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Sample records for fire protection countermeasures

  1. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  2. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  3. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  4. Substation fire protection features

    SciTech Connect

    Hausheer, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes Commonwealth Edison`s (ComEd) approach to substation fire protection. Substation fires can have a major operational, financial, as well as political impact on a utility. The overall Company philosophy encompasses both active and passive fire protection features to provide prompt detection, notification, and confinement of fire and its by-products. Conservatively designed smoke detection systems and floor and wall penetration seals form the backbone of this strategy. The Company has implemented a program to install these features in new and existing substations. Thus far these measures have been successful in mitigating the consequences of substation fires.

  5. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  6. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  7. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  8. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  9. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  10. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  11. Fire Protection. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A general discussion of fire alarms and protection is provided by a manufacturer of automated monitoring and control systems. Background information describes old and new fire alarm systems, comparing system components, wage savings, and cost analysis. Different kinds of automatic systems are listed, including--(1) local system, (2) auxiliary…

  12. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  13. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  18. Fire Protection for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson-James, Judith

    1981-01-01

    This overview of preventive measures that can be taken to help minimize damage to library materials from fire discusses the advantages, disadvantages, dangers, and comparative costs of several types of sprinkler systems, including high-expansion foam, total-flooding, dry- and wet-pipe systems, and on-off sprinkler heads. Five references are…

  19. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  1. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  2. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  3. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... buildings, shall be given construction priority. Fire doors, with automatic closing devices, shall be hung... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... buildings, shall be given construction priority. Fire doors, with automatic closing devices, shall be hung... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buildings, shall be given construction priority. Fire doors, with automatic closing devices, shall be hung... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150...

  7. Time-dependent countermeasure considerations in industrial protection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spogen, L.

    1984-05-01

    Protecting industrial capability from nuclear attack may be done by employing various countermeasures intended to accomplish specific protective goals. Many potential countermeasures have previously been recommended without an appropriate consideration of their implementation times. A countermeasure's effectiveness in accomplishing a prescribed goal depends on the times when various actions associated with it are executed, and on the times required for their execution. We must therefore know about any time dependencies in the countermeasures. A countermeasure's effectiveness is also influenced by the level of protection needed by specific industries and the characteristics of those industries. An overview of basic interdependencies allows us to properly characterize the time dependencies existing in countermeasures. Considerations in this report include: dispersal, survivability requirements for critical industries, enhanced recovery measures, the characterization of industries, and the characterization of countermeasures. Based on these considerations, this report also describes a general method for providing a required post-attack industrial capability at a minimum cost. However, the development and collection of detailed information is needed before the method can be applied. 5 refs., 21 figs.

  8. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  9. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  10. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on...

  12. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on...

  14. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  15. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator...

  16. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator...

  17. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator...

  18. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator...

  19. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  20. Selection and maintenance key to fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    Briese, B.L.

    1996-11-01

    Petroleum product and chemical storage terminals, because of the combustible products they handle, face severe fire exposure potentials. A fire at a terminal can grow rapidly and release damaging and deadly heat, threatening personnel, facilities, the adjoining environment and revenue. To combat this danger, terminals employ several types of fire protection systems, both fixed and mobile. All adhere to consensus codes and standards. Following installation of automatic fire protection equipment, its acceptance (sometimes referred to as commissioning) testing, ongoing maintenance and periodic inspection is vitally important to assure that it reliably functions when required.

  1. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  2. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  3. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  4. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section... Powerplant fire protection. (a) Designated fire zones must be protected from fire by compliance with §§ 121.255 through 121.261. (b) Designated fire zones are— (1) Engine accessory sections; (2)...

  5. Dispensing medical countermeasures: emergency use authorities and liability protections.

    PubMed

    Kels, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel.

  6. Dispensing Medical Countermeasures: Emergency Use Authorities and Liability Protections

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel. PMID:25813980

  7. Dispensing medical countermeasures: emergency use authorities and liability protections.

    PubMed

    Kels, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel. PMID:25813980

  8. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  9. 49 CFR 193.2717 - Training: fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: fire protection. (a) All personnel involved in maintenance and operations of an LNG plant, including..., including plant fire drills, to: (1) Know the potential causes and areas of fire; (2) Know the types,...

  10. China's environmental protection: challenges and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    The following suggestions are made to improve environmental quality in China: control population growth, develop ecofarming, protect biodiversity, explore new energy sources, practice safe and sustainable consumption, adopt an efficient strategy for use of natural resources, use industrial production to maintain sustainable development, strengthen management, guide urbanization, and increase international cooperation. The environmental problems are identified as the low use of industrial technology for preventing undesirable waste or emissions, increased sewage discharges in rural areas, water pollution, increased acid rain, increased pollution from solid waste and toxic chemicals, soil erosion and desertification, and agricultural pollution from chemical fertilizers. Environmental pollution is the result of economic development. Economic development should, therefore, take responsibility for the solutions. Current funding for environmental protection is an inadequate 0.67% of the gross national product. Environmental management needs to be strengthened, given greater priority, and balanced with sustainable development. The entire population should be made aware of the importance of protecting the environment. Progress has been made in increasing cultivated forest preserves, in decreasing discharges of wastes into the water, and in decreasing noise pollution. 1098 districts in 216 cities meet environmental noise control standards. The 1991 environmental protection staff consisted of 71,000 persons who were employed in 2199 monitoring stations for soot control, 61 natural reserves, and 6400 environmental pollution projects. A total investment of 1.74 billion RMB yuan was invested in environmental pollution control projects. Environmental quality has been maintained at 1980 standards, and further environmental pollution has been avoided. Atmospheric pollution in the third quarter of 1991 in large and medium-sized cities was 0.067 to 0.450 milligrams per cubic meter

  11. China's environmental protection: challenges and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    The following suggestions are made to improve environmental quality in China: control population growth, develop ecofarming, protect biodiversity, explore new energy sources, practice safe and sustainable consumption, adopt an efficient strategy for use of natural resources, use industrial production to maintain sustainable development, strengthen management, guide urbanization, and increase international cooperation. The environmental problems are identified as the low use of industrial technology for preventing undesirable waste or emissions, increased sewage discharges in rural areas, water pollution, increased acid rain, increased pollution from solid waste and toxic chemicals, soil erosion and desertification, and agricultural pollution from chemical fertilizers. Environmental pollution is the result of economic development. Economic development should, therefore, take responsibility for the solutions. Current funding for environmental protection is an inadequate 0.67% of the gross national product. Environmental management needs to be strengthened, given greater priority, and balanced with sustainable development. The entire population should be made aware of the importance of protecting the environment. Progress has been made in increasing cultivated forest preserves, in decreasing discharges of wastes into the water, and in decreasing noise pollution. 1098 districts in 216 cities meet environmental noise control standards. The 1991 environmental protection staff consisted of 71,000 persons who were employed in 2199 monitoring stations for soot control, 61 natural reserves, and 6400 environmental pollution projects. A total investment of 1.74 billion RMB yuan was invested in environmental pollution control projects. Environmental quality has been maintained at 1980 standards, and further environmental pollution has been avoided. Atmospheric pollution in the third quarter of 1991 in large and medium-sized cities was 0.067 to 0.450 milligrams per cubic meter

  12. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  13. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  14. Halon Gas and Library Fire Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Describes the operation of halon gas fire extinguishing systems, which have been installed in a number of libraries and archives across Canada where protection of special collections from water and mold damage resulting from operation of a standard water sprinkler system is paramount. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of system are…

  15. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.869 Fire... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause...

  16. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.869 Fire... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause...

  17. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.869 Fire... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2717 - Training: fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training: fire protection. 193.2717 Section 193...: fire protection. (a) All personnel involved in maintenance and operations of an LNG plant, including..., including plant fire drills, to: (1) Know the potential causes and areas of fire; (2) Know the types,...

  20. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  1. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  2. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide... fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a) of this subchapter....

  4. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  8. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  9. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  10. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  18. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  19. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  20. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  1. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  3. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charged with forest fire fighting responsibilities, and who direct or engage in (1) fire spotting or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization....

  6. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization....

  7. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization....

  8. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization....

  9. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization....

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE, NON-HALOGEN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the phaseout of halon production, two alternative technologies - water misting and low-residue particulates - have come to the fire protection forefront. These technologies use water or dry chemicals in reduced quantities to provide acceptable fire protection. A review and a...

  11. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  13. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled ship... riser, each part of a cargo containment system exposed on the weatherdeck must be covered by the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  15. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  17. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  2. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  3. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  4. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  5. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  6. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  7. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  8. Varied ecosystems need different fire protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutsell, Sheri L.; Johnson, Edward A.; Miyanishi, Kiyoko; Keeley, Jon E.; Dickinson, Matthew; Bridge, Simon R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Covington states in his Commentary1 that the open ponderosa pine forests of the western United States are "in widespread collapse" because fire suppression by humans has eliminated the low-intensity surface fire regime that maintained the open, park-like structure of these forests. He fears this will lead to an "unprecedented" crown fire regime that will eliminate forests.

  9. Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

  10. Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through October 1980. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays. Some small-scale scoping tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of varying the furnace pressure on cable penetration performance in the ASTM-E-119 Fire Test. The Sandia Fire Research Facility has been completed and a series of tests have been run to assess the effectiveness of Halon-1301 as a suppression system in extinguishing deep-seated cable-tray fires. It was found that given sufficient soak times Halon systems are effective in extinguishing such fires.

  11. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  12. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firefighting equipment—(1) Fire extinguishers and small hose lines. (i) A fire extinguisher, rated not less... extinguisher having a 2A rating. (iii) A 1/2-inch diameter garden-type hose line, not to exceed 100 feet in... capable of discharging a minimum of 5 gallons per minute with a minimum hose stream range of 30...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  15. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  16. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  17. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion,...

  18. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  19. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  20. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  1. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  2. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  3. 14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view to the southeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  5. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Six, D E

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

  6. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  7. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Buttrey, K. E.

    1984-09-10

    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)

  8. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  9. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  10. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65. Halon 1301 and halocarbon Recharge or replace if weight loss exceeds 5..., carbon dioxide and Halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the net content weight loss... Type system Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent...

  11. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65. Halon 1301 and halocarbon Recharge or replace if weight loss exceeds 5..., carbon dioxide and Halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the net content weight loss... Type system Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent...

  12. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., carbon dioxide and Halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the net content weight loss... Extinguishing Systems Type System Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10% of... nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 5% of weight...

  13. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65. Halon 1301 and halocarbon Recharge or replace if weight loss exceeds 5..., carbon dioxide and Halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the net content weight loss... Type system Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent...

  14. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or conveys flammable fluid during normal engine operation, must be fire resistant or fireproof, as... supports, which are part of and attached to the engine, must be fireproof either by construction or by... sump need not be fireproof or enclosed by a fireproof shield. (d) An engine component...

  15. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or conveys flammable fluid during normal engine operation, must be fire resistant or fireproof, as... supports, which are part of and attached to the engine, must be fireproof either by construction or by... sump need not be fireproof or enclosed by a fireproof shield. (d) An engine component...

  16. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or conveys flammable fluid during normal engine operation, must be fire resistant or fireproof, as... supports, which are part of and attached to the engine, must be fireproof either by construction or by... sump need not be fireproof or enclosed by a fireproof shield. (d) An engine component...

  17. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or conveys flammable fluid during normal engine operation, must be fire resistant or fireproof, as... supports, which are part of and attached to the engine, must be fireproof either by construction or by... sump need not be fireproof or enclosed by a fireproof shield. (d) An engine component...

  18. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or conveys flammable fluid during normal engine operation, must be fire resistant or fireproof, as... supports, which are part of and attached to the engine, must be fireproof either by construction or by... sump need not be fireproof or enclosed by a fireproof shield. (d) An engine component...

  19. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., carbon dioxide and Halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the net content weight loss... Extinguishing Systems Type System Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10% of... nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 5% of weight...

  20. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth... Member grade status in the International Society of Fire Protection Engineers. Room of Origin...

  2. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  3. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  4. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  5. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used during emergency procedures must be fire resistant. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in... portions of appendix F, part I, of 14 CFR part 25....

  9. Fire Protection Review: Ross Aviation, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, S.E.; Sharland, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations or to identify areas according to the following criteria established by the US Department of Energy: Recommendations which would be made as the result of a Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial facility. (This would include human element'' recommendations.) Identification of areas where provision of automatic protection would limit a fire or explosion loss to $1,000,000. Identification of Maximum Foreseeable Loss (MFL) areas where loss potential exceeds $50,000,000 assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation, fire walls, or value limitations. In private industry, the effect of insured losses on continuity of operations is referred to as Business Interruption and is usually expressed in monetary terms to cover continuing expense and loss of profit until such time as repairs are made and production is resumed. Loss of use of facility of this type does not lend itself to expression in monetary terms. Surveys of other facilities resulted in a classification system for buildings which provide an indication of the importance of the building to the fulfillment of the mission of the facility. Recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the facility and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event a loss were to occur.

  10. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section 121.253 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  11. 46 CFR 127.640 - Fire-protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire-protection requirements. 127.640 Section 127.640 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction and Arrangements for OSVs Carrying More Than 36 Offshore Workers. § 127.640...

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities...

  16. Fire propagation performance of intumescent fire protective coatings using eggshells as a novel biofiller.

    PubMed

    Yew, M C; Ramli Sulong, N H; Yew, M K; Amalina, M A; Johan, M R

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  17. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    PubMed Central

    Yew, M. C.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Yew, M. K.; Amalina, M. A.; Johan, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  18. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected

  19. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  20. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  1. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  2. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  3. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its... 70 nations, all working together to fulfill the Association's mission. The NFPA process...

  4. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  5. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  6. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  7. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  8. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  9. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  15. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for... notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the availability of and...: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its mission by...

  16. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  17. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  19. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  20. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  1. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  2. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  3. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  4. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  5. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  7. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  8. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  9. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  10. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  11. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  12. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  13. Seek alternative to halon for gas-turbine fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article describes fine water-spray technology which recasts use of water for fixed fire-suppression systems. Technology differs from common sprinkler system. Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol governing use and production of chemicals that are suspected of depleting the upper atmospheric ozone layer, fire-protection manufacturers have explored alternatives to halon 1301, a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used extensively in powerplant applications. One particularly challenging application is the gas-turbine enclosure, because of its high operating temperature and range of potential fire hazards--pools of leaking lube oil, oil-soaked insulation, ruptured high-pressure natural-gas lines, and so on. One alternative racing toward commercialization is fine water spray produced by the so-called twin-fluid atomizing nozzle. The technology, developed and tested in Europe, combines water and compressed air--or nitrogen--to direct precisely sized water droplets to the base of a fire. According to david Kipley, Vectra Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL, the system can rapidly extinguish large, intense fires using limited quantities of water.

  14. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Ruger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct to the present fire safety review process.

  15. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue…

  18. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To... behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the NFPA's proposal to revise some of its fire safety codes and standards and requests proposals from the public to amend existing...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth... or graduate degree from a college or university offering a course of study in fire protection or...

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  1. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of... cabinet doors, countertops, backsplashes, exposed bottoms, and end panels shall have a flame spread...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of... cabinet doors, countertops, backsplashes, exposed bottoms, and end panels shall have a flame spread...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation.

  11. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  12. Fire-protection research program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1975-1981. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, D.A.

    1983-04-01

    Since early 1975, Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting fire-protection research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Testing has been done on grouped electrical-cable fires including electrical initiation, fire propagation, the effects of fire-retardant coatings and barriers, suppression, and characterization of the damage-ability of electrical cables. In addition, several studies of a more-generic nature such as fire detection, ventilation, and fire-hazards analysis methodologies were performed. This report condenses all of the test results, reports, papers, and research findings of the past seven years. Research conducted by contractors to Sandia National Laboratories is also summarized.

  13. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  14. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ocean Energy Management regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415 of... and must comply with the requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation...

  15. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation...

  16. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ocean Energy Management regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415 of... and must comply with the requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation...

  17. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation...

  18. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation...

  19. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  20. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Register notice Date Brief description 69 FR 33684 June 16, 2004 Describes the initial interim Enforcement Policy on fire protection. 70 FR 2662 January 14, 2005 Revises the submittal date for licensees to receive enforcement discretion for existing identified fire protection program noncompliant issues. 71...

  1. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) proposes to revise some of its safety... and publication of these Comments in the Report on Comments (ROC); the Association Technical...

  2. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  3. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  4. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker, who—(1) is trained in fire suppression, has the legal authority and responsibility to engage in fire suppression, and is employed by a...

  5. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker, who—(1) is trained in fire suppression, has the legal authority and responsibility to engage in fire suppression, and is employed by a...

  6. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker, who—(1) is trained in fire suppression, has the legal authority and responsibility to engage in fire suppression, and is employed by a...

  7. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker, who—(1) is trained in fire suppression, has the legal authority and responsibility to engage in fire suppression, and is employed by a...

  8. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  9. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant and meet as accepted by the Commandant as meeting... accepted as meeting NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) may be accepted as fire retardant if they have an ASTM E-84 flame... as equivalent to the requirement in this section to use a fire retardant resin. Requests...

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.

  11. Performance of a Protected Wireless Sensor Network in a Fire. Analysis of Fire Spread and Data Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Antoine-Santoni, Thierry; Santucci, Jean-François; de Gentili, Emmanuelle; Silvani, Xavier; Morandini, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as a reliable solution for capturing the kinematics of a fire front spreading over a fuel bed. To provide reliable information in fire studies and support fire fighting strategies, a Wireless Sensor Network must be able to perform three sequential actions: 1) sensing thermal data in the open as the gas temperature; 2) detecting a fire i.e., the spatial position of a flame; 3) tracking the fire spread during its spatial and temporal evolution. One of the great challenges in performing fire front tracking with a WSN is to avoid the destruction of motes by the fire. This paper therefore shows the performance of Wireless Sensor Network when the motes are protected with a thermal insulation dedicated to track a fire spreading across vegetative fuels on a field scale. The resulting experimental WSN is then used in series of wildfire experiments performed in the open in vegetation areas ranging in size from 50 to 1,000 m2. PMID:22454563

  12. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  13. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  14. 5 CFR 551.215 - Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection activities and 7(k... ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.215 Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and... section 7(k) of the Act apply to certain categories of fire protection employees based on...

  15. 5 CFR 551.215 - Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection activities and 7(k... ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.215 Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and... section 7(k) of the Act apply to certain categories of fire protection employees based on...

  16. Fire protection research for DOE facilities: FY 83 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.; Stagge, K.

    1984-08-02

    We summarize our research in FY 83 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies of energy technology facilities in order to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are currently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to fusion energy facilities, (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet the negate hazards, and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  17. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  18. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  19. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  1. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  3. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  4. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  5. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  6. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  7. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  8. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  9. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  10. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  11. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... CFR part 98 or 46 CFR part 64. ... Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.315 Fire...

  12. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  13. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  14. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155 Section 28.155 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection...

  15. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155 Section 28.155 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection...

  16. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825 Section 28.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and...

  17. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825 Section 28.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and...

  18. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155 Section 28.155 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection...

  19. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825 Section 28.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and...

  20. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155 Section 28.155 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection...

  1. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155 Section 28.155 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection...

  2. 33 CFR 149.418 - What fire protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system complying with 46 CFR 108.489. ... a helicopter fueling facility have? 149.418 Section 149.418 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have? In addition to the portable fire...

  3. 33 CFR 149.418 - What fire protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 46 CFR 108.489. ... a helicopter fueling facility have? 149.418 Section 149.418 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have? In addition to the portable fire...

  4. 33 CFR 149.418 - What fire protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system complying with 46 CFR 108.489. ... a helicopter fueling facility have? 149.418 Section 149.418 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have? In addition to the portable fire...

  5. 33 CFR 149.418 - What fire protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 46 CFR 108.489. ... a helicopter fueling facility have? 149.418 Section 149.418 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have? In addition to the portable fire...

  6. 33 CFR 149.418 - What fire protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with 46 CFR 108.489. ... a helicopter fueling facility have? 149.418 Section 149.418 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... protection system must a helicopter fueling facility have? In addition to the portable fire...

  7. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including air conditioning), or for any other purpose, and all material incidental to its installation, shall be...

  8. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What firefighting and fire..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting and fire...) or (d), § 149.419(a)(1), or § 149.420 of this part, all required firefighting and fire...

  9. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) EWIS components must meet the requirements of § 25.1713. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on... requirements of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air...

  10. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) EWIS components must meet the requirements of § 25.1713. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on... requirements of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air...

  11. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  12. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  13. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  14. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  15. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment.

  16. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... list and description of the types of awards or recognition that brigade members may be eligible to... (interior) work areas. This division of the workplace into two areas is done in recognition of the different... necessary to abandon fire fighting efforts. In recognition of the degree of hazard present in the two...

  18. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in...

  19. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic products of combustion or an... following exercises are performed: (a) Normal breathing with head motionless for one minute; (b) Deep... because an extra rich concentration is necessary to extinguish deep-seated fires. Certain...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic products of combustion or an... following exercises are performed: (a) Normal breathing with head motionless for one minute; (b) Deep... because an extra rich concentration is necessary to extinguish deep-seated fires. Certain...

  2. The Influence of Management on the Cost of Fire Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Amy K.

    2004-01-01

    An important and unresolved issue central to the study of government performance is how the actions of managers and the nature of organizations affect the cost of public services. This paper presents an empirical analysis of fire departments that estimates the influence of managerial choices on per capita spending within a simultaneous public…

  3. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place... also include a schematic diagram of the system and instructions detailing alternate methods of releasing the extinguishing agent should the local manual release or stop valve controls fail to...

  4. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in...

  5. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in...

  6. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in...

  7. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a....315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  8. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  9. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  10. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  11. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  13. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  14. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  15. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  16. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  17. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  18. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  19. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  20. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  1. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  2. A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  3. Finite element analysis of various methods for protection of concrete structures against spalling during fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, A.; Gawin, D.; Pesavento, F.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2007-02-01

    A mathematical model of hygro-thermo-mechanical phenomena in heated concrete, treated as multiphase porous material is briefly presented. Some modifications necessary to analyse high-temperature performance of a concrete containing the PP-fibres have been introduced, experimentally validated and applied for analysis of performance of a concrete tunnel lining during a 10-MW fire and the ISO standard fire. Three methods for protecting concrete structures against excessive degradation in fire conditions have been numerically analysed by means of the computer model. The analysed protection methods are based either upon application on a structure surface of a reflective layer, or covering it with a protective layer made of a very porous concrete or an addition of the PP fibres to the concrete mix. Efficiency of these methods has been numerically analysed in thermal conditions corresponding to the ISO-834 standard fire. The results obtained show that even relatively simple methods, like application a protective layer or increasing the surface reflectance, can retard to some extent concrete degradation during a fire.

  4. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  5. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  6. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  7. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  8. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire... National Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, ANSI Z87.1; American...

  9. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fire Protection Specialist, CDC 57150, 17-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This five-volume course is designed to provide the student with information about fire protection, first aid and rescue, and special situation firefighting techniques. The course is one of number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian setting. The course…

  10. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  11. Evaluating countermeasures in spaceflight analogs.

    PubMed

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-04-15

    Countermeasures are defined as solutions to prevent the undesirable physiologic outcomes associated with spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs provide a valuable opportunity for the evaluation of countermeasures because they allow for the evaluation of more subjects, more experimental control, and are considerably less expensive than actual spaceflight. The various human analogs have differing strengths and weaknesses with respect to the development and evaluation of countermeasures. The human analogs are briefly reviewed with a focus on their suitability for countermeasure evaluation. Bed rest is the most commonly used analog for evaluating countermeasures. While countermeasures are typically developed to target one or maybe two particular physiologic issues, it is increasingly important to evaluate all of the organ systems to discern whether they might be unintended consequences on nontargeted tissues. In preparation for Mars exploration it will be necessary to fully integrate countermeasures to protect all organ systems. The synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple countermeasures needs to be the focus of future work. PMID:26662054

  12. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  13. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  14. Planning for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection at nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, B.; Parkinson, W.J.; Lee, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a framework for discussing issues and building consensus towards use of fire modeling and risk technology in nuclear power plant fire protection program implementation. The plan describes a three-phase approach: development of core technologies, implementation of methods, and finally, case studies and pilot applications to verify viability of such methods. The core technologies are defined as fire modeling, fire and system tests, use of operational data, and system and risk techniques. The implementation phase addresses the programmatic issues involved in implementing a risk-informed/performance-based approach in an integrated approach with risk/performance measures. The programmatic elements include: (1) a relationship with fire codes and standards development as defined by the ongoing effort of NFPA for development of performance-based standards; (2) the ability for NRC to undertake inspection and enforcement; and (3) the benefit to utilities in terms of cost versus safety. The case studies are intended to demonstrate applicability of single issue resolution while pilot applications are intended to check the applicability of the integrated program as a whole.

  15. Remotely-Sensed Active Fire Data for Protected Area Management: Eight-Year Patterns in the Manas National Park, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E.

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  16. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  17. Modeling of the Thermal Protection of a Multilayer Material Under Fire Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. A.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of the theoretical and known experimental results, a refined mathematical model of the thermochemical destruction of a multilayer heat-shield coating has been developed. Account of the flow across the body has made it possible to forecast more exactly the state of the protected structure under fire conditions. A comparison between the results of numerical calculations and the known data has been made.

  18. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  19. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Weaver, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  20. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation. PMID:25723913

  1. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  2. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  3. Standard for fire protection of DOE electronic computer/data processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The standard applies to all essential electronic computer data processing equipment as well as the storage facilities, associated utilities, and air conditioning systems. The types of construction necessary for a computer building and computer rooms are described, including location and perimeter separation and certain operating requirements. Fire protection systems that may be employed for computer equipment protection are described. Also discussed are the necessary utilities required in a computer area and the emergency controls required for shutdown of these utilities. The types of storage and records and the protection required for each type are discussed. Specific requirements are listed unique to mobile equipment. Emergency operations are described, including programs for firefighting and for the restoration of damaged records. (LEW)

  4. Standard for fire protection of DOE electronic computer/data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    The standard which applies to all essential electronic computer data processing equipment and the storage facilities, associated utilities, and air conditioning systems is outlined. The types of construction necessary for a computer building and computer rooms are described, which includes location and perimeter separation anc certain operating requirements. Fire protection systems that may be employed for computer equipment protection are described. The necessary utilities required in a computer area and the emergency controls required for shutdown of these utilities and the types of storage and records and the protection required for each type are discussed. Specific requirements are listed unique to mobile equipment. Emergency operations programs for firefighting and for the restoration of damaged records are described.

  5. A feasibility study: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection utilization of infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Britten, R. A.; Parks, G. S.; Voss, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's JPL has completed a feasibility study using infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management. The study surveyed user needs, examined available technologies, matched the user needs with technologies, and defined an integrated infrared wildland fire mapping concept system configuration. System component trade-offs were presented for evaluation in the concept system configuration. The economic benefits of using infrared technologies in fire suppression and management were examined. Follow-on concept system configuration development and implementation were proposed.

  6. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. PMID:26696610

  7. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals.

  8. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  9. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  10. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  11. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  12. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  13. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  14. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  16. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  17. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  18. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  19. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  20. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  1. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  2. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  3. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design...

  4. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks IV and V, 17-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the fourth and fifth blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: structural firefighting (operation and maintenance of hydrants, emergency response activities, structural pumpers, vehicle positioning and relay, hose…

  5. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so that... suitable features to ensure that the engine is retained if the non-fireproof portions of the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so that... suitable features to ensure that the engine is retained if the non-fireproof portions of the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so that... suitable features to ensure that the engine is retained if the non-fireproof portions of the...

  8. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so that... suitable features to ensure that the engine is retained if the non-fireproof portions of the...

  9. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so that... suitable features to ensure that the engine is retained if the non-fireproof portions of the...

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire...

  13. 309 Building fire protection analysis and justification for deactivation of sprinkler system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.P.

    1997-06-25

    Provide a `graded approach` fire evaluation in preparation for turnover to Environmental Restoration Contractor for D&D. Scope includes revising 309 Building book value and evaluating fire hazards, radiological and toxicological releases, and life safety issues.

  14. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. 1976. 16. Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire.... June 1978. 18. Eating Smoke—The Dispensable Diet; Utech, H.P. The Fire Independent, 1975. 19....

  15. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. 1976. 16. Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire.... June 1978. 18. Eating Smoke—The Dispensable Diet; Utech, H.P. The Fire Independent, 1975. 19....

  16. WISE-2005 Protective Effect of Exercise within LBNP Countermeasure Detected by Heart Rate Response to Low Levels of LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hargens, A. R.; Mattar, L.; Edgell, H.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen women were studied before, during and after a 60 day, continu ous 6" head-down bed-rest (HDBR). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (no countermeasures) and Exercise+LBNP (supine ru nning within an LBNP chamber for 40-min followed by 10-min passive L BNP for 3-4 days/week, plus flywheel resistive training of the legs e very third day). Cardiovascular responses were observed before bed re st, on day 50 of HDBR and R+8 after bed rest. Subjects were supine in the LBNP device with suction applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg LBN P for 2-min per stage. In the pre-bed rest testing, there was no diff erence in HR between the groups at rest or at -30 mmHg. On HDBR day 50, HR was elevated at supine rest for the Con not the Ex group, whil e at -30 mmHg HR was elevated above pre-HDBR for both groups, but the magnitude of increase from Pre- to HDBR day 50 was less for the Ex g roup than for the Con group. The change in HR on HDBR day 50 is an im portant indicator as it was less than 24-hours after the Exercise+LBN P countermeasure on day 49. After bed rest, no specific countermeasu res were provided in the first week, so HR responses on day R+8 refle cted the effects of bed rest with or without countermeasure plus any recovery from simply returning to the upright posture. Relative to th e Pre-bed rest responses, HR on day R+8 had recovered in the Ex group but was still elevated in the Con group. These results indicate that the cardiovascular response to LBNP is preserved to a greater degre e during bed rest by the countermeasures, and further that the cardio vascular response returned to pre-bed rest much more rapidly in the E xercise+LBNP group than hi the group that received no cardiovascular countermeasures.

  17. Long-distance dispersal in a fire- and livestock-protected savanna

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Roberto; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Kageyama, Paulo Y; Vencovsky, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Savannas are highly diverse and dynamic environments that can shift to forest formations due to protection policies. Long-distance dispersal may shape the genetic structure of these new closed forest formations. We analyzed eight microsatellite loci using a single-time approach to understand contemporary pollen and effective seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae), occurring in a Brazilian fire- and livestock-protected savanna. We sampled all adult trees found within a 10.24 ha permanent plot, young trees within a subplot of 1.44 ha and open-pollinated seeds. We detected a very high level of genetic diversity among the three generations in the studied plot. Parentage analysis revealed high pollen immigration rate (0.64) and a mean contemporary pollen dispersal distance of 74 m. In addition, half-sib production was 1.8 times higher than full-sibs in significant higher distances, indicating foraging activity preference for different trees at long distances. There was a significant and negative correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) of the pollen donor with the number of seeds (r = −0.640, P-value = 0.032), suggesting that pollen donor trees with a higher DBH produce less seeds. The mean distance of realized seed dispersal (recruitment kernel) was 135 m due to the large home range dispersers (birds and mammals) in the area. The small magnitude of spatial genetic structure found in young trees may be a consequence of overlapping seed shadows and increased tree density. Our results show the positive side of closed canopy expansion, where animal activities regarding pollination and seed dispersal are extremely high. PMID:23610640

  18. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved. PMID:25978652

  19. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved.

  20. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  1. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions. PMID:26813056

  2. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... vicinity of any slope or shaft, except where such operations are performed in fireproof enclosures, shall... vicinity of the slope or shaft for fire during and after such operations. (c) Before welding, cutting,...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... vicinity of any slope or shaft, except where such operations are performed in fireproof enclosures, shall... vicinity of the slope or shaft for fire during and after such operations. (c) Before welding, cutting,...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... systems, in accordance with NFPA 10-2002 (incorporated by reference, see § 1915.5), as portable...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... systems, in accordance with NFPA 10-2002 (incorporated by reference, see § 1915.5), as portable...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... systems, in accordance with NFPA 10-2002 (incorporated by reference, see § 1915.5), as portable...

  8. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  9. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  10. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  11. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  13. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  14. Forest fires

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance.

  15. Fire protection considerations in the design of plutonium handling and storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-08-01

    Unwanted fire in a facility that handles plutonium must be addressed early in the facility design. Such fires have the potential for transporting radioactive contamination throughout the building and widespread downwind dispersal. Features that mitigate such events can be severely challenged during the fire. High temperatures can cause storage containers to burst; a very efficient dispersal mechanism for radioactive contamination. The fire will also establish ventilation patterns that cause the migration of smoke and radioactive contamination throughout the facility. The smoke and soot generated by the fire will enter the exhaust system and travel to the filtration system where it will deposit on the filters. The quantity of smoke generated during a typical multi-room fire is expected to blind most High Efficiency Particulate Airfilter (HEPA) media. The blinding can have two possible outcomes. (1) The air movement though the facility is reduced, compromising the negative pressure containment and allowing contamination to leave the building though doors and other openings; or (2) the filters collapse allowing the contamination to bypass the filtration media and exit the building through the filter plenum. HEPA filter blinding during severe fires can be prevented or mitigated. Increasing the face surface area of HEPA filters will increase the smoke filtration capacity of the system, thus preventing blinding. As an alternative sandfilters can be provided to mitigate the effects of the HEPA filter bypass. Both concepts have distinct advantages. This paper will explore these two design concepts and two others; it will describe the design requirements necessary for each concept to prevent unacceptable contamination spread. The intent is to allow the filter media selection to be based on a comprehensive understanding of the four different design concepts.

  16. Hiring and Firing in Community Colleges: Caveats and Considerations for Protecting Institutions and Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafes, Richard; Warren, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the hiring and firing process in community colleges, including job posting, advertising positions, screening applicants, interviewing, testing, checking references, and making an offer. Explains the most effective ways to discipline and terminate employees, in keeping with employment laws. (Contains 23 references.) (CJW)

  17. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035). Because... of Part 82 in the direct final rule published at 77 FR 58035, September 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... on the parallel proposed rule published on September 19, 2012 (77 FR 58081). As stated in the...

  18. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  19. Project fires. Volume 2: Protective ensemble performance standards, phase 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-05-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  20. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  1. Navy Safety Center data on the effects of fire protection systems on electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Robert S.

    1991-04-01

    Records of the Navy Safety Center, Norfolk, VA were reviewed to find data relevant to inadvertant operation of installed fire extinguishing systems in civilian nuclear power plants. Navy data show the incidence of collateral fire or other damage by fresh water on operating electrical equipment in submarines and in shore facilities is about the same as the civilian experience, about 30 percent. Aboard surface ships, however, the collateral damage incidence in much lower, about 15 percent. With sea water, the collateral damage incidence is at least 75 percent. It is concluded that the fire extinguisher water has to be contaminated, as by rust in sprinkler systems or deposited salt spray, for most collateral damage to occur. Reasons for inadvertant operation (or advertant operation) of firex systems at shore facilities, submarines, and surface ships resemble those for nuclear power plants. Mechanical or electrical failures lead the list, followed by mishaps during maintenance. Detector and alarm system failures are significant problems at Navy shore facilities, and significant at nuclear power plants. Fixed halon and CO2 systems in shore facilities cause no collateral damage. Lists of individual Navy incidents with water and with halon and carbon dioxide are included as appendices.

  2. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  3. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  4. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  5. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  6. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  7. Project FIRES. Volume 4: Prototype Protective Ensemble Qualification Test Report, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The qualification testing of a prototype firefighter's protective ensemble is documented. Included are descriptions of the design requirements, the testing methods, and the test apparatus. The tests include measurements of individual subsystem characteristics in areas relating to both physical testing, such as heat, flame, impact penetration and human factors testing, such as dexterity, grip, and mobility. Also, measurements related to both physical and human factors testing of the complete ensemble, such as water protection, metabolic expenditures, and compatibility are considered.

  8. Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine Improves Survival when Administered as a Postexposure Prophylaxis Countermeasure with Antibiotic in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model of Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Bourdage, James S.; Williamson, E. Diane; Duchars, Matthew; Fuerst, Thomas R.; Fusco, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a potentially lethal form of disease resulting from exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. Over the last decade, incidents spanning from the deliberate mailing of B. anthracis spores to incidental exposures in users of illegal drugs have highlighted the importance of developing new medical countermeasures to protect people who have been exposed to “anthrax spores” and are at risk of developing disease. The New Zealand White rabbit (NZWR) is a well-characterized model that has a pathogenesis and clinical presentation similar to those seen in humans. This article reports how the NZWR model was adapted to evaluate postexposure prophylaxis using a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine in combination with an oral antibiotic, levofloxacin. NZWRs were exposed to multiples of the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of B. anthracis spores and then vaccinated immediately (day 0) and again on day 7 postexposure. Levofloxacin was administered daily beginning at 6 to 12 h postexposure for 7 treatments. Rabbits were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, fever, bacteremia, immune response, and survival. A robust immune response (IgG anti-rPA and toxin-neutralizing antibodies) was observed in all vaccinated groups on days 10 to 12. Levofloxacin plus either 30 or 100 μg rPA vaccine resulted in a 100% survival rate (18 of 18 per group), and a vaccine dose as low as 10 μg rPA resulted in an 89% survival rate (16 of 18) when used in combination with levofloxacin. In NZWRs that received antibiotic alone, the survival rate was 56% (10 of 18). There was no adverse effect on the development of a specific IgG response to rPA in unchallenged NZWRs that received the combination treatment of vaccine plus antibiotic. This study demonstrated that an accelerated two-dose regimen of rPA vaccine coadministered on days 0 and 7 with 7 days of levofloxacin therapy results in a significantly greater survival rate than with antibiotic treatment alone. Combination of

  9. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  10. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269. 4. Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing... extinguishing systems—gaseous agents: 1. Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, ANSI/NFPA 12... Fighters, Washington, DC. 20. Occupational Exposures to Carbon Monoxide in Baltimore Firefighters;...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269. 4. Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing... extinguishing systems—gaseous agents: 1. Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, ANSI/NFPA 12... Fighters, Washington, DC. 20. Occupational Exposures to Carbon Monoxide in Baltimore Firefighters;...

  13. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shutdown from either the control room or emergency control station(s) must be maintained free of fire... hot shutdown conditions from either the control room or emergency control station(s) is free of fire... trains is free of fire damage shall be provided: a. Separation of cables and equipment and associated...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shutdown from either the control room or emergency control station(s) must be maintained free of fire... hot shutdown conditions from either the control room or emergency control station(s) is free of fire... trains is free of fire damage shall be provided: a. Separation of cables and equipment and associated...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shutdown from either the control room or emergency control station(s) must be maintained free of fire... hot shutdown conditions from either the control room or emergency control station(s) is free of fire... trains is free of fire damage shall be provided: a. Separation of cables and equipment and associated...

  17. Countermeasures to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin W.

    1989-01-01

    Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.

  18. Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) represents the transition within the US Space program from the 'heroic' era of space flight (characterized most vividly by the Mercury and Apollo programs) to an epoch characterized by routine access to the space environment. In this new era, the unique characteristics of the microgravity environment will enable new types of research activities, primarily in the life sciences, materials science, and biotechnology fields. In addition to its role as a'microgravity science laboratory,' Space Station Freedom (SSF) constitutes the operational platform on which the knowledge and skills needed to continue our exploration of space will be acquired. In the area of spacecraft operations, these skills include the ability to assemble, operate, and maintain large structures in space. In the area of crew operations, the potentially harmful effects of extended exposure to microgravity must be understood in order to keep the crew mission capable. To achieve this goal, the complex process of physiological deconditioning must be monitored, and countermeasures utilized as needed to keep the individual crew members within acceptable physiological limits. The countermeasures program under development for the SSF Program is titled the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) program. As implied by the name, this activity has two primary products, a biomedical monitoring element and a countermeasures development effort. The program is a critical path element in the overall SSF Program, and should be considered an essential element of operations on board the space station. It is readily apparent that the capability to both protect and optimize the health and performance of the human operators on board SSF will be a critical element in the overall success of the SSFP. Previous experience within the Russian space program has demonstrated that the time required for countermeasures on extended missions can become a monumental operational burden

  19. The development of the residential Fire H.E.L.P. tool kit: a resource to protect homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Diekman, Shane; Huitric, Michele; Netterville, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Fire H.E.L.P. tool kit for training selected Meals On Wheels (MOW) staff in Texas to implement a fire safety program for homebound older adults. We used a formative evaluation approach during the tool kit's development, testing, and initial implementation stages. The tool kit includes instructional curricula on how to implement Fire H.E.L.P., a home assessment tool to determine a residence's smoke alarm needs, and fire safety educational materials. During the tool kit's pilot test, MOW participants showed enhanced fire safety knowledge and high levels of confidence about applying their newfound training skills. After the pilot test, MOW staff used the tool kit to conduct local training sessions, provide fire safety education, and install smoke alarms in the homes of older adults. We believe the approach used to develop this tool kit can be applied to education efforts for other, related healthy home topics. PMID:20689377

  20. Cyber Friendly Fire: Research Challenges for Security Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2013-06-06

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly fire (FF). We define cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintention-ally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding cyber FF incidents. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system’s topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and offensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. Mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF— including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches—are discussed.

  1. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  2. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quick and complete replenishment of exhausted air supply bottles as they are returned. If compressors... compressors shall be operable assuming a loss of offsite power. Special care must be taken to locate the compressor in areas free of dust and contaminants. I. Fire brigade training. The fire brigade...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... quick and complete replenishment of exhausted air supply bottles as they are returned. If compressors... compressors shall be operable assuming a loss of offsite power. Special care must be taken to locate the compressor in areas free of dust and contaminants. I. Fire brigade training. The fire brigade...

  5. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  6. Fire Science Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    This curriculum guide, developed in cooperation with the State Advisory Committee on Fireman Training for Post-High School Preparatory Programs, summarizes the need for formal training programs in fire protection and offers guidelines for their establishment. It is also a practical handbook for the planning of fire protection curriculums and…

  7. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... in NFPA's code development process About NFPA Overview Leadership Careers International Offices Directions Grants & Awards Quick Links Codes & Standards News & Research Training & Events Public Education Membership Catalog Newsletters Press ...

  8. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...

  9. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  10. Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

  11. Cardiovascular Countermeasures for Exploration-Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be many years or even decades in thc future but current and planned efforts can be extrapolated to required treatments and prophylaxis for delerious efforts of prolonged space flight on the cardiovascular system. The literature of candidate countermeasures was considered in combination with unpublished plans for countermeasure implementation. The scope of cardiovascular countermeasures will be guided by assessments of the efficacy of mechanical, physiological and pharmacological approaches in protecting the cardiovascular capacities of interplanetary crewmembers. Plans for countermeasure development, evaluation and validation will exploit synergies among treatment modalities with the goal of maximizing protective effects while minimizing crew time and in-flight resource use. Protection of the cardiovascular capacity of interplanetary crewmembers will become more effective and efficient over the next few decades, but trade-offs between cost and effectiveness of efficiency are always possible if the increased level of risk can be accepted.

  12. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  14. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  15. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  16. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  17. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  18. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  19. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  20. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  1. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  2. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  3. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  4. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  5. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  6. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  7. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  8. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  9. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  10. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  11. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  12. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  13. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  14. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  15. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  16. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  17. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  18. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  19. Wildland fire management terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by the FAO Forest Resources Development Branch, this book discusses an ongoing project for developing a multi-lingual glossary of fire terminology. It defines specific terms commonly used in wildland fire management that are not defined in standard desk dictionaries, and includes terminology from neighboring fields of meteorology, aviation and structural fire protection. In addition to the English language entries - which include Spanish, Italian, German and French equivalents - there are also separate Spanish, Italian, German and French word lists.

  20. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  1. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  2. Fire Usage and Ancient Hominin Detoxification Genes: Protective Ancestral Variants Dominate While Additional Derived Risk Variants Appear in Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general health and fertility, probably resulting in genetic selection for improved detoxification. To investigate whether such genetic selection occurred, we investigated the alleles in Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans at gene polymorphisms well-known to be relevant from modern human epidemiological studies of habitual tobacco smoke exposure and mechanistic evidence. We compared these with the alleles in chimpanzees and gorillas. Neanderthal and Denisovan hominins predominantly possess gene variants conferring increased resistance to these toxic compounds. Surprisingly, we observed the same in chimpanzees and gorillas, implying that less efficient variants are derived and mainly evolved in modern humans. Less efficient variants are observable from the first early Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers onwards. While not clarifying the deep history of fire use, our results highlight the long-term stability of the genes under consideration despite major changes in the hominin dietary niche. Specifically for detoxification gene variants characterised as deleterious by epidemiological studies, our results confirm the predominantly recent appearance reported for deleterious human gene variants, suggesting substantial impact of recent human population history, including pre-Holocene expansions. PMID:27655273

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire detection systems. 1910.164 Section 1910.164 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.164 Fire detection systems. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all automatic fire detection...

  9. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  10. 46 CFR 181.310 - Fire main and hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire main and hydrants. 181.310 Section 181.310 Shipping...) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.310 Fire main and hydrants. (a) A vessel that has a power driven fire pump must have a sufficient number of fire hydrants to reach any part of the...

  11. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  12. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  13. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  14. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  15. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  16. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.

  17. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  18. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to be effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat.

  19. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  20. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  1. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  2. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  3. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  4. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  5. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  8. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  9. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 132.130 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire stations. 132.130 Section 132.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main § 132.130 Fire stations. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  11. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  12. 46 CFR 132.130 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire stations. 132.130 Section 132.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.130 Fire stations. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  13. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  14. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  15. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  16. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  17. 46 CFR 132.120 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 132.120 Section 132.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.120 Fire pumps. (a) Except as provided by § 132.100(b) of this subpart,...

  18. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  19. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  1. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 132.120 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 132.120 Section 132.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.120 Fire pumps. (a) Except as provided by § 132.100(b) of this subpart,...

  3. 46 CFR 132.120 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 132.120 Section 132.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.120 Fire pumps. (a) Except as provided by § 132.100(b) of this subpart,...

  4. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  5. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  6. Fight Fire Without Fire Fighters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    There is a role for the classroom teacher in teaching fire safety. Discusses the inadequacies of present fire prevention programs and provides ten specific steps teachers can take to avoid suffering and death from fire. (Author/RK)

  7. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons - Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Recent studies on protection against early and late effects by aminothiols, prostaglandins, and other compounds are discussed.

  8. Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, James; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Man-portable air-defense (MANPAD) systems have developed sophisticated counter-countermeasures (CCM) to try and defeat any expendable countermeasure that is deployed by an aircraft. One of these is a seeker that is able to detect in two different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Termed two-color, the seeker can compare the emissions from the target and a countermeasure in different wavebands and reject the countermeasure. In this paper we describe the modeling process of a two-color infrared seeker using COUNTERSIM, a missile engagement and countermeasure software simulation tool. First, the simulations model a MANPAD with a two-color CCM which is fired against a fast jet model and a transport aircraft model releasing reactive countermeasures. This is then compared to when the aircraft releases countermeasures throughout an engagement up to the hit point to investigate the optimum flare firing time. The results show that the release time of expendable decoys as a countermeasure against a MANPAD with a two-color CCM is critical.

  9. 77 FR 58081 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... because their emissions into the atmosphere are highly destructive to the stratospheric ozone layer. This... would assist in restoring the stratospheric ozone layer, avoiding adverse climate impacts, and result in... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 RIN-2060-AQ84 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for...

  10. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  11. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  12. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosions for personnel for the minimum time needed to evacuate the space. (b) This requirement may be met... these spaces and modules, are constructed to the A-60 standard defined in 46 CFR 108.131(b)(2) for any... protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation...

  13. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  14. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Research is presently being initiated to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituents` size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. During the last quarter, model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder cermet composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technique. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a nickel matrix with an average size of alumina particles of 12 micrometers. The increase in volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to an increase in hardness of these composites from 85 to 180 HV{sub 1000}. The experimental procedure and preliminary microstructural characterization of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are presented in this progress report along with plans for the research in coming year. 3 figs.

  15. Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It…

  16. Radiation Hazards and Countermeasures for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James

    2004-01-01

    The protection of astronauts from the hazards of ionizing radiation in space is a moral and legal obligation of NASA. If there are to be manned deep-space missions, means must be found to provide this protection. There are two parts to providing this protection: understanding the effects of space radiation on humans so that radiation exposure limits can be established; and developing countermeasures so that exposures can be kept below these limits. This talk will cover both parts of this problem.

  17. Fire fighting aboard ships. Volume 2: Structural design and fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavitskiy, M.G.; Kortunov, M.F.; Sidoryuk, V.M.; Vostryakov, V.I.; Martynenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains recommendations for the prevention, detection, and suppression of fires on ships. It suggests practical measures for decreasing the risk of fire during preparatory work, construction, and repair of ships. Information is in accordance with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention on Life Safety at Sea, the rules of the USSR Registry, and the resolutions of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. This book analyzes recent international and national standards for fire protection of ships, and reviews the future trends of the international fire protection standards. It also includes the results of research on ship-building materials, fire-resistant and fire-retardant assemblies, and fire-suppression means.

  18. Fire Technology Abstracts, volume 4, issue 1, August, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtschlag, L. J.; Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Jernigan, J. B.

    This bibliography contains over 400 citations with abstracts addressing various aspects of fire technology. Subjects cover the dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention, suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, insurance, economics of loss and prevention, and more.

  19. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  20. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.