Science.gov

Sample records for fire protection countermeasures

  1. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  2. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  3. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  4. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  5. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  6. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  7. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  8. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  9. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  10. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  11. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... national perspective on wildland firefighting equipment, personnel, and strategies. How fire departments are addressing the wildfire peril Backyard smarts Addressing the global wildfire problem by understanding local needs. It's all ...

  12. Fire Protection for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson-James, Judith

    1981-01-01

    This overview of preventive measures that can be taken to help minimize damage to library materials from fire discusses the advantages, disadvantages, dangers, and comparative costs of several types of sprinkler systems, including high-expansion foam, total-flooding, dry- and wet-pipe systems, and on-off sprinkler heads. Five references are…

  13. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ketone manufactured and sold as a fire e.xtinguishing agent c) Water with 50% Potassium Acetate. d) Values given are for sodium bicarbonate-based dry...12 - FK-5-1-12 with DC - ’FK-5-1-12+’ - Water with Potassium Acetate - ’water+’ - Two Dry Chemicals - Sodium (+) and Potassium (K) Bicarbonates...effective by weight as sodium -bicarbonate-based dry chemical , consistent with earlier findings. •Mixes of Halon with sodium - or potassium

  14. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  15. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following:...

  16. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  17. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following:...

  18. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  19. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  20. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  1. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  4. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  6. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  8. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  10. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  11. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  12. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  13. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  14. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  15. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  16. NASA Fire Protection Coordinators' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Fire prevention activities at NASA's Stennis Space Center are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation. The Fire Prevention Office of the Fire Department at NASA Stennis conducts inspections and issues small appliance permits, while the Operations Section responds to emergencies.

  17. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  18. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  19. Conventional fire protection considerations in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    1985-01-01

    In Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) the presence of liquid alkali metals such as sodium or NaK precludes the utilization of conventional fire fighting agents in areas containing liquid metals. Also because of fundamental differences between an LMFBR plant layout and that of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant, special LMFBR fire protection guidelines were established. This report describes the design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) fire protection system. The report concludes with a description of the CRBRP fire protection design features major differences from LWRs.

  20. 10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to safety so that the capability to shut down the plant safely is ensured. (3) The licensee shall... Branch Technical Position (BTP) APCSB 9.5-1 reflected in NRC fire protection safety evaluation reports... the NRC staff in comprehensive fire protection safety evaluation reports issued before Appendix A...

  1. Selection and maintenance key to fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    Briese, B.L.

    1996-11-01

    Petroleum product and chemical storage terminals, because of the combustible products they handle, face severe fire exposure potentials. A fire at a terminal can grow rapidly and release damaging and deadly heat, threatening personnel, facilities, the adjoining environment and revenue. To combat this danger, terminals employ several types of fire protection systems, both fixed and mobile. All adhere to consensus codes and standards. Following installation of automatic fire protection equipment, its acceptance (sometimes referred to as commissioning) testing, ongoing maintenance and periodic inspection is vitally important to assure that it reliably functions when required.

  2. Fire Protection Engineering Survey of Air Traffic Control Towers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    tower fire water system. Fire water is supplied by the city distribution system. Hydrants are located along Fairfax Road. EXITING FACILITIES There are...Protection Water Supply There is no in tower fire water system. Fire water protection is apparently supplied off the city water distribution system...needed. Fire Protection Water Supply The tower has no fire water protection. There are no fire hydrants in the area. Well water supplies domestic

  3. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  4. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  5. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  6. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section... Powerplant fire protection. (a) Designated fire zones must be protected from fire by compliance with §§ 121.255 through 121.261. (b) Designated fire zones are— (1) Engine accessory sections; (2)...

  7. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  8. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  9. Dispensing Medical Countermeasures: Emergency Use Authorities and Liability Protections

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel. PMID:25813980

  10. Loss prevention and fire protection for oil refineries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, N.R.

    1981-04-01

    The handling of large volumes of volatile, toxic, and flammable liquids at high pressures and high temperatures requires special fire protection to reduce fire risk. Fire water systems, fixed water-spray systems, monitors and hose reels, drainage, portable fire extinguishers, process safety and fire protection, control buildings, offsites, storage tank fire protection, fire trucks, utilities and training are methods of fire protection and loss prevention discussed to protect today's sophisticated, expensive oil refineries in the most cost-effective way. These methods are described and discussed individually.

  11. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  12. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  13. Halon Gas and Library Fire Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Describes the operation of halon gas fire extinguishing systems, which have been installed in a number of libraries and archives across Canada where protection of special collections from water and mold damage resulting from operation of a standard water sprinkler system is paramount. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of system are…

  14. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not comply with provisions on emergency shutdown systems, water delivery systems, detection systems, and...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  17. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Type system Test Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  1. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charged with forest fire fighting responsibilities, and who direct or engage in (1) fire spotting or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  2. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2717 - Training: fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training: fire protection. 193.2717 Section 193...: fire protection. (a) All personnel involved in maintenance and operations of an LNG plant, including..., including plant fire drills, to: (1) Know the potential causes and areas of fire; (2) Know the types,...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  6. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  7. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  8. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  10. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  11. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  12. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide... fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a) of this subchapter....

  15. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  17. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  18. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  19. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  1. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  3. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Not be located in any designated fire zone, (2) Be protected from heat that may be generated in, or... in designated fire zones and is used during emergency procedures must be at least fire resistant. (3... requirements of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air...

  4. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  5. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not...

  6. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  12. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  13. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks,...

  14. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  15. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  16. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so...

  17. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so...

  18. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so...

  19. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight... fire in the designated fire zones, must be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded so...

  20. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE, NON-HALOGEN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the phaseout of halon production, two alternative technologies - water misting and low-residue particulates - have come to the fire protection forefront. These technologies use water or dry chemicals in reduced quantities to provide acceptable fire protection. A review and a...

  2. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a...

  3. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled ship... riser, each part of a cargo containment system exposed on the weatherdeck must be covered by the...

  4. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section 176... Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.315 Fire protection... combustible liquid being transported on board a vessel in a portable tank, rail tank car, or a motor...

  5. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  6. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....65 in subchapter N of this chapter; and (7) Inspection and testing of all smoke and fire detection... inspection for certification, the marine inspector may require that a fire drill be held under...

  7. Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

  8. Varied ecosystems need different fire protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutsell, Sheri L.; Johnson, Edward A.; Miyanishi, Kiyoko; Keeley, Jon E.; Dickinson, Matthew; Bridge, Simon R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Covington states in his Commentary1 that the open ponderosa pine forests of the western United States are "in widespread collapse" because fire suppression by humans has eliminated the low-intensity surface fire regime that maintained the open, park-like structure of these forests. He fears this will lead to an "unprecedented" crown fire regime that will eliminate forests.

  9. Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through October 1980. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays. Some small-scale scoping tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of varying the furnace pressure on cable penetration performance in the ASTM-E-119 Fire Test. The Sandia Fire Research Facility has been completed and a series of tests have been run to assess the effectiveness of Halon-1301 as a suppression system in extinguishing deep-seated cable-tray fires. It was found that given sufficient soak times Halon systems are effective in extinguishing such fires.

  10. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  11. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  12. Fire Protection Engineering Criteria - New Aircraft Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-22

    any piping including the fire water service entrance into the building such that it is possible to pressurize the space below the floor slab...A3.1.6.4. Use flanged fittings to transition the fire water service entrance from horizontal to vertical as it enters the building. Do not use gasketed

  13. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a...

  14. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  15. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  16. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  17. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  18. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.380 General structural...

  19. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  20. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  1. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  2. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  3. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  4. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  5. 14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view to the southeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  6. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... periodically and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. 10A..., water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, shall be made available. (d) Fixed firefighting...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... periodically and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. 10A..., water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, shall be made available. (d) Fixed firefighting...

  9. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  10. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  11. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is revising its interim Enforcement Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection... Fire Protection Association Standard 805, ``Performance-Based Standard for Fire Protection for...

  12. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tests. Table 115.810(b)—Semiportable and Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems Type system Test Carbon... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material... owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Modification of sprinkler systems to permit alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so that...—(1) Sprinkler protection. (i) If the facility being constructed includes the installation of automatic sprinkler protection, the installation shall closely follow the construction and be placed...

  14. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  15. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  16. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., constructed, and installed to act as a firewall must be: (1) Fireproof; (2) Constructed so that no hazardous quantity of air, fluid or flame can pass around or through the firewall; and, (3) Protected...

  17. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., constructed, and installed to act as a firewall must be: (1) Fireproof; (2) Constructed so that no hazardous quantity of air, fluid or flame can pass around or through the firewall; and, (3) Protected...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer responsibilities... standard for employee safety or employee protection from fire hazards in land-side facilities,...

  19. Fire propagation performance of intumescent fire protective coatings using eggshells as a novel biofiller.

    PubMed

    Yew, M C; Ramli Sulong, N H; Yew, M K; Amalina, M A; Johan, M R

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  20. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    PubMed Central

    Yew, M. C.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Yew, M. K.; Amalina, M. A.; Johan, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  1. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  2. Glutinous Water. Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces from Fire Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) Most of the water used in firefighting is not only...Naval Research Laboratory AD-A277 280 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--94-7431 DTIC S ELECTE MAR 24 19941 Glutinous Water F Protecting Vertical...TYPE AND DATES COVERED February 28, 1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Glutinous Water Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces From Fire

  3. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... vents to atmosphere and is not isolated with a pressure-vacuum relief valve must have a flame...

  4. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms §...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  8. Fire Protection System for an Atrium Satisfies Code Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer, Donald J.; Jensen, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    The Civic Center in Scarborough, Ontario, has an open interior design that incorporates an atrium. Fire protection elements include automatic sprinklers, provisions for efficient exiting of building occupants, and smoke evacuation by gravity exhaust. (Available from 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, $15.00 annually.) (Author/MLF)

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gases, and high temperatures. Therefore, the protective clothing requirements only apply to those fire... reduce the temperature of the burning metal below the ignition point. For example, automatic deluge... sprinkler alarm is the water motor gong or bell that sounds when water begins to flow through the...

  10. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS... GAS CAN CAUSE INJURY OR DEATH. VENTILATE THE AREA BEFORE ENTERING. A HIGH CONCENTRATION CAN OCCUR IN THIS AREA AND CAN CAUSE SUFFOCATION.”. (2) Spaces protected by carbon dioxide—“CARBON DIOXIDE GAS...

  11. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS... GAS CAN CAUSE INJURY OR DEATH. VENTILATE THE AREA BEFORE ENTERING. A HIGH CONCENTRATION CAN OCCUR IN THIS AREA AND CAN CAUSE SUFFOCATION.”. (2) Spaces protected by carbon dioxide—“CARBON DIOXIDE GAS...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, shall be made available. (d) Fixed firefighting equipment... protection to life. (b) Water supply. (1) A temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume... soon as combustible materials accumulate. (2) Where underground water mains are to be provided,...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, shall be made available. (d) Fixed firefighting equipment... protection to life. (b) Water supply. (1) A temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume... soon as combustible materials accumulate. (2) Where underground water mains are to be provided,...

  14. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment period... Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response to comments from members...

  15. Fire protection review revisit no. 2, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, P. H.; Earley, M. W.; Mattern, L. J.

    1985-05-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on April 1-5, 8-12, and April 29-May 2, 1985. The purpose was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations or identify areas according to criteria established by the Department of Energy. There has been a substantial improvement in fire protection at this laboratory since the 1977 audit. Numerous areas which were previously provided with detection systems only have since been provided with automatic sprinkler protection. The following basic fire protection features are not properly controlled: (1) resealing wall and floor penetrations between fire areas after installation of services; (2) cutting and welding; and (3) housekeeping. The present Fire Department manpower level appears adequate to control a route fire. Their ability to adequately handle a high-challenge fire, or one involving injuries to personnel, or fire spread beyond the initial fire area is doubtful.

  16. Passive fire protection--a vital safety role.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Callum; Rankin, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Callum Maclnnes BSc (Hons), AIFireE, an engineer at WSP UK--part of a global design engineering and management consultancy group specialising in property, transport and infrastructure, industry and environment projects--and his colleague, senior engineer, Richard Rankin CEng MEng (Hons) MIFireE, discuss the importance of passive fire protection in healthcare premises at a time when, due particularly to the difficult financial climate, many hospitals are undergoing upgrading and refurbishment, potentially affording an ideal opportunity to ensure that proper fire compartmentation measures are in place.

  17. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected

  18. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  19. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  20. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  1. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  2. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  3. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required...

  4. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required...

  5. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for... notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the availability of and...: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its mission by...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  11. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water... § 149.421 may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Mineral...

  12. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water... § 149.421 may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Mineral...

  13. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water... § 149.421 of this part may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Bureau...

  14. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water... § 149.421 may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Mineral...

  15. Seek alternative to halon for gas-turbine fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article describes fine water-spray technology which recasts use of water for fixed fire-suppression systems. Technology differs from common sprinkler system. Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol governing use and production of chemicals that are suspected of depleting the upper atmospheric ozone layer, fire-protection manufacturers have explored alternatives to halon 1301, a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used extensively in powerplant applications. One particularly challenging application is the gas-turbine enclosure, because of its high operating temperature and range of potential fire hazards--pools of leaking lube oil, oil-soaked insulation, ruptured high-pressure natural-gas lines, and so on. One alternative racing toward commercialization is fine water spray produced by the so-called twin-fluid atomizing nozzle. The technology, developed and tested in Europe, combines water and compressed air--or nitrogen--to direct precisely sized water droplets to the base of a fire. According to david Kipley, Vectra Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL, the system can rapidly extinguish large, intense fires using limited quantities of water.

  16. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  17. Engineering and Design: Fire Protection--Hydroelectric Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Risk Insurers ( IRI ) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA...smoke from the powerhouse. Smoke exhaust fans should be installed according to NFPA and IRI requirements and should have a 500 de~ree F ratinq... Dampers , valves and other power operated devices should be configured to provide operation in the smoke control mode in the case of a power outaqe. R

  18. Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue…

  19. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  20. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... published a direct final rule and a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035)....

  1. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  2. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the...

  3. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire... category A rotorcraft, fireproof; and (b) For Category B rotorcraft, fireproof or protected so that...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems, ANSI/NFPA 13A; National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park... standards. Examples of these associations are: Fire Equipment Manufacturers Association (FEMA) of Arlington, VA 22204 and the National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors (NAFED) of Chicago, IL 60601....

  8. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  9. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive CFD Charlotte Fire Department EMS Emergency Medical Services FDNY Fire Department of New York FEMA...that not only the CFD [Charlotte Fire Department] but the fire service in general is not prepared to respond to ASI’s [Active Shooter Incidents] and...cooperatively. Police officers used their bullet resistant shields to protect fire fighters engaged in fire suppression until heat and smoke conditions forced

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation.

  11. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  12. Fire-protection research program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1975-1981. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, D.A.

    1983-04-01

    Since early 1975, Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting fire-protection research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Testing has been done on grouped electrical-cable fires including electrical initiation, fire propagation, the effects of fire-retardant coatings and barriers, suppression, and characterization of the damage-ability of electrical cables. In addition, several studies of a more-generic nature such as fire detection, ventilation, and fire-hazards analysis methodologies were performed. This report condenses all of the test results, reports, papers, and research findings of the past seven years. Research conducted by contractors to Sandia National Laboratories is also summarized.

  13. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  14. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  15. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Practice for Respiratory Protection for the Fire Service; ANSI Z88.5; American National Standards Institute... 60601. C. § 1910.158. Standpipe and hose systems: 1. Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems... the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, ANSI/NFPA 14; National Fire Protection...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Practice for Respiratory Protection for the Fire Service; ANSI Z88.5; American National Standards Institute... 60601. C. § 1910.158. Standpipe and hose systems: 1. Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems... the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, ANSI/NFPA 14; National Fire Protection...

  17. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Incombustible Materials. This paragraph shall not apply to such insulation installed in cargo spaces... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Incombustible Materials. This paragraph shall not apply to such insulation installed in cargo spaces... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than...

  19. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Incombustible Materials. This paragraph shall not apply to such insulation installed in cargo spaces... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than...

  20. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Incombustible Materials. This paragraph shall not apply to such insulation installed in cargo spaces... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than...

  1. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Incombustible Materials. This paragraph shall not apply to such insulation installed in cargo spaces... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than...

  2. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING... “carbon dioxide.” (c) Each distribution line valve of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system and the fire... must be conspicuously marked in clearly legible letters “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHING...

  3. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING... “carbon dioxide.” (c) Each distribution line valve of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system and the fire... must be conspicuously marked in clearly legible letters “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHING...

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.

  5. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  6. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  7. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  8. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Fire Protection... generic issues for such facilities it sets forth fire protection features required to satisfy Criterion...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Fire Protection... generic issues for such facilities it sets forth fire protection features required to satisfy Criterion...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Fire Protection... generic issues for such facilities it sets forth fire protection features required to satisfy Criterion...

  11. Risk Based Reliability Centered Maintenance of DOD Fire Protection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Interface Location In Fire water supply Dry pipe system control valve In Air supply system Air supply system compressor In Priming water Priming, water...outlet Table 2.18 Deluge, Water Spray, and Pre-action System Boundaries Interface Type Bounding System/Component Interface Location In Fire water supply... Fire water supply Foam/foam-water system control valve In Foam concentrate pump Pump motor starter In Foam concentrate pump Start signal to the pump

  12. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  13. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  14. Fire protection research for DOE facilities: FY 83 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.; Stagge, K.

    1984-08-02

    We summarize our research in FY 83 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies of energy technology facilities in order to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are currently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to fusion energy facilities, (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet the negate hazards, and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  15. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  17. 33 CFR 154.2204 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Marine Vapor Control Systems Tank Barge Cleaning Facilities-Vcs Design and Installation § 154.2204 Fire, explosion,...

  18. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”. Where a different extinguishing agent is installed, that agent shall be marked in place of “carbon dioxide.” (c) Each distribution line valve of a fixed gas fire... in clearly legible letters “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPARATUS”, or as otherwise required...

  19. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”. Where a different extinguishing agent is installed, that agent shall be marked in place of “carbon dioxide.” (c) Each distribution line valve of a fixed gas fire... in clearly legible letters “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPARATUS”, or as otherwise required...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with those functions that the fire brigade is expected to perform; i.e., those functions specified in... knowledgeable about the functions to be performed by the fire brigade and the hazards involved. The instructors... least annually but some functions should be reviewed more often. In addition to the above training,...

  1. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... for the 11/23/2010 Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. NFPA 36--2009 Standard for... Processing Facilities. NFPA 70B--2010 Recommended Practice for 5/23/2011 Electrical Equipment Maintenance... Hazards from Wildland Fire. NFPA 1221--2010 Standard for the 11/23/2010 Installation, Maintenance, and...

  2. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Application of Graph Theory to Cost-Effective Fire Protection of Chemical Plants During Domino Effects.

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Nima; Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik

    2016-11-10

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality measures such as out-closeness and betweenness scores can be used to identify the installations playing a key role in initiating and propagating potential domino effects. It is demonstrated that active fire protection of installations with the highest out-closeness score and passive fire protection of installations with the highest betweenness score are the most effective strategies for reducing the vulnerability of chemical plants to fire-induced domino effects. We have employed a dynamic graph analysis to investigate the impact of both the availability and the degradation of fire protection measures over time on the vulnerability of chemical plants. The results obtained from the graph analysis can further be prioritized using multicriteria decision analysis techniques such as the method of reference point to find the most cost-effective fire protection strategy.

  4. Numerical estimation of fire resistance and a flexible design of fire protection for structures made of reinforced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaledin, Vl. O.; Mitkevich, A. B.; Strakhov, V. L.

    2012-07-01

    The basic principles of a progressive methodology for calculating the fire resistance of reinforced structures, meant for application to high-rise, multifunctional, and unique buildings, are presented. The methodology is universal with respect to materials, types of building structures with fire protection, and different force and heat loads acting on them under the conditions of fire. It permits one to take into account all particularities of the thermomechanical behavior of structures in the case of joint action of thermal and force loads. The solution procedure is based on using high-level mathematical models and universal methods of numerical analysis, i.e., the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM). To simplify and reduce the labor content of computational algorithms, a mathematical model of special beam finite element has been developed, which in a natural way takes into account the complex structure of buildings, spatial nonuniformity of temperature fields, and the nonlinear behavior of materials. This procedure allowed us to determine the limits of applicability of the known approximate approach, which is based on the use of the concept of "critical temperature," to the estimation of fire resistance and to the design of fire protection of concrete structures. The procedure has been used in designing a number of unique structures built in Moscow.

  5. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) EWIS components must meet the requirements of § 25.1713. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on... requirements of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air...

  6. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) EWIS components must meet the requirements of § 25.1713. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on... requirements of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air...

  7. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation.

  8. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  9. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-02

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment.

  10. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  11. Fire Protection in Various Types of Wooden Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašpercová, Stanislava; Makovická Osvaldová, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Design of new modern systems for low energy efficient construction in a passive, zero standard or energy-autonomous buildings, as well as the increased popularity of solid wood construction means intervention into the very structure of its statics, building physics, but also fire properties. Some prototype design solutions are not verified whether the tests, by good computational analysis or verification of long-term use of the building. In the context of changing standards in building design, new approaches are needed. If in wooden buildings the potential risk of fire is higher than other buildings, we need special methods, materials and practical skills.

  12. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  13. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  14. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  15. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  16. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  17. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  18. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  19. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  20. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  1. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  2. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  3. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through 25.1191 and §§ 25.1195 through 25.1203; (1) The region surrounding the heater, if this region... leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  4. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  5. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  6. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  7. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  8. Evaluation of Insulation Materials and Combinations for Bulkhead Fire Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    fire. (This evaluation condition was suggested by Mr. J. Morris to Mr. R. C. Manahan of Johns - Manville during a visit by Mr. Manahan to the Naval Ship...and Concord Pike Wilmington, Delaware 19897 Telephone: (302) 575-3000 5. Johns - Manville Corporation CERAFELT, CERABLANKET P. 0. Box 5108 Flexible MIN

  9. The Influence of Management on the Cost of Fire Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Amy K.

    2004-01-01

    An important and unresolved issue central to the study of government performance is how the actions of managers and the nature of organizations affect the cost of public services. This paper presents an empirical analysis of fire departments that estimates the influence of managerial choices on per capita spending within a simultaneous public…

  10. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered: (1) Possible... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources... available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of fluids, shutting down...

  11. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered: (1... characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition.... (4) Means available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of...

  12. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered: (1... characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition.... (4) Means available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of...

  13. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered: (1) Possible... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources... available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of fluids, shutting down...

  14. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be located as far as practical from heat sources. Internal combustion engine exhausts, boiler and... considered high fire hazards areas (galleys) as long as they do not contain medium to high heat appliances... woodwork or other combustible matter. Internal combustion engine dry exhaust systems must be installed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... hand portable dry chemical or two portable 10 L (2.6 gallons) foam-type extinguishers must be... CFR part 98 or 46 CFR part 64. [Amdt. 176-30, 55 FR 52705, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR...

  16. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .../MSC. (c) Use of general purpose resin. General purpose resins may be used instead of fire retardant... or heating appliances. (b) Composite materials. When the hull, bulkheads, decks, deckhouse, or superstructure of a vessel is partially or completely constructed of a composite material, including...

  17. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../MSC. (c) Use of general purpose resin. General purpose resins may be used instead of fire retardant... or heating appliances. (b) Composite materials. When the hull, bulkheads, decks, deckhouse, or superstructure of a vessel is partially or completely constructed of a composite material, including...

  18. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible liquid being transported on board a vessel in a portable tank, rail tank car, or a motor vehicle cargo tank, there must be provided at least one B-V semiportable foam (152 L/40 gallon capacity) (see 46 CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or...

  19. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible liquid being transported on board a vessel in a portable tank, rail tank car, or a motor vehicle cargo tank, there must be provided at least one B-V semiportable foam (152 L/40 gallon capacity) (see 46 CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or...

  20. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  1. Passive fire protection for ELf`s N`Kossa floating production barge

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, P.

    1996-06-01

    The project to develop Elf`s N`Kossa offshore field called for an original design which included a floating production barge, 220 m long by 46 m wide, supporting six large modules, to provide both production facilities and living quarters. At sea, fire is a major concern and many different systems, both active and passive, have been used on offshore platforms. To provide passive fire protection of five of the six modules on this massive structure, a new high solubility glass fiber product called Insulfrax was used. This product is manufactured in Europe by the Carborundum Co. and is used in chimneys and domestic appliances, as well as for onshore and offshore fire protection. This paper reviews the sound and fire resistant qualities of this material.

  2. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  3. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  5. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  6. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    xposed dies EPORT Research Ins e view of the rios fire was sel ment was a circul th water and on top of the d under the f the fuel and low device t...cenario. , A=1.08 m for each test o reasons; t reeboard in stant at 25 m and causing xposed to th ~ 74°C was heptane was time of 30 s n systems

  7. A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  8. Finite element analysis of various methods for protection of concrete structures against spalling during fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, A.; Gawin, D.; Pesavento, F.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2007-02-01

    A mathematical model of hygro-thermo-mechanical phenomena in heated concrete, treated as multiphase porous material is briefly presented. Some modifications necessary to analyse high-temperature performance of a concrete containing the PP-fibres have been introduced, experimentally validated and applied for analysis of performance of a concrete tunnel lining during a 10-MW fire and the ISO standard fire. Three methods for protecting concrete structures against excessive degradation in fire conditions have been numerically analysed by means of the computer model. The analysed protection methods are based either upon application on a structure surface of a reflective layer, or covering it with a protective layer made of a very porous concrete or an addition of the PP fibres to the concrete mix. Efficiency of these methods has been numerically analysed in thermal conditions corresponding to the ISO-834 standard fire. The results obtained show that even relatively simple methods, like application a protective layer or increasing the surface reflectance, can retard to some extent concrete degradation during a fire.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis. A fire hazards analysis shall be performed by qualified fire protection and reactor systems... expected water demands as determined by the fire hazards analysis for safety-related areas or other areas... tanks or by some physical means such as a vertical standpipe for other water service....

  10. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... suitable protection provided. 2. Transient fire hazards associated with normal operation, maintenance... supply shall consist of a storage tank, pump, piping, and appropriate isolation and control valves. Two... connected to the fire main system and shall be capable of automatic alignment to the fire main system....

  11. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  12. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  13. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement.

  14. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water... means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks,...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water... means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks,...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water... means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks,...

  17. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  18. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  19. Numerical simulations of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing under flash fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Guowen; Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Ding, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing during exposure to a flash fire was introduced. The model was developed with the assumption that textiles are treated as porous media. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data from different fabric systems and configurations. Additionally, with the introduction of a skin model, the parameters that affect the performance of thermal protective clothing were investigated.

  20. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fire Protection Specialist, CDC 57150, 17-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This five-volume course is designed to provide the student with information about fire protection, first aid and rescue, and special situation firefighting techniques. The course is one of number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian setting. The course…

  1. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  2. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  3. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  4. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  5. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  10. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... accordance with an appropriate industry standard for design, installation, testing, and maintenance. (b) An... is to be locked, a key to the space or enclosure shall be in a break-glass-type box...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... § 1915.5), and either (i) NFPA 13-2002 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (incorporated... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  12. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  13. 14 CFR 27.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. 27.861 Section 27.861 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY...

  17. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS) § 25.1713... electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in any area of the airplane, must be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS) § 25.1713... electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in any area of the airplane, must be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS) § 25.1713... electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in any area of the airplane, must be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS) § 25.1713... electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in any area of the airplane, must be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with the...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS) § 25.1713... electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in any area of the airplane, must be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... surrounding equipment or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a... exhausts; and (2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any...

  4. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... surrounding equipment or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a... exhausts; and (2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any...

  5. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or... or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment...) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition....

  6. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or... or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment...) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition....

  7. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING... storing carbon dioxide—“CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CAN CAUSE INJURY OR DEATH. VENTILATE THE AREA BEFORE ENTERING. A HIGH CONCENTRATION CAN OCCUR IN THIS AREA AND CAN CAUSE SUFFOCATION.”. (2) Spaces protected...

  8. Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P J; Lawes, M J; Midgley, J J; Lamont, B B; Ojeda, F; Burrows, G E; Enright, N J; Knox, K J E

    2013-01-01

    Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ecosystems, based on bud bank location, bud protection, and how buds are resourced. Using this framework we go beyond earlier emphases on basal resprouting and highlight the importance of apical, epicormic and below-ground resprouting to the persistence niche. The BPR framework provides insights into: resprouting typologies that include both fire resisters (i.e. survive fire but do not resprout) and fire resprouters; the methods by which buds escape fire effects, such as thick bark; and the predictability of community assembly of resprouting types in relation to site productivity, disturbance regime and competition. Furthermore, predicting the consequences of global change is enhanced by the BPR framework because it potentially forecasts the retention or loss of above-ground biomass.

  9. [Methods of analysis of protective measures in agriculture regarding radioactively contaminated land: evaluation of the effectiveness, intervention levels and comparison of different countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Iatsalo, B I; Aleksakhin, R M

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the analysis of protective measures in agriculture in the long-term period of liquidation of the consequences of a nuclear accident are considered. Examples of the estimations of countermeasure effectiveness with the use of the cost-benefit analysis, as well as methods of the estimation of intervention levels and examples of a comparison of various protective measures with the use of several criteria of effectiveness are discussed.

  10. An effective and practical fire-protection system. [for aircraft fuel storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Fewell, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A high-performance sandwich-type fire protection system comprising a steel outer sheath and insulation combined in various configurations is described. An inherent advantage of the sheath system over coatings is that it eliminates problems of weatherability, materials strength, adhesion, and chemical attack. An experimental comparison between the protection performance of state-of-the-art coatings and the sheath system is presented, with emphasis on the protection of certain types of steel tanks for fuel storage and transport. Sheath systems are thought to be more expensive than coatings in initial implementation, although they are less expensive per year for sufficiently long applications.

  11. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  12. Remotely-sensed active fire data for protected area management: eight-year patterns in the Manas National Park, India.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  13. Remotely-Sensed Active Fire Data for Protected Area Management: Eight-Year Patterns in the Manas National Park, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E.

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  14. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., excess heat, or blast effects caused by fires and explosions; and to provide safe refuge from fires and... into zones to limit the area covered by a particular alarm signal; (2) Sleeping quarters are fitted... sufficient to protect the exterior surfaces of the spaces or modules from extreme radiant heat flux...

  15. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  16. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Weaver, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  17. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  18. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  19. Numerical simulation of the influence of fabric's motion on protective clothing performance during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2013-06-01

    The motion of a person wearing protective clothing induces the clothing to move periodically towards the skin causing a cyclic variation in the air gap between the fabric and the skin. At the same time, the clothing movement causes cooling air to periodically flow into the air gap between the fabric and the skin. This paper uses a finite volume model to investigate these two effects and the resultant effect of the protective clothing movement on its performance during flash fire exposure. Special attention is drawn to the air gap model since it responds directly to the clothing movement. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the influence of a wider range of clothing movement. Specifically, the effect of the variation in the periodic movement frequency and amplitude on the clothing performance was investigated. The results show that increasing the movement frequency improves the clothing protective performance, while increasing the movement amplitude worsens the clothing performance.

  20. A feasibility study: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection utilization of infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Britten, R. A.; Parks, G. S.; Voss, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's JPL has completed a feasibility study using infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management. The study surveyed user needs, examined available technologies, matched the user needs with technologies, and defined an integrated infrared wildland fire mapping concept system configuration. System component trade-offs were presented for evaluation in the concept system configuration. The economic benefits of using infrared technologies in fire suppression and management were examined. Follow-on concept system configuration development and implementation were proposed.

  1. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    floors leading to sumps should be provided so submersible pumps can be used to remove accumulated water. Where floor drains penetrate EMP protection...ALARM CONTROL SYSTEM 14 2.5 FIRE SUPPRESSION 15 2.6 FIRE PUMPS , FIRE MAINS AND WATER SUPPLIES 23 2.7...supports for fire pumps , fire mains, sprinklers, smoke exhaust ducts and so on need to be coordinated with a structural dynamics engineer. This is

  2. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals.

  3. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-04-13

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant.

  4. Telemetry system for evaluation of burn protection in full-scale fuel fire manikin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piergallini, J. R.; Stoll, A. M.

    1980-05-01

    An eighteen channel PAM/FM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated/Frequency Modulated) telemetry system was developed for measuring temperature rise on the surface of a manikin beneath protective clothing for full-scale fuel fire exposures in completely enveloping flames. Thermistors are used as temperature sensors at various locations on a manikin surface and backed by material of known thermal properties in order to correlate temperature rise with skin burn damage. The transmitted signals are recorded on analog magnetic tape and converted to a digital format for computer analysis. The clothed manikin is passed through an aviation gasoline fire for three seconds with the telemetry system recording data during this period. Temperatures are analyzed at 0, 1, 2 and 3-second intervals with voltage outputs from the thermistors being converted to resistance readings and temperature readings by equations developed from curves of thermistor characteristics. Experimental results with respect to burn prediction are in agreement with data obtained by analysis of vesicant papers calibrated radiometrically to correlate with temperature-time effects productive of burns in living tissue. To date, 12 full-scale fuel fire tests have been conducted using the telemetry system and the performance of this system has exceeded original expectations in many respects such as sensitivity, accuracy and freedom from interference by ionizing gases within the flames.

  5. 78 FR 24997 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... stratospheric ozone layer. This action will provide users that need specialized fire protection applications... information on SNAP, refer to EPA's Ozone Layer Protection Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/index.html . For... impact on the ozone layer or climate. The physicochemical properties of the majority of halon...

  6. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  7. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  8. Compliance with Electrical and Fire Protection Standards of U.S. Controlled and Occupied Facilities in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-18

    handrails, and landings that are non compliant with NFPA 101. 156B, 156C 12-May KAF-FP-120426-159 Buildings 156B and 156C do not have the required fire...facilities in Kandahar Air Field (KAF) and Bagram Air Field (BAF), Afghanistan, we inspected for: • Compliance with the National Electrical Code...NEC) • Compliance with the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards, and • Corrective

  9. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  10. Model example of natural ventilation for protected escape route type Ap in the fire of a block of flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáč, J.

    2011-03-01

    Ventilation methods for protected escape route type Ap are defined and given technically and by typology in current legislation [1] and [5]. The simulation of the growth of a fire and movement of smoke was modelled on a stairway in a block of flats with 9 aboveground storeys and one underground storey (the most used type of stairway in blocks of flats in the Slovak Republic). The initiation, dynamics and movement of smoke are influenced by the efficiency of the natural ventilation. The dangerous products of fire, smoke, visibility and temperature influence safe evacuations and human behaviour. The selected model was verified by an actual fire.

  11. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  12. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample extraction smoke detection systems, watchman's supervisory systems, and combinations of these systems. (b) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke...

  15. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  16. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas` domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement.

  17. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  18. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

  19. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks IV and V, 17-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the fourth and fifth blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: structural firefighting (operation and maintenance of hydrants, emergency response activities, structural pumpers, vehicle positioning and relay, hose…

  20. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural Fire Protection § 149.641 What are... spaces and modules must be designed, located, and constructed so as to minimize the effects of flame....); and (2) The ventilation system has both a means of shutting down the system and an alarm at a...

  1. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural Fire Protection § 149.641 What are... spaces and modules must be designed, located, and constructed so as to minimize the effects of flame... source; and (2) The ventilation system has both a means of shutting down the system and an alarm at...

  2. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  3. 309 Building fire protection analysis and justification for deactivation of sprinkler system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.P.

    1997-06-25

    Provide a `graded approach` fire evaluation in preparation for turnover to Environmental Restoration Contractor for D&D. Scope includes revising 309 Building book value and evaluating fire hazards, radiological and toxicological releases, and life safety issues.

  4. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...” “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE SYSTEM” or “FOAM FIRE SYSTEM”, as the case may be; (v) Instructions for the operation... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”, or list other fire extinguishing agent. (3) Any modification..., and in the agent storage space; (vi) If the space or enclosure containing the supply or controls is...

  5. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...” “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE SYSTEM” or “FOAM FIRE SYSTEM”, as the case may be; (v) Instructions for the operation... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”, or list other fire extinguishing agent. (3) Any modification..., and in the agent storage space; (vi) If the space or enclosure containing the supply or controls is...

  6. WISE-2005 Protective Effect of Exercise within LBNP Countermeasure Detected by Heart Rate Response to Low Levels of LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hargens, A. R.; Mattar, L.; Edgell, H.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen women were studied before, during and after a 60 day, continu ous 6" head-down bed-rest (HDBR). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (no countermeasures) and Exercise+LBNP (supine ru nning within an LBNP chamber for 40-min followed by 10-min passive L BNP for 3-4 days/week, plus flywheel resistive training of the legs e very third day). Cardiovascular responses were observed before bed re st, on day 50 of HDBR and R+8 after bed rest. Subjects were supine in the LBNP device with suction applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg LBN P for 2-min per stage. In the pre-bed rest testing, there was no diff erence in HR between the groups at rest or at -30 mmHg. On HDBR day 50, HR was elevated at supine rest for the Con not the Ex group, whil e at -30 mmHg HR was elevated above pre-HDBR for both groups, but the magnitude of increase from Pre- to HDBR day 50 was less for the Ex g roup than for the Con group. The change in HR on HDBR day 50 is an im portant indicator as it was less than 24-hours after the Exercise+LBN P countermeasure on day 49. After bed rest, no specific countermeasu res were provided in the first week, so HR responses on day R+8 refle cted the effects of bed rest with or without countermeasure plus any recovery from simply returning to the upright posture. Relative to th e Pre-bed rest responses, HR on day R+8 had recovered in the Ex group but was still elevated in the Con group. These results indicate that the cardiovascular response to LBNP is preserved to a greater degre e during bed rest by the countermeasures, and further that the cardio vascular response returned to pre-bed rest much more rapidly in the E xercise+LBNP group than hi the group that received no cardiovascular countermeasures.

  7. Long-distance dispersal in a fire- and livestock-protected savanna

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Roberto; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Kageyama, Paulo Y; Vencovsky, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Savannas are highly diverse and dynamic environments that can shift to forest formations due to protection policies. Long-distance dispersal may shape the genetic structure of these new closed forest formations. We analyzed eight microsatellite loci using a single-time approach to understand contemporary pollen and effective seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae), occurring in a Brazilian fire- and livestock-protected savanna. We sampled all adult trees found within a 10.24 ha permanent plot, young trees within a subplot of 1.44 ha and open-pollinated seeds. We detected a very high level of genetic diversity among the three generations in the studied plot. Parentage analysis revealed high pollen immigration rate (0.64) and a mean contemporary pollen dispersal distance of 74 m. In addition, half-sib production was 1.8 times higher than full-sibs in significant higher distances, indicating foraging activity preference for different trees at long distances. There was a significant and negative correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) of the pollen donor with the number of seeds (r = −0.640, P-value = 0.032), suggesting that pollen donor trees with a higher DBH produce less seeds. The mean distance of realized seed dispersal (recruitment kernel) was 135 m due to the large home range dispersers (birds and mammals) in the area. The small magnitude of spatial genetic structure found in young trees may be a consequence of overlapping seed shadows and increased tree density. Our results show the positive side of closed canopy expansion, where animal activities regarding pollination and seed dispersal are extremely high. PMID:23610640

  8. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  9. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2014-09-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  10. A novel active fire protection approach for structural steel members using NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, H.; Wong, M. B.; Al-Mahaidi, R.; Zhao, X. L.

    2013-02-01

    A novel active fire protection approach, based on integrating a shape memory alloy, NiTi, with a steel structure, was proposed to satisfy the fire resistance requirements in structural design. To demonstrate the principles of this approach, a simple structure in the form of a simply supported steel beam was used. The internal action of the beam due to a transverse applied load was reduced by utilizing the shape memory effect in the NiTi alloy at rising temperatures. As a result, the net internal action from the load design was kept below the deteriorated load capacity of the beam during the fire scenario for period of time that was longer than that of the original beam without the NiTi alloy. By integrating the NiTi alloy into the beam system, the structure remained stable even though the steel temperature exceeded the critical temperature which may have caused the original beam structure to collapse. Prior to testing the composite NiTi-steel beam under simulated fire conditions, the NiTi alloy specimens were characterized at high temperatures. At 300 °C, the stiffness of the specimens increased by three times and its strength by four times over that at room temperature. The results obtained from the high-temperature characterization highlighted the great potential of the alloy being used in fire engineering applications.

  11. Evaluation of Ultra-High-Speed Fire Protection Systems Presently in Service at Army Ammunition Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-17

    adequately tested it is necessary to know the spectral irradiances from each type of pyrotechnic material fire. Without these data it is impossible to...measurements of the spectral irradiances of pyrotechnics and propellant material fires/explosions. Detectors are being employed whose wavelengths may...response time of detection; they must also be known in conjunction with those from nonpyrotechnic material fire sources, false alarm sources, such as

  12. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  13. Minutes of the Rapid Action Fire Protection System Seminar Held at Rock Island, Illinois on 23-24 October 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Safety Office Chief, Engr Office Mgr PH Engr Sr. Fire Protection Engr Safety Engineer Project Engineer Maintenance PHONE (216) 526-9900...engineer, and the end user as well, to skillfully and properly determine the correct detection equipment for a given application. A more detailed...incapable of sensing a flame and that condition should be annunciated so that the user can imme- diately correct the situation. Page 11 Along with

  14. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... vicinity of any slope or shaft, except where such operations are performed in fireproof enclosures, shall... vicinity of the slope or shaft for fire during and after such operations. (c) Before welding, cutting,...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC. 14. A Study of Facepiece Leakage of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus by DOP Man Tests; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. 15. The Development of... Monoxide—A Medical Study of an Occupational Hazard of Fire Fighters; International Association of...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... specific recommendations in NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems... according to NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems (incorporated...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... specific recommendations in NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems... according to NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems (incorporated...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test all portable fire extinguishers according to NFPA 10-2002 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers... specific recommendations in NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems... according to NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems (incorporated...

  19. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  20. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  1. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  2. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  3. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  4. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”, or list other fire extinguishing agent. (3) Any... controls, and in the agent storage space; (vi) If the space or enclosure containing the supply or...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is...

  6. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  7. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  8. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  9. Radiation Countermeasures Symposium: Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    SH-containing molecules) protected animals from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Free radical scavengers • 1950s-1980s: US Army (WRAIR) advanced...applications for G-CSF (Neupogen®) in case of radiation incident • Neupogen® in Strategic National Stockpile UNI FORM ED SERVIC ESUNIV ERSI T Y of theHealth...success for any radiation countermeasure under Animal Rule: long-term survival? (Need to cure hematopoietic syndrome when assessing GI

  10. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  12. Vulnerability Methodology and Protective Measures for Aircraft Fire and Explosion Hazards. Volume 2. Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test Programs. Part 1. Fire Detection, Fire Extinguishment and Surface Ignition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    injection method , has a negative margin of fifty (50) degrees ( 975 minus 1025). MIL-H—5606 has a zero margin, ie, the HIT is equal to but not less...Development of "Standard" Fires in F~16 Simulator 54 6.2.1 Selection of Fuel Flow Rate 54 6.2.2 "Standard" F-16 Nacelle Simulator Fire Test 55 6.3...variables which affect the hazard of accidental fire in an engine compartment are complex: 0 The fuel type, its temperature and pressure, and its method of

  13. Influence of the air gap between protective clothing and skin on clothing performance during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2011-10-01

    A finite volume model was developed to simulate transient heat transfer in protective clothing during flash fire exposure. The model accounts for the combined conduction-radiation heat transfer in the air gap between the fabric and skin. The variation in the fabric and air gap properties with temperature and the thermochemical reactions in the fabric are also considered. This study investigates the influence of the air gap in protective clothing on the energy transfer through the clothing and hence on its performance. Different parameters that affect the conduction-radiation heat transfer through the air gap such as the air gap absorption coefficient and the air gap width were studied. Finally, the paper demonstrates that an innovative and potentially significant way to improve protective clothing performance is to reduce the emissivity on the backside of the fabric.

  14. Mechanised spraying device a novel technology for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.V.K. Singh; V.K. Singh

    2004-10-15

    Spontaneous combustion in coal mines plays a vital role in occurrences of fire. Fire in coal, particularly in opencast mines, not only causes irreparable loss of national wealth but damages the surface structure and pollutes the environment. The problem of spontaneous combustion/fire in opencast coal benches is acute. Presently over 75% of the total production of coal in Indian mines is being carried out by opencast mining. Accordingly a mechanised spraying device has been developed for spraying the fire protective coating material for preventing spontaneous combustion in coal benches of opencast mines jointly by Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad and M/s Signum Fire Protection (India) Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur under Science & Technology (S&T) project funded by Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. The objective of this paper is to describe in detail about the mechanised spraying device and its application for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion/fire.

  15. [Considering the current state of fire safety in Taiwan's care environment from the perspective of the nation's worst recent hospital fire].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Wen; Shih, Chung-Liang; Chien, Shen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan's worst hospital fire in history on October 23rd, 2012 at Sinying Hospital's Bei-Men Branch resulted in 13 elderly patient deaths and over 70 injuries. The heavy casualties were due in part to the serious condition of patients. Some patients on life-support machines were unable to move or be moved. This disaster highlights the issue of fire safety in small-scale hospitals that have transformed existing hospital space into special care environments for elderly patients. Compared with medical centers and general hospitals, these small-scale health facilities are ill equipped to deal properly with fire safety management and emergency response issues due to inadequate fire protection facilities, fire safety equipment, and human resources. Small-scale facilities that offer health care and medical services to mostly immobile patients face fire risks that differ significantly from general health care facilities. This paper focuses on fire risks in small-scale facilities and suggests a strategy for fire prevention and emergency response procedures, including countermeasures for fire risk assessment, management, and emergency response, in order to improve fire safety at these institutions in Taiwan.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire... Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations, National Safety Council; 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago,...

  17. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  18. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  19. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  20. Cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory response of working in fire-fighter protective clothing in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, S J; Grice, J; Roby, L; Matthews, C

    2000-09-01

    The cardiorespiratory and thermal responses of two intensities of treadmill exercise were compared for brief periods (12 min) in fire ensemble (FE) but without self contained breathing apparatus, and sports ensemble (SE), in a temperature environment. A further experiment explored the responses of subjects exercising in FE over a prolonged period (60 min). Eighteen male fire-fighters wearing either FE or SE walked on a level treadmill for 6 min at 5 km x h(-1) increasing to 7 km x h(-1) for 6 min. Following a recovery interval of 1 h, the exercise protocol was repeated in the second ensemble; the order of ensemble was balanced. Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored continuously under both ensembles. At 7 km x h(-1), VO2 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in FE (36.1 and 39.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) than in SE and represented 74% VO2 max. There were no changes Tre. In experiment 2, following a rest interval of at least 36 h, eight subjects in FE walked on the treadmill at 6 km x h (gradient 10%) for 60 min also in temperate conditions, where HR, Tre and RPE were recorded at 10-min intervals. During the 60-min exercise in FE, HR reached 161 beats x min(-1) and Tre increased to 38.3 degrees C. Despite considerable subject discomfort, Tre remained below dangerous levels (38.4 degrees C). When RPE were compared with a physiological strain index (PSI) calculated from Tre and HR data over 60 min, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.98. The results suggest that RPE and PSI are closely related when exercise is sufficiently prolonged or intense to elevate Tre and HR in fire-fighters wearing FE in temperate conditions. If further investigation confirms this relationship for hot humid conditions in which fire-fighters operate, then with training, it may provide individuals with a valid measure of dangerous levels of perceived heat strain.

  1. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ocean Energy Management regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415 of... and must comply with the requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429....

  2. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  3. Project FIRES. Volume 4: Prototype Protective Ensemble Qualification Test Report, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The qualification testing of a prototype firefighter's protective ensemble is documented. Included are descriptions of the design requirements, the testing methods, and the test apparatus. The tests include measurements of individual subsystem characteristics in areas relating to both physical testing, such as heat, flame, impact penetration and human factors testing, such as dexterity, grip, and mobility. Also, measurements related to both physical and human factors testing of the complete ensemble, such as water protection, metabolic expenditures, and compatibility are considered.

  4. Analytical modeling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. J.; Shimizu, A. B.; Suchsland, K. E.; Moyer, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    The thermochemical response of Coating 313 when exposed to a fuel fire environment was studied to provide a tool for predicting the reaction time. The existing Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation (CMA) computer program was modified to treat swelling materials. The modified code is now designated Aerotherm Transient Response of Intumescing Materials (TRIM) code. In addition, thermophysical property data for Coating 313 were analyzed and reduced for use in the TRIM code. An input data sensitivity study was performed, and performance tests of Coating 313/steel substrate models were carried out. The end product is a reliable computational model, the TRIM code, which was thoroughly validated for Coating 313. The tasks reported include: generation of input data, development of swell model and implementation in TRIM code, sensitivity study, acquisition of experimental data, comparisons of predictions with data, and predictions with intermediate insulation.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... horizontal inches of the cooking range. (Refer also to § 3280.204(a), Kitchen Cabinet Protection.) Sealants... this provision provided that all joints are completely supported by a framing member. (5) Kitchen... cooking range (see § 3280.203(b)(4)); (ii) Exposed bottoms and sides of kitchen cabinets as required...

  6. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.

  7. OCULUS fire: a command and control system for fire management with crowd sourcing and social media interconnectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos; Thanos, Giorgos Konstantinos; Skroumpelou, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    AF3 (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting2) is a European FP7 research project that intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. OCULUS Fire is the innovative control and command system developed within AF3 as a monitoring, GIS and Knowledge Extraction System and Visualization Tool. OCULUS Fire includes (a) an interface for real-time updating and reconstructing of maps to enable rerouting based on estimated hazards and risks, (b) processing of GIS dynamic re-construction and mission re-routing, based on the fusion of airborne, satellite, ground and ancillary geolocation data, (c) visualization components for the C2 monitoring system, displaying and managing information arriving from a variety of sources and (d) mission and situational awareness module for OCULUS Fire ground monitoring system being part of an Integrated Crisis Management Information System for ground and ancillary sensors. OCULUS Fire will also process and visualise information from public information channels, social media and also mobile applications by helpful citizens and volunteers. Social networking, community building and crowdsourcing features will enable a higher reliability and less false alarm rates when using such data in the context of safety and security applications.

  8. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  9. Countermeasures to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin W.

    1989-01-01

    Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.

  10. Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) represents the transition within the US Space program from the 'heroic' era of space flight (characterized most vividly by the Mercury and Apollo programs) to an epoch characterized by routine access to the space environment. In this new era, the unique characteristics of the microgravity environment will enable new types of research activities, primarily in the life sciences, materials science, and biotechnology fields. In addition to its role as a'microgravity science laboratory,' Space Station Freedom (SSF) constitutes the operational platform on which the knowledge and skills needed to continue our exploration of space will be acquired. In the area of spacecraft operations, these skills include the ability to assemble, operate, and maintain large structures in space. In the area of crew operations, the potentially harmful effects of extended exposure to microgravity must be understood in order to keep the crew mission capable. To achieve this goal, the complex process of physiological deconditioning must be monitored, and countermeasures utilized as needed to keep the individual crew members within acceptable physiological limits. The countermeasures program under development for the SSF Program is titled the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) program. As implied by the name, this activity has two primary products, a biomedical monitoring element and a countermeasures development effort. The program is a critical path element in the overall SSF Program, and should be considered an essential element of operations on board the space station. It is readily apparent that the capability to both protect and optimize the health and performance of the human operators on board SSF will be a critical element in the overall success of the SSFP. Previous experience within the Russian space program has demonstrated that the time required for countermeasures on extended missions can become a monumental operational burden

  11. Cyber Friendly Fire: Research Challenges for Security Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2013-06-06

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly fire (FF). We define cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintention-ally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding cyber FF incidents. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system’s topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and offensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. Mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF— including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches—are discussed.

  12. Occupancy Fire Record: Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    The considerations of human safety and preservation of facilities are examined in relation to school fires. Various aspects of planning which would decrease the probability of fires and thereby save life and property are reviewed and include--(1) causes, (2) automatic protection devices, (3) evacuation and fire drills, and (4) construction…

  13. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  14. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  15. Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Army’s Indirect Fire Protection Capability Increment 2, Block 1 Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-11

    a common launch capability for current and future interceptors . The Army estimated that the cost of having two competing contractors produce MML...Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Army’s Indirect Fire Protection Capability Increment 2, Block 1 Program The...strategy for each major defense acquisition program provides for competitive prototypes before Milestone B approval— which authorizes entry into

  16. IED Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, James

    2017-01-01

    After the Iraq war started in 2003, within 15 months over 60% of the US casualties were being caused by a weapon that had never been significant in previous conflicts: the Improvised Explosive Device (IED). These are explosive mines that are mostly concealed at night near roads, and then detonated the next day when combatant vehicles are driven by. This talk will discuss the history of IEDs, and then concentrate on the use of IEDs in Iraq. The political decisions that may have led to the high fatality rate in Iraq will be outlined. Of note, contrasting political decisions in Afghanistan led to IED's causing fewer than 20% of the casualties there, although the number of IED's exceeded that in Iraq. Because of the terrible consequences in Iraq, with no effective available remedy, IED Countermeasures was proposed as ideal for student engineering research projects. Over five years, student work to develop a technology for ``Remote IED Deactivation without Detonation'' will be outlined (they were very successful !). They used high power beams of RF, electrons, protons and neutrons to attempt deactivation at a 100' distance. The final IED Neutralizer was very successfully field tested. (This talk will contain graphic videos, and is not for the squeamish.)

  17. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  18. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  19. Fire Science Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    This curriculum guide, developed in cooperation with the State Advisory Committee on Fireman Training for Post-High School Preparatory Programs, summarizes the need for formal training programs in fire protection and offers guidelines for their establishment. It is also a practical handbook for the planning of fire protection curriculums and…

  20. Performance requirements for countermeasures lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Ian

    2010-10-01

    Performance requirements for laser sources, operating in the mid-IR, providing protection of airborne platforms from heat-seeking missiles are reviewed. The critical performance characteristic for a countermeasures laser is 'useful energy on target', which requires the laser to generate high brightness output in the appropriate spectral bands with rapid turn-on time. Integration with a compact beam director places an upper limit on the beam quality of the laser output. The key driver for the detailed laser design is to maximise the overall wallplug efficiency in order to minimise the complexity and volume, in turn maximising the reliability and reducing the cost. In particular routes to reduce the thermal management system for the laser produce the single largest improvement in overall wallplug efficiency, with the ultimate goal of realising a truly athermal laser. Candidate technologies for IR countermeasures lasers are briefly reviewed.

  1. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  2. Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  7. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  8. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  9. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  10. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  11. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  12. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  13. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  14. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  15. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  16. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  17. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  18. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  19. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  20. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  1. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  2. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  3. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On...

  4. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  6. 46 CFR 132.330 - Fire monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire monitors. 132.330 Section 132.330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.330 Fire monitors. (a) Each fire monitor of the fire main system must be fitted with a...

  7. Cardiovascular Countermeasures for Exploration-Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be many years or even decades in thc future but current and planned efforts can be extrapolated to required treatments and prophylaxis for delerious efforts of prolonged space flight on the cardiovascular system. The literature of candidate countermeasures was considered in combination with unpublished plans for countermeasure implementation. The scope of cardiovascular countermeasures will be guided by assessments of the efficacy of mechanical, physiological and pharmacological approaches in protecting the cardiovascular capacities of interplanetary crewmembers. Plans for countermeasure development, evaluation and validation will exploit synergies among treatment modalities with the goal of maximizing protective effects while minimizing crew time and in-flight resource use. Protection of the cardiovascular capacity of interplanetary crewmembers will become more effective and efficient over the next few decades, but trade-offs between cost and effectiveness of efficiency are always possible if the increased level of risk can be accepted.

  8. 5 CFR 551.215 - Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., emergency medical technician, rescue worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker) is... prevention, control, and extinguishment of fires or response to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. (2) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section,...

  9. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-8 - Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective... fire and trouble signalling devices; and fire detector circuits, as required, originating from...

  11. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  12. Evaluating Driver Drowsiness Countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S

    2017-03-21

    Objective Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and non-fatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This paper describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Methods Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-minute simulated nighttime drive at two time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. 48 drivers were exposed to one of six countermeasures that varied along two dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. 24 drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). Results There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multi-stage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete

  13. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  14. Fire Usage and Ancient Hominin Detoxification Genes: Protective Ancestral Variants Dominate While Additional Derived Risk Variants Appear in Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general health and fertility, probably resulting in genetic selection for improved detoxification. To investigate whether such genetic selection occurred, we investigated the alleles in Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans at gene polymorphisms well-known to be relevant from modern human epidemiological studies of habitual tobacco smoke exposure and mechanistic evidence. We compared these with the alleles in chimpanzees and gorillas. Neanderthal and Denisovan hominins predominantly possess gene variants conferring increased resistance to these toxic compounds. Surprisingly, we observed the same in chimpanzees and gorillas, implying that less efficient variants are derived and mainly evolved in modern humans. Less efficient variants are observable from the first early Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers onwards. While not clarifying the deep history of fire use, our results highlight the long-term stability of the genes under consideration despite major changes in the hominin dietary niche. Specifically for detoxification gene variants characterised as deleterious by epidemiological studies, our results confirm the predominantly recent appearance reported for deleterious human gene variants, suggesting substantial impact of recent human population history, including pre-Holocene expansions. PMID:27655273

  15. Fire Usage and Ancient Hominin Detoxification Genes: Protective Ancestral Variants Dominate While Additional Derived Risk Variants Appear in Modern Humans.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Jac M M J G; Alink, Gerrit M; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general health and fertility, probably resulting in genetic selection for improved detoxification. To investigate whether such genetic selection occurred, we investigated the alleles in Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans at gene polymorphisms well-known to be relevant from modern human epidemiological studies of habitual tobacco smoke exposure and mechanistic evidence. We compared these with the alleles in chimpanzees and gorillas. Neanderthal and Denisovan hominins predominantly possess gene variants conferring increased resistance to these toxic compounds. Surprisingly, we observed the same in chimpanzees and gorillas, implying that less efficient variants are derived and mainly evolved in modern humans. Less efficient variants are observable from the first early Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers onwards. While not clarifying the deep history of fire use, our results highlight the long-term stability of the genes under consideration despite major changes in the hominin dietary niche. Specifically for detoxification gene variants characterised as deleterious by epidemiological studies, our results confirm the predominantly recent appearance reported for deleterious human gene variants, suggesting substantial impact of recent human population history, including pre-Holocene expansions.

  16. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  17. 46 CFR 181.310 - Fire main and hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire main and hydrants. 181.310 Section 181.310 Shipping...) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.310 Fire main and hydrants. (a) A vessel that has a power driven fire pump must have a sufficient number of fire hydrants to reach any part of the...

  18. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  19. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  20. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  1. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  2. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN... protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under § 149.403, §...

  3. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.

  4. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  5. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  6. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  7. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  8. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  10. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  13. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  14. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire...

  15. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  16. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  18. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  19. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  20. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  1. Consequences of Cardiovascular Adaptation to Spaceflight: Implications for the Use of Pharmacological Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    smooth muscle function. A focus for development of future countermeasures for hemodynamic responses to central hypovolemia includes the potential...effort or inspiratory resistance have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against development of orthostatic...reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction with associated atrophic and morphological alterations generated from ground base animal models (Delp et al

  2. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to be effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat.

  3. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  4. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  5. Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, James; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Man-portable air-defense (MANPAD) systems have developed sophisticated counter-countermeasures (CCM) to try and defeat any expendable countermeasure that is deployed by an aircraft. One of these is a seeker that is able to detect in two different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Termed two-color, the seeker can compare the emissions from the target and a countermeasure in different wavebands and reject the countermeasure. In this paper we describe the modeling process of a two-color infrared seeker using COUNTERSIM, a missile engagement and countermeasure software simulation tool. First, the simulations model a MANPAD with a two-color CCM which is fired against a fast jet model and a transport aircraft model releasing reactive countermeasures. This is then compared to when the aircraft releases countermeasures throughout an engagement up to the hit point to investigate the optimum flare firing time. The results show that the release time of expendable decoys as a countermeasure against a MANPAD with a two-color CCM is critical.

  6. Mosquito bite protection of U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps fire-resistant uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Defense system for personal protection of deployed personnel consists of wearing repellent on the skin and a permethrin-treated uniform to cover the rest of the body. Since 1991, treatment of combat uniforms with permethrin has been done primarily in the field using a 2 gallon ...

  7. 77 FR 58035 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... the atmosphere are highly destructive to the stratospheric ozone layer. This action will provide users... Ozone Layer Protection Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/index.html . For more information on the... on the ozone layer or climate. All manufacturing occurs in a facility with strict controls on all...

  8. 77 FR 58081 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... because their emissions into the atmosphere are highly destructive to the stratospheric ozone layer. This... would assist in restoring the stratospheric ozone layer, avoiding adverse climate impacts, and result in... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 RIN-2060-AQ84 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for...

  9. CASAM: a European R&T project for the protection of commercial aircrafts in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholl, Hans Dieter; Vergnolle, Jean-Francois

    2008-10-01

    CASAM (Civil Aircraft Security Against Manpads) is a Framework Program 6 (FP 6) Project launched by the European Commission, DG Research-Aeronautics, binding together a group of 18 companies and research institutions from majors to SMEs. The global objective of the CASAM Project is to design, build, test and validate on ground a closed-loop laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) equipment for jamming an infrared guided missile fired against a commercial airliner. The broad expertise of the CASAM team allows to address all technical, financial and legal matters dealing with the challenging topic of protecting civilian aircrafts against MANPADS. This paper reviews the main aspects of the projects.

  10. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons - Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Recent studies on protection against early and late effects by aminothiols, prostaglandins, and other compounds are discussed.

  11. An Evaluation of the Potential Failure Modes for Gaseous Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems Installed within the Protected Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    and chemical properties of the halon alternative gases (halocarbons and inert gases ) require that the agent cylinders be located as close to the...shown to produce untenable conditions within seconds and flashover within minutes of ignition. In addition, the temperatures in the overhead of the...2001; FSS, Code 2001). 1. A manually initiated power release , located outside the protected space, is provided. Duplicate sources of power are

  12. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them. (c) No welding... penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same...

  13. Fail-safe fire detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloam, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    Fire detection control system continually monitors its own integrity, automatically signals any malfunction, and separately signals fire in any zone being monitored. Should be of interest in fields of chemical and petroleum processing, power generation, equipment testing, and building protection.

  14. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers... for use in a personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentration... ventilation rate....

  15. Fire fighting aboard ships. Volume 2: Structural design and fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavitskiy, M.G.; Kortunov, M.F.; Sidoryuk, V.M.; Vostryakov, V.I.; Martynenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains recommendations for the prevention, detection, and suppression of fires on ships. It suggests practical measures for decreasing the risk of fire during preparatory work, construction, and repair of ships. Information is in accordance with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention on Life Safety at Sea, the rules of the USSR Registry, and the resolutions of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. This book analyzes recent international and national standards for fire protection of ships, and reviews the future trends of the international fire protection standards. It also includes the results of research on ship-building materials, fire-resistant and fire-retardant assemblies, and fire-suppression means.

  16. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  17. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  18. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems may be used or required...

  19. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems may be used or required...

  20. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  1. 46 CFR 76.05-15 - Fire main system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire main system. 76.05-15 Section 76.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-15 Fire main system. (a) Fire...

  2. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 193.05-10 Section 193... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems must be installed in all...

  3. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  8. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    SciTech Connect

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Portable Fire Suppression... equivalent protection is provided when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable fire extinguishers. 1910.157 Section...

  10. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The

  11. Radiation Hazards and Countermeasures for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James

    2004-01-01

    The protection of astronauts from the hazards of ionizing radiation in space is a moral and legal obligation of NASA. If there are to be manned deep-space missions, means must be found to provide this protection. There are two parts to providing this protection: understanding the effects of space radiation on humans so that radiation exposure limits can be established; and developing countermeasures so that exposures can be kept below these limits. This talk will cover both parts of this problem.

  12. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-12-01

    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication.

  13. Nonelectronic Countermeasures for Infrared Guided Missiles Part 3 - Use of Heat Decoys as Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-07-18

    a series of experimentscarbon granules were slurred with a solution of sodium nitrate and the slurry dried. The resultant mixture, cast into cakes 2... granules impregnated with an oxidizing agent and ig- nited either by a burster charge or, if necessary, by some spontaneously inflammable material...coating the granules . The number of canisters for each application of the countermeasure depends on the size of the ship to be protected. PROBLEM STATUS

  14. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed.

  15. Simulating pre-emptive countermeasures of varying performance against a Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) system with a track angle bias counter-countermeasure (CCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, James; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy; Yuen, Peter; James, David

    2011-03-01

    Military aircraft face a serious threat from early generation Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) systems. Robust countermeasures have to be used to counteract this threat. Most commonly these are used after the threat has been launched and detected. However, a MANPAD may or may not include counter-countermeasures (CCMs) that are designed to defeat reactively fired decoys. In this paper we investigated the effect of pre-emptive countermeasures on different MANPAD models. This is achieved through the use of CounterSim, a missile engagement and countermeasure simulation software tool, which has the ability to model the full pre-launch phase of an engagement between a MANPAD and an aircraft. Three MANPAD models are developed with one infrared (IR) seeker containing a track angle bias CCM capability and two different CCM triggers. The first simulations look at pre-emptive flare deployment for the full operational envelope of an early generation MANPAD. Then, simulations compare reactive with pre-emptive countermeasure deployment by firing flares throughout an engagement up until the hit point. Finally, different flare types are looked at with reduced burn time and intensity.

  16. Fire in High Buildings. Fire Study No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, M.

    Research into and measures of fire protection with regard to high building design are discussed with suggestions for proper building equipment, materials, and planning. The study outlines how smoke and toxic gases spread in high buildings through stairs, service shafts, air handling and heating equipment. The problems of basement fires, means of…

  17. Fire ants

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Fire ants are red-colored insects. A sting from a fire ant delivers a ... poison control. Those who have an allergy to insect bites or stings should carry a bee sting ...

  18. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  19. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  20. Directory of workers in the fire field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Mcleod, S. B.; Katz, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A directory was compiled to provide a list of workers engaged in fire research, their addresses and affiliations, and their principal fields of activity. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the directory are recent contributions to fire literature, teaching of subjects relevant to fire science, or participation in or support of fire research programs. With some exceptions, fire service personnel and fire protection engineers were excluded because directories already exist for these professionals. Also excluded are investigators engaged principally in studies of propulsion, combustion, and explosion phenomena, because these areas of study are somewhat aside from the main focus of fire research. For purposes of the directory, fire science is taken to be the body of knowledge, art, and skill related to the investigation, analysis, and interpretation of the phenomena of unwanted fires and the evaluation of materials methods, systems, and equipment related to fire safety, prevention, detection, and suppression.