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Sample records for fire blight pseudomonas

  1. Antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas graminis 49M against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Mikiciński, Artur; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Puławska, Joanna; Malusa, Eligio

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study (Mikiciński et al. in Eur J Plant Pathol, doi: 10.1007/s10658-015-0837-y , 2015), we described the characterization of novel strain 49M of Pseudomonas graminis, isolated from the phyllosphere of apple trees in Poland showing a good protective activity against fire blight on different organs of host plants. We now report investigations to clarify the basis for this activity. Strain 49M was found to produce siderophores on a medium containing complex CAS-Fe(3+) and HDTMA, but was not able to produce N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Moreover, it formed a biofilm on polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Strain 49M gave a positive reaction in PCR with primers complementary to gacA, the regulatory gene influencing the production of several secondary metabolites including antibiotics. The genes prnD (encoding pyrrolnitrin), pltC, pltB (pyoluteorin), phlD (2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol) and phzC as well as phzD (and their homologs phzF and phzA encoding phenazine), described for antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads, however, were not detected. Research into the biotic relationship between strain 49M and Erwinia amylovora strain Ea659 on five microbiological media showed that this strain clearly inhibited the growth of the pathogen on King's B and nutrient agar with glycerol media, to a very small extent on nutrient agar with sucrose, and not at all on Luria-Bertani agar. On medium 925, strain 49M even stimulated E. amylovora growth. The addition of ferric chloride to King's B resulted in the loss of its inhibitory ability. Testing the survival of 49M in vitro showed its resistance to drought, greater than that of E. amylovora. PMID:27002332

  2. Mechanisms of antagonism of Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Cabrefiga, Jordi; Bonaterra, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e was selected during a screening procedure for its high efficacy in controlling infections by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease, on different plant materials. In field trials carried out in pear trees during bloom, EPS62e colonized flowers until the carrying capacity, providing a moderate efficacy of fire-blight control. The putative mechanisms of EPS62e antagonism against E. amylovora were studied. EPS62e did not produce antimicrobial compounds described in P. fluorescens species and only developed antagonism in King's B medium, where it produced siderophores. Interaction experiments in culture plate wells including a membrane filter, which physically separated the cultures, confirmed that inhibition of E. amylovora requires cell-to-cell contact. The spectrum of nutrient assimilation indicated that EPS62e used significantly more or different carbon sources than the pathogen. The maximum growth rate and affinity for nutrients in immature fruit extract were higher in EPS62e than in E. amylovora, but the cell yield was similar. The fitness of EPS62e and E. amylovora was studied upon inoculation in immature pear fruit wounds and hypanthia of intact flowers under controlled-environment conditions. When inoculated separately, EPS62e grew faster in flowers, whereas E. amylovora grew faster in fruit wounds because of its rapid spread to adjacent tissues. However, in preventive inoculations of EPS62e, subsequent growth of EPS101 was significantly inhibited. It is concluded that cell-to-cell interference as well as differences in growth potential and the spectrum and efficiency of nutrient use are mechanisms of antagonism of EPS62e against E. amylovora. PMID:17661291

  3. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  4. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory.

  5. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory. PMID:25199342

  6. Pseudomonas blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae on raspberry in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plantings of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus) exhibited symptoms of a previously undocumented disease. Lesions were observable from both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. As disease progressed, lesions enlarged and coalesced, resulting in significant dark brown to black blighting of the ...

  7. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  8. Fire blight: applied genomic insights of the pathogen and host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enterobacterial phytopathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens a wide range of commercial and ornamental Rosaceae host plants. The response elicited by E. amylovora in its host during disease development is similar to the hypersensitive reaction that ty...

  9. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P.; Pothier, Joël F.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  10. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  11. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  12. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  13. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  14. Expression of viral EPS-depolymerase reduces fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear.

    PubMed

    Malnoy, Mickaël; Faize, Mohamed; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Geider, Klaus; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2005-02-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight of Maloideae. One of the main pathogenicity factors of this bacterium is the exopolysaccharide (EPS) of its capsule. In this paper, we used genetic transformation tools to constitutively express an EPS-depolymerase transgene in the pear (Pyrus communis L.) cv. Passe Crassane with the aim of decreasing its high susceptibility to fire blight. Expression of the depolymerase gene in 15 independent transgenic clones led, on average, to low depolymerase activity, although relatively high expression was observed at the transcriptional and translational levels. Only two of the transgenic clones (9X and 10M) consistently showed a decrease in fire blight susceptibility in vitro and in the greenhouse. These clones were also among the highest expressers of depolymerase at the RNA and enzyme activity levels. The correlation observed among all transgenic clones between depolymerase expression and fire blight resistance suggested the potential of this strategy.

  15. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example.

  16. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example. PMID:25789570

  17. Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Özyilmaz, Ümit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  18. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora.

  19. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large effect QTL for fire blight resistance has been pre...

  20. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  1. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  2. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, unreplicated trial in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual producti...

  3. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, un-replicated trail in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual production, ...

  4. A new attractive, precocious, productive, fire blight resistant pear selection. What more could you ask for?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear scion selection developed by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Preliminary trials indicated several positive attributes including precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit, long storage life, and good consumer acceptance. In 2005, a rep...

  5. Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

  6. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  7. Molecular genetics of Erwinia amylovora involved in the development of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Sik; Beer, Steven V

    2005-12-15

    The bacterial plant pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some Rosaceous plants like apple, pear, quince, raspberry and several ornamentals. Knowledge of the factors affecting the development of fire blight has mushroomed in the last quarter century. On the molecular level, genes encoding a Hrp type III secretion system, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and genes facilitating the growth of E. amylovora in its host plants have been characterized. The Hrp pathogenicity island, delimited by genes suggesting horizontal gene transfer, is composed of four distinct regions, the hrp/hrc region, the HEE (Hrp effectors and elicitors) region, the HAE (Hrp-associated enzymes) region, and the IT (Island transfer) region. The Hrp pathogenicity island encodes a Hrp type III secretion system (TTSS), which delivers several proteins from bacteria to plant apoplasts or cytoplasm. E. amylovora produces two exopolysaccharides, amylovoran and levan, which cause the characteristic fire blight wilting symptom in host plants. In addition, other genes, and their encoded proteins, have been characterized as virulence factors of E. amylovora that encode enzymes facilitating sorbitol metabolism, proteolytic activity and iron harvesting. This review summarizes our understanding of the genes and gene products of E. amylovora that are involved in the development of the fire blight disease. PMID:16253442

  8. Biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine in Erwinia amylovora plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sébastien; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Litomska, Agnieszka; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-09-27

    Sulfur for fire: The molecular basis for the biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG) was unveiled in Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. Bioinformatics, heterologous pathway reconstitution in E. coli, and mutational analyses indicate that the protein YcfA mediates guanine thionation in analogy to 2-thiouridylase. Assays in planta and in cell cultures reveal for the first time a crucial role of 6TG in fire blight pathogenesis.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636, a Strain with Biocontrol Capabilities against Late Blight of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher K.; Novinscak, Amy; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Joly, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein provided is the full-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636. This strain is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, an antibiotic involved in the biocontrol of numerous plant pathogens, including late blight of potato caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. PMID:27231373

  10. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  11. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  12. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  13. Cropload management and appropriate harvest timing improves final fruit size and fruit quality of US 71655-014, a new fire blight resistant European pear selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US71655-014 (‘Gem’) is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station. Despite possessing several positive attributes (precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit appearance, fire blight resistance good storability and consumer acceptance), ‘...

  14. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  15. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  16. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions.

  17. [Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].

    PubMed

    Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants.

  18. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

  19. Maryblyt v. 7.1 for Windows: An Improved Fire Blight Forecasting Program for Apples and Pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes updates found in Version 7.1 of the fire blight prediction model Maryblyt, originally developed by Paul Steiner and Gary Lightner. In addition, a brief history of the development of the Maryblyt model is given. The article ends with examples comparing the performance of Versio...

  20. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  1. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    PubMed Central

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S.; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  2. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    PubMed

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-11

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  3. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    PubMed

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  4. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  5. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection.

  6. Hypersensitive response and acyl-homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Fire blight caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl-homoserine lactone for bacterial cell-to-cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight.

  7. Characterization of a Viral EPS-Depolymerase, a Potential Tool for Control of Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kim, W S; Geider, K

    2000-11-01

    ABSTRACT A 3.3-kb fragment of genomic DNA from bacteriophage Phi-Ea1h encoding an amylovoran-directed depolymerase lyase was sequenced, and three open reading frames (ORFs) were detected. The first ORF could encode a lysozyme and the second a holin that may form a pore supporting cell lysis by the lysozyme. The third ORF encodes a protein of 657 amino acids and deletion mutation in this DNA fragment abolished extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-degrading activity. A putative promoter and a ribosome binding sequence were located in front of the gene. A polymerase chain reaction product spanning the gene was inserted into multi copy plasmids including fusions with a Histidine-tagged sequence to facilitate its purification on a nickel nitrilotriacetic acid column. Maximal activity of the purified protein was observed between pH 4 and 5 at 52 degrees C. Visualized by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from Abrus precatorious, the enzyme degraded the EPS-capsules of Erwina amylovora. In virulence assays, no symptoms were detected for a low inoculum of an E. amylovora strain when pear slices were soaked in a solution of depolymerase in contrast to control slices without addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, gfp- or lux-labeled E. amylovora cells were not propagated, when their amylovoran capsules were removed by the depolymerase. The enzyme could be a tool for biological control of fire blight.

  8. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the "KIL-like viruses," related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods. PMID:27014204

  9. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N.; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B.; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P.; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the “KIL-like viruses,” related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods. PMID:27014204

  10. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the "KIL-like viruses," related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods.

  11. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  12. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses. PMID:18944382

  13. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Aćimović, Srđan G.; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C.; Sundin, George W.; Wise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1–2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  14. Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-07-01

    Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16' × 'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ≥0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7 days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14 days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length. PMID:23627651

  15. Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-07-01

    Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16' × 'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ≥0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7 days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14 days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length.

  16. First report of bacterial blight of crucifers caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Australia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. Strains isolated from diseased white mustard (Brassica hirta), Brassica nigra (black mustard) and rape (Brassica napus var. napus) in Australia were reported to be similar to a pathogen recently transferred to P....

  17. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in 'Harrow Sweet', while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference'. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of 'Harrow Sweet', whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in 'Conference' and not even detectable in 'Alexander Lucas'. In 'Harrow Sweet', the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference' advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  18. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  19. pA506: A conjugative plasmid of the plant epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 is an plant-epiphytic bacterium that is used commercially in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Here, we demonstrate that A506 has a 57 kB conjugative plasmid that can transfer to other strains of Pseudomonas spp. and ...

  20. [Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].

    PubMed

    Tovkach, F I; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure.

  1. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K.; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C.; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in ‘Harrow Sweet’, while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of ‘Harrow Sweet’, whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in ‘Conference’ and not even detectable in ‘Alexander Lucas’. In ‘Harrow Sweet’, the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’ advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  2. Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread.

  3. Silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) leads to accumulation of flavanones, but not to reduced fire blight susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Szankowski, Iris; Gosch, Christian; Stich, Karl; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants were produced to mimic the effect of the agrochemical prohexadione-Ca on apple leaves. This enzyme inhibitor for 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases is used as a growth retardant and for control of secondary fire blight of leaves. Like using the agent, silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase leads to an accumulation of flavanones in leaves, but in contrast not to the formation of 3-deoxyflavonoids. In prohexadione-Ca treated leaves the 3-deoxyflavonoid luteoforol is formed from accumulating flavanones, acting as an antimicrobial compound against the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Seemingly, the silencing of just one of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases (in apple also flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase take part downstream in the pathway) does not provide a sufficiently high ratio of flavanones to dihydroflavonols. This seems to be needed to let the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase/flavanone-4-reductase enzyme reduce flavanones to luteoforol, and to let this be reduced by the leucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase/3-deoxyleucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase, each acting with their respective weak secondary activities. Accordingly, also the intended inducible resistance to fire blight by prohexadione-Ca is not observed with the antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants. On the other hand, for most transgenic lines with strong flavanone-4-reductase down-regulation, up-regulation of gene expression for the other flavonoid genes was found. This provides further evidence for the feedback regulation of flavonoid gene expression having been previously reported for the prohexadione-Ca inhibited apple plants.

  4. Multiple hydrolases in bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the effect of the halo blight disease caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dowson.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, K; Stahmann, M A

    1966-03-01

    Multiple forms of hydrolytic enzymes were demonstrated in extracts of healthy bean leaves (Phascolus vulgaris L.) and bean leaves infected with the halo blight organism [Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dowson] by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis. Bean leaves contained up to 4 acid phosphatase bands, 9 esterase bands active towards alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 7 esterase bands towards alpha-naphthyl butyrate. Only low or no activity was found for alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and aminopeptidase. Two artifacts are described which were observed with the lead phosphate method for acid phosphatase and the Tween method for demonstration of lipase. After infection with the halo blight organism the major acid phosphatase of the host increased during early and decreased at later infection stages. An acid phosphatase of bacterial origin with a more neutral pH optimum could be demonstrated in infected leaves. It is suggested that the bacterial acid phosphatase plays a role in uptake of metabolites by the pathogen. Several esterase bands decreased after infection. One host band with activity towards alpha-naphthyl butyrate increased. Also the pathogen showed an esterase band with high activity towards alpha-naphthyl butyrate. PMID:5906374

  5. FIRST REPORT OF BLOSSOM BLIGHT OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH.) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS MARGINALIS IN CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel blossom blight was detected in commercial plantings of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) in 2003 in central coastal California. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was rel...

  6. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  7. Involvement of secondary metabolites and extracellular lytic enzymes produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight pathogen.

    PubMed

    Nagarajkumar, M; Bhaskaran, R; Velazhahan, R

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from rhizosphere soil of rice were tested for their antagonistic effect towards Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight fungus. Among them, PfMDU2 was the most effective in inhibiting mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. Production of chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, siderophores, salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) by P. fluorescens strains was evaluated. The highest beta-1,3-glucanase activity, siderophore production, SA production and HCN production were recorded with PfMDU2. A significant relationship between the antagonistic potential of P. fluorescens against R. solani and its level of beta-1,3-glucanase, SA and HCN was observed. PMID:15160609

  8. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  9. Autoinduction in Erwinia amylovora: evidence of an acyl-homoserine lactone signal in the fire blight pathogen.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lázaro; Rezzonico, Fabio; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion

    2005-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other members of the Rosaceae. Here we present the first evidence for autoinduction in E. amylovora and a role for an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type signal. Two major plant virulence traits, production of extracellular polysaccharides (amylovoran and levan) and tolerance to free oxygen radicals, were controlled in a bacterial-cell-density-dependent manner. Two standard autoinducer biosensors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 and Vibrio harveyi BB886, detected AHL in stationary-phase cultures of E. amylovora. A putative AHL synthase gene, eamI, was partially sequenced, which revealed homology with autoinducer genes from other bacterial pathogens (e.g., carI, esaI, expI, hsII, yenI, and luxI). E. amylovora was also found to carry eamR, a convergently transcribed gene with homology to luxR AHL activator genes in pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora. Heterologous expression of the Bacillus sp. strain A24 acyl-homoserine lactonase gene aiiA in E. amylovora abolished induction of AHL biosensors, impaired extracellular polysaccharide production and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide, and reduced virulence on apple leaves. PMID:15838048

  10. Identification of QTLs for resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in Malus sieversii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is the progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 (‘Royal Gala’ X PI631981) is segregating for resistance to both apple scab and fire bl...

  11. Genetic characterization of the HrpL regulon of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora reveals novel virulence factors.

    PubMed

    McNally, R Ryan; Toth, Ian K; Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny A; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2012-02-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, an economically significant disease of apple and pear. Disease initiation by E. amylovora requires the translocation of effector proteins into host cells via the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS). The alternative sigma factor HrpL positively regulates the transcription of structural and translocated components of the T3SS via hrp promoter elements. To characterize genome-wide HrpL-dependent gene expression in E. amylovora Ea1189, wild-type and Ea1189ΔhrpL strains were cultured in hrp-inducing minimal medium, and total RNA was compared using a custom microarray designed to represent the annotated genes of E. amylovora ATCC 49946. The results revealed 24 genes differentially regulated in Ea1189ΔhrpL relative to Ea1189 with fold-change expression ratios greater than 1.5; of these, 19 genes exhibited decreased transcript abundance and five genes showed increased transcript abundance relative to Ea1189. To expand our understanding of the HrpL regulon and to elucidate direct versus indirect HrpL-mediated effects on gene expression, the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946 was examined in silico using a hidden Markov model assembled from known Erwinia spp. hrp promoters. This technique identified 15 putative type III novel hrp promoters, seven of which were validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction based on expression analyses. It was found that HrpL-regulated genes encode all known components of the hrp T3SS, as well as five putative type III effectors. Eight genes displayed apparent indirect HrpL regulation, suggesting that the HrpL regulon is connected to downstream signalling networks. The construction of deletion mutants of three novel HrpL-regulated genes resulted in the identification of additional virulence factors as well as mutants displaying abnormal motility and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:21831138

  12. Recovery of Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. from the 'fired plots' under shifting cultivation in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Chaudhry, Shivaji; Sharma, Avinash; Choudhary, Vipin Singh; Malviya, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Swati; Rinu, K; Trivedi, Pankaj; Palni, Lok Man S

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples, collected after the fire operations at agricultural sites under shifting cultivation in northeast India, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The fire affected various physico-chemical properties of the soil. Significant differences in pH and electrical conductivity were recorded in soil of fired and fallow plots. Significantly higher amounts of total organic carbon and nitrogen were estimated in fallow plots as compared to the fired. Difference in total phosphates was not significant. The fire operations resulted in stimulation of microbial communities. The bacteria were the most affected group followed by actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The bacterial and actinomycetes counts were significantly higher in fired plots as compared to the fallow plots. The representative bacterial species recovered from the 'fired plots' belonged to the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA analysis revealed their maximum similarity with B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri. Most of these species were found to be positive for phosphate solubilization and antagonism in plate based assays. In view of the importance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species in plant growth promotion and biocontrol, recovery of these species after fire operations is indicative of the microbiological merit of shifting cultivation. PMID:20625733

  13. Autoinducer-2 of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora and other plant-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Geider, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducers are important for cellular communication of bacteria. The luxS gene has a central role in the synthesis of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The gene was identified in a shotgun library of Erwinia amylovora and primers designed for PCR amplification from bacterial DNA. Supernatants of several Erwinia amylovora strains were assayed for AI-2 activity with a Vibrio harveyi mutant and were positive. Many other plant-associated bacteria also showed AI-2 activity such as Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia tasmaniensis. The luxS genes of several bacteria were cloned, sequenced, and complemented Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha and a Salmonella typhimurium mutant, both defective in luxS, for synthesis of AI-2. Assays to detect AI-2 activity in culture supernatants of several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars failed, which may indicate the absence of AI-2 or synthesis of another type. Several reporter strains did not detect synthesis of an acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, AI-1) by Erwinia amylovora, but confirmed AHL-synthesis for Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica and Pantoea stewartii.

  14. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  15. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops.

  16. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora.

  17. Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Hye; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand) and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens. PMID:25774107

  18. Differential Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Gene Family Members in Fire-Blight-Infected Apple ‘Holsteiner Cox’ 1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M.; Belkheir, Asma K.; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple ‘Golden Delicious’, nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple ‘Holsteiner Cox,’ heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple ‘Cox Orange,’ expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  19. First report of bacterial blight of crucifers caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Minnesota on arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2011, bacterial blight of arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa; cv. Roquette) was observed in organically grown plants under overhead irrigation near Delano, MN. Approximately 80 to 100% of each planting was affected. Blue-green fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated consistently on King’s Medi...

  20. Discovery of Plant Phenolic Compounds That Act as Type III Secretion System Inhibitors or Inducers of the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. PMID:23770912

  1. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  2. Erwinia amylovora loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid pathogen detection and on-site diagnosis of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, Andreas; Pothier, Joël F; Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Andreou, Michael; Boonham, Neil; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-03-01

    Several molecular methods have been developed for the detection of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple, but none are truly applicable for on-site use in the field. We developed a fast, reliable and field applicable detection method using a novel target on the E. amylovora chromosome that we identified by applying a comparative genomic pipeline. The target coding sequences (CDSs) are both uniquely specific for and all-inclusive of E. amylovora genotypes. This avoids potential false negatives that can occur with most commonly used methods based on amplification of plasmid gene targets, which can vary among strains. Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) with OptiGene Genie II chemistry and instrumentation proved to be an exceptionally rapid (under 15 min) and robust method for detecting E. amylovora in orchards, as well as simple to use in the plant diagnostic laboratory. Comparative validation results using plant samples from inoculated greenhouse trials and from natural field infections (of regional and temporal diverse origin) showed that our LAMP had an equivalent or greater performance regarding sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity than real-time PCR (TaqMan), other LAMP assays, immunoassays and plating, demonstrating its utility for routine testing.

  3. Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens.

  4. Exploring new roles for the rpoS gene in the survival and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Santander, Ricardo D; Monte-Serrano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-12-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in economically important plants of the family Rosaceae. This bacterial pathogen spends part of its life cycle coping with starvation and other fluctuating environmental conditions. In many Gram-negative bacteria, starvation and other stress responses are regulated by the sigma factor RpoS. We obtained an E. amylovora rpoS mutant to explore the role of this gene in starvation responses and its potential implication in other processes not yet studied in this pathogen. Results showed that E. amylovora needs rpoS to develop normal starvation survival and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) responses. Furthermore, this gene contributed to stationary phase cross-protection against oxidative, osmotic, and acid stresses and was essential for cross-protection against heat shock, but nonessential against acid shock. RpoS also mediated regulation of motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and virulence in immature loquats, but not in pear plantlets, and contributed to E. amylovora survival in nonhost tissues during incompatible interactions. Our results reveal some unique roles for the rpoS gene in E. amylovora and provide new knowledge on the regulation of different processes related to its ecology, including survival in different environments and virulence in immature fruits.

  5. Conventional and Real-Time PCRs for Detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans Allow Its Distinction from the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 103 cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 102 cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  6. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  7. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora.

  8. Characterization of the rcsB gene from Erwinia amylovora and its influence on exoploysaccharide synthesis and virulence of the fire blight pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bereswill, S; Geider, K

    1997-02-01

    RcsB belongs to a family of positive regulators of exopolysaccharide synthesis in various enterobacteria. The rcsB gene of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was cloned by PCR amplification with consensus primers, and its role in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was investigated. Its overexpression from high-copy-number plasmids stimulated the synthesis of the acidic EPS amylovoran and suppressed expression of the levan-forming enzyme levansucrase. Inactivation of rcsB by site-directed mutagenesis created mutants that were deficient in amylovoran synthesis and avirulent on host plants. In addition, a cosmid which complemented rcsB mutants was selected from a genomic library. The spontaneous E. amylovora mutant E8 has a similar phenotype and was complemented by the cloned rcsB gene. The rcsB region of strain E8 was also amplified by PCR, and the mutation was characterized as a nine-nucleotide deletion at the start of the rcsB gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the E. amylovora rcsB region and the predicted amino acid sequence of RcsB revealed extensive homology to rcsB and the encoded protein of other bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Erwinia stewartii. In all three organisms, rcsB is localized adjacent to the rcsC gene, which is transcribed in the opposite direction of rcsB. The E. amylovora rcsB gene has now been shown to strongly affect the formation of disease symptoms of a plant pathogen.

  9. Suppression of bacterial blight on mustard greens with host plant resistance and Acibenzolar-S-Methyl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, attacks the leaves of most brassica vegetables, including mustard greens (Brassica juncea). ‘Carolina Broadleaf,’ a new mustard cultivar, is resistant to bacterial blight. Acibenzolar-S-methyl (trade name Actigard) has been used to m...

  10. Early changes in apoplast composition associated with defence and disease in interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Pv. phaseolicola.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan M; Neale, Helen C; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L; Preston, Gail M

    2016-10-01

    The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI-1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island-carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and K(+) , that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca(2+) , Fe(2/3+) Mg(2+) , sucrose, β-cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island-less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well-adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI-1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences. PMID:27239727

  11. Early changes in apoplast composition associated with defence and disease in interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Pv. phaseolicola

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Brendan M.; Neale, Helen C.; Geilfus, Christoph‐Martin; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI‐1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island‐carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector‐triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, γ‐aminobutyrate (GABA) and K+, that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca2+, Fe2/3+ Mg2+, sucrose, β‐cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island‐less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well‐adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI‐1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences. PMID:27239727

  12. Rhizoctonia web blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

  13. Citrus blight research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With HLB now occurring throughout Florida citrus groves, citrus blight has been getting less attention even though the problem still exists. In fact, the combination of HLB and citrus blight has compounded the problem that the citrus industry is facing with decreased yields, small fruit size and tre...

  14. Ascochyta blight of chickpeas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea is becoming increasingly important as a rotational crop in cereal production systems. Ascochyta blight is the most devastating disease of chickpea and must be appropriately managed to minimize its damage to crops and increase chickpea yield. The disease is caused by the fungus Ascochyta r...

  15. Disease Alert: Stemphylium Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil leaves showing symptoms of Stemphylium blight were collected from a lentil field northeast of Garfield (near Idaho border) on July 8, 2013, and incubation of the diseased leaves showed typical spores of the pathogen Stemphylium botryosum or other Stemphylium sp. The field was planted with ‘Mo...

  16. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  17. The algT gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and new insights into the transcriptional organization of the algT-muc gene cluster.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea infects soybean plants and causes bacterial blight. In addition to P. syringae, the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii produce the exopolysaccharide alginate, copolymer of D-mannuronic a...

  18. Characterization and regulation of the Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type multidrug efflux pumps MdtABC and MdtUVW from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the devastating disease fire blight in rosaceous plants such as apple, pear, quince, raspberry, and cotoneaster. In order to survive and multiply in a host, microbes must be able to circumvent the toxic effects of antimicrobial plant compounds, such as flavonoids and tannins. E. amylovora uses multidrug efflux transporters that recognize and actively export toxic compounds out of the cells. Here, two heterotrimeric resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pumps, MdtABC and MdtUVW, from E. amylovora were identified. These RND systems are unusual in that they contain two different RND proteins forming a functional pump. Results To find the substrate specificities of the two efflux systems, we overexpressed the transporters in a hypersensitive mutant lacking the major RND pump AcrB. Both transporters mediated resistance to several flavonoids, fusidic acid and novobiocin. Additionally, MdtABC mediated resistance towards josamycin, bile salts and silver nitrate, and MdtUVW towards clotrimazole. The ability of the mdtABC- and mdtUVW-deficient mutants to multiply in apple rootstock was reduced. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of the transporter genes was induced during infection of apple rootstock. The polyphenolic plant compound tannin, as well as the heavy metal salt tungstate was found to induce the expression of mdtABC. Finally, the expression of the mdtABC genes was shown to be regulated by BaeR, the response regulator of the two-component system BaeSR, a cell envelope stress response system that controls the adaptive responses to changes in the environment. Conclusions The expression of MdtABC and MdtUVW is induced during growth of E. amylovora in planta. We identified the plant polyphenol tannin as inducer of mdtABC expression. The reduced ability of the mdtABC- and mdtUVW-deficient mutants to multiply in apple rootstock suggests that the

  19. Biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakis, S L

    1982-01-29

    After 77 years of being attacked by the chestnut blight fungus, American chestnut trees continue to sprout from gradually declining root systems. The blight fungus in Italy is now associated with virus-like agents that limit its pathogenicity, and attempts have been made to introduce these controlling agents into the blight fungus in the United States. If a way can be found to help the spread here of strains of the fungus with controlling agents, it may be possible to save the American chestnut trees in our eastern forests.

  20. Biological control of fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mojibur R; Fischer, Sven; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2006-04-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium fungi, including F. culmorum, cause seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight diseases of cereals, resulting in yield loss. In a screen for potential disease control organisms and agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens strains MKB 100 and MKB 249, P. frederiksbergensis strain 202, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, and chitosan all significantly reduced the extent of both wheat coleoptile growth retardation and wheat and barley seedling blight caused by F. culmorum (by 53 to 91%). Trichodiene synthase is a Fusarium enzyme necessary for trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis; expression of the gene encoding this enzyme in wheat was 33% lower in stem base tissue coinoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 and F. culmorum than in wheat treated with bacterial culture medium and F. culmorum. When wheat and barley were grown in soil amended with either chitosan, P. fluorescens strain MKB 249, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, or culture filtrates of these bacteria, the level of disease symptoms on F. culmorum-inoculated stem base tissue (at 12 days post- F. culmorum inoculation) was >/=31% less than the level on F. culmorum-inoculated plants grown in culture medium-amended soil. It seems likely that at least part of the biocontrol activity of these bacteria and chitosan may be due to the induction of systemic disease resistance in host plants. Also, in coinoculation studies, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 induced the expression of a wheat class III plant peroxidase gene (a pathogenesis-related gene). PMID:18943420

  1. Late blight and early blight resistance from Solanum hougasii introgressed into Solanum tuberosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, and early blight, incited by Alternaria solani,are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previous...

  2. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  3. pA506, a conjugative plasmid of the plant epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Davis, Edward W; Carey, Alyssa; Shaffer, Brenda T; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Hassan, Karl A; Hockett, Kevin; Thomashow, Linda S; Paulsen, Ian T; Loper, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Conjugative plasmids are known to facilitate the acquisition and dispersal of genes contributing to the fitness of Pseudomonas spp. Here, we report the characterization of pA506, the 57-kb conjugative plasmid of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a plant epiphyte used in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Twenty-nine of the 67 open reading frames (ORFs) of pA506 have putative functions in conjugation, including a type IV secretion system related to that of MOBP6 family plasmids and a gene cluster for type IV pili. We demonstrate that pA506 is self-transmissible via conjugation between A506 and strains of Pseudomonas spp. or the Enterobacteriaceae. The origin of vegetative replication (oriV) of pA506 is typical of those in pPT23A family plasmids, which are present in many pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, but pA506 lacks repA, a defining locus for pPT23A plasmids, and has a novel partitioning region. We selected a plasmid-cured derivative of A506 and compared it to the wild type to identify plasmid-encoded phenotypes. pA506 conferred UV resistance, presumably due to the plasmid-borne rulAB genes, but did not influence epiphytic fitness of A506 on pear or apple blossoms in the field. pA506 does not appear to confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxic elements. Based on the conjugative nature of pA506 and the large number of its genes that are shared with plasmids from diverse groups of environmental bacteria, the plasmid is likely to serve as a vehicle for genetic exchange between A506 and its coinhabitants on plant surfaces.

  4. Development of an engineered bioluminescent reporter phage for detection of bacterial blight of crucifers.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David A; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassicaceae family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as pepper spot, a much less severe disease caused by the related pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. We have developed a phage-based diagnostic that can both identify and detect the causative agent of bacterial blight and differentiate the two pathogens. A recombinant "light"-tagged reporter phage was generated by integrating bacterial luxAB genes encoding luciferase into the genome of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis phage PBSPCA1. The PBSPCA1::luxAB reporter phage is viable and stable and retains properties similar to those of the wild-type phage. PBSPCA1::luxAB rapidly and sensitively detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis by conferring a bioluminescent signal response to cultured cells. Detection is dependent on cell viability. Other bacterial pathogens of Brassica species such as P. syringae pv. maculicola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and X. campestris pv. raphani either do not produce a response or produce significantly attenuated signals with the reporter phage. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis on diseased plant specimens, indicating its potential for disease diagnosis. PMID:22427491

  5. Colonizing ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, among collections of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens spp. in pea rhizosphere.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, isolated in Korea as an indigenous antagonistic bacteria, can produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and the siderophore pyoveridin2112 for the control of Phytophthora blight of red-pepper. P. fluorescens 2112 was classified into a new genotype C among the 17 gen...

  6. Disease Alert: Chickpea Ascochyta blight has shown up early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript describes the early appearance of Ascochyta blight in north Idaho, provides pictorial guide for identification of the disease, discusses the disease cycle, and advises chickpea growers options in managing Ascochyta blight....

  7. Results of the 1971 Corn Blight Watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Allen, R. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Clifton, J. W.; Frickson, J. D.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques are used to: (1)Detect development and spread of corn leaf blight during the growing season; (2) assess the extent and severity of blight infection; (3) assess the impact of blight on corn production; and (4) estimate the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  8. Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens KENGFT3

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Cui, Nina; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KENGFT3 inhibits the growth of Phytophthora infestans and is a potentially useful biopesticide for plant diseases, including potato late blight. We sequenced the 6.2-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into a single scaffold with 9 contigs. KENGFT3 is related to previously sequenced strains of P. fluorescens. PMID:27231365

  9. Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resistance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Datta, K; Baisakh, N; Thet, K Maung; Tu, J; Datta, S K

    2002-12-01

    Here we describe the development of transgene-pyramided stable elite rice lines resistant to disease and insect pests by conventional crossing of two transgenic parental lines transformed independently with different genes. The Xa21 gene (resistance to bacterial blight), the Bt fusion gene (for insect resistance) and the chitinase gene (for tolerance of sheath blight) were combined in a single rice line by reciprocal crossing of two transgenic homozygous IR72 lines. F4 plant lines carrying all the genes of interest stably were identified using molecular methods. The identified lines, when exposed to infection caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, showed resistance to bacterial blight. Neonate larval mortality rates of yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas) in an insect bioassay of the same identified lines were 100%. The identified line pyramided with different genes to protect against yield loss showed high tolerance of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

  10. The early days of late blight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years. PMID:23795302

  11. A functional gene cluster for toxoflavin biosynthesis in the genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoflavin is a broad-spectrum toxin best known for its role in virulence of Burkholderia glumae, which causes panicle blight of rice. A gene cluster containing homologs of toxoflavin biosynthesis genes (toxA-E) of B. glumae is present in the genome of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, a biological contr...

  12. Examination of Early Blight Resistance Derived From S. Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers and breeders are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applica...

  13. The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most, if not all, of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. This article, which is written for ...

  14. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  15. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  16. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals.

  17. Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on Alternaria blight in Indian mustard--a multi-location study in India.

    PubMed

    Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P

    2011-05-01

    High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

  18. Polysaccharide benefits dry storage survival of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens S11:P:12 effective against several maladies of stored potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens S11:P:12 (NRRL B-21133) is a biological control agent able to suppress several storage maladies of potatoes including sprouting, Fusarium dry rot incited by Gibberella pulicaris, pink rot incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, and late blight incited by Phytophthora infestan...

  19. Three potato clones incorporating combined resistances to early blight from S. palustre and late blight from S. bulbocastanum into a S. tuberosum background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three individuals from a segregating population derived from a cross between +297 and K41 are being released as germplasm with resistance to both early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, and late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. The source of resistance to early blight from +297 is the wi...

  20. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  1. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Sumera; Zaka, Abha; Imran, Asma; Zahid, Muhammad Awais; Yousaf, Sumaira; Rasul, Ghulam; Arif, Muhammad; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm). Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1) and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1) in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%), improved shoot length (31%), root length (41%) and plant dry weight (60%) as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice. PMID:27532545

  2. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zaka, Abha; Imran, Asma; Zahid, Muhammad Awais; Yousaf, Sumaira; Rasul, Ghulam; Arif, Muhammad; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1–19 mm). Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82–116 μg mL-1) and produced indole acetic acid (0.48–1.85 mg L-1) in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%), improved shoot length (31%), root length (41%) and plant dry weight (60%) as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice. PMID:27532545

  3. Colonizing ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, among collections of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens spp. in pea rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Dal; Fuente, Leonardo De La; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, isolated in Korea as an indigenous antagonistic bacteria, can produce 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and the siderophore pyoveridin2112 for the control of phytophthora blight of red-pepper. P. fluorescens 2112 was classified into a new genotype C among the 17 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producers, by phlD restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The colonizing ability of P. fluorescens 2112 in pea rhizosphere was equal to the well-known pea colonizers, P. fluorescens Q8r1 (genotype D) and MVP1-4 (genotype P), after 6 cycling cultivations for 18 weeks. Four tested 2,4- DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. could colonize with about a 96% dominance ratio against total bacteria in pea rhizosphere. The strain P. fluorescens 2112 was as good a colonizer as other Pseudomonas spp. genotypes in pea plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

  4. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  5. Ascochyta blight of chickpea: production of phytotoxins and disease management.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Husnain, Tayyab; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., is the most devastating disease of chickpea and can occur anywhere the crop is grown. Several epidemics of blight causing complete yield losses have been reported. Despite extensive pathological and molecular studies, the nature and extent of pathogenic variability in A. rabiei have not been clearly established. Several isolates of A. rabiei were grown in liquid culture medium which secreted phytotoxic compounds of solanapyrone A, B, C and cytochalasin D. The same fungal metabolites were also recovered from extract of naturally blight stricken chickpea plants. Toxicity of purified solanapyrones as determined by cell bioassay was in the order of solanapyrone A>solanapyrone B>solanapyrone C. However, the specificity of all three compounds was dependent on the genetic identity of the chickpea cultivars. Seed treatment and foliar application of fungicides are commonly recommended for disease management, but further information on biology and survival of A. rabiei is needed to devise more effective management strategies. A short description of chickpea blight, geographical distribution, disease cycle, symptoms, losses, production of phytotoxins and disease management practices for the control of Ascochyta blight will be discussed in this review article.

  6. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  7. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced leaf wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial leaf blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887

  8. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a

  9. Genetic Characterization of Early Blight Resistance in Interspecific Potato Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer, is a serious foliar disease of potato and tomato worldwide. It is characterized by substantial yield loss resulting from severe defoliation, especially under hot, humid conditions. Fungicides are the main method of control, how...

  10. Characterization of Early Blight Resistance in Interspecific Potato Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer, is a serious foliar disease of potato and tomato worldwide. It is characterized by severe defoliation resulting in significant losses in yield. Fungicides are the main method of control; however, they are undesirable due to their...

  11. TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to bacterial blight of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial blight of cotton (BBC) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm) is a destructive disease that has recently re-emerged in the U.S. Xcm injects transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly induce the expression of host susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) genes. ...

  12. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  13. [Bacterial leaf blight affecting Syngonium podophyllum in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Alippi, A M; Ronco, L; Alippi, H E

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial leaf blight of Syngonium podophyllum caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. syngonii is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The first symptom of the disease was an interveinal watersoaking of leaves, the tissues became chlorotic and finally necrotic over areas of about 4 cm. The identification of the causal microorganism was based on disease symptoms, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and pathogenicity test.

  14. Biological control of post-harvest late blight of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of US-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans has coincided with an increase in severity of potato late blight in North America. As alternatives to chemical fungicides, 18 bacterial strains patented as biological control agents (BCA) of both sprouting and Fusarium dry rot were cultivated...

  15. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  16. Three inoculation methods for evaluating Sclerotinia blight resistance in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-based assays for screening germplasm for resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanuts can be conducted year-round, and thus may accelerate progress in breeding for resistant plants. Three previously proposed inoculation methods (using main stems of intact plants, detached main stems, or de...

  17. Fight Fire Without Fire Fighters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    There is a role for the classroom teacher in teaching fire safety. Discusses the inadequacies of present fire prevention programs and provides ten specific steps teachers can take to avoid suffering and death from fire. (Author/RK)

  18. Screening of bacterial antagonists for biological control of Phytophthora blight of pepper.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, M; Lee, Wang Hyu; Lee, Kui Jae

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of bacterial antagonists to control Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by P. capsici using different screening methods. Among a collection of fluorescent pseudomonas isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, twelve isolates were initially selected based on dual culture assay on potato dextrose agar and corn meal agar. Further, these twelve isolates were screened for the reduction of disease severity caused by P. capsici using detached leaves and seedling assay. Most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism against P. capsici in both detached leaves and seedlings assay. In addition, few isolates increased shoot and root length of pepper in seedling assays. Among them, isolate PS119 showing highest ability to reduce the disease severity in the in vitro seedling assay was found to be the most efficient antagonists against P. capsici in the in vivo biological control tests. These results indicate that the in vitro seedling assay can be used as a rapid and more accurate technique for the selection of promising biocontrol agents against P. capsici. PMID:15678563

  19. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  20. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  1. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  2. The Anti-Phytophthora Effect of Selected Potato-Associated Pseudomonas Strains: From the Laboratory to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Anouk; De Vrieze, Mout; Bönisch, Denise; Gloor, Ramona; Musa, Tomke; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Bailly, Aurélien; Weisskopf, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disk assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf disks from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavorable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonize the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g., in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray. PMID:26640460

  3. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bishnu K; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  4. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E.; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  5. Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Baïda, Nader; Yazourh, Asmae; Singer, Elisabeth; Izard, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' was coined for a group of 43 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and possessed an arginine dihydrolase system. DNA-DNA relatedness studies (S1 nuclease method) showed that the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' formed a genetically homogeneous group (DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 70 to 100%). A total of 76 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto had 7-56% DNA hybridization with strain CFML 97-514T. The highest DNA binding values were found with Pseudomonas veronii CIP 104663T (52%), Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 104664T (56%), Pseudomonas marginalis ATCC 10844T (56%), Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T (53%) and Pseudomonas cedrella CIP 105541T (52%). Their unrelatedness was confirmed by deltaTm values greater than 7 degrees C. On the basis of the results of phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, a novel Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov., is proposed for the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514'. The type strain is strain CFML 97-514T (= CIP 106645T = ATCC BAA-140T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. A comparison of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain CFML 97-514T and the sequence of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that the novel species fell within the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. Members of P. grimontii grew at 4 degrees C but not at 41 degrees C. They were able to use D-xylose, alpha-L-rhamnose, alpha-aminobutyrate, meso-erythritol and itaconate as sole sources of carbon

  6. Teratogenicity studies on late blighted potatoes in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and Saguinus labiatus).

    PubMed

    Allen, J R; Marlar, R J; Chesney, C F; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Weckel, G; Traisman, E; White, J W

    1977-02-01

    Female rhesus monkeys and marmosets were fed a diet containing blighted potatoes (Phytophthora infestans) at a level of 10g/kg per day for at least two weeks prior to breeding and six weeks following conception in order to gain additional information on the association of blighted potatoes and the development of anencephaly and spina bifida in primate species. There was an absence of either of these neural-tube defects in 32 rhesus and 14 marmoset infants whose mothers had received a blighted potato diet. In addition there were no cranial osseous defects. There were, however, two rhesus monkey infants with internal hydrocephalus whose mothers had consumed blighted potatoes.

  7. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  8. Tagging and mapping of rice sheath blight resistant gene.

    PubMed

    Che, K P; Zhan, Q C; Xing, Q H; Wang, Z P; Jin, D M; He, D J; Wang, B

    2003-01-01

    Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) is one of the severe rice diseases worldwide. In this study, an F(2) population from a cross between "4011" and "Xiangzaoxian19" is used to identify molecular markers linked with the resistant trait. "4011" was a transgenic rice cultivar carrying a resistant gene to sheath blight, while "Xiangzaoxian19" is a highly susceptible one. As a result, five molecular markers, including three RFLP markers converted from RAPD and AFLP markers, and two SSR markers were identified to link with the sheath blight resistant gene. This dominant resistant gene was named as R sb 1 and mapped on rice chromosome 5. The linkage distance between the markers (E-AT:M-CAC(120), E-AT:M-CTA(230), OPN-16(2000), RM164(320) and RM39(300)) and R sb 1 was 1.6 cM, 9.9 cM, 1.6 cM, 15.2 cM and 1.6 cM, respectively.

  9. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  10. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... a distinct plume rises from the location of the Bear Butte Fire (just northwest of the larger Booth Fire), the fire-lines had merged ... clouds or other factors precluded a retrieval the map is colored black. The  animation  depicts a "multi-angle fly-over" of the ...

  11. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  12. Inhibition of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum by volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Paula; Príncipe, Analía; Jofré, Edgardo; Mori, Gladys; Fischer, Sonia

    2014-11-01

    The Fusarium head blight of grain cereals is a significant disease worldwide. In Argentina, high levels of contamination with Fusarium proliferatum have been found in crops. Many strains of the Pseudomonas genus antagonize the growth of fungi by different mechanisms, such as the production of antibiotics, siderophores, volatiles, and extracellular enzymes. In this work, we have designed a new system for studying the growth inhibition of F. proliferatum-namely by volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens MGR12. In both rich and minimal media, the bacterium released volatiles that negatively affected the mycelial growth of that phytopathogenic fungus. These bacterial compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but only a few could be identified by comparing their mass spectra with the libraries of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology MS search. PMID:25085617

  13. Forest fires

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance.

  14. Fusarium Head Blight resistance QTL in the NC-Neuse / AGS2000 recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for resistance to Fusarium Head Blight is of major importance as the disease can have serious negative impacts on wheat production in warm and humid regions of the world, including the state of North Carolina. Fusarium Head Blight can cause significant grain yield reduction, but also severe...

  15. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  16. Breeding for Early Blight Resistance in Potato Using the Wild Species Solanum Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applications. Using w...

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and fungicides on Botryosphaeria stem blight lesion development on detached blueberry stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botryosphaeria stem blight is a destructive disease of blueberries. Field observations indicate stem blight is more severe on vigorous plants than on slower growing plants. Two studies compared the effect of two types of fertilizers applied at four rates and nine fungicides on lesion development fo...

  18. Development and characterization of RiceCAP QTL mapping population for sheath blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RiceCAP is a USDA CSREES funded project that has as one of its main objectives developing genetic markers associated with sheath blight resistance. Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is an important disease of rice in the southern US. Tolerance to the disease is quantitatively inherited an...

  19. Late blight-resistant tuber-bearing Solanum species in field and laboratory trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most disastrous and widespread disease of potato. One of the most effective means of controlling late blight is through the use of resistant cultivars, but newly developed resistant cultivars often lose their resistance after a few years of comm...

  20. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight in lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stemphylium blight (caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr.) is one of the major diseases of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in South Asia and North America. The objective of the study was to identify linkage map position of the genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight and the markers linked ...

  1. Botryosphaeria Stem Blight on Blueberries: Effect of Vaccinium Cultivar, Botryosphaeriaceae Species and Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botryosphaeria stem blight is a destructive disease of blueberries grown in the southern United States. Historically stem blight has been reported to be caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea. Recently, other genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae family have been identified as causal pathogens of ...

  2. The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA – causes and results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the Eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most if not all of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. Some CSAs (Community Supported Agricu...

  3. Allelic analysis of sheath blight resistance with association mapping in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight is one of the most devastating diseases world-wide in rice. For the first time, we adopted association mapping to identify quantitative trait loci for sheath blight resistance from the USDA rice mini-core collection. The phenotyping was conducted with a newly developed micro-chamber me...

  4. Confirming QTLs and finding additional loci responsible for resistance to rice sheath blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice sheath blight disease (Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1AKühn) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is the most economical and environmentally sound strategy in managing sheath blight (ShB). Ten ShB-QTLs were previously mapped in a LJRIL population using...

  5. Production of a bioflocculant from Pseudomonas veronii L918 using the hydrolyzate of peanut hull and its application in the treatment of ash-flushing wastewater generated from coal fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weijie; Hao, Yan; Jiang, Jihong; Zhu, Aihua; Zhu, Jingrong; Dong, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In this study, bioflocculant produced by Pseudomonas veronii L918 was applied to treat ash-flushing wastewater. The strain L918 could convert the hydrolyzate of peanut hull into bioflocculant, which can effectively reduce the production cost of bioflocculant. The yield of 3.39g/L bioflocculant MBF-L918 was achieved when 300mL/L peanut hull hydrolyzate was used as carbon source. The bioflocculant MBF-L918 contains 77.14% polysaccharides and 4.84% proteins, and the molecular weight (MW) of MBF-L918 is 24.77kDa. Furthermore, MBF-L918 showed good flocculating efficiency of 92.51% to ash-flushing wastewater when 2.83mg/L MBF-L918 was added, and thus achieved the recycling of ash-flushing wastewater. This study reported for the first time that the bioflocculant was produced using peanut hull hydrolyzate and effectively applied in the treatment of coal ash-flushing wastewater. PMID:27372012

  6. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) Fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required to have a fixed fire main system...

  7. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) Fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required to have a fixed fire main system...

  8. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) Fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required to have a fixed fire main system...

  9. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) Fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required to have a fixed fire main system...

  10. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) Fire main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required to have a fixed fire main system...

  11. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates

  12. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  13. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A ... the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  14. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  15. Polymicrobial Ventriculitis Involving Pseudomonas fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L.; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S.; Anderson, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  16. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  17. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    PubMed

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas.

  18. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    PubMed

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. PMID:25977211

  19. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  20. Siberian Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of fires across Siberia and the Russian Far East, northeast China and northern Mongolia. Fires in Eastern Siberia have been increasing in ... spatial contrast. The heights correspond to elevations above sea level. Taking into account the surface elevation, the smoke plumes range ...

  1. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  2. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall...

  3. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall...

  4. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall...

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall...

  6. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall...

  7. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  8. Evaluation of the BlightPro Decision Support System for Management of Potato Late Blight Using Computer Simulation and Field Validation.

    PubMed

    Small, Ian M; Joseph, Laura; Fry, William E

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BlightPro decision support system (DSS) for late blight management using computer simulation and field tests. Three fungicide schedules were evaluated: (i) calendar-based (weekly) applications, (ii) applications according to the DSS, or (iii) no fungicide. Simulation experiments utilized 14 years of weather data from 59 locations in potato-producing states. In situations with unfavorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended fewer fungicide applications with no loss of disease suppression; and, in situations of very favorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended more fungicide applications but with improved disease suppression. Field evaluation was conducted in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. All experiments involved at least two cultivars with different levels of resistance. DSS-guided and weekly scheduled fungicide treatments were successful at protecting against late blight in all field experiments. As expected, DSS-guided schedules were influenced by prevailing weather (observed and forecast) and host resistance and resulted in schedules that maintained or improved disease suppression and average fungicide use efficiency relative to calendar-based applications. The DSS provides an interactive system that helps users maximize the efficiency of their crop protection strategy by enabling well-informed decisions. PMID:26312965

  9. Evaluation of the BlightPro Decision Support System for Management of Potato Late Blight Using Computer Simulation and Field Validation.

    PubMed

    Small, Ian M; Joseph, Laura; Fry, William E

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BlightPro decision support system (DSS) for late blight management using computer simulation and field tests. Three fungicide schedules were evaluated: (i) calendar-based (weekly) applications, (ii) applications according to the DSS, or (iii) no fungicide. Simulation experiments utilized 14 years of weather data from 59 locations in potato-producing states. In situations with unfavorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended fewer fungicide applications with no loss of disease suppression; and, in situations of very favorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended more fungicide applications but with improved disease suppression. Field evaluation was conducted in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. All experiments involved at least two cultivars with different levels of resistance. DSS-guided and weekly scheduled fungicide treatments were successful at protecting against late blight in all field experiments. As expected, DSS-guided schedules were influenced by prevailing weather (observed and forecast) and host resistance and resulted in schedules that maintained or improved disease suppression and average fungicide use efficiency relative to calendar-based applications. The DSS provides an interactive system that helps users maximize the efficiency of their crop protection strategy by enabling well-informed decisions.

  10. Structure of amylovoran, the capsular exopolysaccharide from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Nimtz, M; Mort, A; Domke, T; Wray, V; Zhang, Y; Qiu, F; Coplin, D; Geider, K

    1996-06-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Erwinia amylovora, amylovoran, was purified from culture supernatants of bacteria in minimal medium and cleaved chemically either by treatment with trifluoracetic acid or hydrofluoric acid, and enzymatically by digestion with depolymerase from E. amylovora phage phi-Ealh. Structural characterization of the resulting oligosaccharides was performed by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR [one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D)] spectroscopic techniques. A branched repeating unit with five monosaccharide residues and various substituents was determined: [sequence: see text] The terminal monosaccharide of the side branch, which bears a 4,6-bound pyruvate residue in the R-configuration, was found to be modified with 2-linked (26%), 3-linked (24%), 2-,3-linked (40%) O-acetyl groups, or these were absent (10%). An additional glucose residue is linked to approximately 10% of the core alpha-galactose of the repeating unit.

  11. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%).

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Strains Associated with Walnut Blight in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Higuera, Gastón; González-Escalona, Narjol; Véliz, Camila; Vera, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis is an important pathogen responsible for walnut blight outbreaks globally. Here, we report four draft genome sequences of X. arboricola pv. juglandis strains isolated from Chilean walnut trees. PMID:26450732

  13. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  14. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     ... 105,000 acres (164 square miles) of the Angeles National Forest by mid-day August 31, destroying at least 21 homes and threatening more ...

  15. Inoculation and scoring methods for rice sheath blight disease.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yulin; Liu, Guangjie; Park, Dong-Soo; Yang, Yinong

    2013-01-01

    Sheath blight disease of rice caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani has been a major disease of rice with a serious threat to stable rice production worldwide. Although various cultural practices have been used to manage the disease, it is advantageous and important to screen rice germplasm and identify resistant rice cultivars for more effective disease control. Recent advances in methods for the fungal inoculation and disease evaluation have enabled a better measurement of host resistance by minimizing confounding factors from plant architectures and environmental conditions. This chapter introduces five such methods: (1) detached leaf method; (2) micro-chamber method; (3) mist-chamber method; (4) parafilm sachet method; and (5) aluminum foil method. These methods are useful for screening and evaluating disease reactions of rice germplasm and facilitating the genetic mapping of disease resistance genes.

  16. Reduction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat with early fungicide applications of prothioconazole.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S G; Godley, N P

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have identified the benefit of fungicides applied at flowering (Zadoks Growth Stage (GS) 59-69) in the reduction of Fusarium head blight and the reduction of deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested wheat grain. Two experiments were performed to identify the ability of prothioconazole (Proline) at three timings to reduce Fusarium head blight and resulting DON in harvested grain of wheat. Prothioconazole (150 g ha(-1)) was applied to plots of wheat at GS31, GS39, and GS65 in a full-factorial design. Plots were inoculated with Fusarium-infected oat grain at GS30 and mist-irrigated at GS65 to encourage head blight development. Plots were assessed for head blight symptoms at GS77 and harvested grain was analysed for yield, specific weight, thousand grain weight, and DON. Factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified prothioconazole applications at each timing that resulted in significant reductions in Fusarium head blight and DON. The control achieved with combinations of spray timings was additive with no significant interactions. The control of Fusarium head blight at GS31, GS39, and GS65 was 50, 58 and 83%, respectively. The reduction in Fusarium head blight achieved by all three timings combined was 97% compared to the fully untreated control plots. The reduction of DON after application of prothioconazole at GS31, GS39, and GS65 was 27%, 49%, and 57%, respectively. The application of prothioconazole at all three timings achieved 83% reduction of DON compared with the fully untreated control plots. These experiments have determined, for the first time, significant additional head blight disease control and mycotoxin reduction with applications of a fungicide before flowering.

  17. QTL mapping of early flowering and resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Daba, Ketema; Deokar, Amit; Banniza, Sabine; Warkentin, Thomas D; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2016-06-01

    In western Canada, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production is challenged by short growing seasons and infestations with ascochyta blight. Research was conducted to determine the genetic basis of the association between flowering time and reaction to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Ninety-two chickpea recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between ICCV 96029 and CDC Frontier were evaluated for flowering responses and ascochyta blight reactions in growth chambers and fields at multiple locations and during several years. A wide range of variation was exhibited by the RILs for days to flower, days to maturity, node of first flowering, plant height, and ascochyta blight resistance. Moderate to high broad sense heritability was estimated for ascochyta blight reaction (H(2) = 0.14-0.34) and for days to flowering (H(2) = 0.45-0.87) depending on the environments. Negative correlations were observed among the RILs for days to flowering and ascochyta blight resistance, ranging from r = -0.21 (P < 0.05) to -0.58 (P < 0.0001). A genetic linkage map consisting of eight linkage groups was developed using 349 SNP markers. Seven QTLs for days to flowering were identified that individually explained 9%-44% of the phenotypic variation. Eight QTLs were identified for ascochyta blight resistance that explained phenotypic variation ranging from 10% to 19%. Clusters of QTLs for days to flowering and ascochyta blight resistances were found on chromosome 3 at the interval of 8.6-23.11 cM and on chromosome 8 at the interval of 53.88-62.33 cM. PMID:27244453

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  19. Functional analysis of OsPGIP1 in rice sheath blight resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Lu, Liaoxun; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Zongliang; Ling, Fei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yemao; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most devastating diseases of rice, sheath blight causes severe rice yield loss. However, little progress has been made in rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. It has been reported that polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins can inhibit the degradation of the plant cell wall by polygalacturonases from pathogens. Here, we prokaryotically expressed and purified OsPGIP1 protein, which was verified by Western blot analysis. Activity assay confirmed the inhibitory activity of OsPGIP1 against the PGase from Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the location of OsPGIP1 was determined by subcellular localization. Subsequently, we overexpressed OsPGIP1 in Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and applied PCR and Southern blot analysis to identify the positive T0 transgenic plants with single-copy insertions. Germination assay of the seeds from T1 transgenic plants was carried out to select homozygous OsPGIP1 transgenic lines, and the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in these lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Field testing of R. solani inoculation showed that the sheath blight resistance of the transgenic rice was significantly improved. Furthermore, the levels of sheath blight resistance were in accordance with the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in the transgenic lines. Our results reveal the functions of OsPGIP1 and its resistance mechanism to rice sheath blight, which will facilitate rice breeding for sheath blight resistance.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections.

  1. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  2. Bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides.

  3. Bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides. PMID:27664749

  4. Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.

    PubMed

    Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation.

  5. Fire regimes, fire ecology, and fire management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Trejo, Dante Arturo

    2008-12-01

    I propose several broad fire regimes and provide an analysis of fire ecology for the principal vegetation types in Mexico. Forty percent of Mexican ecosystems are fire-dependent (pine forests, several oak forests, grasslands, several shrublands, savannas, palm lands, wet prairies, "popal" and "tular" swamps), 50% are fire-sensitive (tropical rain forests and tropical seasonal forests, tropical cloud forests, mangrove, fir forests, several oak forests, and several shrublands), and the remaining 10% fall into fire-influenced (such as several gallery forests) and fire-independent categories (shrublands in most xeric environments, very high-altitude prairies). I also present an analysis of current fire-management trends, highlighting the trend toward integral fire management, which merges prevention and control, community-based fire management, and ecological fire management.

  6. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  7. Potential of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Strain Pcho10 as a Biocontrol Agent Against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiqun; Gao, Qixun; Hamada, Mohamed Sobhy; Dawood, Dawood Hosni; Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Yun; Ma, Zhonghua

    2014-12-01

    To develop an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Fusarium head blight on wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum, the bacterial biocontrol agent Pcho10 was selected from more than 1,476 wheat-head-associated bacterial strains according to its antagonistic activity in vitro. This strain was subsequently characterized as Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, assays of the BIOLOG microbial identification system, and unique pigment production. The major antifungal metabolite produced by Pcho10 was further identified as phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance data. The core PCN biosynthesis gene cluster in Pcho10 was cloned and sequenced. PCN showed strong inhibitory activity against F. graminearum conidial germination, mycelial growth, and deoxynivalenol production. Tests both under growth chamber conditions and in field trials showed that Pcho10 well colonized on the wheat head and effectively controlled the disease caused by F. graminearum. Results of this study indicate that P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Pcho10 has high potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent against F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of P. chlororaphis for the management of Fusarium head blight.

  8. Potential of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Strain Pcho10 as a Biocontrol Agent Against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiqun; Gao, Qixun; Hamada, Mohamed Sobhy; Dawood, Dawood Hosni; Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Yun; Ma, Zhonghua

    2014-12-01

    To develop an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Fusarium head blight on wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum, the bacterial biocontrol agent Pcho10 was selected from more than 1,476 wheat-head-associated bacterial strains according to its antagonistic activity in vitro. This strain was subsequently characterized as Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, assays of the BIOLOG microbial identification system, and unique pigment production. The major antifungal metabolite produced by Pcho10 was further identified as phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance data. The core PCN biosynthesis gene cluster in Pcho10 was cloned and sequenced. PCN showed strong inhibitory activity against F. graminearum conidial germination, mycelial growth, and deoxynivalenol production. Tests both under growth chamber conditions and in field trials showed that Pcho10 well colonized on the wheat head and effectively controlled the disease caused by F. graminearum. Results of this study indicate that P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Pcho10 has high potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent against F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of P. chlororaphis for the management of Fusarium head blight. PMID:24941327

  9. Effects of One Cycle of Recurrent Selection for Early Blight Resistance in a Diploid Hybrid Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is the second most important foliar disease in potatoes, after late blight, around the world. Heritable early blight resistance was previously identified in a diploid hybrid population of Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum (phu-stn). Seventy-two clones, consis...

  10. GIS-based climatic regionalization of potato late blight in mountain areas of Southwest Sichuan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi

    2008-10-01

    Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,φ,l,β). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.

  11. Screening Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight.

    PubMed

    Fred, Agaba Kayihura; Kiswara, Gilang; Yi, Gihwan; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations; that is, in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. The pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 was tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation was conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and the lesion length was measured after 14 days of inoculation. Five cultivars, Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo, were found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of the plant defense-related genes JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b was observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice was more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defenserelated genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals.

  12. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  13. Predicting Fusarium head blight epidemics with boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Shah, D A; De Wolf, E D; Paul, P A; Madden, L V

    2014-07-01

    Predicting major Fusarium head blight (FHB) epidemics allows for the judicious use of fungicides in suppressing disease development. Our objectives were to investigate the utility of boosted regression trees (BRTs) for predictive modeling of FHB epidemics in the United States, and to compare the predictive performances of the BRT models with those of logistic regression models we had developed previously. The data included 527 FHB observations from 15 states over 26 years. BRTs were fit to a training data set of 369 FHB observations, in which FHB epidemics were classified as either major (severity ≥ 10%) or non-major (severity < 10%), linked to a predictor matrix consisting of 350 weather-based variables and categorical variables for wheat type (spring or winter), presence or absence of corn residue, and cultivar resistance. Predictive performance was estimated on a test (holdout) data set consisting of the remaining 158 observations. BRTs had a misclassification rate of 0.23 on the test data, which was 31% lower than the average misclassification rate over 15 logistic regression models we had presented earlier. The strongest predictors were generally one of mean daily relative humidity, mean daily temperature, and the number of hours in which the temperature was between 9 and 30°C and relative humidity ≥ 90% simultaneously. Moreover, the predicted risk of major epidemics increased substantially when mean daily relative humidity rose above 70%, which is a lower threshold than previously modeled for most plant pathosystems. BRTs led to novel insights into the weather-epidemic relationship.

  14. Characterization and taxonomic re-assessment of the box blight pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata, introducing Calonectria henricotiae sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calonectria pseudonaviculata, the causal agent of the box blight disease of Buxus spp., was first detected in the mid 1990’s in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Since then, the geographic range of box blight has rapidly expanded to at least 21 countries throughout temperate regions of the world,...

  15. Competitive Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-Spectrum Late Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato late blight is a particularly destructive plant disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight has remained particularly problematic despite intensive breeding efforts to integrate resistance into cultivated potato. This is due to the pathogen’s ab...

  16. Fire Detection Organizing Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

  17. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  18. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  19. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  20. Chestnut bark tannin assays and growth of chestnut blight fungus on extracted tannin.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakis, S L

    1992-08-01

    Tannins extracted from the green bark of each of two Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut trees were assayed in a protein-binding test. Four levels of tannins were added to a buffered, minimal growth medium, and a standard, virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus was grown. There were only slight differences in protein binding between the extracts from different species. Fungal growth was better with tannin than without, but there was no difference between species extracts in their ability to improve fungal growth rate. There was also no inhibition of blight fungus growth by any of the tree tannins, so tannin toxicity is not the reason for Asian chestnut tree resistance.

  1. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... becoming more difficult to treat because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Selecting the right antibiotic usually requires that a ... to help educate people about Pseudomonas infections, and antibiotic resistance, and to encourage prevention activities and healthy behaviors ...

  3. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  4. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  5. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  6. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... fires were fueled by gas while 13% used charcoal or other solid fuel. Gas grills were involved ... structure fires and 4,300 outdoor fires annually. Charcoal or other solid-fueled grills were involved in ...

  7. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  8. Multistate evaluation of Brassica cover crop, biocontrol agent, and fungicide for integrated management of sheath blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most important diseases limiting rice production in the southern rice-producing states. The fungus survives between crops as sclerotia and mycelia in infected plant debris and serves as the primary inoculum. Infection starts when sclerotia a...

  9. Bringing Benefits and Warding off Blights in Due Commandment (Analytic Study Compared with the Jordanian Law)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Etoum, Niebal Mohd Ibrahim; Mowafi, Hanan Sami Mohammad; Al Zubaidi, Faraj Hamad Salem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the benefits and blights of the due commandment (intestate law) under Jordanian law for the year (2010) in the article (279). The study came in two sections, the first one dealt with the concept of due commandment, its legitimacy, verdict and terms; in the second section, I've dealt with the persons entitled to due…

  10. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  11. Boxwood Blight: A new scourge, a new paradigm for collaborative research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Buxus is prized for its use as individual specimen plants, hedges, parterres and landscape groupings. In general, boxwood suffers from few pests or diseases, which is one reason the recent introduction of boxwood blight disease to Europe and North America has been so significant to people ...

  12. Resistance to Early Blight in Hybrids Between a Solanum Tuberosum Haploid and S Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  13. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  14. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of actio...

  15. Minimizing crop damage through understanding relationships between pyrethrum phenology and ray blight disease severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most damaging foliar disease of pyrethrum in Australia is ray blight caused by Stagonosporopsis tanaceti. The probability of growers incurring economic losses caused by this disease has been substantially reduced by the implementation of a prophylactically-applied spring fungicide program. Th...

  16. A real-time PCR assay for early detection of eastern filbert blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern filbert blight (EFB) is a devastating disease of European hazelnut, Corylus avellana, which causes economic losses in Oregon where 99% of the U.S. crop is produced. The causal fungus, Anisogramma anomala, is native to eastern North America, where it is found associated with the American haz...

  17. Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of Fusarium head blight and Trichothecene toxin types in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many parts of the world Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of cereal crops that adversely affects crop yield, food safety, and animal health. We previously demonstrated population structure associated with differences in trichothecene toxin t...

  19. Analysis of rice PDR-like ABC transporter genes in sheath blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. To understand the molecular mechanism of resistance, we identified 450 differentially expressed genes in a resistant rice cultivar Jasmine 85 after R. solani infection with a combination of DNA microar...

  20. Sensitivity to a Phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani Correlates with Sheath Blight Susceptibility in Rice.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven A

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT Sheath blight is one of the most important and intractable diseases of rice (Oryza sativa) where limited control has been achieved using traditional approaches. Quantitative inheritance, extraneous traits, and environmental factors confound genetic analysis of host resistance. A method was developed to isolate and utilize a phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani to investigate the genetics of sheath blight susceptibility. Infiltration of the toxin preparation into plant leaves induced necrosis in rice, maize, and tomato. Using 17 rice cultivars known to vary in sheath blight resistance, genotypes were identified that were sensitive (tox-S) and insensitive (tox-I) to the toxin, and a correlation (r = 0.66) between toxin sensitivity and disease susceptibility was observed. Given the broad host range of R. solani, genotypes of host species may be both tox-S and tox-I. A total of 154 F(2) progeny from a cross between Cypress (tox-S) and Jasmine 85 (tox-I) segregated in a 9:7 ratio for tox-S/tox-I, indicating an epistatic interaction between two genes controls sensitivity to the toxin in rice. This work provides the means to genetically map toxin sensitivity genes and eliminate susceptible genotypes when developing sheath blight-resistant rice cultivars.

  1. Genetic and genomic dissection of resistance genes to the rice sheath blight pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice sheath blight disease caused by the anastomosis group AG1-IA of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most serious rice diseases in the southern US and the world. The use of fungicides is a popular but costly method to control this disease worldwide. Genetic analysis of host re...

  2. Elevated [CO2] compromises both Type I and Type II wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  3. Head blight of wheat in South Africa is associated with numerous Fusarium species and chemotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields during 2008 and...

  4. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  5. Severe outbreak of bacterial panicle blight across Texas Rice Belt in 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial panicle blight symptoms have been observed in rice fields in Texas for many years, but it was not until 1996 that Burkholderia glumae was identified as the causal agent. Although it is generally considered a minor disease, there have been years where significant losses to yield and milling...

  6. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  7. RiceCAP: Progress in identifying QTL for sheath blight resistance and milling yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RiceCAP project was initiated to utilize genomics to address two recalcitrant breeding traits that are economically important to the US rice industry. Sheath blight disease resistance (SB) and rice milling yield (MY) are both complexly inherited traits, sensitive to environmental fluctuations, a...

  8. Validation of Fusarium head blight resistance QTL using the NC-Neuse / Bess doubled haploid population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. It lowers the grain yield and quality, and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Genetic resistance is a critical control measure and breeding objective. Many studies have focused on the genetic basis of ...

  9. Rhizoctonia web blight development on azalea in relation to leaf wetness duration in the glasshouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field trials done in nurseries, temperature was identified as the primary variable for predicting web blight development, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.). Moisture, in the form of very low vapor pressure deficits, provided only a minor predict...

  10. Profitability of integrated management of fusarium head blight in North Carolina winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most difficult small-grain diseases to manage, due to the partial effectiveness of management techniques and the narrow window of time within which to apply fungicides profitably. The most effective management approach is to integrate cultivar resistance wit...

  11. A novel quantitative trait locus for Fusarium head blight resistance in chromosome 7A of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Chinese Spring-Sumai 3 chromosome 7A disomic substitution line (CS-Sumai 3-7ADSL) was reported to have a high level of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance for symptom spread within a spike (Type II) and low deoxynivalenol accumulation in infected kernels (Type III), but quantitative trait locus ...

  12. Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region marker...

  13. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  14. Characterization of Fusarium strains recovered from wheat with symptoms of head blight in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) members cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and small grains in the United States. The U.S. population is diverse, and includes several genetically distinct local emergent subpopulations, some more aggressive and toxigenic than...

  15. Discovering the next generation of late blight resistance genes – can we battle Phytophthora infestans evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive plant diseases. RB from Solanum bulbocastanum encodes a CC-NB-LRR (CNL) protein that confers partial resistance to most P. infestans isolates through its recognition of the corresponding pathog...

  16. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  17. Use of mycelium and detached leaves in bioassays for assessing resistance to boxwood blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boxwood blight caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata is a newly emergent disease of boxwood (Buxus L.) in the United States that causes leaf drop, stem lesions, and plant death. A rapid and reliable laboratory assay that enables screening hundreds of boxwood genotypes for resistance to boxwood blig...

  18. Widespread Distribution of Fungivorus Aphelenchoides spp. in Blight Cankers on American Chestnut Trees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J; Eisenback, J D; Oldham, K

    2012-12-01

    Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight.

  19. Registration of common bacterial blight resistant cranberry dry bean germplasm line USCR-CBB-20

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight is a serious disease of dry edible beans in warm humid climates. The disease is most prominent east of the continental divide in the U.S. Large seeded dry beans from the Andean gene pool, such as those in the cranberry bean market class are very susceptible to this disease. ...

  20. Greenhouse evaluation of transgenic barley expressing gastrodianin for resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  1. Evaluation of genomic prediction methods for fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance is quantitative and difficult to evaluate. Genomic selection (GS) could accelerate FHB resistance breeding. We used US cooperative FHB wheat nursery data to evaluate GS models for several FHB resistance traits including deoxynivalenol (DON) levels. For all trait...

  2. A spontaneous segmental deletion from chromosome arm 3DL enhances Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much effort has been directed at identifying sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. We sought to identify molecular markers for what we hypothesized was a new major FHB resistance locus originating from the wheat cultivar 'Freedom' and introgressed into the susceptible wheat c...

  3. Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in Winter Wheat Cultivar NC-Neuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in the moderately resistant so...

  4. Evaluation of Fusarium head blight resistance in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) in North America in recent years has been seriously threatened and compromised by epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch]. Deployment of FHB-resista...

  5. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  6. Evaluation of the USDA Rice Core Collection for sheath blight disease using micro-chamber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA rice core collection, including 1,794 accessions from 114 countries, was developed using a stratified random sampling method to represent the entire NSGC collection including over 18,000 accessions. Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) is one of the most important and widely distributed disea...

  7. Searching for Germplasm Resistant to Sheath Blight from the USDA Rice Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most important and widely distributed diseases capable of infesting numerous crops including rice. Resistant germplasm with wide variation is essential for controlling this disease via breeding efforts, and genetic backgr...

  8. First report of Ascochyta blight of Spotted Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) caused by Ascochyta sp. in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characteristic Ascochyta blight lesions were observed on leaves and pods of spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) growing at two sites in Twin Falls and Owyhee County, Idaho, USA in June 2005. Lesions appeared similar to those induced by Ascochyta spp. on other wild and cultivated legumes, i.e....

  9. Complete genome sequence of Japanese erwinia strain ejp617, a bacterial shoot blight pathogen of pear.

    PubMed

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  10. Resistance to Sclerotinia blight in the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-one of the 112 accessions comprising the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Collection were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 for resistance to Sclerotinia blight, caused by Sclerotinia minor. Susceptible cultivar Okrun, and resistant cultivars Southwest Runner, Tamnut OL06, and Tamspan 90, were included for r...

  11. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  12. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  13. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  14. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  15. Wildland fire simulation by WRF-Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, J.; Beezley, J. D.; Kochanski, A.; Kondratenko, V. Y.; Sousedik, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the principles, algorithms, and features of the coupled atmosphere-wildland fire software WRF-Fire. WRF-Fire consists of a fire-spread model, based on a modified Rothermel's formula implemented by the level-set method, coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The code has been publicly released with WRF and it is supported by the developers. The WRF infrastructure is used for parallel execution, with additional improvements. In addition to the input of standard atmospheric data, the WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) has been extended for the input of high-resolution topography and fuel data. The fuel models can be easily modified by the user. The components of the wind and of the terrain gradient are interpolated to the fire model mesh by accurate formulas which respect grid staggering. Ignition models include point, drip-torch line, and, in near future, a developed fire perimeter from standard web sources, with an atmosphere spin-up. Companion presentations will describe a validation on the FireFlux experiment, and a simulation of a real wildland fire in a terrain with sharp gradients. This work was supported by NSF grants CNS-0719641 and ATM-0835579. Simulation of the FireFlux grass fire experiment (Clements et al., 2007) in WRF-Fire.

  16. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  17. FIRE SERVICE TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS REVISED MANUAL IN FIRE STATION OR TRAINING CENTER EXTENSION PROGRAMS FOR IMPROVING THE COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS OF LOCAL FIRE PERSONNEL IN THE SPECIALIZED FIELD OF FIRE SERVICE. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF FIRE-FIGHTING CONSULTANTS AND ADVISORY GROUPS. THE 26 CHAPTERS PROVIDE BOTH BASIC AND ADVANCED TECHNICAL…

  18. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  19. Fire-Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  20. Unusual case of cervical pregnancy after curettage for a presumptive diagnosis of intrauterine blighted ovum.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, C; Caccavale, C; Borriello, M; Rotondi, M; Di Serio, M; Rotondi, M; Tolino, A; Carella, C

    2003-01-01

    A case of cervical pregnancy after curettage for presumptive intrauterine blighted ovum is presented. The woman was successfully treated by vacuum evacuation and curettage. A 29-year-old woman, gravida 2, nulliparous, was admitted to our department at ten weeks and two days of gestation after a diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. She had been treated by curettage five days before for an initial diagnosis of intrauterine blighted ovum. Ultrasound scan examination revealed a gestational sac without foetus in the cervix four days after the first curettage. Vacuum evacuation and curettage of the cervical canal were performed and a Foley catheter was also inserted and left in place for three days. The patient was discharged in good condition on the fourth postoperative day.

  1. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea. PMID:25774114

  2. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  3. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds from Native Potato-associated Pseudomonas as Potential Anti-oomycete Agents

    PubMed Central

    De Vrieze, Mout; Pandey, Piyush; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Varadarajan, Adithi R.; Ahrens, Christian H.; Weisskopf, Laure; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    The plant kingdom represents a prominent biodiversity island for microbes that associate with the below- or aboveground organs of vegetal species. Both the root and the leaf represent interfaces where dynamic biological interactions influence plant life. Beside well-studied communication strategies based on soluble compounds and protein effectors, bacteria were recently shown to interact both with host plants and other microbial species through the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Focusing on the potato late blight-causing agent Phytophthora infestans, this work addresses the potential role of the bacterial volatilome in suppressing plant diseases. In a previous study, we isolated and identified a large collection of strains with anti-Phytophthora potential from both the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potato. Here we report the characterization and quantification of their emissions of biogenic volatiles, comparing 16 Pseudomonas strains differing in (i) origin of isolation (phyllosphere vs. rhizosphere), (ii) in vitro inhibition of P. infestans growth and sporulation behavior, and (iii) protective effects against late blight on potato leaf disks. We systematically tested the pharmacological inhibitory activity of core and strain-specific single compounds against P. infestans mycelial growth and sporangial behavior in order to identify key effective candidate molecules present in the complex natural VOCs blends. We envisage the plant bacterial microbiome as a reservoir for functional VOCs and establish the basis for finding the primary enzymatic toolset that enables the production of active components of the volatile bouquet in plant-associated bacteria. Comprehension of these functional interspecies interactions will open perspectives for the sustainable control of plant diseases in forthcoming agriculture. PMID:26635763

  5. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard. PMID:25895272

  6. Data handling and analysis for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Phillips, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The overall corn blight watch experiment data flow is described and the organization of the LARS/Purdue data center is discussed. Data analysis techniques are discussed in general and the use of statistical multispectral pattern recognition methods for automatic computer analysis of aircraft scanner data is described. Some of the results obtained are discussed and the implications of the experiment on future data communication requirements for earth resource survey systems is discussed.

  7. The applications of remote sensing to corn blight detection and crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Photography revealed the widespread and variable effects of southern corn leaf blight in Indiana. Three levels of severity of the infection could be discerned from good quality color and color infrared photography. As many as five severity levels appeared to be detectable and classifiable with multispectral scanner data and pattern recognition analysis. These conclusions are preliminary in nature, however, having been obtained from a limited amount of good quality scanner data collected over a small geographic area.

  8. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  9. Identification of QTLs and possible candidate genes conferring sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shailesh; Anuradha, Ghanta; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Vemireddy, Lakshminaryana Reddy; Sudhakar, Ravuru; Donempudi, Krishnaveni; Venkata, Durgarani; Jabeen, Farzana; Narasimhan, Yamini Kalinati; Marathi, Balram; Siddiq, Ebrahimali Abubacker

    2015-01-01

    Sheath blight, caused by the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Breeders have always faced challenges in acquiring reliable and absolute resistance to this disease in existing rice germplasm. In this context, 40 rice germplasm including eight wild, four landraces, twenty- six cultivated and two advanced breeding lines were screened utilizing the colonized bits of typha. Except Tetep and ARC10531 which expressed moderate level of resistance to the disease, none could be found to be authentically resistant. In order to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing the sheath blight resistance, two mapping populations (F2 and BC1F2) were developed from the cross BPT-5204/ARC10531. Utilizing composite interval mapping analysis, 9 QTLs mapped to five different chromosomes were identified with phenotypic variance ranging from 8.40 to 21.76%. Two SSR markers namely RM336 and RM205 were found to be closely associated with the major QTLs qshb7.3 and qshb9.2 respectively and were attested as well in BC1F2 population by bulk segregant analysis approach. A hypothetical β 1-3 glucanase with other 31 candidate genes were identified in silico utilizing rice database RAP-DB within the identified QTL region qshb9.2. A detailed insight into these candidate genes will facilitate at molecular level the intricate nature of sheath blight, a step forward towards functional genomics.

  10. Association between QTLs and morphological traits toward sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Kamal; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2016-01-01

    Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson’s correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9. A Mantel test suggested a weak relationship between the observed phenotypes and allelic variation patterns, implying the independent nature of morphological and molecular variations. Teqing and Tetep were found to be the most resistant cultivars. IR65482-4-136-2-2, MR219-4, and MR264 showed improved resistance potentials. These results suggest that the morphological traits and QTLs which have been found to associate with sheath blight resistance are a good choice to enhance resistance through pyramiding either 2 QTLs or QTLs and traits in susceptible rice cultivars. PMID:27795687

  11. [Detection of Late Blight Disease on Potato Leaves Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao-hua; Ping, Xue-wen; Xu, Ming-zhu; Shan, Wei-xing; He, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging feature on potato leaves stressed by late blight was studied in the present paper. The experiment used 60 potato leaves. Among those 60 potato leaves, 48 leaves were vitro inoculated with pathogen of potato late blight, the rest 12 leaves were used as control samples. The leaves were observed for 7 continuous days before and after inoculated and samples including healthy and infested were acquired. Hyperspectral data of healthy and infected potato samples of different disease severity were obtained by the hyperspectral imaging system from 374 to 1,018 nm and then extract spectral data of region of interest (ROI) from those hyperspectral data by the ENVI software. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the spectral data were preprocessed using different pretreatment methods such as moving average smoothing, normalization, derivative, baseline etc. The least squares-support vector machine(LS-SVM) models were developed based on the raw and those preprocessed data. Among the nine models, the model that used the raw data and the data after the spectroscopic transformation performed best with the discrimination of 94.87%. It was demonstrated that it is realized to determine the potato late blight disease of different disease severity using hyperspectral imaging technique. PMID:27209760

  12. Genome mining and metabolic profiling of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 for antimicrobial compounds

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Voort, Menno; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Schmidt, Yvonne; Watrous, Jeramie; Dekkers, Ester; Mendes, Rodrigo; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbiome represents an enormous untapped resource for discovering novel genes and bioactive compounds. Previously, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 from the rhizosphere of sugar beet plants grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and showed that its antifungal activity is, in part, attributed to the production of the chlorinated 9-amino-acid lipopeptide thanamycin (Mendes et al., 2011). To get more insight into its biosynthetic repertoire, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 was sequenced and subjected to in silico, mutational and functional analyses. The sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.3 Mb and 5579 predicted ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain SH-C52 within the Pseudomonas corrugata clade. In silico analysis for secondary metabolites revealed a total of six non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters, including the two previously described NRPS clusters for thanamycin and the 2-amino acid antibacterial lipopeptide brabantamide. Here we show that thanamycin also has activity against an array of other fungi and that brabantamide A exhibits anti-oomycete activity and affects phospholipases of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Most notably, mass spectrometry led to the discovery of a third lipopeptide, designated thanapeptin, with a 22-amino-acid peptide moiety. Seven structural variants of thanapeptin were found with varying degrees of activity against P. infestans. Of the remaining four NRPS clusters, one was predicted to encode for yet another and unknown lipopeptide with a predicted peptide moiety of 8-amino acids. Collectively, these results show an enormous metabolic potential for Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, with at least three structurally diverse lipopeptides, each with a different antimicrobial activity spectrum. PMID:26217324

  13. Genome mining and metabolic profiling of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 for antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Van Der Voort, Menno; Meijer, Harold J G; Schmidt, Yvonne; Watrous, Jeramie; Dekkers, Ester; Mendes, Rodrigo; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbiome represents an enormous untapped resource for discovering novel genes and bioactive compounds. Previously, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 from the rhizosphere of sugar beet plants grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and showed that its antifungal activity is, in part, attributed to the production of the chlorinated 9-amino-acid lipopeptide thanamycin (Mendes et al., 2011). To get more insight into its biosynthetic repertoire, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 was sequenced and subjected to in silico, mutational and functional analyses. The sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.3 Mb and 5579 predicted ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain SH-C52 within the Pseudomonas corrugata clade. In silico analysis for secondary metabolites revealed a total of six non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters, including the two previously described NRPS clusters for thanamycin and the 2-amino acid antibacterial lipopeptide brabantamide. Here we show that thanamycin also has activity against an array of other fungi and that brabantamide A exhibits anti-oomycete activity and affects phospholipases of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Most notably, mass spectrometry led to the discovery of a third lipopeptide, designated thanapeptin, with a 22-amino-acid peptide moiety. Seven structural variants of thanapeptin were found with varying degrees of activity against P. infestans. Of the remaining four NRPS clusters, one was predicted to encode for yet another and unknown lipopeptide with a predicted peptide moiety of 8-amino acids. Collectively, these results show an enormous metabolic potential for Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, with at least three structurally diverse lipopeptides, each with a different antimicrobial activity spectrum. PMID:26217324

  14. School Fires. Topical Fire Research Series. Volume 8, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Using the past 3 years of data, for 2003 to 2005, from the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) database, the yearly national fire loss for fires on nonadult school properties is estimated at $85 million. Such losses are the result of an estimated annual average of 14,700 fires that required a fire department response. Fires on school…

  15. Chisholm Forest Fire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Larger Image A new look at smoke from the Chisholm forest fire, which ignited on May 23, 2001 about 160 kilometers north of ... stratosphere. Scientists have postulated a link between fires in northern forests and the observed enhancements in stratospheric ...

  16. South America Fire Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. NASA research has contributed to much improved detection of fire for scientific purposes using satellite remote sens...

  17. Fire Service Training. Fire Stream Practices. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of fire streams. The various types of fire streams are identified as well as the methods used to produce them, emphasizing the operation of nozzles and the different kinds of friction loss. Designed to be used with the Robert J.…

  18. Fire Service Training. Fire Apparatus Practices. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of motorized fire apparatus. The fire fighter is instructed on the maintenance, maneuvering, and operation of equipment such as pumps, aerial ladders, and elevating platforms. Designed to be used with the Robert J. Brady…

  19. Phylogenomics and systematics in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Gomila, Margarita; Peña, Arantxa; Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas currently contains 144 species, making it the genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains the largest number of species. Currently, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is the preferred method for establishing the phylogeny between species and genera. Four partial gene sequences of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD) were obtained from 112 complete or draft genomes of strains related to the genus Pseudomonas that were available in databases. These genes were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences of 133 Pseudomonas type strains of validly published species to assess their correct phylogenetic assignations. We confirmed that 30% of the sequenced genomes of non-type strains were not correctly assigned at the species level in the accepted taxonomy of the genus and that 20% of the strains were not identified at the species level. Most of these strains had been isolated and classified several years ago, and their taxonomic status has not been updated by modern techniques. MLSA was also compared with indices based on the analysis of whole-genome sequences that have been proposed for species delineation, such as tetranucleotide usage patterns (TETRA), average nucleotide identity (ANIm, based on MUMmer and ANIb, based on BLAST) and genome-to-genome distance (GGDC). TETRA was useful for discriminating Pseudomonas from other genera, whereas ANIb and GGDC clearly separated strains of different species. ANIb showed the strongest correlation with MLSA. The correct species classification is a prerequisite for most diversity and evolutionary studies. This work highlights the necessity for complete genomic sequences of type strains to build a phylogenomic taxonomy and that all new genome sequences submitted to databases should be correctly assigned to species to avoid taxonomic inconsistencies. PMID:26074881

  20. Chromium reduction in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Y; Cervantes, C; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 40 microM CrO4(2-). Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells. PMID:2389940

  1. Fire as Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  2. Fire Safety Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Planning and prevention is the best defense against fires in school. This is particularly true in the science laboratory due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids, combustibles, and other potential sources of fire. Teachers can prevent fires from starting by maintaining prudent lab practices when dealing with combustible and flammable…

  3. Enclosure fire dynamics model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1979-01-01

    A practical situation of an enclosure fire is presented and why the need for a fire dynamic model is addressed. The difficulties in establishing a model are discussed, along with a brief review of enclosure fire models available. The approximation of the practical situation and the model developed are presented.

  4. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  5. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  6. Characterization of pyoverdine and achromobactin in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a (P. syringae 1448a), the causative agent of bean halo blight, is a bacterium capable of occupying diverse biological niches. Under conditions of iron starvation P. syringae 1448a secretes siderophores for active uptake of iron. The primary siderophore of P. syringae 1448a is pyoverdine, a fluorescent molecule that is assembled from amino acid precursors by non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. Whereas other species of Pseudomonas often exhibit structural variations in the pyoverdine produced by different strains, all P. syringae pathovars previously tested have been found to make an identical pyoverdine molecule. P. syringae 1448a also appears to have the genetic potential to make two secondary siderophores, achromobactin and yersiniabactin, each of which has previously been detected in different P. syringae pathovars. Results Five putative pyoverdine NRPS genes in P. syringae 1448a were characterized in-silico and their role in pyoverdine biosynthesis was confirmed by gene knockout. Pyoverdine was purified from P. syringae 1448a and analyzed by MALDI-TOF and MS/MS spectroscopy. Peaks were detected corresponding to the expected sizes for the pyoverdine structure previously found in other P. syringae pathovars, but surprisingly P. syringae 1448a appears to also produce a variant pyoverdine species that has an additional 71 Da monomer incorporated into the peptide side chain. Creation of pyoverdine null mutants of P. syringae 1448a revealed that this strain also produces achromobactin as a temperature-regulated secondary siderophore, but does not appear to make yersiniabactin. Pyoverdine and achromobactin null mutants were characterized in regard to siderophore production, iron uptake, virulence and growth in iron limited conditions. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a P. syringae pathovar producing a side chain variant form of pyoverdine. We also describe novel IC50 and liquid CAS

  7. Role of temperature and free moisture in onion flower blight. [Botrytis squamosa; Botrytis cinerea; and Botrytis allii

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.R.; Lorbeer, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The cardinal temperatures at which onion umbels were blighted (after inoculation when two-thirds of the florets were open) with Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii (isolated from blighted onion florets) were near 9, 21, and 27 C for B. squamosa, near 12, 21, and 30 C for B. cinerea, and near 9, 24, and 30 C for B. allii. The cardinal temperatures for mycelial growth (potato-dextrose agar) of B. squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii were near 5, 22, and 30 C for each fungus. The cardinal temperatures for conidial germination (on purified water agar) were near 6, 15, and 30 C for B. squamosa; 3, 18, and 33 C for B. cinerea; and 6, 24, and 33 C for B. allii. When the duration of free moisture on umbels after inoculation with the three pathogens was increased from 0 to 96 hr. the percentages of unopened florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules blighted at 21 C were increased significantly. Free moisture durations of 12-24, 6-12, and 6-12 hr were necessary for blighting of unopen florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules, respectively, by each pathogen at 21 C. A positive correlation between the amount of July rainfall and the natural incidence of onion flower blight was observed in Orange County, New York, from 1976 to 1981. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. The role of antioxidant enzymes in adaptive responses to sheath blight infestation under different fertilization rates and hill densities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  9. Fighting Forest Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

  10. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  11. Substation fire protection features

    SciTech Connect

    Hausheer, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes Commonwealth Edison`s (ComEd) approach to substation fire protection. Substation fires can have a major operational, financial, as well as political impact on a utility. The overall Company philosophy encompasses both active and passive fire protection features to provide prompt detection, notification, and confinement of fire and its by-products. Conservatively designed smoke detection systems and floor and wall penetration seals form the backbone of this strategy. The Company has implemented a program to install these features in new and existing substations. Thus far these measures have been successful in mitigating the consequences of substation fires.

  12. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  13. Determination of fire blight resistance and construction of a molecular genetic map in a bi-parental Malus sieversii population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is believed to be the main progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 [‘Royal Gala’ (RG) X PI631981] is segregating for resistance to b...

  14. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum Cause Blossom Blight in Strawberry in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hong Gi

    2015-01-01

    Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. PMID:26539056

  15. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum Cause Blossom Blight in Strawberry in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hong Gi

    2015-09-01

    Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum.

  16. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum Cause Blossom Blight in Strawberry in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hong Gi

    2015-09-01

    Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. PMID:26539056

  17. A multi-scale conceptual model of fire and disease interactions in North American forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. M.; Kreye, J. K.; Sherriff, R.; Metz, M.

    2013-12-01

    One aspect of global change with increasing attention is the interactions between irruptive pests and diseases and wildland fire behavior and effects. These pests and diseases affect fire behavior and effects in spatially and temporally complex ways. Models of fire and pathogen interactions have been constructed for individual pests or diseases, but to date, no synthesis of this complexity has been attempted. Here we synthesize North American fire-pathogen interactions into syndromes with similarities in spatial extent and temporal duration. We base our models on fire interactions with three examples: sudden oak death (caused by the pathogen Phytopthora ramorum) and the native tree tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus); mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and western Pinus spp.; and hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on Tsuga spp. We evaluate each across spatial (severity of attack from branch to landscape scale) and temporal scales (from attack to decades after) and link each change to its coincident effects on fuels and potential fire behavior. These syndromes differ in their spatial and temporal severity, differentially affecting windows of increased or decreased community flammability. We evaluate these models with two examples: the recently emergent ambrosia beetle-vectored laurel wilt (caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola) in native members of the Lauraceae and the early 20th century chestnut blight (caused by the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica) that led to the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata). Some changes (e.g., reduced foliar moisture content) have short-term consequences for potential fire behavior while others (functional extirpation) have more complex indirect effects on community flammability. As non-native emergent diseases and pests continue, synthetic models that aid in prediction of fire behavior and effects will enable the research and management community to prioritize mitigation efforts to realized effects.

  18. Multisensor Fire Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boquist, C.

    2004-01-01

    This DVD includes animations of multisensor fire observations from the following satellite sources: Landsat, GOES, TOMS, Terra, QuikSCAT, and TRMM. Some of the animations are included in multiple versions of a short video presentation on the DVD which focuses on the Hayman, Rodeo-Chediski, and Biscuit fires during the 2002 North American fire season. In one version of the presentation, MODIS, TRMM, GOES, and QuikSCAT data are incorporated into the animations of these wildfires. These data products provided rain, wind, cloud, and aerosol data on the fires, and monitored the smoke and destruction created by them. Another presentation on the DVD consists of a panel discussion, in which experts from academia, NASA, and the U.S. Forest Service answer questions on the role of NASA in fighting forest fires, the role of the Terra satellite and its instruments, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in fire fighting decision making, and the role of fire in the Earth's climate. The third section of the DVD features several animations of fires over the years 2001-2003, including animations of global and North American fires, and specific fires from 2003 in California, Washington, Montana, and Arizona.

  19. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Bromoalkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Shochat, E.; Hermoni, I.; Cohen, Z.; Abeliovich, A.; Belkin, S. )

    1993-05-01

    Many of the xenobiotic compounds extensively used in agriculture and industry, particularly the chlorinated halogenated compounds, have been extensively studied. Brominated organics, also used worldwide in, for example, flame retardants, pesticides, industrial biocides, intermediates in the polymer industry, have received far less attention. Investigations into the biodegradative pathways of aliphatic bromides in particular is very limited. This paper reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of two Pseudomonas strains capable of utilizing a broad range of bromoalkanes as single carbon and energy sources, and describes the emulsification and dehalogenation of hydrophobic bromoakanes by these strains. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Pseudomonas--an opportunistic foe.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An honest account of some of the lessons learned in how to protect patients, staff, and visitors, against waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa by effectively monitoring a large healthcare facility's water supply, identifying potential 'trigger points', harnessing the expertise of a multidisciplinary team, encouraging all staff to 'go the extra mile' preventatively, and above all, 'going beyond compliance', was provided by George McCracken, head of Estates Risk and Environment at the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust--in whose Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital three young babies died after an outbreak of the bacteraemia in early 2012--at a recent Water Management Society conference. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516937

  2. Ferrofluid effect on Pseudomonas pyoverdine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Antoniea; Vlahovici, Al.; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic fluid effect on some pigmented pathogen germs has been investigated. The fluorescence of the pyoverdine pigment obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, cultivated in the presence of different magnetic fluid concentrations, was enhanced by magnetic fluid concentrations of 0.0015-1 ml/l. The antimicrobial activity of pyoverdine, when tested by means of agar diffusimetric method against Sarcina lutea, was found increased for relatively high concentrations of magnetic fluid; in the case of Staphylococcus aureus the pyoverdine antimicrobial activity was not dependent on the magnetic fluid concentration.

  3. Wildland fire management terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by the FAO Forest Resources Development Branch, this book discusses an ongoing project for developing a multi-lingual glossary of fire terminology. It defines specific terms commonly used in wildland fire management that are not defined in standard desk dictionaries, and includes terminology from neighboring fields of meteorology, aviation and structural fire protection. In addition to the English language entries - which include Spanish, Italian, German and French equivalents - there are also separate Spanish, Italian, German and French word lists.

  4. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  5. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  7. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  8. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  9. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  10. Presumed Pseudomonas folliculitis outbreak in children following an outdoor games event.

    PubMed

    Evans, M R; Wilkinson, E J; Jones, R; Mathias, K; Lenartowicz, P

    2003-04-01

    In early summer 2001, an outbreak of atypical rash occurred among children from 24 junior schools who attended an outdoor games event. The event comprised a series of five water games including a water slide, and within 24 hours of attending the event 151/593 (26%) children developed a papulopustular rash. The rash had a characteristic distribution, predominantly over the lower trunk and buttocks, with some involvement of the arms and legs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a water butt used to draw water for the games, and from the tank of a fire engine that supplied the water. Similar outbreaks, due to Pseudomonas folliculitis, have been previously described and in immunocompromised people this can be associated with serious illness. We recommend that superchlorinated water be used for water play events and that care be taken to avoid abrasive surfaces.

  11. Environmental control in tea fields to reduce infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, T; Nonaka, T; Nishi, Y; Arai, K

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial shoot blight (BSB) disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae, is a major bacterial disease of tea plants in Japan. BSB mainly occurs in the low-temperature season, and lesion formation by P. syringae pv. theae is enhanced by both low temperature and the presence of ice nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris (INAX), which catalyzes ice formation at -2 to -4 degrees C and is frequently co-isolated with P. syringae pv. theae from tea plants. Low temperature is thus the most important environmental factor influencing the incidence of BSB; however, the effects of low temperature on infection of the host by P. syringae pv. theae and of environmental controls in fields on the occurrence of the disease are poorly understood. In this study, we show that ice formation on tea leaves by INAX enhanced P. syringae pv. theae invasion into leaf tissue. The natural incidence of BSB in the field was closely related to early autumn frost. Frost protection in late autumn, which prevented ice formation on tea plants, significantly decreased the incidence of BSB, and frost protection combined with bactericide application held the incidence under the economic threshold level. Our data indicate that environmental control in the field based on microbial interactions in the host offers a new strategy for plant disease control. PMID:19159313

  12. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae uses proteasome inhibitor syringolin A to colonize from wound infection sites.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2013-03-01

    Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues. PMID:23555272

  13. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  14. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  15. Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Morais, Marco

    1999-01-01

    California shrubland wildfires are increasingly destructive, and it is widely held that the problem has been intensified by fire suppression, leading to larger, more intense wildfires. However, analysis of the California Statewide Fire History Database shows that, since 1910, fire frequency and area burned have not declined, and fire size has not increased. Fire rotation intervals have declined, and fire season has not changed, implying that fire intensity has not increased. Fire frequency and population density were correlated, and it is suggested that fire suppression plays a critical role in offsetting potential impacts of increased ignitions. Large fires were not dependent on old age classes of fuels, and it is thus unlikely that age class manipulation of fuels can prevent large fires. Expansion of the urban-wildland interface is a key factor in wildland fire destruction.

  16. Different responses of pyoverdine genes to autoinduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the group Pseudomonas fluorescens-Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Leoni, Livia; Visca, Paolo

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the regulation of the psbA and pvdA pyoverdine biosynthesis genes, which encode the L-ornithine N(5)-oxygenase homologues in Pseudomonas strain B10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, respectively. We demonstrate that pyoverdine(B10), as the end product of its biosynthetic pathway, is a key participant of the control circuit regulating its own production in Pseudomonas strain B10. In P. aeruginosa PAO1, however, pyoverdine(PAO1) has no apparent role in the positive regulation of the pvdA gene. PMID:12147517

  17. Association of heteromorphism of chromosome 9 and recurrent abortion (ultrasound diagnosed blighted ovum): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Mirzaee, Salmeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal disorders are the most common cause of first trimester spontaneous abortion. Among the human chromosomes, chromosome no.9 was the most common structural chromosomal variant and it is not thought to be of any functional importance, which often considers as a normal variation in structural polymorphisms, nevertheless there are some studies which claim that there is an association between heteromorphism of chromosome no.9 and some pregnancy complication. Case: To postulate any correlation between chromosome no. 9 heteromorphism and recurrent abortion, chromosomal analysis was performed on the basis of G-banding technique at high resolution for a couple with the history of 4 ultrasound diagnosed blighted ovum and Chromosome constitution appeared with chromosome no.9 heteromorphism in all 30 metaphases screened for both partners (9p11-q13). Conclusion: Observation of reproductive failure in couples with heteromorohic pattern of chromosome no.9 suggests that, although the heteromorphism of chromosome no.9 is not a rare condition which often consider as a normal variation with no evidence of any phenotypic effect of patient, nevertheless it seems as if the location of heteromorphic region maybe interfere with meiotic events like the phenomenon of crossing over or miotic segregation of fertilized egg that eventually lead to the development of fertilized eggs with chromosomal abnormalities leading to the possibility of anemberyonic pregnancy, therefore chromosomal analysis for detecting of chromosome no.9 heteromorphism for couples with the history of ultrasound diagnosed blighted ovum will be strongly suggested. PMID:25031581

  18. Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, D L

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns have focused attention on natural forms of disease control as potentially safe and effective alternatives to chemical pesticides. This has led to increased efforts to develop control strategies that rely on natural predators and parasites or that involve genetically engineered microbial pest control agents. This review deals with a natural form of biological control in which the virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous viral RNA genetic element: the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Recent progress in the molecular characterization of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA has provided an emerging view of the genetic organization and basic expression strategy of this class of genetic elements. Several lines of evidence now suggest that specific hypovirulence-associated virus-encoded gene products selectively modulate the expression of subsets of fungal genes and the activity of specific regulatory pathways. The construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA represents a major advancement that provides exciting new opportunities for examining the molecular basis of transmissible hypovirulence and for engineering hypovirulent strains for improved biocontrol. These developments have significantly improved the prospects of using this system to identify molecular determinants of virulence and elucidate signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenic responses. In addition, novel approaches are now available for extending the application of transmissible hypovirulence for management of chestnut blight and possibly other fungal diseases. Images PMID:1480109

  19. Strategies for managing Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Gary Y; Schoneweis, Susan D

    2007-10-20

    Many mycotoxigenic fungi infect plant hosts and cause disease in the field. Therefore, control of field infection by these fungi is a critical step in managing mycotoxin accumulation in the harvested product. Fusarium graminearum, also known as Gibberella zeae, is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, in cereals and is also the primary agent responsible for contamination of grain with deoxynivalenol (DON). Research efforts worldwide are devoted to the development of strategies to control field infection of wheat and barley by this pathogen. Strategies include the use of fungicides and biological control agents to protect flowering heads from infection. There is extensive effort in breeding for host resistance to infection and spread of the pathogen within the heads. Scientists are also seeking exogenous traits to introduce into cereals to enhance resistance. Cultural practices are also being examined, primarily as measures to reduce pathogen survival and inoculum production in crop residues. The successes and limitations of these strategies in the management of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol are discussed.

  20. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Bradeen, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed ‘Russet Burbank’ (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic ‘Russet Burbank’ line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific. PMID:27441721

  1. Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Chételat, A; Caldelari, D; Farmer, E E

    1999-03-01

    We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems.

  2. Quantitative and molecular epidemiology of bacterial blight of onion in seed production fields.

    PubMed

    Humeau, L; Roumagnac, P; Picard, Y; Robène-Soustrade, I; Chiroleu, F; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Onion, a biennial plant species, is threatened by the emerging, seed-borne, and seed-transmitted Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii. Bacterial blight epidemics were monitored in seed production fields over two seasons. Temporal disease progress was different between the two seasons, with final incidence ranging from 0.04 to 0.06 in 2003 and from 0.44 to 0.61 in 2004. The number of hours with temperatures above 24 degrees C was the best descriptor for predicting the number of days after inoculation for bacterial blight development on inoculated plants. Fitting the beta-binomial distribution and binary power law analysis indicated aggregated patterns of disease incidence data. The beta-binomial distribution was superior to the binomial distribution for 97% of the examined data sets. Spatial dependency ranged from 5.9 to 15.2 m, as determined by semivariance analysis. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, it was concluded that plots predominantly were infected by the inoculated haplotype. A single other haplotype was identified by AFLP in all plots over the 2 years, and its detection in the field always followed wind-driven rains. X. axonopodis pv. allii-contaminated seed were detected by semiselective isolation and a nested polymerase chain reaction assay at levels up to 0.05% when final disease incidence was 0.61. Contaminated seed originated from both diseased and asymptomatic plants.

  3. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  4. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  5. Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S K; Goss, E M; Dufault, N S; van Bruggen, A H C

    2015-02-01

    Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations as well as on average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 27°C) and diurnally oscillating (±5 and ±10°C) temperatures around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate, and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four-parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P < 0.005), as hypothesized. Infection efficiency, lesion growth rate, and sporulation increased under small temperature oscillations compared with constant temperatures but decreased when temperature oscillations were large. Thus, diurnal amplitude in temperature should be considered in models of potato late blight, particularly when predicting effects of global climate change on disease development.

  6. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liangliang; Bradeen, James M

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific. PMID:27441721

  7. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves. PMID:27187387

  8. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut.

  9. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  10. Bur oak blight, a new disease on Quercus macrocarpa caused by Tubakia iowensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; McNew, Doug; Yun, Hye Young

    2012-01-01

    A newly recognized, late-season leaf disease of Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) has become increasingly severe across Iowa and in neighboring states since the 1990s. Vein necrosis and leaf death may occur over the whole crown or only on the lower branches. Symptoms typically intensify year-to-year in individual trees, and there appears to be substantial variation in susceptibility. Distinctive conidiomata (pycnothyria with a shield of radiating, setae-like hyphae) of a Tubakia sp. are found along the necrotic leaf veins. The same species produces a second type of pycnothyrium with a crustose covering and smaller conidia on the petioles of killed leaves, which remain on the tree through the winter and provide the primary inoculum to infect newly emerging shoots and leaves in spring. Comparison of the Tubakia sp. on bur oak with T. dryina and other species of Tubakia led to the conclusion that the species on bur oak is new, distinct from T. dryina, which herein is defined more narrowly. Inoculation studies confirmed that Tubakia iowensis sp. nov. is the cause of bur oak blight. Bur oak blight appears to be particularly severe on Q. macrocarpa var. oliviformis, which is well adapted to the dry, upland sites where the disease is found most frequently. The recent climatic trend in Iowa to higher spring precipitation might have led to increased severity of the disease.

  11. Climate change may have limited effect on global risk of potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Adam H; Forbes, Gregory A; Hijmans, Robert J; Garrett, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    Weather affects the severity of many plant diseases, and climate change is likely to alter the patterns of crop disease severity. Evaluating possible future patterns can help focus crop breeding and disease management research. We examined the global effect of climate change on potato late blight, the disease that caused the Irish potato famine and still is a common potato disease around the world. We used a metamodel and considered three global climate models for the A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario for three 20-year time-slices: 2000-2019, 2040-2059 and 2080-2099. In addition to global analyses, five regions were evaluated where potato is an important crop: the Andean Highlands, Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayan Highlands, Southeast Asian Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands, and Lake Kivu Highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. We found that the average global risk of potato late blight increases initially, when compared with historic climate data, and then declines as planting dates shift to cooler seasons. Risk in the agro-ecosystems analyzed, varied from a large increase in risk in the Lake Kivu Highlands in Rwanda to decreases in the Southeast Asian Highlands of Indonesia. PMID:24687916

  12. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves. PMID:27187387

  13. Preparation and evaluation of Bacillus megaterium-alginate microcapsules for control of rice sheath blight disease.

    PubMed

    Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium encapsulated in calcium alginate microcapsules was prepared and tested for its efficacy against sheath blight disease of rice. In laboratory conditions, the aqueous suspension (1:100, v/v in potato dextrose agar) of the bacterial microcapsules (10(10) spores/ml) inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (>99 %) after the microcapsules were produced and stored for 12 months at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C). The survival of the bacterium in the microcapsules in response to ultraviolet (u.v.) irradiation and high temperature was investigated. The survivability of the bacterium in the encapsulated form was greater than that of the fresh cells when it was subjected to u.v. (20-W General electric u.v. lamp from a 25 cm distance for 48 h) and a high temperature treatment (80 °C for 48 h). Cells of the bacterium were detected by scanning electron microscope on both the leaf sheath and the leaf blade (in pot tests in a greenhouse) after spraying encapsulated product. The number of bacteria on the surface of both rice tissues (5 Log. number/g of plant) after spraying with encapsulated product was not significantly different from that after spraying with fresh cells onto the rice seedlings. Spraying the encapsulated B. megaterium on rice plants in the greenhouse was as effective as spraying a chemical fungicide for suppressing rice sheath blight disease.

  14. Climate change may have limited effect on global risk of potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Adam H; Forbes, Gregory A; Hijmans, Robert J; Garrett, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    Weather affects the severity of many plant diseases, and climate change is likely to alter the patterns of crop disease severity. Evaluating possible future patterns can help focus crop breeding and disease management research. We examined the global effect of climate change on potato late blight, the disease that caused the Irish potato famine and still is a common potato disease around the world. We used a metamodel and considered three global climate models for the A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario for three 20-year time-slices: 2000-2019, 2040-2059 and 2080-2099. In addition to global analyses, five regions were evaluated where potato is an important crop: the Andean Highlands, Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayan Highlands, Southeast Asian Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands, and Lake Kivu Highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. We found that the average global risk of potato late blight increases initially, when compared with historic climate data, and then declines as planting dates shift to cooler seasons. Risk in the agro-ecosystems analyzed, varied from a large increase in risk in the Lake Kivu Highlands in Rwanda to decreases in the Southeast Asian Highlands of Indonesia.

  15. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  16. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  17. Total Approach to Fire Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgener, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A study completed by the fire department of the City of Winnipeg has documented the effectiveness of smoke detectors in reducing fire losses. The entire Winnipeg fire prevention program is described. (MLF)

  18. First report of a new leaf blight caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis on Pacific Madrone in Western Washington and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, an unknown leaf blight disease, consisting of browned, desiccated leaves occurring mainly in the lower parts of the canopy, has been observed during periods of wet springs on Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) in western Washington and Oregon. In May 2009 and 2011 severe outbreaks ...

  19. PGPR and its combined use with fungicide for control of rice sheath blight in the southern U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice growers heavily rely on fungicides for control of sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, the most important rice disease in Texas and other southern rice-producing states. Excessive use of fungicides can cause a negative impact on the environment and lead to the potential development of f...

  20. Tissue-specific expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in rice for sheath blight resistance without compromising phenotypic cost.

    PubMed

    Molla, Kutubuddin Ali; Karmakar, Subhasis; Chanda, Palas Kumar; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Datta, Karabi

    2016-09-01

    Rice sheath blight disease, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is considered the second most important disease of rice after blast. NPR1 (non expressor of PR1) is the central regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) conferring broad spectrum resistance to various pathogens. Previous reports have indicated that constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 (AtNPR1) gene results in disease resistance in rice but has a negative impact on growth and agronomic traits. Here, we report that green tissue-specific expression of AtNPR1 in rice confers resistance to the sheath blight pathogen, with no concomitant abnormalities in plant growth and yield parameters. Elevated levels of NPR1 activated the defence pathway in the transgenic plants by inducing expression of endogenous genes such as PR1b, RC24, and PR10A. Enhanced sheath blight resistance of the transgenic plants was evaluated using three different bioassay systems. A partially isolated toxin from R. solani was used in the bioassays to measure the resistance level. Studies of the phenotype and yield showed that the transgenic plants did not exhibit any kind of phenotypic imbalances. Our results demonstrate that green tissue-specific expression of AtNPR1 is an effective strategy for controlling the sheath blight pathogen. The present work in rice can be extended to other crop plants severely damaged by the pathogen. PMID:27457988

  1. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  2. Potato Tuber Blight Resistance Phenotypes Correlate with RB Transgene Transcript Levels in an Age-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Millett, Benjamin P; Gao, Liangliang; Iorizzo, Massimo; Carputo, Domenico; Bradeen, James M

    2015-08-01

    Plants have evolved strategies and mechanisms to detect and respond to pathogen attack. Different organs of the same plant may be subjected to different environments (e.g., aboveground versus belowground) and pathogens with different lifestyles. Accordingly, plants commonly need to tailor defense strategies in an organ-specific manner. Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of potato late blight disease, infects both aboveground foliage and belowground tubers. We examined the efficacy of transgene RB (known for conferring foliar late blight resistance) in defending against tuber late blight disease. Our results indicate that the presence of the transgene has a positive yet only marginally significant effect on tuber disease resistance on average. However, a significant association between transgene transcript levels and tuber resistance was established for specific transformed lines in an age-dependent manner, with higher transcript levels indicating enhanced tuber resistance. Thus, RB has potential to function in both foliage and tuber to impart late blight resistance. Our data suggest that organ-specific resistance might result directly from transcriptional regulation of the resistance gene itself.

  3. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae, the major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice; to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. Burkholderia glumae was frequently isolated from infected p...

  4. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae (major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice) to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. B. glumae was frequently isolated from symptomatic panicles on...

  5. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  6. Effective marker alleles associated with type II resistance of wheat to Fusarium head blight infection in fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular markers associated with known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in bi-parental mapping populations usually have more than two alleles in breeding populations. Therefore, understanding the association of each allele with FHB response is parti...

  7. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  8. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  9. Quantitative resistance to late blight from Solanum berthaultii cosegregates with RPi-ber: insights in stability through isolates and environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance is a valuable tool in the fight against late blight of potatoes, but little is known about the stability and specificity of quantitative resistance including the effect of defeated major resistance genes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different isolates of Ph...

  10. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  11. First report of boxwood blight caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boxwood (Buxus spp.) are commercially important evergreen ornamental plants with an annual market value of over $103 million in the United States. The recent U.S. incursion of boxwood blight disease caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum, Cy. buxico...

  12. Two independent QTL in dry bean conditioning resistance to common bacterial blight express recessive epistasis when combined

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli) is a major seed-borne disease limiting commercial yield and disease-free seed production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most effective control method but is difficult to incorporate b...

  13. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  14. Presence of the potato late blight resistance gene RB does not promote adaptive parasitism of phytophthora infestans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato gene Rpi-blb1, from the wild potato species S. bulbocastanum, confers partial resistance to late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In order to determine whether a single strain of P. infestans can adapt to overcome this partial resistance source, we subjected...

  15. Presence of the potato late blight resistance gene RB does not promote adaptive parasitism of phytophthora infestans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene RB is derived from the wild potato species S. bulbocastanum and confers partial resistance to late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In order to investigate whether a single strain of P. infestans can adapt to overcome this partial resistance source, we subject...

  16. Investigating the role of solanapyrone toxins in Ascochyta blight using toxin-deficient mutants of Asochyta rabiei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta rabiei, the causal agent of Ascochyta blight of chickpea, produces solanapyrone toxins (solanapyrone A, B and C). However, very little is known about the genetics of toxin production and the role of the toxins in pathogenesis. Generating mutants deficient in the toxin biosynthesis would p...

  17. Competitive Interaction Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-spectrum Late Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance (R) gene RB confers broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight and belongs. The RB protein recognizes the presence of members of the Phytophthora infestans effector family IPI-O to elicit resistance. Most isolates of the pathogen contain IPI-O variants that are recognized by RB...

  18. Competitive Interaction Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-spectrum Late Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance (R) gene RB confers broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight and belongs. The RB protein recognizes the presence of members of the Phytophthora infestans effector family IPI-O to elicit resistance. Most isolates of the pathogen contain IPI-O variants that are recognized by R...

  19. Genome-wide association mapping of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using genotyping by sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the mid-western and eastern regions of the US to identify chromosomal re...

  20. Registration of near-isogenic winter wheat germplasm contrasting in Fhb1 for fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese wheat Ning7840 (Triticum aestivum L.) contains Fhb1, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, and has been widely used as a resistant parent in breeding programs worldwide, but due to its poor adaptation in the US, its progenies usually exhibit re...

  1. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2010 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  2. Efficacy of bacillus biocontrol agents for management of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS), caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. An experi...

  3. Biological control of Fusarium head blight in wheat caused by Gibberella zeae - a two-year, multi-location study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological agents for controlling Fusarium head blight (scab) and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in grain are needed to augment host resistance and chemical fungicides or to serve as the primary management tool where the other strategies are not available. Field experiments were conducted in 2009...

  4. Identification and molecular mapping of two QTLs with major effects for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Novel sources of resistance are critical for improving FHB resistance levels in wheat. From a large-scale evaluation of germplasm for reactions to FHB, we identified one wheat accession (PI 277012) that consistently showed a h...

  5. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus velezensis RC 218 was originally isolated for the anthers of wheat as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearium, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen with in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study ...

  6. Effects of fungicide application timing and cultivar resistance on Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. FHB reduces yield and quality and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Effective management strategies are needed. The objectives of this research were to 1) Determine the effect of fungicide application timing a...

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic evaluation of single kernel deoxynivalenol accumulation and Fusarium head blight resistance components in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms, single kernel deoxynivalenol (DON) levels, and distribution of DON levels among kernels were investigated in wheat cultivars that had different levels of FHB resistance. DON levels were estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The percentage of DON-co...

  8. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  9. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  10. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains and several grasses, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), an important forage crop, but also a common weed in wheat, rice and maize agroecosystem in southern Brazil. Although i...

  11. Fossil-Fired Boilers

    1993-09-23

    Boiler Performance Model (BPM 3.0S) is a set of computer programs developed to analyze the performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, and can model coal, oil, or natural gas firing. The programs are intended for use by engineers performing analyses of alternative fuels, alternative operating modes, or boiler modifications.

  12. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  13. Fire Science Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    This curriculum guide, developed in cooperation with the State Advisory Committee on Fireman Training for Post-High School Preparatory Programs, summarizes the need for formal training programs in fire protection and offers guidelines for their establishment. It is also a practical handbook for the planning of fire protection curriculums and…

  14. Industrial Fire Brigade Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Organized as a teaching outline for an industrial plant fire brigade course, this manual contains a rationale for an industrial plant brigade as an adjunct to the local firefighting services; information to the instructor concerning the implementation of an industrial fire brigade program; and a teaching outline consisting of eleven sections: (1)…

  15. Growth of genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, K H; Schell, M A; Hartel, P G

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pglA gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from Pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. Despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered P. putida and P. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere. PMID:2515805

  16. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Siderophore production by Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H M; Chaowagul, W; Sokol, P A

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from patients with melioidosis were examined for siderophore production. All the strains were shown to produce siderophore both on chrome azurol S agar plates and in liquid medium under iron-deficient conditions. Chemical assays indicated that the siderophore belongs to the hydroxamate class. Addition of iron to the culture medium resulted in increased culture growth with markedly decreased yield of siderophore. Siderophore produced by strain U7 was purified by gel filtration chromatography, and the molecular weight was estimated to be 1,000. When this partially purified siderophore was added to culture medium, it promoted iron uptake by P. pseudomallei in the presence of EDTA and enhanced growth of the organism in the presence of transferrin. We have given this siderophore the trivial name malleobactin. PMID:1825486

  18. Formation of isoamylase by Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Harada, T; Yokobayashi, K; Misaki, A

    1968-10-01

    We have isolated a Pseudomonas sp. (strain SB15) which produces an isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.9). Highest yields of this enzyme were obtained when the bacterium was grown in shaken culture in a medium containing maltose, dextrin, starch, or isomaltose. Specific carbon and nitrogen sources were required for growth. The most satisfactory medium consisted of 2% maltose, 0.4% sodium glutamate, 0.3% diammonium hydrogen phosphate, and other inorganic salts. The optimal pH for enzyme production was 5 to 6. The enzyme is stable between pH 3 and 6 but is extremely labile above pH 7. It splits amylopectin completely by combined action with beta-amylase but does not attack pullulan. PMID:5684197

  19. Formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas oxalaticus.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Willnow, P; Ruschig, U; Höpner, T

    1978-02-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) from Pseudomonas oxalaticus has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme (molecular weight 315000) is a complex flavoprotein containing 2 FMN, 18--25 non-heme iron atoms and 15--20 acid-labile sulphides. In the last step of the purification, a sucrose gradient centrifugation, a second catalytically active species has been found apparently originating from a dissociation of the enzyme into two equal subunits. The enzyme is specific toward its natural substrate formate. It transfers electrons to NAD+, oxygen, ferricyanide, and a lot of nonphysiological acceptors (dyes). In addition electrons are transferred from NADH to these acceptors. The (reversible) removal of FMN requires a reduction step. Reincorporation has been followed by the reappearance of the reactivity against formate and by fluorescence titration. The deflavo enzyme also binds FAD and riboflavin. The resulting enzyme species show characteristic catalytic abilities. Activity against formate is peculiar to the FMN species. PMID:631130

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  1. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  2. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  3. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  4. Spatiotemporal relationships between disease development and airborne inoculum in unmanaged and managed Botrytis leaf blight epidemics.

    PubMed

    Carisse, O; Savary, S; Willocquet, L

    2008-01-01

    Comparatively little quantitative information is available on both the spatial and temporal relationships that develop between airborne inoculum and disease intensity during the course of aerially spread epidemics. Botrytis leaf blight and Botrytis squamosa airborne inoculum were analyzed over space and time during 2 years (2002 and 2004) in a nonprotected experimental field, using a 6 x 8 lattice of quadrats of 10 x 10 m each. A similar experiment was conducted in 2004 and 2006 in a commercial field managed for Botrytis leaf blight using a 5 x 5 lattice of quadrats of 25 x 25 m each. Each quadrat was monitored weekly for lesion density (LD) and aerial conidium concentration (ACC). The adjustment of the Taylor's power law showed that heterogeneity in both LD and ACC generally increased with increasing mean. Unmanaged epidemics were characterized in either year, with aggregation indices derived from SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices). For LD, the aggregation indices suggested a random pattern of disease early in the season, followed by an aggregated pattern in the second part of the epidemic. The index of aggregation for ACC in 2002 was significantly greater than 1 at only one date, while it was significantly greater than 1 at most sampling dates in 2004. In both years and for both variables, positive trends in partial autocorrelation were observed mainly for a spatial lag of 1. In 2002, the overall pattern of partial autocorrelations over sampling dates was similar for LD and ACC with no significant partial autocorrelation during the first part of the epidemic, followed by a period with significant positive autocorrelation, and again no autocorrelation on the last three sampling dates. In 2004, there was no significant positive autocorrelation for LD at most sampling dates while for ACC, there was a fluctuation between significant and non-significant positive correlation over sampling dates. There was a significant spatial correlation between ACC at given

  5. Fire growth experiments: toward a standard room fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.B.; Fisher, F.L.

    1980-05-01

    The use of full-scale room fire experiments and the development of a standard room fire test are discussed. A series of room fire experiments with a gas burner ignition source, and gypsum wallboard, glass fiber insulation and plywood linings are described in detail. The results of the experiments are discussed in the context of a standard room fire test.

  6. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana. PMID:26702383

  7. Fires in Myanmar (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, fires are common and widespread throughout the dry season, which roughly spans the northern hemisphere winter months. People set fires to clear crop stubble and brush and to prepare grazing land for a new flush of growth when the rainy season arrives. These intentional fires are too frequently accompanied by accidental fires that invade nearby forests and woodlands. The combination of fires produces a thick haze that alternately lingers and disperses, depending on the weather. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite shows fire activity on March 19, 2007, across eastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and China. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red on the image. The darker green areas are generally more wooded areas or forests, while the paler green and tan areas are agricultural land. Smoke pools over low-lying areas of the hilly terrain in gray pockets. The green tops of rolling hills in Thailand emerge from a cloud of low-lying smoke. According to news reports from Thailand, the smoke blanket created air quality conditions that were considered unhealthy for all groups, and it prompted the Thai Air Force to undertake cloud-seeding attempts in an effort to cleanse the skies with rain. Commercial air traffic was halted due to poor visibility.

  8. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    SciTech Connect

    Frickey, Steven J.; Svoboda, John M.

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  9. Effect of Cultural Practices, Soil Phosphorus, Potassium, and pH on the Incidence of Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol Levels in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Teich, A. H.; Hamilton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    In a survey conducted in 1984 in Essex, Lambton, and Middlesex Counties of Ontario, Canada, greater incidences of head blight and greater concentrations of deoxynivalenol in grain were observed in fields of winter wheat planted after corn than in those planted after soybeans, barley, and mixed grains. Neither head blight nor deoxynivalenol level were correlated significantly with soil P, K, or pH. Head blight was reduced in wheat planted after corn where the residues from a preceding corn crop were plowed down or where seed was treated with Vitaflo 280. However, head blight and deoxynivalenol levels were not affected significantly by the level of N application, cultivar, other diseases or herbicides. PMID:16346808

  10. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  11. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Fire research publications, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, N. H.

    1984-04-01

    Approximately 130 articles are cited addressing topics in fire fighting and prevention, combustion physics, and fire related hazards. Only publications prepared by members of the Center for Fire Research (CFR), by other National Bureau of Standards (NBS) personnel for CFR, or by external laboratories under contract or grant from the CFR are cited. For documents that are available for purchase from either the Government Printing Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), the specific order number has been included in the citation.

  13. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  14. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  15. Decision tools for bacterial blight resistance gene deployment in rice-based agricultural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Gerbert S; Sparks, Adam; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Attempting to achieve long-lasting and stable resistance using uniformly deployed rice varieties is not a sustainable approach. The real situation appears to be much more complex and dynamic, one in which pathogens quickly adapt to resistant varieties. To prevent disease epidemics, deployment should be customized and this decision will require interdisciplinary actions. This perspective article aims to highlight the current progress on disease resistance deployment to control bacterial blight in rice. Although the model system rice-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has distinctive features that underpin the need for a case-by-case analysis, strategies to integrate those elements into a unique decision tool could be easily extended to other crops.

  16. Molecular characterization of soil bacteria antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani, sheath blight of rice.

    PubMed

    Padaria, Jasdeep C; Singh, Aqbal

    2009-05-01

    Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 has been identified as a potent isolate against Rhizocotonia solani, the fungal pathogen causing sheath blight in rice. The study aimed at probing the role of a 23kb size plasmid pJCP07 of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 in its fungal antagonism towards Rhizocotonia solani. Plasmid pJCP07 was found to be involved in production of a fungal antagonistic compound as demonstrated by plasmid curing and conjugational transfer experiments. Tn5 insertional studies further confirmed that the plasmid pJCP07 of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 carries some of the gene(s) involved in production of compound antagonistic to Rhizocotonia solani. The plasmid pJCP07 is thus a mobilizable medium-sized plasmid carrying genes responsible for antagonism of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 towards Rhizocotonia solani.

  17. Decision tools for bacterial blight resistance gene deployment in rice-based agricultural ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Gerbert S.; Sparks, Adam; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Attempting to achieve long-lasting and stable resistance using uniformly deployed rice varieties is not a sustainable approach. The real situation appears to be much more complex and dynamic, one in which pathogens quickly adapt to resistant varieties. To prevent disease epidemics, deployment should be customized and this decision will require interdisciplinary actions. This perspective article aims to highlight the current progress on disease resistance deployment to control bacterial blight in rice. Although the model system rice-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has distinctive features that underpin the need for a case-by-case analysis, strategies to integrate those elements into a unique decision tool could be easily extended to other crops. PMID:25999970

  18. The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Aiping; Lin, Runmao; Zhang, Danhua; Qin, Peigang; Xu, Lizhi; Ai, Peng; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yanran; Chen, Yao; Liu, Yao; Sun, Zhigang; Feng, Haitao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Fu, Rongtao; Tang, Changqing; Li, Qiao; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Zelin; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Lingxia; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which probably reflect an exclusive necrotrophic lifestyle. We find few repetitive elements, a closer relationship to Agaricomycotina among Basidiomycetes, and expand protein domains and families. Among the 25 candidate pathogen effectors identified according to their functionality and evolution, we validate 3 that trigger crop defence responses; hence we reveal the exclusive expression patterns of the pathogenic determinants during host infection. PMID:23361014

  19. Antifungal activity of Syzygium cumini against Ascochyta rabiei-the cause of chickpea blight.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts from leaves, fruit, root-bark and stem-bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels were tested for their antifungal activity against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of blight disease of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Different concentrations, namely 1, 2, ..., 5% of both aqueous and the two organic solvent extracts were used in this study. Aqueous extracts of all the four test plant parts, namely leaves, fruit, stem-bark and root-bark, showed significant antifungal activity resulting in 7-30%, 22-59%, 23-39% and 21-64% reduction in fungal growth, respectively. Similarly, n-hexane stem-bark extract, and ethanol root- and stem-bark extracts also significantly suppressed the growth of target fungal species, resulting in 17-39%, 24-30% and 12-32% suppression in fungal growth. PMID:19588279

  20. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  1. Fire Inspection Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Corp. Commission, Richmond.

    A functional explanation of the "School Fire Prevention Inspection Form" is provided for use by local school and fire department personnel in the Virginia School Fire Prevention Inspection Program. Many helpful suggestions are made for safeguarding occupants of public school buildings from fire hazards. Items discussed are--(1) exit doors, (2)…

  2. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  3. Lytic activity of l-menthol derivatives against the snow blight disease fungus, Micronectriella nivalis.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kawazoe, Hideki; Sumi, Yuji; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2003-03-26

    Lytic activity of l-menthol (1) derivatives [(-)-(1S,3R,4S,6S)-6-hydroxymenthol (2), (-)-(1S,3R,4S)-1-hydroxymenthol (3), and (+)-(1S,3R,4R,6S)-6,8-dihydroxymenthol (4)] against the snow blight disease fungus, Micronectriella nivalis was investigated. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 had 85.0, 63.9, and 81.9% lytic activity, respectively, at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The activity of each of the three compounds increased in a dose-response manner. To study the structure-activity relationship, acetyl esters of 1-4 [(-)-menthyl acetate (1Ac), (-)-6-hydroxymenthyl diacetate (2Ac), (-)-1-hydroxymenthyl 3-monoacetate (3Ac), and (-)-6,8-dihydroxymenthyl 3,6-diacetate (4Ac)] were synthesized with yields of 80.2-99.8% and were also assayed. The acetyl esters of 1Ac, 2Ac, 3Ac, and 4Ac had 51.2, 91.5, 66.0, and 95.2% lytic activity, respectively, at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, and these compounds showed further high lytic activity compared with the alcohols of 1-4. These acetyl esters also showed higher lytic activity as their concentration was increased. Of particular interest is the fact that 2Ac and 4Ac both had higher lytic activity at 0.05-0.2 mg/mL compared with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, a standard chemical widely used to control snow blight. This is the first report on lytic activity of l-menthol derivatives.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of wheat - Elymus repens introgression lines with resistance to Fusarium head blight.

    PubMed

    Zeng, J; Cao, W; Hucl, P; Yang, Y; Xue, A; Chi, D; Fedak, G

    2013-01-01

    Elymus repens (L.) Gould (2n = 6x = 42, StStStStHH) is a hexaploid perennial wheatgrass species from the tribe Triticeae, distantly related to bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). As a potential source of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), E. repens was crossed to common wheat to transfer resistance genes. The progeny were advanced to homozygosity by single seed descent. A total of eight BC(1)F(9) progeny lines were selected and characterized in this study. The chromosome numbers of these derived lines ranged from 42 to 56, including lines with 44, 52, and 54 chromosomes. All of the lines were cytologically stable in terms of meiotic chromosome behavior. The univalent frequency in the lines varied between 0.34 and 2.36 per cell. Similarly, the multivalent frequency did not exceed 1% in any of the lines. GISH analysis revealed that the number of intact wheat chromosomes in the various lines varied between 40 and 44. Numerous translocated chromosomes were detected in all lines. The translocations involved chromosomal segments from wheat, and the St and H genomes of E. repens. Furthermore, trigenomic translocated chromosomes were detected in some of the lines. The introgression into wheat chromosomes included not only terminal types but also interstitial segments. The Fusarium head blight resistance of the eight lines, following point inoculation, varied from 5.65% infected florets to 11.46% compared with the check cultivars T. aestivum 'Roblin' and T. aestivum 'Crocus' at 100% and 85%, respectively.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of wheat - Elymus repens introgression lines with resistance to Fusarium head blight.

    PubMed

    Zeng, J; Cao, W; Hucl, P; Yang, Y; Xue, A; Chi, D; Fedak, G

    2013-01-01

    Elymus repens (L.) Gould (2n = 6x = 42, StStStStHH) is a hexaploid perennial wheatgrass species from the tribe Triticeae, distantly related to bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). As a potential source of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), E. repens was crossed to common wheat to transfer resistance genes. The progeny were advanced to homozygosity by single seed descent. A total of eight BC(1)F(9) progeny lines were selected and characterized in this study. The chromosome numbers of these derived lines ranged from 42 to 56, including lines with 44, 52, and 54 chromosomes. All of the lines were cytologically stable in terms of meiotic chromosome behavior. The univalent frequency in the lines varied between 0.34 and 2.36 per cell. Similarly, the multivalent frequency did not exceed 1% in any of the lines. GISH analysis revealed that the number of intact wheat chromosomes in the various lines varied between 40 and 44. Numerous translocated chromosomes were detected in all lines. The translocations involved chromosomal segments from wheat, and the St and H genomes of E. repens. Furthermore, trigenomic translocated chromosomes were detected in some of the lines. The introgression into wheat chromosomes included not only terminal types but also interstitial segments. The Fusarium head blight resistance of the eight lines, following point inoculation, varied from 5.65% infected florets to 11.46% compared with the check cultivars T. aestivum 'Roblin' and T. aestivum 'Crocus' at 100% and 85%, respectively. PMID:23379340

  6. Brachypodium distachyon: a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic studies in grass species. This study aims to assess the interaction between the most prevalent FHB-causing Fusarium species and Bd in order to develop and exploit Bd as a genetic model for FHB and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. Results The ability of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum to infect a range of Bd tissues was examined in various bioassays which showed that both species can infect all Bd tissues examined, including intact foliar tissues. DON accumulated in infected spike tissues at levels similar to those of infected wheat spikes. Histological studies revealed details of infection, colonisation and host response and indicate that hair cells are important sites of infection. Susceptibility to Fusarium and DON was assessed in two Bd ecotypes and revealed variation in resistance between ecotypes. Conclusions Bd exhibits characteristics of susceptibility highly similar to those of wheat, including susceptibility to spread of disease in the spikelets. Bd is the first reported plant species to allow successful infection on intact foliar tissues by FHB-causing Fusarium species. DON appears to function as a virulence factor in Bd as it does in wheat. Bd is proposed as a valuable model for undertaking studies of Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. PMID:21639892

  7. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  8. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.T.; Cruden, D.L.; Haddock, J.D.; Zylstra, G.J.; Brand, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls that do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  9. Fire in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  10. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  11. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  12. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  13. Forest Fire Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  14. Fire Ant Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the patient will develop difficulty breathing in addition to weakness. Patients who develop anaphylaxis and have a significant history of systemic reactions to fire ant stings should be checked for ...

  15. United States Fire Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... to terrorism Transcripts MO Program EFOP Featured course: Leadership Strategies for Community Risk Reduction (R0200) Six-day on-campus Fire Prevention: Management This course will empower you with knowledge to ...

  16. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    PubMed Central

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  17. National fire management policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    A Fire Management Policy Review Team was established in 1988, with representatives from the US Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with the purpose of reviewing current policies governing national park and wilderness fire management. The author outlines the goals of the review team and discusses the seven final issues that summarized the team's findings.

  18. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  19. Toxic gases from fires.

    PubMed

    Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F

    1978-06-23

    The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol. PMID:208143

  20. Fire Safety in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Despite rigorous fire-safety policies and practices, fire incidents are possible during lunar and Martian missions. Fire behavior and hence preventive and responsive safety actions in the missions are strongly influenced by the low-gravity environments in flight and on the planetary surfaces. This paper reviews the understanding and key issues of fire safety in the missions, stressing flame spread, fire detection, suppression, and combustion performance of propellants produced from Martian resources.

  1. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  2. Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve leafy green Brassica entries (including turnip, mustard, and collard greens) were evaluated for response to inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis (Psa) in an experiment conducted at the Clemson University Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC. On 21 Septembe...

  3. Composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa slime

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. R. W.; Foster, J. H. Scott; Clamp, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The slime produced by eight strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on a number of different media was demonstrated to be qualitatively the same. Small quantitative differences may be occasioned by differences in the extraction procedure, the growth medium or the strain of organism used. 2. The slime was shown to be predominantly polysaccharide with some nucleic acid material and a small amount of protein. 3. The hydrolysed polysaccharide fraction consists mainly of glucose with smaller amounts of mannose. This accounts for some 50–60% of the total slime. In addition, there is some 5% of hyaluronic acid. The nucleic acid material represents approx. 20% of the total weight, and is composed of both RNA and DNA. 4. Minor components are protein, rhamnose and glucosamine, the protein being less than 5% of the total. 5. Hyaluronic acid is produced in greater quantities from nutrient broth than from chemically defined media, and is more firmly attached to the cells than the other components. PMID:4240755

  4. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Kristiansen, Søren; Phipps, Richard; Nielsen, Anne Kirstine; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Silver has been recognized for its antimicrobial properties for centuries. Most studies on the antibacterial efficacy of silver, with particular emphasis on wound healing, have been performed on planktonic bacteria. Our recent studies, however, strongly suggest that colonization of wounds involves bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 mug/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 mug/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds primarily colonized either by biofilm-forming or planktonic bacteria.

  5. First Report of Web Blight of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Korea.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Kim, Joon-Young; Afroz, Tania; Kim, Byung-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the first occurrence of web blight of rosemary caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Gangneung, Gangwon Province, Korea, in August 2014. The leaf tissues of infected rosemary plants were blighted and white mycelial growth was seen on the stems. The fungus was isolated from diseased leaf tissue and cultured on potato dextrose agar for identification. The young hyphae had acute angular branching near the distal septum of the multinucleate cells and mature hyphal branches formed at an approximately 90° angle. This is morphologically identical to R. solani AG-1-IB, as per previous reports. rDNA-ITS sequences of the fungus were homologous to those of R. solani AG-1-IB isolates in the GenBank database with a similarity percentage of 99%, thereby confirming the identity of the causative agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of the fungus in rosemary plants was also confirmed by Koch's postulates.

  6. First Report of Web Blight of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Korea.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Kim, Joon-Young; Afroz, Tania; Kim, Byung-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the first occurrence of web blight of rosemary caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Gangneung, Gangwon Province, Korea, in August 2014. The leaf tissues of infected rosemary plants were blighted and white mycelial growth was seen on the stems. The fungus was isolated from diseased leaf tissue and cultured on potato dextrose agar for identification. The young hyphae had acute angular branching near the distal septum of the multinucleate cells and mature hyphal branches formed at an approximately 90° angle. This is morphologically identical to R. solani AG-1-IB, as per previous reports. rDNA-ITS sequences of the fungus were homologous to those of R. solani AG-1-IB isolates in the GenBank database with a similarity percentage of 99%, thereby confirming the identity of the causative agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of the fungus in rosemary plants was also confirmed by Koch's postulates. PMID:26190926

  7. D-Psicose induces upregulation of defense-related genes and resistance in rice against bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Kano, Akihito; Hosotani, Kouji; Gomi, Kenji; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Chikage; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Ichimura, Kazuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2011-10-15

    We examined rice responses to a rare sugar, d-psicose. Rice growth was inhibited by d-psicose but not by common sugars. Microarray analysis revealed that d-psicose treatment caused an upregulation of many defense-related genes in rice, and dose-dependent upregulation of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The level of upregulation of defense-related genes by d-psicose was low compared with that by d-allose, which is another rare sugar known to confer induction of resistance to rice bacterial blight in rice. Treatment with d-psicose conferred resistance to bacterial blight in rice in a dose-dependent manner, and the results indicate that d-psicose might be a candidate plant activator for reducing disease development in rice.

  8. First Report of Web Blight of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Kim, Joon-Young; Afroz, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the first occurrence of web blight of rosemary caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Gangneung, Gangwon Province, Korea, in August 2014. The leaf tissues of infected rosemary plants were blighted and white mycelial growth was seen on the stems. The fungus was isolated from diseased leaf tissue and cultured on potato dextrose agar for identification. The young hyphae had acute angular branching near the distal septum of the multinucleate cells and mature hyphal branches formed at an approximately 90° angle. This is morphologically identical to R. solani AG-1-IB, as per previous reports. rDNA-ITS sequences of the fungus were homologous to those of R. solani AG-1-IB isolates in the GenBank database with a similarity percentage of 99%, thereby confirming the identity of the causative agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of the fungus in rosemary plants was also confirmed by Koch's postulates. PMID:26190926

  9. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2006-11-01

    PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea110, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: E. amylovora MR1, which is pathogenic only on Rubus spp.; Erwinia pyrifoliae Ep1/96, the causal agent of shoot blight of Asian pears; and Erwinia sp. strain Ejp556, the causal agent of bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components, hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. In addition, we identified an Ea110-specific sequence with homology to a type III secretion apparatus component of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius, as well as an Ep1/96-specific sequence with homology to the Yersinia pestis effector protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH.

  10. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  11. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  12. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight species and Fusarium mycotoxins in winter wheat in the Netherlands in 2009.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Rijk, T C; Booij, C J H; Goedhart, P W; Boers, E A M; Zhao, C; Waalwijk, C; Mol, H G J; van der Lee, T A J

    2012-01-01

    Most recent information on the occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight species and related mycotoxins in wheat grown in the Netherlands dates from 2001. This aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and levels of Fusarium Head Blight species and Fusarium mycotoxins, as well as their possible relationships, in winter wheat cultivated in the Netherlands in 2009. Samples were collected from individual fields of 88 commercial wheat growers. Samples were collected at harvest from 86 fields, and 2 weeks before the expected harvest date from 21 fields. In all, 128 samples, the levels of each of seven Fusarium Head Blight species and of 12 related mycotoxins were quantified. The results showed that F. graminearum was the most frequently observed species at harvest, followed by F. avenaceum and M. nivale. In the pre-harvest samples, only F. graminearum and M. nivale were relevant. The highest incidence and concentrations of mycotoxins were found for deoxynivalenol, followed by zearalenone and beauvericin, both pre-harvest and at harvest. Other toxins frequently found--for the first time in the Netherlands--included T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and moniliformin. The levels of deoxynivalenol were positively related to F. graminearum levels, as well as to zearalenone levels. Other relationships could not be established. The current approach taken in collecting wheat samples and quantifying the presence of Fusarium Head Blight species and related mycotoxins is an efficient method to obtain insight into the occurrence of these species and toxins in wheat grown under natural environmental conditions. It is recommended that this survey be repeated for several years to establish inter-annual variability in both species composition and mycotoxin occurrence.

  14. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  15. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  16. Active fire detection using a peat fire radiance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Honma, T.; Kaku, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2011-12-01

    The fire fractional area and radiances at 4 and 11 μm of active fires in Indonesia were estimated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. Based on these fire information, a stochastic fire model was used for evaluating two fire detection algorithms of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). One is single-image stochastic fire detection, and the other is multitemporal stochastic fire detection (Kushida, 2010 - IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett.). The average fire fractional area per one 1 km2 ×1 km2 pixel was 1.7%; this value corresponds to 32% of that of Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires. The average radiances at 4 and 11 μm of active fires were 7.2 W/(m2.sr.μm) and 11.1 W/(m2.sr.μm); these values correspond to 47% and 91% of those of Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires, respectively. In order to get false alarms less than 20 points per 106 km2 area, for the Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires, omission errors (OE) of 50-60% and about 40% were expected for the detections by using the single and multitemporal images, respectively. For Indonesian peat fires, OE of 80-90% was expected for the detections by using the single images. For the peat-fire detections by using the multitemporal images, OE of about 40% was expected, provided that the background radiances were estimated from past multitemporal images with less than the standard deviation of 1K. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain sufficient active-fire information of Indonesian peat fires from single MODIS images for the fire fighting, and that the use of the multitemporal images was important.

  17. Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.

    PubMed

    Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2013-10-01

    Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar® and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest® and chemical fungicides including carbendazim®, validamycin®, propiconazole® and mancozeb® were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 μg/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim® was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

  18. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  19. Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

  20. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image from August 14, 2002, shows the burn scar associated with the enormous blaze. The visualization uses ASTER's 30-meter-resolution, short-wave infrared bands to minimize smoke contamination and enhance the burn scar, which appears purple amid green vegetation. Actively burning areas of the fire appear very light purple. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire, which was 390, 276 acres as of Friday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained. Credit: This image was acquired on an expedited basis as part of NASA Wildfire Response Team activities. Image courtesy Mike Abrams, Simon Hook, and the ASTER team at EROS Data Center DAAC.

  1. New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Valdes, E.; Cozar, E.; Rotger, R. Lalucat, J. ); Ursing, J. )

    1988-10-01

    Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridizations demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Flash fire propensity of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flash fire test results on 86 materials, evaluated using the USF flash fire screening test, are presented. The materials which appear least prone to flash fires are PVC, polyphenylene oxide and sulfide, and polyether and polyaryl sulfone; these did not produce flash fires under these particular test conditions. The principal value of these screening tests at the present time is in identifying materials which appear prone to flash fires, and in identifying which formulations of a generic material are more or less prone to flash fires.

  3. Co-firing of asphalt fired dust in pulverized coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kiga, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinjl

    1999-07-01

    In order to make clear whether the dust collected at the electrostatic precipitator (EP) of asphalt fired boilers can be co-fired in pulverized coal fired boilers, laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests have been conducted. Test results showed that although dust from asphalt firing had as only a little amount of volatile matter as semi-anthracite or anthracite had, it revealed burn-out properties like bituminous. When it was co-fired with pulverized coal by 2% by that input, a considerable increase in SO{sub 2} emission was noted, while NOx emission was somewhat decreased compared with coal firing. From these verifications, it was confirmed that the co-firing of dust from asphalt firing in pulverized coal fired boiler was applicable to actual plants so far as the De-SOx system permitted.

  4. Interaction of common bacterial blight bacteria with disease resistance quantitative trait loci in common bean.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert W; Singh, Shree P; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, and is the most important bacterial disease of this crop in many regions of the world. In 2005 and 2006, dark red kidney bean fields in a major bean-growing region in central Wisconsin were surveyed for CBB incidence and representative symptomatic leaves collected. Xanthomonad-like bacteria were isolated from these leaves and characterized based upon phenotypic (colony) characteristics, pathogenicity on common bean, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers, and repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S-28S ribosomal RNA spacer region sequence analyses. Of 348 isolates that were characterized, 293 were identified as common blight bacteria (i.e., pathogenic on common bean and positive in PCR tests with the X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers), whereas the other isolates were nonpathogenic xanthomonads. Most (98%) of the pathogenic xanthomonads were X. campestris pv. phaseoli, consistent with the association of this bacterium with CBB in large-seeded bean cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Two types of X. campestris pv. phaseoli were involved with CBB in this region: typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli (P) isolates with yellow mucoid colonies, no brown pigment production, and a typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli rep-PCR fingerprint (60% of strains); and a new phenotype and genotype (Px) with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli-type fingerprint and less mucoid colonies that produced brown pigment (40% of strains). In addition, a small number of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains, representing a new genotype (FH), were isolated from two fields in 2005. Representative P and Px X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, an FH X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strain, plus five previously characterized X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X

  5. Interaction of common bacterial blight bacteria with disease resistance quantitative trait loci in common bean.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert W; Singh, Shree P; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, and is the most important bacterial disease of this crop in many regions of the world. In 2005 and 2006, dark red kidney bean fields in a major bean-growing region in central Wisconsin were surveyed for CBB incidence and representative symptomatic leaves collected. Xanthomonad-like bacteria were isolated from these leaves and characterized based upon phenotypic (colony) characteristics, pathogenicity on common bean, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers, and repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S-28S ribosomal RNA spacer region sequence analyses. Of 348 isolates that were characterized, 293 were identified as common blight bacteria (i.e., pathogenic on common bean and positive in PCR tests with the X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers), whereas the other isolates were nonpathogenic xanthomonads. Most (98%) of the pathogenic xanthomonads were X. campestris pv. phaseoli, consistent with the association of this bacterium with CBB in large-seeded bean cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Two types of X. campestris pv. phaseoli were involved with CBB in this region: typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli (P) isolates with yellow mucoid colonies, no brown pigment production, and a typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli rep-PCR fingerprint (60% of strains); and a new phenotype and genotype (Px) with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli-type fingerprint and less mucoid colonies that produced brown pigment (40% of strains). In addition, a small number of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains, representing a new genotype (FH), were isolated from two fields in 2005. Representative P and Px X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, an FH X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strain, plus five previously characterized X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X

  6. Techniques for fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukowski, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the basis for an analysis of combustable materials and potential ignition sources in a spacecraft. First, the burning process is discussed in terms of the production of the fire signatures normally associated with detection devices. These include convected and radiated thermal energy, particulates, and gases. Second, the transport processes associated with the movement of these from the fire to the detector, along with the important phenomena which cause the level of these signatures to be reduced, are described. Third, the operating characteristics of the individual types of detectors which influence their response to signals, are presented. Finally, vulnerability analysis using predictive fire modeling techniques is discussed as a means to establish the necessary response of the detection system to provide the level of protection required in the application.

  7. Pediatric fire deaths in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Bridgman-Acker, Karen; Edwards, Jim; Lauwers, Albert Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the predictors of residential fire deaths in the Ontario pediatric population using systematically collected data from the Office of the Chief Coroner. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario. Participants Children younger than 16 years of age who died in accidental residential fires in Ontario between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Main outcome measures The study retrospectively reviewed the coroner’s case files for 60 subjects who qualified according to the selection criteria. Reviewed documents included the coroner’s investigation statements, autopsy reports, toxicology reports, fire marshal’s reports, police reports, and Children’s Aid Society (CAS) reports. Information on a range of demographic, behavioural, social, and environmental factors was collected. Statistical tests, including relative risk, relative risk confidence intervals, and χ2 tests were performed to determine the correlation between factors of interest and to establish their significance. Results Thirty-nine fire events resulting in 60 deaths occurred between 2001 and 2006. Fire play and electrical failures were the top 2 causes of residential fires. More fires occurred during the night (midnight to 9 am) than during the day (9 am to midnight). Nighttime fires were most commonly due to electrical failures or unattended candles, whereas daytime fires were primarily caused by unsupervised fire play and stove fires. Smoke alarms were present at 32 of 39 fire events (82%), but overall alarm functionality was only 54%. Children from families with a history of CAS involvement were approximately 32 times more likely to die in fires. Conclusion Risk factors for pediatric fire death in Ontario include smoke alarm functionality, fire play, fire escape behaviour, and CAS involvement. Efforts to prevent residential fire deaths should target these populations and risk factors, and primary care physicians should consider education around these

  8. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  9. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  10. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  11. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  12. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  13. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... training and education. More resources on smoking and fire safety Medical oxygen safety NFPA Educational Messages Desk Reference – these messages provide fire and life safety educators with accurate and consistent ...

  14. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  15. A Global Tour of Fire

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fire observations from around the world taken over nearly 10 years are shown in this visualization of NASA satellite data. This visualization leads viewers on a narrated global tour of fire detecti...

  16. FIRE_MS_CSU_TBALLOON

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    ... Instrument:  Bugette Bugeye FSSP Pressure Transducer Psychrometer Pyranometer Pyrgeometer Wind ... library FIRE SDF Header C Code FIRE Volume Table of Contents C Code Additional Info:  Colorado ...

  17. FIRE_CI1_RAWINSONDES

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-01-27

    ... Geopotential Height Potential Temperature Pressure Relative Humidity Specific Humidity Temperature Wind ... C Code FIRE SDF Header C Code FIRE Volume Table of Contents C Code GENPRO Format C Code ...

  18. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, John T.; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant’s natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction. PMID:26325299

  19. Pseudomonas strains naturally associated with potato plants produce volatiles with high potential for inhibition of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan; Weisskopf, Laure

    2015-02-01

    Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen.

  20. Pseudomonas Strains Naturally Associated with Potato Plants Produce Volatiles with High Potential for Inhibition of Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

  1. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring.

  2. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. PMID:27568534

  3. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  4. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  5. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  6. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  7. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  8. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  9. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weick, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  10. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  11. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  12. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  13. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 189

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 189 is a potent inhibitor of the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the complete, finished sequence of the 6.8-Mbp genome of this strain, consisting of a single contiguous molecule. Strain 189 is closely related to previously sequenced strains of P. chlororaphis. PMID:27340063

  14. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  15. Pseudomonas sepsis with Noma: an association?

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, S; Tullu, M S; Lahiri, K R; Deshmukh, C T

    2005-08-01

    We report here a 2.5-year-old male child with community-acquired Pseudomonal sepsis showing the characteristic lesions of ecthyma gangrenosum. The child had development of gangrenous changes of the nose and face - the 'cancrum oris' or 'Noma'. We highlight the possible association of Pseudomonas sepsis and Noma, with malnutrition playing a central role in causing both the diseases.

  16. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  17. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  18. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  19. School Fire Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    This manual provides the background information necessary for the planning of school fire safety programs by local school officials, particularly in Arkansas. The manual first discusses the need for such programs and cites the Arkansas state law regarding them. Policies established by the Arkansas State Board of Education to implement the legal…

  20. Fire Play: ICCARUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, James; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation called ICCARUS (Intelligent Command and Control, Acquisition and Review Using Simulation) that was developed for training fire officers in the United Kingdom. The integration of microcomputer-based software, videodisks, and audio material on compact disks into the simulation is described; and results of an…