leisure aerobic and work activity of all athlete groups was higher (P < 0.01) than that of referents. Compared with the referents, both power and "mixed" athletes were more prone to eat fruits and vegetables and to avoid vitamin supplements, but less prone to use butter and high-fat milk, and to smoke (odds ratios different from 1.0, P < 0.05). Also endurance athletes smoked less and drank less alcohol than the referents (P < 0.05). Higher leisure aerobic activity and less frequent smoking after athletic years might explain higher life expectancy of Finnish athletes.

  12. Manganese--a public health concern: its relevance for occupational health and safety policy and regulation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hermanus, M A

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about the effects of low-level manganese exposures on human health arise at a time when South Africa finds itself in competition with newcomers to the market economy, China and the CIS. This case study illustrates how decisions about occupational health and safety and the environment are influenced by incompleteness of scientific knowledge, competing interests, differences over what is fair or just, and the compartmentalization of public policy. In addition, an assessment is made of the ability of the occupational health and safety system in South Africa in its current form to address the challenges posed by manganese-related issues. The importance of tracking developments abroad, strengthening participatory processes, developing national policy, linking economic policy and OHS policy, and establishing appropriate trade agreements is stressed.

  13. INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED AMONG FINNISH RADIATION WORKERS IN 2004-13 AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE RECORDED INDIVIDUAL DOSES.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, A; Lehtinen, M; Alén, R

    2016-09-01

    Investigations are sometimes required to verify dose assessments or, where the reliability of the original results is known to be in question, to replace them with an estimate of the dose. In Finland, such investigations are conducted by three different parties: the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the individual monitoring service (IMS) and the parties operating a radiation practice (the undertakings). The reasons for such investigations as well as the findings from them vary widely between different parties. To determine their usefulness, all investigations carried out on Finnish radiation workers by the STUK, the IMS and the undertakings during 2004-13 have been reviewed. This paper presents the number, reasons for and findings of these investigations. The effect of the investigations on the recorded individual doses as well as on the working methods and other aspects of radiation protection in the work environment are described. PMID:27150514

  14. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  15. Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Raven, Geoff; Givney, Rod

    2004-04-15

    During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full effect, rates of salmonellosis have not decreased (surveillance and reporting systems have remained unchanged). Using statistics gathered by the National Enteric Pathogens Surveillance Scheme, an attempt was made to link Salmonella serovars isolated from meat and poultry with those causing salmonellosis. Two periods were studied, 1993/1994, before regulations were introduced, and 2000/2001, when regulations should be having an effect. For red meat, the same serovars were prominent among the top 10 isolates both before and after regulation, and there was little linkage with salmonelloses. For poultry, frequently isolated serovars differed pre- and post-regulation, however, in both periods there was some linkage between serovars isolated from poultry and those causing salmonelloses. Using published and unpublished survey data, it was concluded that there had been improvements in microbiological quality of red meat and poultry over the same timeframe as regulatory changes. That these improvements apparently have not carried through to reduced case-rates for salmonellosis may be due to numerous causes, including lack of control in the food processing, food service and home sectors. The present paper illustrates difficulties faced by governments in measuring public health outcomes of changes to food hygiene regulation. PMID:15109797

  16. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  17. U.S. Senate voting on health and safety regulation: the effects of ideology and interest-group orientations.

    PubMed

    Jones, W; Keiser, R

    1986-01-01

    Ideological and interest-group influences attempt to influence policy formulation during the legislative process. In health and safety policy-making these interest-group influences, which are some of the best organized groups, are related to ideological and interest-group orientations of the legislators themselves. The authors analyzed Senate health care voting in the 95th U.S. Congress. General ideology, structured along the left-right dimension was important, but it was not the overriding factor. The senators voted as supporters or opponents of environmentalism as much or even more than as adherents of either liberal or conservative beliefs. PMID:10276314

  18. U.S. Senate voting on health and safety regulation: the effects of ideology and interest-group orientations.

    PubMed

    Jones, W; Keiser, R

    1986-01-01

    Ideological and interest-group influences attempt to influence policy formulation during the legislative process. In health and safety policy-making these interest-group influences, which are some of the best organized groups, are related to ideological and interest-group orientations of the legislators themselves. The authors analyzed Senate health care voting in the 95th U.S. Congress. General ideology, structured along the left-right dimension was important, but it was not the overriding factor. The senators voted as supporters or opponents of environmentalism as much or even more than as adherents of either liberal or conservative beliefs.

  19. 77 FR 31188 - Special Local Regulations; Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... the rain date indicated in the Tables below. These regulations were published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012 (77 FR 6954). 33 CFR 100.100 1.1 Harvard-Yale Regatta, Thames River, Event type...: Saturday, June 23, 2012. Rain date: Sunday, June 24, 2012. Time: 8:30 p.m. to 10:30 p.m. Location:...

  20. 78 FR 38198 - Safety Zones & Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 31402). Under the provisions of 33 CFR 165.151, the fireworks displays and swim events... regulation will be enforced on the rain date indicated in table below. Table 1 to Sec. 165.151 6.3 Vietnam Veterans/Town of East Haven Date: June 29, 2013. Fireworks. Rain date: June 30, 2013. Time: 9 p.m. to...

  1. 76 FR 39292 - Special Local Regulations & Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing fourteen temporary special local regulations...: If you have questions on this temporary rule, call or e-mail Petty Officer Joseph Graun, Prevention...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory Information The Coast Guard is issuing this temporary...

  2. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  3. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  4. On the construction of a Finnish audiometric sentence test.

    PubMed

    Määttä, T K; Sorri, M J; Huttunen, K H; Välimaa, T T; Muhli, A A

    2001-01-01

    To respond to the demands of clinical practice and the needs of rehabilitation, a Finnish audiometric sentence test is being developed. The test consists of 10 sets of 10 sentences, each set serving as an independent test. The test is scored by words (50 per set). Homogeneity between the sets was guaranteed by a number of linguistic and phonetic criteria, controlled by using the Virko Sentence Analyzer, a programme especially constructed for the purpose. Recognition tests for the validation of the sentence sets were made with young normally hearing adults (n = 70; age group 18-25 years). Psychometric recognition properties of the test are described. The selection process of the final 10 sentence sets is illustrated.

  5. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  6. Quality and safety of herbal medical products: regulation and the need for quality assurance along the value chains

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines and products derived from them are a diverse group of products for which different (and often limited) levels of evidence are available. As importantly, such products generally vary in their composition and are at the end of an often poorly understood value chain, which often links producers in biodiversity rich countries with the large markets in the North. This paper discusses the current regulatory framework of such herbal medical products (with a focus on the UK) and using examples from our own metabolomic research on Curcumal longa L. (turmeric, Zingiberaceae) how value chains impact on the composition and quality (and thus the safety) of such products. Overall, our recent research demonstrates the need for studying the links between producers and consumers of commodities produced in provider countries and that plant metabolomics offer a novel way of assessing the chemical variability along a value chain. PMID:25581270

  7. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  8. Sound exposure among the Finnish National Opera personnel.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Heli M; Toppila, Esko M; Olkinuora, Pekka S; Kuisma, Kaarina

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how and when the personnel of the Finnish National Opera are exposed to noise and whether exposure depends on musical selection of repertoire. Additionally, an evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual rehearsals was included. The measurements were done using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. From the measurements, annual noise exposure in the Opera was evaluated. The conductors, dancers, and double bass players were exposed to levels below 85 decibels, A-weighted, dB(A), which is the national action level. The choir members were exposed to sound levels of 92 and 94 dB(A). Within the orchestra, the highest sound exposure levels were found among percussionists, 95 dB(A); flute/piccolo players, 95 dB(A); and brass players, 92-94 dB(A). Other sound exposure levels among orchestra members varied from 83 to 89 dB(A). Soloists and rehearsal pianists are likely to be exposed to sound levels exceeding the national action level. From an exposure perspective, the individual rehearsals, 79-100 dB(A), proved to be as important as performances and group rehearsals, 82-99 dB(A), among orchestra musicians and choir singers. The ambient sound level for the lighting crew was 76 +/- 4 dB(A). However, the measured sound levels at the ear varied from 77 to 92 dB(A) due to the communication via headphones that had individual volume control. For the majority of personnel of the Finnish National Opera, sound exposure level exceeded the national action level value of 85 dB(A). Artists exceeded the action level during both individual and group rehearsals, as well as during performances. Hearing protection has been designed for musicians. Education/reinforcement is required to ensure it is worn.

  9. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  10. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  11. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  12. Health status of former elite athletes. The Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Kaprio, J; Kujala, U M; Koskenvuo, M

    1997-01-01

    Physical activity is an important aspect of health behavior and life-style, when considering the possibilities to prevent premature deaths and sustain functional capacity. We studied former Finnish male athletes and controls to investigate the effects of long-lasting participation in vigorous sports on health, and the main findings are reviewed here. The athletes represented Finland between the years 1920-1965 at least once in international competitions. The following sports were selected: track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting. The full name, place and date of birth were traced for 2613 (97.7%) men. The referent subjects (N = 1712) were selected among those Finnish men who, at the age of 20, were classified completely healthy at the medical examination for induction into military service. In most analyses we grouped the sports according to the type of training needed to achieve maximal results, i.e., principally aerobic training, principally anaerobic training or mixed. In 1985, a questionnaire on physical activity, health and health habits was mailed to surviving former athletes and referents (N = 2851, 65.9% of the original cohort). Follow-up for morbidity and mortality was based on national medical registries. We found that former aerobic sports athletes (endurance and mixed sports) in particular have high total and active life expectancy and low risk for ischemic heart disease and diabetes in later years. On the other hand, they have slightly higher risk for lower-limb osteoarthritis. Overall, the benefits of physically active life-style on health were clearly higher than the adverse effects.

  13. 78 FR 34573 - Special Local Regulations; Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... on the rain date indicated in the tables. These regulations were published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012 (77 FR 6954). Table to Sec. 100.100 1.1 Harvard-Yale Regatta, Event type: Boat Race. Thames River, New London, CT. Date: Sunday, June 9, 2013 from 8:15 a.m. until 5:15 p.m. Rain Date:...

  14. Meet your meat: The argument for increasing education and public outreach regarding the regulation and safety of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kaitlin M

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved beyond the realm of child's guess-and-check to a precise science, and now promises to help solve some of the globe's most pressing challenges, including food insecurity and environmental degradation. Beyond this, biotechnology also represents an important part of the American intellectual property landscape. Unlike transgenic plants, no transgenic animals have yet to reach the American dinner table, despite the fact that transgenic animals offer cheap, healthy, and an environmentally friendly source of protein. AquaBounty's AquAdvantage Salmon, which counts itself among the most heavily regulated product in the Food and Drug Administration's history, suffers greatly from negative stigma from special interest groups and the media. This article will examine the important role of biotechnology in America's intellectual property market, the regulation of the AquAdvantage Salmon, and transgenic animal products more generally, before FDA, as well as some of misinformation about AquAdvantage that has been presented to the American public. This article additionally advocates for FDA to adopt a more proactive public outreach role in explaining to the American public, in terms accessible to the layperson, what a transgenic animal product is, how FDA regulates transgenic animal products, and why FDA feels these products are safe for human consumption. In doing so, this article hopes to establish that FDA is best suited to provide the American public with objective facts surrounding this highly stigmatized product.

  15. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care.

  16. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care. PMID:15481692

  17. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  18. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...). SUMMARY: PHMSA is considering whether changes are needed to the regulations governing the safety of...

  19. Factors associated with regulatory action involving investigation of illnesses associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in products regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    PubMed

    Green, Alice L; Seys, Scott; Douris, Aphrodite; Levine, Jeoff; Robertson, Kis

    2014-07-01

    We described characteristics of the Escherichia coli O157 and Escherichia coli non-O157 illness investigations conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) during the 5-year period from 2006 through 2010. We created a multivariable logistic regression model to determine characteristics of these investigations that were associated with FSIS regulatory action, which was defined as having occurred if a product recall occurred or if FSIS personnel performed an environmental health assessment (Food Safety Assessment) at the implicated establishment. During this period, FSIS took regulatory action in 38 of 88 (43%) investigations. Illness investigations in which FoodNet states were involved were more likely to result in regulatory action. Illness investigations in which state and local traceback, or FSIS traceback occurred were more likely to result in regulatory action. Reasons for lack of action included evidence of cross-contamination after the product left a regulated establishment, delayed notification, lack of epidemiological information, and insufficient product information. PMID:24826872

  20. The PIP training programme: building of ACP experts capacities in crop protection and food safety to support local companies to comply with EU regulations on pesticides residues.

    PubMed

    Schiffers, B C; Schubert, A; Schiffers, C; Fontaine, S; Gumusboga, N; Werner, B; Webb, M; Lugros, H; Stinglhamber, G

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory requirements, and in particular phytosanitary quality standards change rapidly. As ACP producers/exporters race to become more competitive, to keep their market share and to satisfay their customers' commercial demands (e.g. EUREP-GAP certification), the need for competent staff who are aware of the company's quality objectives and trained to follow instructions is crucial. Mastering sanitary quality is only possible if matched with a programme to build the skills of companies' human resources. The Pesticide Initiative Programme (PIP), mindful of the importance of making operators autonomous and of training them to monitor EU food safety regulations and technology on their own, has successfully developed a training programme while building a quality network of local/ACP service providers. By building the capacities of ACP experts and then securing their services as trainers, PIP also guarantees companies' access to expertise and the sustainability of their efforts to comply with new EU regulations. The training strategy developed by PIP rests on two pilars: instructor training and collective training. Instructor training consists in reinforcing the technical knowledge of local experts (agronomists, hygienists, etc.) by providing them with active teaching methods. Once the ACP experts have gained enough technical knowledge of the key areas of crop protection--mainly pesticides management--and food safety, and have demonstrated their capacity to train the technical staff of local companies, the PIP has carried out a collective training programme in 2004, 2005 and 2006. To date, more than 130 consultants covering about 15 ACP countries have received instructor training, and more than 700 people have participated in collective and in-company training sessions.

  1. Regulations for the administration and enforcement of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Act is to protect the public from unnecessary exposure to radiation from electronic products, including ionizing, nonionizing, electromagnetic, or particulate radiation, or any sonic, infrasonic, or ultrasonic wave. The regulations in the publication cover general provisions, statements of policy and interpretation, radiation protection recommendations, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for manufacturers, dealers, and distributors; notification requirements for defects or failure to comply; repurchase, repairs, or replacement of electronic products; importation of products; and performance standards for television receivers, cathode ray tubes, diagnostic x-ray equipment, radiographic equipment, fluoroscopic equipment, computer aided tomography equipment, microwave ovens, laser products, sunlamps, ultraviolet lamps, mercury lamps, and ultrasonic therapy products.

  2. Development of agricultural biotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess the safety of genetically modified crops in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Amir; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Esmailzadeh, Nasrin S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid progress in the application of biotechnological methodologies and development of genetically modified crops in Iran necessitated intensive efforts to establish proper organizations and prepare required rules and regulations at the national level to ensure safe application of biotechnology in all pertinent aspects. Practically, preparation of a national biotechnology strategic plan in the country coincided with development of a national biosafety framework that was the basis for the drafted biosafety law. Although biosafety measures were observed by researchers voluntarily, the establishment of national biosafety organizations since the year 2000 built a great capacity to deal with biosafety issues in the present and future time, particularly with respect to food and agricultural biotechnology.

  3. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  4. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. PMID:23186692

  5. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  6. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  7. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  8. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  9. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  10. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations... Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or..., safety lines, or safety belts is impractical. (b) Where safety net protection is required by this...

  12. Allele frequencies of the major milk proteins in the Finnish Ayrshire and detection of a new kappa-casein variant.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T; Ruottinen, O; Erhardt, G; Ojala, M

    1996-06-01

    A total of 20990 Finnish Ayrshire cows were phenotyped for the major milk proteins by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. The predominant alleles in the Finnish Ayrshire were alpha S1-casein B (0.999), alpha S2-casein A (0.991), beta-casein A1 (0.509) and alpha 2 (0.490), kappa-casein A (0.612) and beta-lactoglobulin B (0.716). The kappa-casein E allele (0.307) was also rather common in the Finnish Ayrshire. A new kappa-casein variant (kappa-casein F) was demonstrated in two Finnish Ayrshire cows, a dam and a daughter.

  13. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  14. Fertility and perinatal health among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gissler, Mika; Pakkanen, Milla; Olausson, Petra Otterblad

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have reported poorer infant outcome among immigrants, but contrary evidence also exists. Between 1940 and 1999 more than a half million Finns emigrated to Sweden, which made Finns the largest minority group in Sweden. Our aim was to investigate fertility trends, parturients' background and pregnancy outcomes among Finns in Sweden, and to compare the findings with those obtained among Swedes in Sweden and Finns in Finland. The data came from the Finnish and Swedish Medical Birth Registers for the years 1987-1998. All deliveries by women born in Finland and having given birth in Sweden (N=33874) were compared with a 10% sample of all deliveries by Swedish parturients in Sweden (N=108549) and of all Finnish deliveries (n=75133). Among Finns in Sweden, the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 years declined significantly in the late 1990s. The change in the total fertility rate was less dramatic: the rate for Finns in Sweden followed the total Swedish rate although it remained from 5% to 10% higher up to the mid-1990s. Finns who had given birth in Sweden were older, had a higher parity and a higher prevalence of previous miscarriages, and smoked more often than did Swedes in Sweden or Finns in Finland. The crude infant outcomes of Finns having given birth in Sweden were equal to those among Swedes in Sweden (except for the incidence of small for gestational age), but poorer than in Finland. Biological factors explained the differences between Finns in Sweden and Finland in being small for gestational age, and biological factors and smoking explained the difference in prematurity. The difference in low birth weight remained statistically significant (3.9% versus 3.6% among singletons). In conclusion, fertility trends followed the pattern prevailing in the resident country. The relatively good outcome of children whose mothers were born in Finland but who had given birth in Sweden can partly be explained by the healthy migrant effect. PMID

  15. Phase 1 Study of Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of PTC299, an Inhibitor of Stress‐Regulated Protein Translation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas; Elfring, Gary; Northcutt, Valerie; Cao, Liangxian; Moon, Young‐Choon; Riebling, Peter; Dali, Mandar; Hirawat, Samit; Babiak, John; Colacino, Joseph; Almstead, Neil; Spiegel, Robert; Peltz, Stuart W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract PTC299 is a novel small molecule that specifically blocks the production of protein from selected mRNAs that under certain conditions use noncanonical ribosomal translational pathways. Hypoxia, oncogenic transformation, and viral infections limit normal translation and turn on these noncanonical translation pathways that are sensitive to PTC299. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) is an example of a transcript that is posttranscriptionally regulated. Single doses of PTC299 (0.03 to 3 mg/kg) were administered orally to healthy volunteers in a phase 1 single ascending‐dose study. In a subsequent multiple ascending‐dose study in healthy volunteers, multiple‐dose regimens (0.3 to 1.2 mg/kg twice a day or 1.6 mg/kg 3 times a day for 7 days) were evaluated. PTC299 was well tolerated in these studies. As expected in healthy volunteers, mean plasma VEGF levels did not change. Increases in Cmax and AUC of PTC299 were dose‐proportional. The target trough plasma concentration associated with preclinical efficacy was achieved within 7 days at doses of 0.6 mg/kg twice daily and above. These data demonstrate that PTC299 is orally bioavailable and well tolerated and support clinical evaluation of PTC299 in cancer, certain viral infections, or other diseases in which deregulation of translational control is a causal factor. PMID:27310330

  16. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  17. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  18. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  19. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  20. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  1. Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Frans Orsted

    2010-01-01

    The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

  2. Men, masculinity and food: interviews with Finnish carpenters and engineers.

    PubMed

    Roos, G; Prättälä, R; Koski, K

    2001-08-01

    This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences. PMID:11562157

  3. Change in hormones reflecting sympathetic activity in the Finnish sauna.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, R; Syvälahti, E; Pekkarinen, A

    1976-08-01

    The effects of the high temperature (80-120 degrees C) of the Finnish Sauna bath on the concentrations of growth hormone, immunoreactive insulin and renin activity in plasma, on blood glucose and on the urinary excretion of aldosterone, vanilmandelic acid and sodium of 55 healthy volunteers were studied. There was a significant increase in mean heart rate (62%), serum growth hormone (142%) and plasma renin activity (95%) in the Sauna. One hour after the Sauna bath the mean serum growth hormone had returned to the control level while plasma renin activity still remained higher (p less than 0.05) than before the Sauna bath. The serum insulin, blood sugar and urinary excretion of aldosterone and VMA did not change during or after Sauna bath. The urinary sodium excretion decreased significantly after the Sauna bath and the decrease was most striking (46%) during the first 6-hour period from the beginning of Sauna bath. Plasma renin activity values correlated positively with 12-hour urinary VMA excretion (p less than 0.01) and negatively with 6-hour urinary sodium excretion (p less than 0.05) before and after Sauna, suggesting the role of catecholamines and sodium depletion in renin response in Sauna.

  4. Sauna habits and related symptoms in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Markkola, L; Mattila, K J; Koivikko, M J

    1989-12-01

    Fifteen hundred randomly chosen Finnish children aged 0-15 years were studied by a questionnaire about their sauna habits and possible abnormal symptoms during or immediately after the sauna. A total of 1247 families (83%) answered. Almost all children visited the sauna (98.5%), most of them "with pleasure" (83%). Nearly half of the children were in the sauna as often as 2-3 times a week, and over 90% at least once a week. The children's sauna visits began quite early, in 70% during infancy. The time spent in a hot steam bath increased with age. Symptoms were rare and were not serious. Transient symptoms (dizziness, nausea etc.) were the most common. Of the children, 17% had some chronic or recurring disorder, most commonly atopic dermatitis or middle ear infections. In half of the cases of atopic dermatitis it became worse in the sauna. Sauna is a very common practice in Finland, also among children. It does not seem to cause any significant immediate harm to healthy children.

  5. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  6. Water quality of arctic rivers in Finnish Lapland.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jorma

    2010-02-01

    The water quality monitoring data of eight rivers situated in the Finnish Lapland above the Arctic Circle were investigated. These rivers are icebound annually for about 200 days. They belong to the International River Basin District founded according to the European Union Water Framework Directive and shared with Norway. They are part of the European river monitoring network that includes some 3,400 river sites. The water quality monitoring datasets available varied between the rivers, the longest comprising the period 1975-2003 and the shortest 1989-2003. For each river, annual medians of eight water quality variables were calculated. In addition, medians and fifth and 95th percentiles were calculated for the whole observation periods. The medians indicated good river water quality in comparison to other national or foreign rivers. However, the river water quality oscillated widely. Some rivers were in practice in pristine state, whereas some showed slight human impacts, e.g., occasional high values of hygienic indicator bacteria.

  7. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards nursing research and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2005-02-01

    This study was concerned with Finnish nurses' attitudes to nursing research and with the associations of different background factors with these attitudes. The data were collected with a purpose-designed, structured questionnaire. The study was carried out in one central hospital, one central university hospital and 10 community health centres in Finland. A total of 400 nurses took part. The response rate was 67%. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Attitudes to nursing research were generally quite positive, although over half of the nurses felt their own relationship to nursing science was quite distant. There were also shortfalls with respect to the information value and utilisation of research results. Only one-third took the view that doing research is an important part of the nurse's job. Age, the frequency of reading the professional literature, participation in training courses, training received in research and development, and the type of workplace were associated with attitudes. The results underline the importance of paying closer attention to the choice of research objects in the field of nursing science. Greater effort should also be invested in supporting and developing the application of research results. It is recommended that more courses on research methodology and other relevant training be made available to practical nurses. PMID:15680617

  8. Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti

    2006-05-01

    Characteristics of ribbed moraines, the dominating moraine type in southern Finnish Lapland, have been studied in detail. The ridges are composed of several till units, of which the bottommost units consist of mature basal tills and the surficial parts are enriched with local, short-transport rock fragments and boulders in till and at the surface of ridges. As a result of this re-examination a two-step model of the formation process of ribbed moraines is presented. In the first stage, while cold-based conditions prevailed, both the bottommost part of the ice sheet and the frozen, substrate fractured under compressive ice flow. Following glacial transport of fractured blocks and formation of the transverse ridge morphology, erosion between the ridges continued owing to freeze-thaw process under variable pressure conditions. In the areas with a low pre-existing till sheet, the process caused quarrying of the bedrock surface and subsequent deposition of rock fragments and boulders under high pressure on the next ridge. The most suitable conditions for ribbed moraine formation existed during Late Weichselian deglaciation, after the Younger Dryas when the climate warmed very quickly, leading to an imbalance between a warm glacier surface and a cold base. Copyright

  9. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a

  10. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  11. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  12. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under its own statutory authority derived from...

  13. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  14. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both…

  15. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  16. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  17. Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Sointu, Erkko T.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among…

  18. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  19. Workplace Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It is a short guide to workplace health and safety issues, laws, and regulations, especially in Massachusetts. Topics covered include the following: (1) safety issues--workplace ergonomics, the…

  20. English Voiceless and Voiced Stops as Produced by Native and Finnish Speakers. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 2. Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Kari

    It is well known to anyone involved in teaching English to Finnish students that it is difficult for Finns to distinguish between English /ptk/ and /bdg/. This second volume in a series on a Finnish-English contrastive project reports on a study which attempted to obtain more concrete knowledge about the ability of speakers of Finnish to use the…

  1. The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Signes-Costa Minaya, Jaime; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Altet Gómez, Neus; Lorza Blasco, Jose Javier; Barrueco Ferrero, Miguel; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device formed by three basic elements: battery, atomizer and cartridge. When assembled, it looks like a cigarette. The cartridge contains different substances: propylene glycol, glycerine and, sometimes, nicotine. When the user "vapes", the battery is activated, the atomizer is heated and the liquid is drawn in and vaporized. The smoker inhales the mist produced. Various substances have been detected in this mist: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein and some heavy metals. Although these are found in lower concentrations than in cigarettes, they may still be harmful for the human body. Several surveys show that 3-10% of smokers regularly use e-cigarettes. A randomized study has shown that the efficacy of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit is similar to nicotine patches. Nevertheless, the study has relevant methodological limitations and reliable conclusions cannot be deduced. This report sets down the Position Statement of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. This statement declares that e-cigarettes should be regulated as medicinal products.

  2. The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Signes-Costa Minaya, Jaime; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Altet Gómez, Neus; Lorza Blasco, Jose Javier; Barrueco Ferrero, Miguel; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device formed by three basic elements: battery, atomizer and cartridge. When assembled, it looks like a cigarette. The cartridge contains different substances: propylene glycol, glycerine and, sometimes, nicotine. When the user "vapes", the battery is activated, the atomizer is heated and the liquid is drawn in and vaporized. The smoker inhales the mist produced. Various substances have been detected in this mist: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein and some heavy metals. Although these are found in lower concentrations than in cigarettes, they may still be harmful for the human body. Several surveys show that 3-10% of smokers regularly use e-cigarettes. A randomized study has shown that the efficacy of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit is similar to nicotine patches. Nevertheless, the study has relevant methodological limitations and reliable conclusions cannot be deduced. This report sets down the Position Statement of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. This statement declares that e-cigarettes should be regulated as medicinal products. PMID:24684764

  3. The 1993 Finnish Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI - A review of aims, approaches and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppanen, Jouko

    1993-10-01

    The communications of the International Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI, held on March 6-7, 1993 in Vantaa, Finland, are reviewed and the contents and conclusions of papers summarized. The seminar was organized jointly by the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (FAIS), Finnish Astronomical Society, Ursa Astronomical Association and Heureka - The Finnish Science Centre. As the ninth in a series of intelligence-related seminars of FAIS, SETI was chosen as the topic for spring 1993, noting the new ten year NASA SETI program HRMS (High Resolution Micro-wave Survey), commenced on Columbus Day, October 12, 1992. The aims and the interdisciplinary format of the seminar are described, the main results and conclusions of papers are restated, and the seminar publications introduced. The summaries of papers are based on their abstracts and contain excerpts from texts.

  4. Paternal and maternal DNA lineages reveal a bottleneck in the founding of the Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Sajantila, A; Salem, A H; Savolainen, P; Bauer, K; Gierig, C; Pääbo, S

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in several European populations reveals an almost monomorphic pattern in the Finns, whereas Y-chromosomal diversity is significantly higher in other populations. Furthermore, analyses of nucleotide positions in the mitochondrial control region that evolve slowly show a decrease in genetic diversity in Finns. Thus, relatively few men and women have contributed the genetic lineages that today survive in the Finnish population. This is likely to have caused the so-called "Finnish disease heritage"-i.e., the occurrence of several genetic diseases in the Finnish population that are rare elsewhere. A preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial mutations that have accumulated subsequent to the bottleneck suggests that it occurred about 4000 years ago, presumably when populations using agriculture and animal husbandry arrived in Finland. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876258

  5. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way.

  6. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  7. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  8. Congenital chloride diarrhoea. Clinical analysis of 21 Finnish patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, C; Perheentupa, J; Launiala, K; Hallman, N

    1977-01-01

    Clinical findings in 21 Finnish children with congenital chloride diarrhoea are reported. Inheritance of this disease by the autosomal recessive mode is established. All children were born 1-8 weeks prematurely. Hydramnios was present in every case and no meconium was observed; intrauterine onset of diarrhoea is thus apparent. In most cases the diarrhoea or passing of large volumes of "urine" was noted on the first day of life and the abdomen was usually large and distended. The neonatla weight loss was abnormally large, and was associated with hypochloraemia and hyponatraemia. Some infants survived the neonatal period without adequate therapy. They presented later with failure to thrive and usually had hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia, and metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperaldosteronism. However, these features may be absent and the diagnosis is based on a history of hydramnios and diarrhoea, and a faecal Cl- concentration which always exceeds 90 mmol/l when fluid and electrolyte deficits have been corrected. Lower faecal Cl- concentrations were seen only in chronic hypochloraemia, which is also associated with achloriduria. Adequate treatment consists of full continuous replacement of the faecal losses of water, NaCl, and KCl. This should be given intravenously in the early neonatal period; later a solution can be taken orally with meals. The dose has to be adjusted to maintain normal serum electrolyte concentrations, normal blood pH, and some chloriduria. This therapy prevents the renal lesions and the retarded growth and psychomotor development which were seen in the children who were diagnosed late and in those who received inadequate replacement therapy. The watery diarrhoea persists and increases slightly with age, though patients learn to live with their disease and to make an adequate social adjustment. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 PMID:324405

  9. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  10. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  11. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  12. Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Saarimäki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Määttänen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-01

    Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p < 0.001) and the risk was especially elevated for interval cancer (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.15). Risk for low-grade (Gleason 2-6) tumors was increased (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.69), but it was decreased for Gleason 8-10 tumors (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). PSA test performance (sensitivity and specificity) was slightly inferior for FH positives. No difference in PC mortality was observed in terms of FH. Our findings provide no support for selective PSA screening targeting men with FH of PC.

  13. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  14. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  15. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  16. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  17. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  19. Finnish Disease Heritage II: population prehistory and genetic roots of Finns.

    PubMed

    Norio, Reijo

    2003-05-01

    In the second part of my review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), I discuss the settling of Finland; factors influencing the genes of a population, such as agriculture versus hunting/fishing/gathering, trading and cultural relations, wars and other kinds of violence, and bottlenecks; relatives of the Finns in the light of classical European studies, classical Finnish studies, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal studies; the genes of the Finns today, characterizing FDH, the east-west difference among Finns, and minorities in Finland, viz. the Lapps or Saami and Swedish-speaking Finns.

  20. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  1. New Perspectives to Study of Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning with Bayesian Network Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohotie, Pekka; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Henry; Silander, Tomi

    This study examined the data selection process preceding multivariate analysis for a data set measuring student motivation and self-regulated learning. Data were 138 responses to a questionnaire on motivation and self-regulated learning, adapted for Finnish students. The first goal was to compare the results gained with "gentle" and "Draconian"…

  2. Safety Audit/Inspection Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides guidelines and procedures for safety audits and inspections in work environments. Contents include: (1) Administrative Concepts, (2) Physical Concepts, (3) Protecting Your Audits, (4) Safety Inspections, and (5) Safety Inspection Checklist. The appendix features federal laws and regulations affecting laboratories. (YDS)

  3. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  4. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. The SP2 provides detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). The measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The rBC mass was log-normally distributed showing a relatively constant rBC core mass mean diameter with an average of 194 nm (75-655 nm sizing range). On average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 (integrated over 350-450 nm particle diameter range) and the average particle diameter to rBC core volume equivalent diameter ratio was 2.0 (averaged over particles with 150-200 nm rBC core volume equivalent diameters). These average numbers mean that the observed rBC core mass mean diameter is similar to those of aged particles, but the observed particles seem to have unusually high particle to rBC core diameter ratios. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) using an Aethalometer and a MAAP showed that eBC was larger by a factor of five. The difference could not be fully explained without assuming that only a part of the optically detected light absorbing material is refractory and absorbs light at the wavelength used by the SP2. Finally, climate implications of five different black carbon mixing state representations were compared using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with

  5. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  6. The Representation of Leisure in Corporate Publicity Material: The Case of a Finnish Pine Construction Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka M.

    1998-01-01

    States that a video introducing a company to various audiences is a common genre of promotional material in Finland. Applies theories of both advertising and semiotics to analyze the first minute of a video produced for a Finnish company that manufactures log buildings and wraps its image around a concept of leisure. (PA)

  7. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  8. From Discrete to Transformed? Developing Inclusive Primary School Teacher Education in a Finnish Teacher Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naukkarinen, Aimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the primary school teacher education curriculum reform currently under way in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. A general overview of the Finnish context and relevant inclusive education policy issues are presented. The process of developing inclusive education in the curriculum and…

  9. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  10. Socio-Spatial Practices in a Finnish Daycare Group for One- to Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutanen, Niina

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study approaches early childhood education and care practices from a socio-spatial point of view. One Finnish daycare group for one- to three-year-olds participated in the study. The ethnographic observations from the practices are analyzed together with the ECE practitioners' audio-recorded team meetings and video-elicited…

  11. Finnish Media Literacy Education Policies and Best Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care since 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…

  12. The Construction of Academic Identity in the Changes of Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in…

  13. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…

  14. Dental maturity curves in Finnish children: Demirjian's method revisited and polynomial functions for age estimation.

    PubMed

    Chaillet, Nils; Nyström, Marjatta; Kataja, Matti; Demirjian, Arto

    2004-11-01

    Dental maturity was studied from 2213 dental panoramic radiographs of healthy ethnic Finns from southern Finland, aged between 2 and 19 years. The aim was to provide new Finnish maturity tables and curves and to compare the efficiency of Demirjian's method when differently weighted scores and polynomial regressions are used. The inter-ethnic variations lead us to calculate specific Finnish weighted scores. Demirjian's method gives maturity score as a function of age and seems better adapted for clinicians because, in their case, the maturity score is unknown. Polynomial functions give age as a function of maturity score and are statically adapted for age estimation studies. Finnish dental maturity tables and development curves are given for Demirjian's method and for polynomial functions. Sexual dimorphism is established for the same weighted score for girls and boys, and girls present a greater maturity than boys for all of age groups. Polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.19% of misclassifies) and the percentile method, using Finnish weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 1.95 years on average, between 2 and 18 years of age). This suggests that polynomial functions are most useful in forensic sciences, while Demirjian's method is most useful for dental health clinicians.

  15. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  16. Teams as Network Builders: Analysing Network Contacts in Finnish Elementary School Teacher Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Merja

    2000-01-01

    Studied the preconditions and obstacles to building network contacts for two teams of five Finnish elementary school teachers each. Results show that breaking traditional patterns of teacher work, especially the tradition of single- handed lesson planning and implementation, results from team work in building a shared object. Results show the…

  17. Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…

  18. Investigating Finnish Teacher Educators' Views on Research-Based Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokfors, Leena; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Stenberg, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Maaranen, Katriina; Jyrhama, Riitta; Byman, Reijo; Kansanen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine teacher educators' views on research-based teacher education. Finnish research-based teacher education has four characteristics: (1) the study programme is structured according to a systematic analysis of education; (2) all teaching is based on research; (3) activities are organized in such a way that students can…

  19. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  20. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  1. A Case Study of Parents' School Choice Strategies in a Finnish Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poikolainen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses how Finnish parents of sixth graders in a comprehensive school act in the local "school markets" of the case city. The parents' subject positions as choosers are reflected on and explored in relation to the discourses and resources they use when discussing their school choices. The data were gathered in 2009 by administering…

  2. Comparison of the Classroom Practices of Finnish and Icelandic Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savola, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers in Finland and Iceland are on different tracks. Based on a recent video study, the classroom practices of Finnish mathematics teachers seem to be rather traditional. This is in contrast to the Icelandic teachers many of whom use progressive-minded, learner-based instructional strategies. The classroom practices in Finland…

  3. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management…

  4. Organization and Management of Continuing Education in German and Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Knust, Michaela; Hanft, Anke

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, an international comparison study investigated the organization and management of university continuing education (UCE). The Finnish continuing education system proved to be especially advanced in this study. On the other hand, it became clear that Germany was still lagging behind in continuing education. In this article, German and…

  5. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  6. Non-Linear Modeling of Growth Prerequisites in a Finnish Polytechnic Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of…

  7. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.…

  8. Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research…

  9. Having Many Irons in the Fire--"Finnish Female Leaders' School Memories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Education and school years impact leadership development, but this development has still been little studied. This study contributes Finnish female leaders' narratives to the discussion. The purpose was to analyze how female leaders describe their school years and themselves as learners and how these elements have shaped their careers. The…

  10. Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the…

  11. Cultures in Dialogue: Perceptions and Experiences of Finnish Teachers of Transnational Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siljamäki, Mariana Elisabet; Anttila, Eeva; Sääkslahti, Arja

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a phenomenographic study that focuses on identifying the pedagogical conceptions of Finnish teachers of transnational dances. The purpose is to uncover and understand teachers' conceptions concerning the implications of the cultural contexts of their specific dance forms for their pedagogical practices. Through a…

  12. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  13. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  14. From Canon to Chaos Management: Blogging as a Learning Tool in a Modern Finnish Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Elina; Vaarala, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the teaching experiment implemented in summer 2013 in a modern Finnish literature course organised by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre. In order to break away from the traditional conception of literature and text, students' independent blogging was chosen as the…

  15. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  16. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  17. Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to…

  18. Distributed Leadership as Administrative Practice in Finnish Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Jonna; Venninen, Tuulikki; Ojala, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the professional development towards distributed leadership among different organizational levels in Finnish day care centres within the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim of the study was to monitor the progress of professional development between educational administration and practitioners. The data was based on…

  19. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…

  20. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  1. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…

  2. Perceptions of Identity among Finnish University-Based Subject Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how Finnish university-based subject teacher educators perceived their professional identity. Several factors related to professional identity were analysed. Subject teacher educators are initially subject teachers who have proceeded to the doctorate level. They form a small academic group within a…

  3. Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)…

  4. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  5. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,…

  6. Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…

  7. Case Study on Teachers' Contribution to Children's Participation in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni Elina

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify different teaching practices and explore the types of opportunities that they provide for children's participation in four different Finnish preschool classrooms for 6-year olds during structured learning sessions. Observational data of four preschool teachers were analyzed according to the principles of…

  8. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  9. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  10. Variation in Finnish Students' Understanding of Lutheranism and Its Implications for Religious Education: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hella, Elina

    2008-01-01

    This article contains the results of how a selected group of Finnish upper secondary students understand Lutheranism. The data consisted of 63 students' responses to a writing task together with complementary interviews of 11 students. The outcomes of phenomenographic analysis of variation in the students' understanding of Lutheranism are…

  11. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which…

  12. The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyblom, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…

  13. Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

  14. Changing Voices in Early Years Curricula. An Example from Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the changing constructions of childhood in two Finnish pre-school education curricula during the time of pre-school reform in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These constructions are part of the underlying curriculum containing postulates and values that influence the written curriculum documents. They determine the…

  15. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemela, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmaki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between…

  16. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  17. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  18. The Transnational Idea of University Autonomy and the Reform of the Finnish Universities Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piironen, Ossi

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Finnish parliament passed a new Universities Act that aimed to strengthen the institutional autonomy of the country's universities. But why and how did the idea of autonomy come to frame the reform agenda in the overt way it did? In analysing a sample of authoritative policy and strategy papers by the key stakeholders in the…

  19. Reception of the Quality Assurance Commitments of the Bologna Process in Finnish Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Va¨ha¨la¨, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Finnish higher education institutions' reception of the implementation of the new quality assurance systems that governments participating in the Bologna Process have committed to establishing in the Berlin Communique´ of 2003. The data were collected using a web survey and the respondents were classified with a cluster…

  20. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in…

  1. How Finnish Upper Secondary Students Conceive Transgenerational Responsibility and Historical Reparations: Implications for the History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how Finnish upper secondary school students ponder upon the questions of transgenerational responsibility and historical reparation. These questions have got a prominent place in the history culture in many societies in the last 20 years. The philosophical and political dimensions of reparations for historical injustices have…

  2. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  3. Voices of Teachers with Dyslexia in Finnish and English Further and Higher Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…

  4. Examining the Differences of Linear Systems between Finnish and Taiwanese Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between Finnish and Taiwanese textbooks for grades 7 to 9 on the topic of solving systems of linear equations (simultaneous equations). The specific textbooks examined were TK in Taiwan and FL in Finland. The content analysis method was used to examine (a) the teaching sequence, (b)…

  5. Dancing in Fetters? Chinese Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Finnish Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xin; Dervin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an increased interest in overseas training for educational leaders in China, little is known about the value of such programs. This qualitative case study explores Chinese school principals' perceptions of leadership practices and professional development after undertaking a Finnish training program. The article also…

  6. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  7. Democratisation of Early Childhood Education in the Attitudes of Slovene and Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Pekkarinen, Asko

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnsek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the…

  8. Same Challenges, Different Processes: Perceptions on Governance Changes in Portuguese and Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diogo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article compares recent governance reforms in Finnish and Portuguese higher education (HE) systems and institutions (HEIs). Although Portugal and Finland differ significantly, both the countries have recently undertaken similar HE legislative reforms. This article analyses the contexts and implementation processes of these legal frameworks:…

  9. Imported tungiasis in a Finnish journalist: the first case reported from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Marttila, Harri; Talve, Lauri; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Jokiranta, Sakari; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2008-03-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic infection widely spread in tropical Africa and in South and Central America. Only a few cases involving travellers have been reported from Europe, and none from the Nordic countries. We report a case of tungiasis in a Finnish journalist returning from Uganda. In this era of increasing intercontinental travel it is important that all physicians are aware of tungiasis.

  10. United States Historians, Cold War Rhetoric, and The Finnish Winter War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Keith W.

    The U.S. attitude toward Finland during the Cold War years reveals much about U.S. society and politics. In particular, the war between Finland and the Soviet Union during 1939 and 1940 (Finnish Winter War) and the way in which the United States reacted to it at the time and in the years following World War II has relevance for better…

  11. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  12. Work People's College: A Finnish Folk High School in the American Labor College Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J.; Paulston, Rolland G.

    American working class organizations' efforts since World War I to establish and control their own educational programs flourished during the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of over 300 worker controlled colleges. An important forerunner of this movement was the Work People's College, created by socialist Finnish immigrants in Duluth,…

  13. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  14. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  15. Syntactically Non-Integrated Finnish "Jos" "If"-Conditional Clauses as Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laury, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the use of independent "jos" "if"-clauses as directives (requests, proposals, and suggestions) in Finnish everyday conversation. It shows that clause types which are traditionally considered subordinate can be used without any main clauses and, thus, do not project further talk to follow in the same turn. Other participants…

  16. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  17. Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…

  18. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  19. Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different…

  20. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  1. Workforce Competencies of Finnish Plant Production Graduates as Assessed by Students, Employers and Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Ritva; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which Finnish horticulture graduates' assessments of their work force competencies differ from those of their teachers and employers. Questionnaires were sent to all 68 plant production graduates of the University of Helsinki's plant production program from 1990-1993, a sample of 38 employers representing…

  2. Exploring the Moral and Distributive Levers for Teacher Empowerment in the Finnish Policy Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok; Hjertø, Kjell Brynjulf; Tihveräinen, Saku Petteri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between school leadership practices and teacher empowerment in the Finnish policy culture. Specifically, moral leadership and distributed leadership enacted by school principals are tested in a simultaneous design as predictor to two distinct yet related aspects of teachers' sense…

  3. Hybridisation or Ousterisation? The Case of Local Accountability Policy in Finnish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paananen, Maiju; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analytic concept of imaginary, this study investigates policy hybridisation in the Finnish early childhood education. Specifically, it illuminates how the interplay between different imaginaries enabled the neoliberal imaginary to oust the social-democratic imaginary through a tripartite process in a case of local productivity…

  4. A Narrative Inquiry about Values in a Finnish Preschool: The Case of Traffic Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juutinen, Jaana; Viljamaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This research explored how values are communicated in everyday life at preschool. This narrative inquiry focused on how values are conveyed through the use of a material artefact, a chart with traffic lights, as a communication and pedagogical tool. Twenty children aged 3-4 years in one Finnish preschool were involved in the initial data…

  5. Implementing the Finnish Literacy Curriculum in a First-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…

  6. "Education Is Important, but..." Young People outside of Schooling and the Finnish Policy of "Education Guarantee"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Kivela, Suvi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early school leaving and dropout are widely recognized as problems, leading to further marginalization and exclusion of young people from society at large. The Finnish government has set a target that, by the year 2008, 96% of those who complete compulsory education will continue without interruption in secondary education or in the…

  7. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  8. Debating Educability: Diverging Social Representations of Abilities in Finnish Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    By surveying a representative sample of Finnish parents, this study set out to compare two social representations of intelligence current in our educational discourse: the established one, "the idea of natural giftedness", and an emerging one, "the idea of the multifariousness of abilities and support for social equality." It…

  9. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  10. Schooling as an Instrumental vs. a Terminal Value for Finnish 18-Year-Old Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maijaliisa Rauste-von

    1984-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of socialization processes, 182 Finnish students were asked--at ages 15 and 18--about the importance of schooling. At both ages 164 subjects considered schooling had terminal/instrumental value. By age 18 differences in other variables formed a consistent pattern, suggestive of two different life orientations toward…

  11. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  12. Finnish High School Students' Readiness to Adopt Online Learning: Questioning the Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    The Finnish high school system in rural areas is facing challenges because of a decreasing number of the students. This situation places new emphasis on online learning. Online learning offers new possibilities for high schools to provide equal learning opportunities for their students. This paper explores students' readiness to adapt their…

  13. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…

  14. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  15. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  16. [Patient safety in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Rutberg, H; Eckhardt, M; Biermann, O

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the patient safety work in Sweden and the cooperation between the Nordic countries in the area of patient safety. It depicts the national infrastructure, methods and partners in patient safety work as well as the development in key areas. Since 2000, the interest in patient safety and quality issues has significantly increased. A national study (2009) showed that more than 100,000 patients (8.6 %) experienced preventable harm in hospitals. Since 2007, all Swedish counties and regions work on the "National commitment for increased patient safety" to systematically minimize adverse events in the healthcare system. Also, a national strategy for patient safety has been proposed based on a new law regulating the responsibility for patient safety (2011) and a zero vision in terms of preventable harm and adverse events. The Nordic collaboration in this field currently focuses on the development of indicators and quality measurement with respect to nosocomial infections, harm in inpatient somatic care, patient safety culture, hospital mortality and polypharmacy in the elderly. The Nordic collaboration is driven by the development, exchange and documentation of experiences and evidence on patient safety indicators. The work presented in this article is only a part of the Swedish and the Nordic efforts related to patient safety and provides an interesting insight into how this work can be carried out.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1415 - Safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety devices. 1926.1415 Section 1926.1415 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  1. Laboratory Safety Manual for Alabama Schools. Bulletin 1975. No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This document presents the Alabama State Department of Education guidelines for science laboratory safety, equipment, storage, chemical safety, rocket safety, electrical safety, safety with radioisotopes, and safety with biologicals. Also included is a brief bibliography, a teacher's checklist, a listing of laser facts and regulations, and a…

  2. Regulatory challenges to global harmonization and expanded access to concentrates: how will regulators balance the increasing cost of new safety requirements with the desire to increase the availability of affordable product?

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A

    2004-10-01

    The provision of concentrates of the deficient coagulation factors is an essential component of the provision of comprehensive haemophilia care. Their safety, quality and efficacy need to be assured independently of the measures dictated by the market and the individual manufacturers. Over the past 20 years, this assurance has become the role of regulatory authorities, which in the developed world have generated a framework that assesses haemophilia products as medicines in the highest category of risk relative to other therapeutic agents. Systems of official regulation mandating standards and other measures are now coupled with voluntary standards adopted by industry bodies as additional features of a comprehensive nexus of arrangements contributing to product quality and risk minimization. Currently, the regulation of products for haemophilia in less developed economies relies on reference to decisions in the first-world authorities. This may not always result in optimal outcomes as most of the haemophilia care in the developing world is through local plasma and cryoprecipitate, which are not subject to the oversight of mainstream regulators. Furthermore, the emergence of companies based outside the developed world and seeking to supply the emerging economies of the developing world with haemophilia concentrates has necessitated new strategies for regulation that are independent of the established frameworks. Overall, the principles used by mainstream agencies may be applied in all environments seeking to assure the quality of haemophilia care. Applied properly, they can contribute to maintaining the delivery of a form of therapy that is nowadays amongst the safest in therapeutic practice. A rigid interpretation can seriously impede access to treatment, and therefore the development of independent expertise and appropriate strategies in assuring product safety and quality in the developing world is essential if patient safety and access to products can be assured.

  3. 50 CFR 25.71 - Public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established...

  4. 50 CFR 25.71 - Public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established...

  5. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  6. 50 CFR 25.71 - Public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established...

  7. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  8. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY ENFORCEMENT...

  9. 50 CFR 25.71 - Public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established...

  10. 50 CFR 25.71 - Public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established...

  11. The Developmental Trajectory of Perceived Self-Regulation, Personal Interest, and General Achievement throughout High School: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helle, Laura; Laakkonen, Eero; Tuijula, Tiina; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our interest in perceived self-regulation of learning arose in the context of educational reform. After decades of stability, the Finnish high school system underwent reform in the 1990s, with a significant emphasis being placed on promoting student self-regulation of learning. Aims: The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate…

  12. Genetic and environmental factors affecting self-esteem from age 14 to 17: a longitudinal study of Finnish twins

    PubMed Central

    Raevuori, Anu; Dick, Danielle M.; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard J.; Silventoinen, Karri

    2007-01-01

    Background We analysed genetic and environmental influences on self-esteem and its stability across adolescence. Methods Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 were assessed by questionnaire at ages 14y (N= 4132 twin individuals) and 17y (N=3841 twin individuals). Self esteem was measured using the Rosenberg global self-esteem scale and analyzed using quantitative genetic methods for twin data in the Mx statistical package. Results The heritability of self-esteem was 0.62 (95% CI 0.56–0.68) in 14-y-old boys and 0.40 (95% CI 0.26–0.54) in 14-y-old girls, while the corresponding estimates at age 17y were 0.48 (95% CI 0.39–0.56) and 0.29 (95% CI 0.11–0.45). Rosenberg self-esteem scores at age 14 y and 17 y were modestly correlated (r=0.44 in boys, r=0.46 in girls). In boys, the correlation was mainly (82%) due to genetic factors, with residual co-variation due to unique environment. In girls, genetic (31%) and common environmental (61%) factors largely explained the correlation. Conclusions In adolescence, self-esteem seems to be differently regulated in boys versus girls. A key challenge for future research is to identify environmental influences contributing to self-esteem during adolescence and how these factors interact with genetic influences. PMID:17537282

  13. Association of Ketone Body Levels With Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in 9,398 Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Cederberg, Henna; Stančáková, Alena; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Paananen, Jussi; Civelek, Mete; Saleem, Niyas K.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Lusis, Aldons J.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Morken, Mario A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the levels of ketone bodies (KBs) with hyperglycemia and with 62 genetic risk variants regulating glucose levels or type 2 diabetes in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study, including 9,398 Finnish men without diabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with elevated levels of acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). AcAc and BHB predicted an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test, and AcAc predicted the conversion to type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort. Impaired insulin secretion, but not insulin resistance, explained these findings. Of the 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia, the glucose-increasing C allele of GCKR significantly associated with elevated levels of fasting BHB levels. Adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of genes involved in ketolysis were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index). In conclusion, high levels of KBs predicted subsequent worsening of hyperglycemia, and a common variant of GCKR was significantly associated with BHB levels. PMID:23557707

  14. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the relationship between caries, dental health habits and general health in 3-year-old Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dental health related habits, infectious diseases and long-term illness are associated with dental health at the age of 3 in first-born children resident in a Finnish province. The study was designed as a survey using stratified randomised cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. The results were analysed using polytomous logistic models. In the stepwise analysis the only statistically significant explanatory factors were the use of juice at night and dental cleanliness. Antibiotic treatment or long-term illness was not significantly associated with dental health.

  15. The use of negative inflections by Finnish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty expressing subject-verb agreement. However, in many languages, tense is fused with agreement, making it difficult to attribute the problem to agreement in particular. In Finnish, negative markers are function words that agree with the subject in person and number but do not express tense, providing an opportunity to assess the status of agreement in a more straightforward way. Fifteen Finnish-speaking preschoolers with SLI, 15 age controls, and 15 younger controls responded to items requiring negative markers in first person singular and plural, and third person singular and plural. The children with SLI were less accurate than both typically developing groups. However, their problems were limited to particular person-number combinations. Furthermore, the children with SLI appeared to have difficulty selecting the form of the lexical verb that should accompany the negative marker, suggesting that agreement was not the sole difficulty. PMID:24588468

  16. Finnish mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II population data.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Brandstätter, A; Pimenoff, V; Sistonen, P; Palo, J U; Parson, W; Sajantila, A

    2007-10-25

    We have analyzed the two hypervariable regions HVS-I and HVS-II of 200 Finnish male individuals for forensic purposes. The distribution of the haplotypes within Finland was determined by the geographical knowledge of the donors' maternal ancestors. In our population sample, we identified 135 different mtDNA haplotypes. Different mtDNA sequences were further divided to haplogroups using the EMPOP software. The most common haplogroups were H (40.0%) and U (27.5%). Subgroup U5b, which contains earlier described "Saami motif", consisted majority (65.5%) of the sample in the U haplogroup. Analysis of the mtDNA sequence hypervariable regions I and II showed that the mtDNA diversity within the Finnish population sample was comparable to other European populations and uniformly distributed. This is contrary to the Y-STR "minimal haplotype" diversity, which in Finland is lower than in any of the other European populations studied so far.

  17. Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type maps to the long arm of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Kestilae, M.; Maennikkoe, M.; Tryggvason, K.; Savolainen, E.R. ); Holmberg, C.; Peltonen, L. ); Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J.

    1994-05-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome at birth. CNF represents a unique, apparently specific dysfunction of the renal basement membranes, and the estimated incidence of CNF in the isolated population of Finland is 1 in 8,000 newborns. The basic defect is unknown, and no specific biochemical defect or chromosomal aberrations have been described. Here the authors report the assignment of the CNF locus to 19[sub q]12-q13.1 on the basis of linkage analysis in 17 Finnish families. Multipoint analyses and observed recombination events place the CNF locus between multiallelic markers D19S416 and D19S224, and the significant linkage disequilibrium observed suggests that the CNF gene lies in the immediate vicinity of the markers D19S224 and D19S220. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The Finnish sauna bath and its use in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Keast, M L; Adamo, K B

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish tradition of sauna bathing is meant to be an experience in relaxation, and the length of time spent in the sauna and the preferred temperature vary considerably among individuals. The pleasures of sauna bathing can be considered safe and without undue risk of cardiac complications even for CVD patients, providing bathing is conducted sensibly for an appropriate period of time, and extremes in temperature are voided.

  19. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  20. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    560 girls and 819 boys, ages 8 to 16 years and actively interested in Finnish baseball, were tested in small groups in three training-camp championship games with the modified Mehrabian and Epstein's Empathy Scale, and the Battle Self-esteem Inventory, Form B. Narcissism was estimated on the 1984 Emmons scale. The hypothesis that the most empathetic players compared with the least empathetic players have better self-esteem and less narcissism was confirmed.