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Sample records for fire resistance test

  1. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  2. Development and testing of advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    The evaluation of back-surface materials flammability in order to identify fire resistant module designs is examined. The fire test apparatus, burning-brand test sequence, and spread-of-flame test sequence are described. Video recordings and time-temperature profiles of module back surfaces are utilized to study the flammability failure mechanism and identify high-temperature materials. A table of flammability test results for various module designs is provided. The data reveals that 2-mil kapton, fiberglass cloth coated or impregnated with a material to plug pores, and metal foil back-surface materials achieve class A and B fire-resistance levels, and are applicable for photovoltaic module designs.

  3. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Surpkis, D. E.; Price, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests to evaluate the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials by comparing their burning characteristics with those of older aircraft materials are described. Three tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1, using pre-1968 materials, was run to correlate the procedures and to compare the results with previous tests by other organizations. Test 2 included newer, improved fire-resistant materials. Test 3 was essentially a duplicate of test 2, but a smokeless fuel was used. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the pre-1968 materials ignited easily, allowed the fire to spread, produced large amounts of smoke and toxic combustion products, and resulted in a flash fire and major fire damage. The newer fire-resistant materials did not allow the fire to spread. Furthermore, they produced less, lower concentrations of toxic combustion products, and lower temperatures. The newer materials did not produce a flash fire.

  4. Evaluation and test of improved fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors. Volume 1. Fluid evaluation, bearing model tests, motor tests, and fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Fires within nuclear containment have occurred when the lubricants used in reactor coolant pump motors have leaked or spilled onto the hot insulated main coolant piping. This project was directed toward determining the applicability of commercially available fire resistant fluid lubricants to the lubrication of the bearings of a reactor coolant pump motor. This report describes the evaluation of candidate fluids, the testing of these fluids, and the selection of a lubricant for use in a standard reactor coolant pump motor test. The test results indicated that the phosphate ester lubricants, when properly inhibited and maintained, are acceptable for use. Recommendations are presented for further work necessary to the successful application of the fire resistant fluid lubricant.

  5. Test and Evaluation of Four Fire Resistant Booms at OHMSETT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    steel Proprietary Stainless steel Resistant Material information (SS) woven blend of Inconel® and Fiberfrax ® Tension Member 3/8" Galvanized Stainless...material ( Fiberfrax ) which was severely damaged during the bum tests. In terms of percentages, and relative to baseline loss speeds, The first wave

  6. Fire Resistance Testing of Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    consisted of a steel plate identical to that used in the Class A-0 assembly, but rockwool insulation was applied to the fire side of the steel plate and...penetration samples were then insulated with rockwool batts to form a Class A-60 assembly (Figure 2). Between nine and twenty-eight temperature readings...representative of Class A-O construction. The UL staff secured insulation ( rockwool batts) to the fire side of the steel plates and penetrating items to prepare

  7. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  8. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics, phase 1: Fire containment test of a wide body aircraft lavatory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Arnold, D. B.; Johnson, G. A.; Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate the fire containment characteristics of a Boeing 747 lavatory module. Results showed that the fire was contained within the lavatory during the 30-minute test period with the door closed. The resistance of the lavatory wall and ceiling panels and general lavatory construction to burn-through under the test conditions was demonstrated.

  9. Fire Resistance Testing of Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    thick steel plate. All sample 12 construction was representative of Class A-0 construction. The UL staff secured insulation ( rockwool batts) to the...designated side of the steel plates and penetrants for testing as Class A-60 deck assemblies. The rockwool batts complied with the Class A-60...insulated with rockwool batts and tested for a Class A-60 rating. This group consisted of one steel penetration, eight copper penetrations, four PVC

  10. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-21

    1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory...testing. The focus of this report will be the outcomes of the series of pilot-scale (4’×4’×6”) tests on geopolymer concrete panels, which were conducted

  11. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  12. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  13. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  14. Fire-Resistant TFE Extrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Fire resistance of extruded tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) polymers improved by substitution of chlorinated hydrocarbon as wetting agent. Replacement of naphtha with perchloroethylene yields polymer that extrudes well and generates fewer pinholes. Product less susceptible to fire during manufacturing and in service.

  15. Fire-Resistant TFE Extrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Fire resistance of extruded tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) polymers improved by substitution of chlorinated hydrocarbon as wetting agent. Replacement of naphtha with perchloroethylene yields polymer that extrudes well and generates fewer pinholes. Product less susceptible to fire during manufacturing and in service.

  16. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  17. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  18. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  19. Transformer room fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  20. Improved fire-resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, J. B.; Stuart, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Water-base coatings containing potassium silicate show improvement in areas of quick air-drying, crack, craze, and abrasion resistance, adherence, and leach resistance. Coatings are useful as thermal-barrier layers in furnaces, and as general purpose fire resistant surfaces where vapor impermeability is not a requirement.

  1. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  2. Fire resistant oil spill barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.

    1986-08-12

    A fire-resistant, portable, barrier for the containment of marine oil spill, is described which consists of: (A) a continuous length of a fire-resistant fabric comprising interwoven yarns of heat-resistant material, coated with a liquid-impermeable film; the fabric being impermeable to a hydrocarbon petroleum oil; (B) buoyant bodies attached to the fabric in a quantity and at positions sufficient to buoy the length of fabric on a body of water; and (C) means for stabilizing the length of fabric when buoyed upon the body of water.

  3. Evaluation and test of improved fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors. Volume 2. Fluid/metal compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Fires within nuclear containment have occurred when the lubricants used in reactor coolant pump motors have leaked or spilled onto the hot insulated main coolant piping. This project was directed toward determining the applicability of commercially available fire resistant fluid lubricants to the lubrication of the bearings of a reactor coolant pump motor. This report describes the evaluation of candidate fluids, the testing of these fluids, and the selection of a lubricant for use in a standard reactor coolant pump motor test. The test results indicated that the phsophate ester lubricants, when properly inhibited and maintained, are acceptable for use. Recommendations are presented for further work necessary to the successful application of the fire resistant fluid lubricant.

  4. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  5. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  6. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  7. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  8. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firing line terminals test. 7.68 Section 7.68... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal... to each firing line terminal according to the manufacturer's instructions. (b) Acceptable performance...

  9. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  10. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  11. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  12. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  13. Fire Resistant Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    Table A19 - Stanadyne Pump Calibration, Pre and Post Test .................................................... A-5  Table A20 - Transfer Pump Blade ...A-4  Figure A35 - Dimensional Key for Transfer Pump Blade Measurements .................................. A-6  Figure A36 - SN14959137 Transfer Pump... Blades (Side), Before ............................................. A-9  Figure A37 - SN14959137 Transfer Pump Blades (Side), After

  14. Flash-Fire Propensity and Heat-Release Rate Studies of Improved Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-six improved fire resistant materials were tested for flash-fire propensity and heat release rate properties. The tests were conducted to obtain a descriptive index based on the production of ignitable gases during the thermal degradation process and on the response of the materials under a specific heat load.

  15. Fire-resistant wellhead equipment for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.R.; Keene, K.

    1984-02-01

    A new generation of fire-resistant wellhead equipment has been developed for offshore platforms. This paper presents the design concepts and principles of operation of this new equipment, and it describes the engineering approach taken during its development. These new wellheads and christmas trees have survived numerous laboratory fire tests which simulated offshore platform fire conditions. No leakage was permissible during the test burns nor during the subsequent cooldown periods. The laboratory fire test results confirmed the performance predicted by computer Finite Element Analysis and verified the design procedures employed. This new fire resistant wellhead equipment promises to significantly reduce the fire hazard associated with the production of oil and gas from offshore platform wells.

  16. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  17. Morpheus Lander Hot Fire Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows a successful "hot fire" test of the Morpheus lander on February 27, 2012, at the VTB Flight Complex at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The engine burns for an extended period of time ...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if a...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire...

  2. Jet fire testing of topside pipework

    SciTech Connect

    Boothby, P.J.

    1993-12-31

    The weight saving potential and inherent corrosion resistance of glass reinforced plastics (GRP) make them attractive candidates for offshore topside seawater piping applications. Glass reinforced plastics, however, comprise a combustible organic matrix, and one of the main areas of concern currently restricting the more widespread use of GRP on offshore platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea is the perceived poor fire endurance of this material. On an offshore platform, the most severe fire scenario envisaged is a hydrocarbon jet fire. A series of large-scale jet fire tests has therefore been conducted at the British Gas Research and Technology Spadeadam test facility, on pipe spools representing the ring main and deluge components of an offshore topside firewater system. The purpose of the tests was to assess the jet fire endurance of GRP with and without passive fire protection coatings, and to compare its performance with existing metallic materials used for this application. The paper presents the results obtained in the first stage of the program addressing the start-up period of firewater system operation when the ring main may contain either stagnant or flowing water and the deluge piping is empty.

  3. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  4. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  5. Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

  6. Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

  7. Candidate materials for advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Arnett, J. C.; Samuelson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A cooperative, cost-sharing research effort to develop a technology base required to construct fire-ratable photovoltaic modules has resulted in the identification of several high-temperature, back-surface candidate materials capable of raising the fire-resistance of modules using hydrocarbon encapsulants to Class A and B levels. Advanced experimental module configurations have been developed using back surfaces consisting of Kapton, Tedlar laminates, metal-foils, and fiberglass materials with high-temperature coatings. Test results (October 1984; March 1985; May 1985; and October 1985) indicate that several of these advanced module configurations are capable of achieving Class B fire-resistance levels, while a few configurations can achieve Class A levels. The paper summarizes activities to date, discussing flammability failure mechanisms, time-temperature profiles, and results of Block V environmental exposure tests of a candidate material suitable for both Class B and Class A fire-resistance levels.

  8. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  9. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  10. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if a particular agency is qualified... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. Link to...

  11. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... tested in a fire chamber or as installed on the engine in the boat. (3) Fuel tanks must be tested filled... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must be...

  12. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... tested in a fire chamber or as installed on the engine in the boat. (3) Fuel tanks must be tested filled... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must be...

  13. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... tested in a fire chamber or as installed on the engine in the boat. (3) Fuel tanks must be tested filled... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must be...

  14. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... tested in a fire chamber or as installed on the engine in the boat. (3) Fuel tanks must be tested filled... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must be...

  15. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... tested in a fire chamber or as installed on the engine in the boat. (3) Fuel tanks must be tested filled... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must be...

  16. Fire tests for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Large scale, simulated fire tests of aircraft interior materials were carried out in salvaged airliner fuselage. Two "design" fire sources were selected: Jet A fuel ignited in fuselage midsection and trash bag fire. Comparison with six established laboratory fire tests show that some laboratory tests can rank materials according to heat and smoke production, but existing tests do not characterize toxic gas emissions accurately. Report includes test parameters and test details.

  17. Fire tests for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Large scale, simulated fire tests of aircraft interior materials were carried out in salvaged airliner fuselage. Two "design" fire sources were selected: Jet A fuel ignited in fuselage midsection and trash bag fire. Comparison with six established laboratory fire tests show that some laboratory tests can rank materials according to heat and smoke production, but existing tests do not characterize toxic gas emissions accurately. Report includes test parameters and test details.

  18. Post-Earthquake Fire Tests - Part 1: Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrina, Tudor

    2016-10-01

    Immediately after an earthquake, fire is the most probable accidental action on buildings. Beam-to-column steel connections are parts of the structure that need to have sufficient fire resistance in order for occupants to exit the building and firemen to intervene. Fire and post-earthquake fire tests on steel connections were made at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Real scale specimens were created and some of them were subjected to cyclic action following a special procedure. After the cyclic action, the deteriorated specimens were immediately subjected to fire. New connections were also tested for fire action in order to find differences to the deteriorated case. In this paper, a short description of the specimen, test stand and equipment, the reports of all tests and immediate conclusions of each test are presented.

  19. Cabin fire simulator lavatory tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Klinck, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    All tests were conducted in the Douglas Cabin Fire Simulator under in-flight ventilation conditions. All tests were allowed to continue for a period of one hour. Data obtained during these tests included: heat flux and temperatures of the lavatory; cabin temperature variations; gas analyses for O2, CO2, CO, HF, HC1, and HCN; respiration and electrocardiogram data on instrumented animal subjects (rats) exposed in the cabin; and color motion pictures. All tests resulted in a survivable cabin condition; however, occupants of the cabin would have been subjected to noxious fumes.

  20. Ion Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image of a xenon ion engine, photographed through a port of the vacuum chamber where it was being tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, shows the faint blue glow of charged atoms being emitted from the engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Ion propulsion was first proposed in the 1950s and NASA performed experiments on this highly efficient propulsion system in the 1960s, but it was not used aboard an American spacecraft until the 1990s. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs.

  1. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  2. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  8. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  9. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  10. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials (FIREMEN): A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA Fire Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Ames Research Center on April, 13, 14, 1978 are reported. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the results of NASA in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire resistant materials. The program components include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) bibliography related and/or generated from the program.

  11. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials: A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor); Johnson, G. A. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA IRE Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington, on March 1-2, 1979 are reported. The conference was to discuss the results of research by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire-resistant materials. The program topics include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) fire modeling.

  12. Room fire test for fire growth modeling : a sensitivity study

    Treesearch

    H. C. Tran; M. L. Janssens

    1989-01-01

    A room test designed according to the ASTM draft standard was used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the contribution of wall and corner fires to compartment fire growth. Location of the burner (against a wall or in a corner), power program of the gas burner ignition source, and combination of wall linings were varied, An initial series of calibration...

  13. Analytical methods for determining fire resistance of timber members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    The fire resistance ratings of wood members and assemblies, as of other materials, have traditionally been obtained by testing the assembly in a furnace in accordance with ASTM International (ASTM) Standard E119, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 834, and similar standards. These ratings are published in listings, such as Underwriters...

  14. Fire-Resistant, Plastic-Foam Airducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacawy, Souzane H.; Trabold, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyimide-foam airducts low in cost and light in weight. Relatively safe in fires because they resist spread of flames and generate little smoke. Polyimide-foam ducts less expensive to manufacture. Suitable for heating and air-conditioning in airplanes, ships, trains, and buildings.

  15. Light weight fire resistant graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hsu, M. T. S.

    1986-01-01

    Composite structures with a honeycomb core and characterized by lightweight and excellent fire resistance are provided. These sandwich structures employ facesheets made up of bismaleimide-vinyl styrylpyridine copolymers with fiber reinforcement such as carbon fiber reinforcement. In preferred embodiments the facesheets are over layered with a decorative film. The properties of these composites make them attractive materials of construction aircraft and spacecraft.

  16. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  17. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  18. Heat-resistant anemometers for fire research

    Treesearch

    John R. Murray; Clive M. Countryman

    1968-01-01

    Heat-resistant anemometers have been developed for measuring horizontal and vertical air flow in fire behavior studies. The anemometers will continue to produce data as long as the anemometer body is less than 650°F. They can survive brief immersion in flame without major damage. These air-flow sensors have aluminum bodies and rotor hubs and stainless steel...

  19. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  20. Development of Fire-Resistant Tentage Fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    MATERIALS YARNS WATER REPELLENCY ;09 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) In order to develop a fire-resistant...constructions on the physical and water repellency properties of the fabrics were investigated. This report and a 50-yard sample of the best candidate fabric...complete this project. Phase I is to study the effects of fiber blend compositions, yarn size and fabric constructions on the physical and water repellency prop

  1. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  2. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  3. Fire resistance of wood members with directly applied protection

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-resistive wood construction is achieved either by having the structural elements be part of fire-rated assemblies or by using elements of sufficient size that the elements themselves have the required fire-resistance ratings. For exposed structural wood elements, the ratings in the United States are calculated using either the T.T. Lie method or the National...

  4. Fire Accident Testing Evaluation (FATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Mell, W.; Pettegrew, R.; Hicks, M.; Urban, D.

    2001-01-01

    By performing parametric experiments both in normal gravity and reduced gravity on the KC-135 aircraft, as well as developing and analyzing related modeling, generality of the interpretation of the experimental findings will be pursued along with direct recommendations for fire safety practices and policies for fire safety on spacecraft and in Martian habitats. This is the principal value of the research.

  5. Edge attachment study for fire-resistant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintermute, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-two resin systems were evaluated in laminate form for possible use as edge attachment material for fire-resistant canopies. The evaluation uncovered an unexpected development when the laminates were subjected to an intense flame: (1) the high-heat-resistant materials could withstand the flame test quite well, but experienced rapid heat transfer through the test specimen; (2) the laminates which exhibited a low rate of heat transfer were materials which lost strength rapidly in the presence of the flame by decomposition, delamination, and blistering.

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  7. Crucial Booster Test Fires Up in Utah

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A booster for the most powerful rocket in the world, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), successfully fired up Tuesday for its second qualification ground test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Pro...

  8. Fuel fire tests of selected assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydd, G.; Spindola, K.; Askew, G. K.

    1982-04-01

    A varing assortment of clothing assemblies was tested in the Fuel Fire Test Facility at the Naval Air Development Center. Included was a Nomex-Kevlar Cloque Coverall which had relatively good protection from fuel flames.

  9. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  10. Lightweight, Fire-Resistant Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; MING-TA-HSU

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft safety improved with interior paneling made of new laminate with good thermophysical properties. Featuring lightweight graphite composite, laminate more heat-and flame-resistant and produces much less smoke in fire than commonly used epoxy-resin-containing laminates. New laminate prepared without epoxy resin. Graphite unidirectional cloth preimpregnated with blend of vinyl polystyrylpyridine and bismaleimide (VPSP-BMI). Either of two types of VPSP-BMI blend used, depending on method of preparation of chemicals and technique used to fabricate panel.

  11. Shuttle Fire Tests Are Radiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.

    1997-01-01

    Flame spreading is a phenomenon familiar to everyone who has witnessed an accidental fire. Yet, because of the complexity of the physical and chemical processes that are involved, the theoretical understanding of fires and flame spreading is a relatively new science. Flames spread along solid materials in a process where heat from the flames vaporizes the fuel just ahead of the moving flame. The vaporized fuel mixes with oxygen from the air and reacts chemically with it, producing the flame. On Earth, the spread rate of the flame is directly affected by the rate at which the fuel and oxygen are mixed with the help of buoyant convection.

  12. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, N. Othman, W. M. S. W. Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  13. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  15. Analytical modeling of fire growth on fire-resistive wood-based materials with changing conditions

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger

    2006-01-01

    Our analytical model of fire growth for the ASTM E 84 tunnel, which simultaneously predicts heat release rate, flame-over area, and pyrolysis area as functions of time for constant conditions, was documented in the 2001 BCC Symposium for different treated wood materials. The model was extended to predict ignition and fire growth on exterior fire-resistive structures...

  16. Booster Separation Motor (BSM) Test Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This photograph depicts a hot fire test of the Shuttle Booster Separation Motor (BSM) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) test stand 116. The objective of the test was to test the aft heat seal in flight configuration. The function of the motor is to separate the Shuttle vehicle from the boosters that carry it into space.

  17. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products...

  2. Advanced thermoset resins for fire-resistant composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal and flammability properties of some thermoset polymers and composites are described. The processing and evaluation of composites fabricated from currently used resins and advanced fire-resistant resins are also described. Laboratory test methodology used to qualify candidate composite materials includes thermochemical characterization of the polymeric compounds and evaluation of the glass reinforced composites for flammability and smoke evolution. The use of these test methods will be discussed in comparing advanced laminating resins and composites consisting of modified epoxies, phenolics and bismaleimide, with conventional baseline materials consisting of epoxy.

  3. Fire-related standards and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art of flammability testing has been changing rapidly. Here, the progress in developing general test methods for solid materials and products exposed to an external fire are reviewed. The special requirements pertinent to environments of concern to NASA are examined and some suggestions for possible directions for future test method developments are given.

  4. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  8. Open cell fire-resistant foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. E.; Wittman, J. W.; Reynard, K. A.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate polyphosphazene polymers were investigated to develop a fire-resistant, thermally stable and flexible open cell foam. The copolymers were prepared in several mole ratios of the substituent side chains and a (nominal) 40:60 derivative was selected for formulation studies. Synthesis of the polymers involved solution by polymerization of hexachlorophosphazene to soluble high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene), followed by derivatization of the resultant polymer in a normal fashion to give polymers in high yield and high molecular weight. Small amounts of a cure site were incorporated into the polymer for vulcanization purposes. The poly(aryloxyphosphazenes) exhibited good thermal stability and the first polymer mentioned above exhibited the best thermal behavior of all the candidate polymers studied.

  9. Testing Under Fire: Chicago's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Manford, Jr.

    The history and development of city-wide testing programs in Chicago since 1936 are reviewed and placed in context with the impact on testing of Sputnik and the passage of the National Defense Education Act of 1958. Current testing problems include the time lag between events and curricular changes and new test construction, the time lag between…

  10. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  11. Gov. Barbour views test firing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-02

    Steam billows from an RS-68 rocket engine test at the B Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on June 2. The test was viewed by Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour (third from left) and his wife, Marsha, who spent the afternoon at the NASA rocket engine testing center. The governor was joined at the RS-68 test by (l to r) Charles Scales, NASA associate deputy administrator; Jeffrey Wright, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne site director at Stennis; Gene Goldman, Stennis director; and Jack Forsythe, NASA assistant administrator for the Office of Security and Program Protection.

  12. Gov. Barbour views test firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Steam billows from an RS-68 rocket engine test at the B Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on June 2. The test was viewed by Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour (third from left) and his wife, Marsha, who spent the afternoon at the NASA rocket engine testing center. The governor was joined at the RS-68 test by (l to r) Charles Scales, NASA associate deputy administrator; Jeffrey Wright, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne site director at Stennis; Gene Goldman, Stennis director; and Jack Forsythe, NASA assistant administrator for the Office of Security and Program Protection.

  13. Gov. Barbour views test firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Steam billows from an RS-68 rocket engine test at the B Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on June 2. The test was viewed by Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour (third from left) and his wife, Marsha, who spent the afternoon at the NASA rocket engine testing center. The governor was joined at the RS-68 test by (l to r) Charles Scales, NASA associate deputy administrator; Jeffrey Wright, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne site director at Stennis; Gene Goldman, Stennis director; and Jack Forsythe, NASA assistant administrator for the Office of Security and Program Protection.

  14. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  15. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  16. RS 25 Hot Fire test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-18

    The 7.5-minute test conducted at NASA’s Stennis Space Center is part of a series of tests designed to put the upgraded former space shuttle engines through the rigorous temperature and pressure conditions they will experience during a launch. The tests also support the development of a new controller, or “brain,” for the engine, which monitors engine status and communicates between the rocket and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the rocket.

  17. RS-25 Hot Fire test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-18

    The 7.5-minute test conducted at NASA’s Stennis Space Center is part of a series of tests designed to put the upgraded former space shuttle engines through the rigorous temperature and pressure conditions they will experience during a launch. The tests also support the development of a new controller, or “brain,” for the engine, which monitors engine status and communicates between the rocket and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the rocket.

  18. 24. SATURN V Fl ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SATURN V F-l ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND 1A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 8. TEST STAND 15, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TEST STAND 1-5, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. Original is a color print. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    PubMed

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire.

  1. Use of FGD gypsum in fire resistant panels

    SciTech Connect

    Leiva, C.; Garcia Arenas, C.; Vilches, L.F.; Vale, J.; Gimenez, A.; Ballesteros, J.C.

    2010-06-15

    Gypsum from power plant flue gas desulphurization units (FGD gypsum) is a combustion by-product produced in high quantities. In this paper, gypsum panels composed of 100% FGD gypsum from two power plants have been subjected to different physico-chemical (density, pH, humidity), mechanical (flexural and compressive strength, surface hardness, impact resistance), fire resistance and environmental tests (leaching and radioactivity). The results obtained have been compared with the requirements established in some European standards for commercial gypsum and other standards for similar products. In addition, the panels manufactured have been compared with commercial gypsum panels in order to determine the recycling possibilities of this kind of material in this application.

  2. Development of fire test methods for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests were conducted in a 737 airplane fuselage at NASA-JSC to characterize jet fuel fires in open steel pans (simulating post-crash fire sources and a ruptured airplane fuselage) and to characterize fires in some common combustibles (simulating in-flight fire sources). Design post-crash and in-flight fire source selections were based on these data. Large panels of airplane interior materials were exposed to closely-controlled large scale heating simulations of the two design fire sources in a Boeing fire test facility utilizing a surplused 707 fuselage section. Small samples of the same airplane materials were tested by several laboratory fire test methods. Large scale and laboratory scale data were examined for correlative factors. Published data for dangerous hazard levels in a fire environment were used as the basis for developing a method to select the most desirable material where trade-offs in heat, smoke and gaseous toxicant evolution must be considered.

  3. Fire Endurance Testing of Fiberglass Piping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    explosion . A computer data acquisition system was used to record the various channels of test data. Color video cameras, an infrared camera, and 35 mm...sample included a bolted flanged coupling. One of the copper-nickel samples had a brazed sleeve-type coupling and the other had a Staub mechanical...FGP of the types tested. Pipe deflections were within IACS limits. 8. An explosion hazard exists when sealed pipe samples are exposed to fire. If the

  4. Fire Resistant Fuel for Military Compression Ignition Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    to statistically optimize and quantify FRF emulsion stability. Variables include: temperature (hot or cold ), base fuel, amount and type of emulsifier...developing a fire resistant fuel water emulsion and how the use of JP-8, as intended by the single fuel forward concept, affects this development. 15...This paper will discuss some of the aspects and limitations of developing a fire resistant fuel water emulsion and how the use of JP-8, as intended

  5. Court upholds whistleblower's firing over plasma tests.

    PubMed

    1999-09-03

    The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has upheld the firing of a lab technician from [name removed] Corp. over an injunction she filed regarding protocols for blood plasma testing. The technician claimed that blood plasma from outside vendors was contaminated by saline and should be screened using total protein tests. This test can help prevent false negatives for HIV and hepatitis that may result from saline contamination. The technician accused [name removed] of falsely representing the plasma as safe to the Federal government. The court held that [name removed] did not misrepresent itself because it complied with all required regulations and could represent their products as safe. Further, the court held the technician's firing was not improper because her whistleblowing "verges on being frivolous", and therefore was not protected conduct under the False Claims Act.

  6. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  7. Highly Flexible Superhydrophobic and Fire-Resistant Layered Inorganic Paper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Shen, Yue-Qin

    2016-12-21

    Traditional paper made from plant cellulose fibers is easily destroyed by either liquid or fire. In addition, the paper making industry consumes a large amount of natural trees and thus causes serious environmental problems including excessive deforestation and pollution. In consideration of the intrinsic flammability of organics and minimizing the effects on the environment and creatures, biocompatible ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires are an ideal building material for inorganic fire-resistant paper. Herein, a new kind of free-standing, highly flexible, superhydrophobic, and fire-resistant layered inorganic paper has been successfully prepared using ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires as building blocks after the surface modification with sodium oleate. During the vacuum filtration, ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires assemble into self-roughened setalike microfibers, avoiding the tedious fabrication process to construct the hierarchical structure; the self-roughened microfibers further form the inorganic paper with a nacrelike layered structure. We have demonstrated that the layered structure can significantly improve the resistance to mechanical destruction of the as-prepared superhydrophobic paper. The as-prepared superhydrophobic and fire-resistant inorganic paper shows excellent nonflammability, liquid repellency to various commercial drinks, high thermal stability, and self-cleaning property. Moreover, we have explored the potential applications of the superhydrophobic and fire-resistant inorganic paper as a highly effective adsorbent for oil/water separation, fire-shielding protector, and writing paper.

  8. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  9. Fire Suppression Testing of Hypergolic Vapor Control Foams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    estimate 3 to 3.5 pal/min application rate, 5, Extremely hot fire - warped pan badly, 139 FIRE SUPPRESSION TESTING OF HYPERCOLIC VAPOR CONTROL FOAMS...extinguished in 3 miiutes 30 _ 146 MIT" FIRE SUPPRESSION TESTING OF HYPERCOLIC VAPOR CONTROL FOAMS Test # C-16A Date 4/17/86 Weather Fuel A-50 Amouznt 55 gallons

  10. Accelerated weathering of fire-retardant-treated wood for fire testing

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-retardant-treated products for exterior applications must be subjected to actual or accelerated weathering prior to fire testing. For fire-retardant-treated wood, the two accelerated weathering methods have been Method A and B of ASTM D 2898. The rain test is Method A of ASTM D 2898. Method B includes exposures to ultraviolet (UV) sunlamps in addition to water...

  11. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  12. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  13. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  14. 46 CFR 107.251 - Testing of the fire main.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing of the fire main. 107.251 Section 107.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.251 Testing of the fire main. Each fire main...

  15. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a...

  16. 46 CFR 107.251 - Testing of the fire main.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of the fire main. 107.251 Section 107.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.251 Testing of the fire main. Each fire main...

  17. 46 CFR 107.251 - Testing of the fire main.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing of the fire main. 107.251 Section 107.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.251 Testing of the fire main. Each fire main...

  18. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a...

  19. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a...

  20. 46 CFR 107.251 - Testing of the fire main.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing of the fire main. 107.251 Section 107.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.251 Testing of the fire main. Each fire main...

  1. 46 CFR 107.251 - Testing of the fire main.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing of the fire main. 107.251 Section 107.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.251 Testing of the fire main. Each fire main...

  2. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a...

  3. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a...

  4. Low-smoke, halogenfree ship-offshore/onshore cables with improved flame retardance and fire resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J. R.; Holte, T. A.; Johansen, E.

    Cables with improved fire resistance and flame retardance have been developed. They will continue to function at least 3 hours even at temperatures up to 1000 C and do not propagate fire when tested according to IEC 332 part 3 1982, category A. Made with halogenfree materials they give off no corrosive gases and very little visible smoke in cases of fire. Cables are made for power, signal and instrument installations in hospitals, high rise buildings, railroad cars, subways, on board ship, oil rigs and oil production platforms. The offshore cables are specially constructed to withstand the rugged climatic conditions in the North Sea area.

  5. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    Treesearch

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  6. Investigation of the fire performance of building insulation in full-scale and laboratory fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfelder, W.A.

    1984-04-01

    Twenty-two insulations are exposed to fire tests including the 25 ft Tunnel test, the Attic Floor Radiant Panel test and actual fire conditions of a simulated attic configuration. The insulations consisted of a number of cellulose fiber insulations, utilizing various chemical treatments, glass fiber and mineral fiber insulations. The fire performance characteristics of the insulations were measured in each of the three test scenarios and the report compares their results.

  7. Analysis of NASA JP-4 fire tests data and development of a simple fire model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, P.

    1980-01-01

    The temperature, velocity and species concentration data obtained during the NASA fire tests (3m, 7.5m and 15m diameter JP-4 fires) were analyzed. Utilizing the data analysis, a sample theoretical model was formulated to predict the temperature and velocity profiles in JP-4 fires. The theoretical model, which does not take into account the detailed chemistry of combustion, is capable of predicting the extent of necking of the fire near its base.

  8. Research on Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    dielectric loss measurement to monitor the water content of these emulsions . Microwave dielectric loss at a fre- quency of about 23 to 24 GHz is specific...diesel fuel micro- emulsions could be prepared and that they exhibit reduced mist flammability and self-extinguishing pool fires at temperatures...68 21 Transient NMR Data for an FRF and Its Components. . . . 76 22 Typical Effects of Aging on Dielectric Constant of W/O Emulsions

  9. Investigation of Fire-Vulnerability-Reduction Effectiveness of Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel in Armored Vehicular Fuel Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    Page 1 Six Generations of Fire-Resistant Fuel Formulations Investigated by the U.S. Army.................................. 2 Referee-Grade-Base-Fuel...A. Background Information Six generations of fire-resistant fuel have ,een investigated by the Army, and these are summarized in Table 1. (2,3) The...8217. . ’ , I TABLE I. SIX GENERATIONS OF FIRE-RESISTANT FUEL FORMULATIONS INVESTIGATED BY THE U.S. ARMY 1. Fuel gellation just prior to hazard

  10. Wall and corner fire tests on selected wood products

    Treesearch

    H. C. Tran; M. L. Janssens

    1991-01-01

    As part of a fire growth program to develop and validate a compartment fire model, several bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted. This paper reports the full-scale wall and corner test results of step 2 of this study. A room fire test following the ASTM proposed standard specifications was used for these full-scale tests. In step 1, we investigated the...

  11. Field test of optical and electrical fire detectors in simulated fire scenes in a cable tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dian; Ding, Hongjun; Wang, Dorothy Y.; Jiang, Desheng

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the testing results of three types of fire detectors: electrical heat sensing cable, optical fiber Raman temperature sensing detector, and optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing detector, in two simulated fire scenes in a cable tunnel. In the small-scale fire with limited thermal radiation and no flame, the fire alarm only comes from the heat sensors which directly contact with the heat source. In the large-scale fire with about 5 °C/min temperature rising speed within a 3-m span, the fire alarm response time of the fiber Raman sensor and FBG sensors was about 30 seconds. The test results can be further used for formulating regulation for early fire detection in cable tunnels.

  12. Physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of treated oriented strandboard

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; S Nami Kartal; Theodore L. Laufenberg; Jerrold E. Winandy; Robert H. White

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a number of chemicals on the physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), boric acid (BA), melamine phosphate (MP), and a BA/DOT mixture were sprayed onto the furnish at varying concentrations. The panels were tested for...

  13. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  14. Fire resistance of engineered wood rim board products.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2003-01-01

    Engineered wood products, such as oriented strandboard, laminated veneer lumber, and other composite wood products, are being used more often in construction. This includes use as rim boards, which are the components around the perimeter of a floor assembly. This situation has increased the need for information about the fire resistance of these products. In this study...

  15. Competitive effects of fire-resistant saplings on their fire-sensitive neighbors are greater than the reverse

    Treesearch

    J. Stephen Brewer

    2015-01-01

    Although repeated fires are generally thought to reduce competition, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare. Furthermore, recent theory predicts that fires can increase competitive effects of fireresistant species on fire-sensitive species and thus create stable assemblages dominated by the former. In this study, I quantified competition between saplings of fire-...

  16. Application of full-scale fire tests to characterize and improve the aircraft postcrash fire environment.

    PubMed

    Sarkos, C P

    1996-12-31

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has conducted numerous full-scale fire tests for the purpose of characterizing the postcrash cabin fire environment and developing improved fire test criteria for cabin materials. The tests consistently demonstrated the importance of cabin flashover on occupant survivability. Flashover is basically a sudden, very rapid spread of fire, generating large quantities of heat, smoke, and toxic gases that quickly fill the cabin. Before flashover, the cabin environment is largely survivable; after flashover, occupant survival becomes highly unlikely. Thermal incapacitation is more important near the fire origin and at higher elevations, whereas toxic gas incapacitation is predominant away from the fire origin and at lower elevations. The FAA has developed and adopted improved fire test methods for seat cushions (fire blocking layers) and interior panels (low heat release). In both cases, the fire test methods are consistent with full-scale test results and serve to improve occupant survivability by delaying the onset of flashover, thereby providing substantially greater available time for occupant evacuation.

  17. Test fire environmental testing operations at Mound Applied Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes Mound Laboratory`s environmental testing operations. The function of environmental testing is to perform quality environmental (thermal, mechanical, spin, resistance, visual) testing/conditioning of inert/explosive products to assure their compliance with specified customer acceptance criteria. Capabilities, organization, equipment specifications, and test facilities are summarized.

  18. A3 Subscale Rocket Hot Fire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Yen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the methodology and results of J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) hot fire testing supporting the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) project at the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The A3 subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude simulating rocket test facility. This paper focuses on the methods used to operate the facility and obtain the data to support the aerodynamic verification of the A3 rocket diffuser design and experimental data quantifying the heat flux throughout the facility. The JSS was operated at both 80% and 100% power levels and at gimbal angle from 0 to 7 degrees to verify the simulated altitude produced by the rocket-rocket diffuser combination. This was done with various secondary GN purge loads to quantify the pumping performance of the rocket diffuser. Also, special tests were conducted to obtain detailed heat flux measurements in the rocket diffuser at various gimbal angles and in the facility elbow where the flow turns from vertical to horizontal upstream of the 2nd stage steam ejector.

  19. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  2. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  3. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  4. Fire-resistant aircraft materials development and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.; Stuckey, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to provide a more fire-resistant commercial aircraft interior and to improve the fuselage insulation barrier between the cabin interior and an exterior fuel fire. Significant secondary objectives are to reduce the smoke and toxic gas production of the materials and to meet the end item use requirements pertaining to wearability, color fastness, and aesthetic appeal. It is shown that the fuselage insulation materials must meet stringent requirements pertaining to acoustic attenuation, low density, and water repellency.

  5. Fire-resistant aircraft materials development and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.; Stuckey, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to provide a more fire-resistant commercial aircraft interior and to improve the fuselage insulation barrier between the cabin interior and an exterior fuel fire. Significant secondary objectives are to reduce the smoke and toxic gas production of the materials and to meet the end item use requirements pertaining to wearability, color fastness, and aesthetic appeal. It is shown that the fuselage insulation materials must meet stringent requirements pertaining to acoustic attenuation, low density, and water repellency.

  6. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength. PMID:28788279

  7. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-12-08

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete's compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  8. Fire environmental test chamber: its design and development

    Treesearch

    Clifford J. Auvil

    1973-01-01

    The Fire Environmental Test Chamber at the Forest Fire Laboratory, Riverside, California, can duplicate under controlled conditions the key factors that affect the flammability of wildland fuels. Within certain limits, it can produce air flow, solar radiation, temperatures, and relative humidity. First developed in 1962, the test chamber has since then undergoneseveral...

  9. Test-Firing of Development Motor-8 at Morton Thiokol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Engineers test-fire Development Motor-8 at Thiokol's Utah facility, the first time all the changes in the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor had been test-fired together. The redesign of the Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motor resulted from the January 28, 1986 Challenger accident. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Solid Rocket Booster.

  10. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  11. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  12. Fire Resistant Energy Attenuating Materials for Use in Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Fire Resistant Energy Attenuating Materials for use in Military Vehicles...determines whether adding energy attenuating materials would be beneficial in reducing potential head impact injuries. • Impact locations were selected...Threshold requirement met for 1 location – Driver Sidewall • Driver sidewall location consists of an electrical door panel which may act as an energy

  13. Rigid fire-resistant foams for walls and floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous techniques for fabricating rigid fire-resistant polyimide foams by compressing already-foamed precursor have been supplanted by one-step constrained-rise process. Precursor mixed with reinforcing fillers is placed between rigid substrates that constrain expansion of foam as it is heated by microwave energy. Process works for both liquid and powder precursors and can also be adapted to attach woven fiberglass skins at same time prcursor is being foamed.

  14. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  15. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  16. Rigid fire-resistant foams for walls and floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous techniques for fabricating rigid fire-resistant polyimide foams by compressing already-foamed precursor have been supplanted by one-step constrained-rise process. Precursor mixed with reinforcing fillers is placed between rigid substrates that constrain expansion of foam as it is heated by microwave energy. Process works for both liquid and powder precursors and can also be adapted to attach woven fiberglass skins at same time prcursor is being foamed.

  17. HIV-1 drug resistance and resistance testing.

    PubMed

    Clutter, Dana S; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Shafer, Robert W

    2016-12-01

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) has led to dramatic reductions in HIV-1 mortality and incidence. However, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a potential threat to the long-term success of ART and is emerging as a threat to the elimination of AIDS as a public health problem by 2030. In this review we describe the genetic mechanisms, epidemiology, and management of HIVDR at both individual and population levels across diverse economic and geographic settings. To describe the genetic mechanisms of HIVDR, we review the genetic barriers to resistance for the most commonly used ARVs and describe the extent of cross-resistance between them. To describe the epidemiology of HIVDR, we summarize the prevalence and patterns of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance (ADR) in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We also review to two categories of HIVDR with important public health relevance: (i) pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR), a World Health Organization-recommended HIVDR surveillance metric and (ii) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-related drug resistance, a type of ADR that can impact clinical outcomes if present at the time of treatment initiation. To summarize the implications of HIVDR for patient management, we review the role of genotypic resistance testing and treatment practices in both high-income and LMIC settings. In high-income countries where drug resistance testing is part of routine care, such an understanding can help clinicians prevent virological failure and accumulation of further HIVDR on an individual level by selecting the most efficacious regimens for their patients. Although there is reduced access to diagnostic testing and to many ARVs in LMIC, understanding the scientific basis and clinical implications of HIVDR is useful in all regions in order to shape appropriate surveillance, inform treatment algorithms, and manage difficult cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  18. Fuel fire tests of selected assemblies. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Kydd, G.; Spindola, K.; Askew, G.K.

    1982-04-13

    A varing assortment of clothing assemblies was tested in the Fuel Fire Test Facility at the Naval Air Development Center. Included was a Nomex-Kevlar Cloque Coverall which had relatively good protection from fuel flames.

  19. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  2. SpaceX Test Fires Engine Prototype

    NASA Image and Video Library

    One of NASA's industry partners, SpaceX, fires its new SuperDraco engine prototype in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's...

  3. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-25

    whereas some packs have thick hard plastic casings that provide a significant contribution to the fire. After adjusting the combustion energies to...plates to capture the debris thrown or impact sensors. Burning incandescent debris provides a secondary ignition source that can result in fire...Hydrobromic Acid 6 Hydrochloric Acid 60 60 Hydrofluoric Acid 99 55 630 550 Methane 550 2750 1375 1515 Methyl Butyrate 5500 18370 16225

  4. Large-scale pool fire test recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    The important aspects of external pool fires are outlined. The research objectives are: (1) determine heat flux to surfaces as a function of pool size (convective and radiative heat flux); (2) obtain information that can be compared with theoretical models for radiative flux in the near field; and (3) predict radiative heat flux for arbitrary pool size. The measurements and instrumentation (calorimeters and thermocouples) used for pool fires are outlined.

  5. Enclosure Fire Tests for Understanding Aircraft Composite Fire Environments (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    100 lbs) of material. Propane burners are used to ignite the solid materials during the first few minutes of the test. The remainder of the test...Propane burners are used to ignite the solid materials during the first few minutes of the test. The remainder of the test involves sustained...the chemical energy released from the composites. The steel enclosure was lined internally with Unifrax Durabord 3000 insulation, providing a low

  6. Ultraviolet Source For Testing Hydrogen-Fire Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Larson, William E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Stout, Stephen J.; Strobel, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Hand-held portable unit emits ultraviolet light similar to that emitted by hydrogen burning in air. Developed for use in testing optoelectronic hydrogen-fire detectors, which respond to ultraviolet light at wavelengths from 180 to 240 nanometers. Wavelength range unique in that within it, hydrogen fires emit small but detectable amounts of radiation, light from incandescent lamps and Sun almost completely absent, and air sufficiently transmissive to enable detection of hydrogen fire from distance. Consequently, this spectral region favorable for detecting hydrogen fires while minimizing false alarms.

  7. Study of coatings for improved fire and decay resistance of mine timbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to find a fire- and rot-retardant polymer/fungicide reaction product for coating mine timbers. Fire-retardant polymers were screened as films and coatings on fir wood. Curable polyimide appeared to be flame retardant and evolved a minimum of fumes when exposed to a flame. Several organic and metal, low toxicity, fungicides were reacted with the polyimide in-situ on the wood. These coated samples were screened for fungus resistance. All formulations rated well - even the polyimide film without additives was fungicidal. The fir wood control itself resisted internal damage during the ten weeks of fungus exposure. A more severe test for fungus resistance will be required.

  8. The phylogenetic signal of species co-occurrence in high-diversity shrublands: different patterns for fire-killed and fire-resistant species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using phylogenies in community ecology is now commonplace, but typically, studies assume and test for a single common phylogenetic signal for all species in a community, at a given scale. A possibility that remains little-explored is that species differing in demographic or ecological attributes, or facing different selective pressures, show different community phylogenetic patterns, even within the same communities. Here I compare community phylogenetic patterns for fire-killed and fire-resistant Banksia species in the fire-prone shrublands of southwest Australia. Results Using new Bayesian phylogenies of Banksia, together with ecological trait data and abundance data from 24 field sites, I find that fire regeneration mode influences the phylogenetic and phenotypic signal of species co-occurrence patterns. Fire-killed species (reseeders) show patterns of phylogenetic and phenotypic repulsion consistent with competition-driven niche differentiation, but there are no such patterns for fire-resistant species (resprouters). For pairs of species that differ in fire response, co-occurrence is mediated by environmental filtering based on similarity in edaphic preferences. Conclusions These results suggest that it may be simplistic to characterize an entire community by a single structuring process, such as competition or environmental filtering. For this reason, community analyses based on pairwise species co-occurrence patterns may be more informative than those based on whole-community structure metrics. PMID:23016574

  9. Reaction-to-fire testing and modeling for wood products

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Robert H. White

    2001-01-01

    In this review we primarily discuss our use of the oxygen consumption calorimeter (ASTM E1354 for cone calorimeter and ISO9705 for room/corner tests) and fire growth modeling to evaluate treated wood products. With recent development towards performance-based building codes, new methodology requires engineering calculations of various fire growth scenarios. The initial...

  10. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  11. Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergun; Altinok, Mustafa; Colak, Mehmet; Ozaki, S Kiyoka; Toker, Hilmi

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi (Mirb.) Franco) specimens treated with borate supplemented aqueous solutions of brutia pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder, and gall-nut powder. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) were used as borates which are the most commonly used fire retardants in wood preservation industry. Natural extractives (brutia pine bark powder, sumach leaf powder, acorn powder, and gall-nut powder) were also used which have toxic efficiency against insects and fungi due to their tannin contents. A commercial treatment compound Tanalith-CBC (copper-borate-chromate), which is an impregnation chemical, is used for comparison. The fire test method was performed in three stages: flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage. Results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with BA and BX mixture (7:3; weight:weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of BA and BX. Natural extractives did not improve fire resistance of the samples. However, boric acid and borax had excellent fire retardant effectiveness over untreated and treated samples with natural extractives.

  12. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  13. Geno- and phenotypic resistance tests.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    There are two types of experimental drug resistance tests, genotypic and phenotypic, that may be able to determine a person's level of resistance to certain HIV drugs. Genotypic resistance testing seeks mutations in the genetic structure of HIV. The analysis is typically conducted from a blood test, and several methods may be used to read the blood sample including a machine that reads gene sequences, a line probe assay, and the GeneChip, which scans blood samples into a computer. Phenotypic resistance testing assesses the quantity of a drug necessary to suppress the virus in a laboratory setting. Both tests require a patient to have a viral load over 1,000 HIV RNA copies, and both are relatively expensive. Neither test can predict which treatments will definitely be successful, as the results are likely to be subjective, depending on the laboratory. Pros and cons for each type of test are listed. Availability, cost, and contact information are provided.

  14. Fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds and common fire retardants

    Treesearch

    Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal; Robert White; Katsumi Shinoda; Yuji Imamura

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds (didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF)) were compared with the performance of untreated control specimens and specimens treated with common fire retardants ((monoammonium phosphate (MAP),...

  15. Fire-resistant fuel program analysis and program management documentation. Final report, December 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, C.A.

    1986-01-31

    There was an urgent need to transition management of the Fire Resistant Fuel (FRF) Program from the Materials Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (MFLL) to the Logistics Support Directorate (LSD). It is recommended that the LSD develop program management documentation (PMD) that supports a Milestone I review as soon as possible to include the following: System Concept Paper, Concept Formulation Package and a Test Evaluation Master Plan. This report describes programmatic analyses and subsequent programmatic recommendations.

  16. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  17. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  18. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  19. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  20. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  1. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  2. Fire tests on loose-fill insulation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkala, M.

    1987-06-01

    A short review of the physical and chemical processes involved in smouldering fires of loose-fill insulation materials is presented. Various official and inofficial fire test methods are described and evaluated. Results of a series of tests made to evaluate the British Standard BS 5803:Part 4:1985 are presented. A proposal for a Nordtest method based on this standard is given as an appendix.

  3. Using Simulation to Examine Live-fire Test Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    detonation . Accurate data require accurate testing which in turn requires effective test design infrastructure. We model this test infrastructure. MANPADS...missiles are detonated within test arenas that have make-screens placed on the arena walls to capture fragment impact data. Our model mimics the test...live-fire testing which involves detonating a test missile in a specially constructed test arena. Figure 1 depicts one such arena with the missile

  4. Fire-resistant phosphorus containing polyimides and copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing polyimides and copolyimides are synthesized in a two-step polycondensation reaction from 1- (diorganooxyphosphonl)methly 2,4- and 2,6-diaminobenzenes and tetracarboxylic anhydride. The diorgano position of the diorganooxyphosphonyl group includes alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted alkyl, such as 2-chloroethyl, and aryl such as phenyl. The tetracarboxylic anhydries include compounds such as pyrometallitic dianhydride and benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyimides is reduced by incorporation of the (dialkoxyphosphonyl)methyl groups. The phosphorus-containing copolyimides show a considerably higher degree of fire-resistance as compared to that of the corresponding common polyimides.

  5. Microemulsion-Type Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Temperature Flow--Minimum Temperatures 2 . Low-Temperature Filtration--Suction Versus Pressure 3. Is FRF Newtonian? 4 . Additive Effects D . Engine...oxyethylene groups (Igepal DM-430) C. H o(C( 2 CH2 0) 7H C H1 9 19 d ) A proprietary anionic phosphate ester derivative of the polyethoxy- lated...AD-A157 i25 MICROEMULSION-TYPE FIRE-RESISTANT DIESEL FUEL(U) i/ 2 SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB W D

  6. Novel fire-resistant polyphosphazenes and phosphazene-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan Paul

    A functionalized polyphosphazene, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], was blended with a structural polyurethane via reactive mixing of the polymer with diisocyanate and diol prepolymers. The thermal stabilities of the resultant foams were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both qualitative and quantitative flame tests indicated an increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. Methods for the incorporation of phosphate and phosphonate units into the side groups of phosphazenes are described and evaluated. Halogenated organophosphates were used as the phosphorylating agents and were allowed to react with hydroxyl- or lithio-functionalized phosphazenes. Well defined phosphorylated cyclic trimers were synthesized from the hydroxyl-functionalized precursors, and these were examined as flame retardant additives to polystyrene. The thermal stabilities of the high polymers made by this route were analyzed by TGA. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of phosphazene-functionalized norbornenes was demonstrated with the use of the Grubbs catalyst. This allowed the incorporation of alkoxy-, fluoroalkoxy-, and aryloxy-derived cyclic phosphazenes as side groups linked to the organic polymer backbone. The polymers were obtained in moderate yields with the properties being dependent on the side groups present and on the molecular weight. In addition, cyclooctenes and norbornenes with cyclic phosphazene side units bearing trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups were polymerized via ROMP using a ruthenium based initiator. The same monomers were also copolymerized with 90--99 mole percent of cyclooctene, norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, or exo,exo-5,6-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. The presence of as little as 2 mol% of the cyclic phosphazene in the copolymers dramatically reduced the combustibility. Poly(diphenyl-p-styrylphosphine) and copolymers of diphenyl- p-styrylphosphine with either styrene or methyl methacrylate were

  7. Temperature and heat flux measurement techniques for aeroengine fire test: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2016-10-01

    This review is made of studies whereby some types of fire test measuring instrument were compared based on their mode of operation, sensing ability, temperature resistance and their calibration mode used for aero-engine applications. The study discusses issues affecting temperature and heat flux measurement, methods of measurement, calibration and uncertainties that occur in the fire test. It is found that the temperature and heat flux measurements of the flame from the standard burner need to be corrected and taken into account for radiation heat loss. Methods for temperature and heat flux measurements, as well as uncertainties analysis, were also discussed.

  8. Resistance-Welding Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Andrew D.

    1990-01-01

    Realistic welding conditions produce reliable specimens. Simple fixture holds resistance-welding test specimens. Specimen holder includes metallic holder and clamps to provide electrical and thermal paths and plastic parts providing thermal and electrical isolation.

  9. Processing and properties of a lightweight fire resistant core material for sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, K.N.; Argade, S.D.; Sadler, R.L.; Sharpe, M.M.; Dunn, L.; Swaminathan, G.; Sorathia, U.

    2006-01-15

    A process for syntactic foam made from fly ash, a waste product of coal combustion from thermal power plants, has been developed using phenolic resin binders at low levels. The fly ash consists of hollow glass or ceramic microspheres and needs to be treated to remove contaminants. The production process is easily scalable and can be tailored to produce foams of desired properties for specific applications. Complex shaped parts also are possible with appropriate compression mold tooling. Mechanical properties, compression, tension, shear and fracture toughness, have been determined in this preliminary investigation on this syntactic material and are found to be comparable or better than commercially available core materials. Initial testing for fire resistance has indicated very encouraging results. Further work is being continued to develop this core material with superior mechanical and fire resistance properties.

  10. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-06-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  11. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-02-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  12. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanchao; Wang, Guojian

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played an important protecting role for the inner char residue and improved the fire protection of the coatings. TGA result demonstrated that silicon enhanced the thermo-oxidation resistance of coatings efficiently. Furthermore, real-time FTIR revealed the intumescent process of the fire resistant coatings according to the chemical structure changes of char residue.

  13. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large effect QTL for fire blight resistance has been pre...

  14. Development of Fire Resistant/Heat Resistant Sewing Thread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    untreated. Modified acrylic fiber (Pyro-Tex) was used as the sheath. Core to sheath ratio was 50:50. The NeC 16/2 construction offered excellent physical ...ANSI Std. Z39.18 DYES FIBERS UNIFORMS SYNTHETIC FIBERS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES COSTS SEWING...9      2.1.4 NeC 16/2  Physical  Testing

  15. Timing system for firing widely spaced test nuclear detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Ralph E.

    1992-01-01

    The national weapons design laboratories (Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) test fire nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is spread over an area of over 1200 square miles. On each test there are hundreds of high time resolution recordings made of nuclear output waveforms and other phenomena. In order to synchronize these recordings with each other, with the nuclear device, and with offsite recordings, there is a requirement that the permanent command center and the outlying temporary firing sites be time tied to each other and to UTC to permit firing the shot at a predetermined time with an accuracy of about a microsecond. Various aspects of the test setup and timing system are discussed.

  16. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  17. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  19. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  20. Global relationship of fire occurrence and fire intensity: A test of intermediate fire occurrence-intensity hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ruisen; Hui, Dafeng; Miao, Ning; Liang, Chuan; Wells, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Fire plays a significant role in global atmosphere and biosphere carbon and nutrient cycles. Globally, there are substantially different distributions and impacts between fire occurrence and fire intensity. It is prominent to have a thorough investigation of global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity for future fire prediction and management. In this study, we proposed an intermediate fire occurrence-intensity (IFOI) hypothesis for the global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity, suggesting that fire occurrence changes with fire intensity following a humped relationship. We examined this hypothesis via satellite data from January 2001 to December 2013 at a global scale, and in small and large fire intensity zones, respectively. Furthermore, the fire occurrence and fire intensity relationship was developed among different vegetation types to reveal the changes of parameters and strengths. Finally, the environmental factors (including climatic, hydraulic, biological, and anthropogenic variables) underpinning the fire occurrence and intensity pattern were evaluated for the underlying mechanisms. The results supported our IFOI hypothesis and demonstrated that the humped relationship is driven by different causes among vegetation types. Fire occurrence increases with fire intensity in small fire intensity zones due to alleviation of the factors limiting both fire occurrence and intensity. Beyond a certain fire intensity threshold, fire occurrence is constrained, probably due to the limitation of available fuels. The information generated in this study could be helpful for understanding global variation of fire occurrence and fire intensity due to fire-vegetation-climate-human interactions and facilitating future fire management.

  1. 76 FR 32843 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of Military Uniforms (DFARS Case 2011-D021) AGENCY... fiber in solicitations issued before January 1, 2015. DATES: Effective date: June 6, 2011. Comment date... 2011 (Pub. L. 111-383). Section 821 prohibits specification of the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber...

  2. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  3. Optical fiber sensors embedded in concrete for measurement of temperature in a real fire test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Torres, Benjamín; Barrera, David; Calderón, Pedro Antonio; Lloris, José Manuel; López, María José; Sales, Salvador

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a real fire test using optical fiber sensors embedded in concrete samples. The temperature curve used in this experiment is described in the Spanish/European standard UNE-EN 1363-1 temperature profile for normalized concrete resistance to real fire tests, reaching temperatures of more than 1000°C inside the fire chamber and up to 600°C inside the concrete samples. Three types of optical sensors have been embedded in concrete: 1. standard fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in photosensitive germanium-boron co-doped fiber, 2. regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFGB) inscribed in germanium doped fiber, and 3. RFBG inscribed in germanium-boron co-doped fiber.

  4. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  5. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DM-9 test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A straight-on (topside) view shows the 126-foot long, 1.2 million-pound Development Motor (DM) 9 undergoing a full-duration horizontal test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah. The solid rocket booster (SRB) test lasted two minutes. The test was part of the shuttle motor redesign program. Four full-duration motor tests are required prior to the planned resumption of Shuttle flights.

  7. DM-9 test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A three-quarter (topside) view shows the 126-foot long, 1.2 million-pound Development Motor (DM) 9 undergoing a full-duration horizontal test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah. The solid rocket booster (SRB) test lasted two minutes. The test was part of the shuttle motor redesign program. Four full-duration motor tests are required prior to the planned resumption of Shuttle flights.

  8. Hot fire fatigue testing results for the compliant combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.

  9. QM-6 test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The third redesigned Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM), designated qualification motor 6 (QM-6), is test fired. Five motor firings are required prior to resumption of Shuttle flights. This test, part of the Shuttle motor redesign program, was conducted by Morton Thiokol, NASA's prime contractor for the SRM, at its Wasatch Facility near Brigham City, Utah. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama manages the motor program for NASA. NOTE: S88-34564 through S88-34566 are 35mm CN; S88-34567 is 120 CN.

  10. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  11. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always Be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1[1]). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  12. F-14A Fire Protection Test Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    Nacelle Fuel Leak/Ignitor Simulator Mockup .. ........ .37 13. Test Preparations for Full-Scale Airflow Tests ........ ..40 14. Pitot Tube Array Used for...the engine-caused failure simulation. A simulator mockup was designed and fabricated for use in conducting the leak simulator/fuel ignition tests. The...basic design of the boiler plate mockup representing the engine fan area of an F-14A right-hand engine nacelle is shown in Figure 12. Fancase rupture

  13. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D K

    2003-04-22

    The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles' Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

  14. Testing thermal resistance of viruses.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Wutzler, P

    2009-01-01

    Representative viral strains recommended for virucidal testing of biocides in human medicine were used for testing viral resistance to dry heat using the new Keredusy hot instrument. The results demonstrate that poliovirus type 1 could be inactivated by treatment at 75 degrees C for 1 h. For inactivation of adenovirus type 5, 2 h at 85 degrees C was needed. The infectivity of polyomavirus SV40 could only be influenced significantly by a temperature of 95 degrees C over a period of 1 h, whereas vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus needed a time interval of 2 h at 95 degrees C. The infectivity of bovine parvovirus could not be influenced significantly by exposure to 95 degrees C for 2 h. In conclusion, human viruses and their surrogates for testing biocides may have a considerable thermal resistance that makes them difficult to be inactivated only by dry heat.

  15. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets as High-Performance Binder-Free Fire-Resistant Wood Coatings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Kutty, Rajendrannair Govindan; Zheng, Qingshen; Eswariah, Varrla; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Liu, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are synthesized through a facile shear force liquid phase exfoliation method and their use as a binder-free oxidation and fire-resistant wood coating is demonstrated. Characterized by intrinsic low thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity, h-BN nanosheet coatings show an excellent fire resistance and oxidation resistance up to 900 °C in air. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    . The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

  17. Testing 1-2-3: The Way to Firing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Why do glaze tests? For a number of reasons. With so many glazes and underglazes being manufactured by different companies that label and number them differently, it can be confusing. Though some of the properties are similar, many are different. Glazes can be influenced by the cone or temperature they are fired to, the clay body they are placed…

  18. Testing 1-2-3: The Way to Firing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Why do glaze tests? For a number of reasons. With so many glazes and underglazes being manufactured by different companies that label and number them differently, it can be confusing. Though some of the properties are similar, many are different. Glazes can be influenced by the cone or temperature they are fired to, the clay body they are placed…

  19. Antares Hot Fire Test at Wallops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA commercial partner Orbital Sciences of Dulles, Va., successfully conducted an engine test of its Antares rocket Friday, Feb. 22, from Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops F...

  20. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  1. Test stand for Titan 34D SRM static firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glozman, Vladimir; Shipway, George

    1988-01-01

    An existing liquid engine test stand at the AF Astronautics Laboratory was refurbished and extensively modified to accommodate the static firing of the Titan 34D solid rocket motor (SRM) in the vertical nozzle down orientation. The main load restraint structure was designed and built to secure the SRM from lifting off during the firing. In addition, the structure provided weather protection, temperature conditioning of the SRM, and positioning of the measurement and recording equipment. The structure was also used for stacking/de-stacking of SRM segments and other technological processes. The existing stand, its foundation and anchorage were thoroughly examined and reanalyzed. Necessary stand modifications were carried out to comply with the requirements of the Titan 34D SRM static firing.

  2. Pallet fire test for steel drum storage on wooden pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Snook, B.L.

    1992-06-19

    A fire test was conducted by the Martin Marietta PORTS Fire Protection Engineering Department on October 3, 1991. This test was designed and set up to simulate a proposed storage configuration. The array consisted of 55-gallon steel drums, filled with noncombustible waste material, placed on wooden pallets stacked three tiers high. Results from the test served as the basis for determining the fire protection requirements for this type of storage. Data acquired from the test indicated that relatively high temperatures were obtained from the ignition source. These readings, taken during short durations throughout the test, were recorded from digital readouts connected to individual thermocouples. The test demonstrated that the wooden pallets did not significantly ignite and basically self-extinguished once the ignition source was consumed. Based upon these findings, storage of this type may be placed in the high bay (70 foot ceilings) sprinklered areas. This is providing that good housekeeping is implemented, large ignition sources are not allowed to be stored or parked in the area, and flammable and combustible liquids and solids are not permitted within the storage zones. The area shall also be designated as a {open_quotes}NO SMOKING{close_quotes} area.

  3. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  4. J-2X Powerpack hot-fire test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-31

    The first hot-fire test of the J-2X power pack 1A gas generator was performed Jan. 31 on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Initial indications are that all test objectives were met. The test was designed as a 3.42-second helium spin start with gas generator ignition and it went the full scheduled duration. Test conductors reported a smooth start with normal shutdown and described the event as a 'good test.' The test was part of the early component testing for the new J-2X engine being built by NASA to power the Ares I and Ares V rockets that will carry humans back to the moon and on to Mars. It was performed as one in a series of 12 scheduled tests. Those tests began last November at Stennis, but the January 31 event represented the first hot-fire test. The Stennis tests are a critical step in the successful development of the J-2X engine.

  5. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  6. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  7. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  8. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  9. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  10. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  11. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  12. 77 FR 37717 - Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... during Fire Exposure (ELECTRA-FIRE), A Consolidation of the Three Major Fire-Induced Circuit and Cable... conducted to realistically explore the electrical functionality of electrical cables under severe...

  13. Numerical estimation of fire resistance and a flexible design of fire protection for structures made of reinforced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaledin, Vl. O.; Mitkevich, A. B.; Strakhov, V. L.

    2012-07-01

    The basic principles of a progressive methodology for calculating the fire resistance of reinforced structures, meant for application to high-rise, multifunctional, and unique buildings, are presented. The methodology is universal with respect to materials, types of building structures with fire protection, and different force and heat loads acting on them under the conditions of fire. It permits one to take into account all particularities of the thermomechanical behavior of structures in the case of joint action of thermal and force loads. The solution procedure is based on using high-level mathematical models and universal methods of numerical analysis, i.e., the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM). To simplify and reduce the labor content of computational algorithms, a mathematical model of special beam finite element has been developed, which in a natural way takes into account the complex structure of buildings, spatial nonuniformity of temperature fields, and the nonlinear behavior of materials. This procedure allowed us to determine the limits of applicability of the known approximate approach, which is based on the use of the concept of "critical temperature," to the estimation of fire resistance and to the design of fire protection of concrete structures. The procedure has been used in designing a number of unique structures built in Moscow.

  14. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  15. Impact of Prescribed Fire and Thinning on Host Resistance to the Southern Pine Beetle: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Treesearch

    M. Forbes Boyle; Roy L. Hedden; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    The southern pine beetle ( Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) is considered one of the most aggressive insect pests in the Southern United States. Resistance to southern pine beetle infestations in southern pines depends largely on oleoresin flow rate and total flow. Treatments, such as prescribed fire and thinning, can be used to reduce stand infestation susceptibil-ity by...

  16. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    DOEpatents

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  17. Development of fire-resistant wellhead and Christmas tree equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.; van Dort, R.; Harmer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sarawak Shell Berhad (SSB) has adopted the philosophy that wellhead equipment for platforms and other congested high-risk areas should be designed to withstand a fire in a neighboring well. This paper outlines the considerations leading to the development of the fireresistant wellhead and Christmas tree and describes the weaknesses inherent in standard wellhead equipment exposed to fire.

  18. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

    2015-07-17

    To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Multinational cohort study. Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P < 0.001). Resistance was detected in 77.9% of the tests, NRTI resistance being most common (70.3%), followed by NNRTI (51.6%) and protease inhibitor (46.1%) resistance. The odds of detecting resistance were lower in tests done in 1997-1998, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, compared to those carried out in 2003-2004 (global P < 0.001). Resistance testing was less common in Eastern Europe [aOR 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.94] compared to Southern Europe, whereas the detection of resistance given that a test was done was less common in Northern (aOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.21-0.39) and Central Eastern (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.76) Europe, compared to Southern Europe. Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance is of particular relevance in some European regions, notably in the countries in Eastern Europe.

  19. Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2011-01-01

    Settlement by Anglo-Americans in the desert shrublands of North America resulted in the introduction and subsequent invasion of multiple nonnative grass species. These invasions have altered presettlement fire regimes, resulted in conversion of native perennial shrublands to nonnative annual grasslands, and placed many native desert species at risk. Effective management of these ecosystems requires an understanding of their ecological resistance to invasion and resilience to fire. Resistance and resilience differ among the cold and hot desert shrublands of the Great Basin, Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts in North America. These differences are largely determined by spatial and temporal patterns of productivity but also are affected by ecological memory, severity and frequency of disturbance, and feedbacks among invasive species and disturbance regimes. Strategies for preventing or managing invasive plant/fire regimes cycles in desert shrublands include: 1) conducting periodic resource assessments to evaluate the probability of establishment of an altered fire regime; 2) developing an understanding of ecological thresholds associate within invasion resistance and fire resilience that characterize transitions from desirable to undesirable fire regimes; and 3) prioritizing management activities based on resistance of areas to invasion and resilience to fire.

  20. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) Fire Protection Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-13

    Breen, D. E., "Hangar Fire Protection with Automatic AFFF Systems," Fire Technology , 92_), pp. 119-131, 1973. 17. Alger, R. S. et al, "Effectiveness...Response Time of Ceiling- Mounted Fire Detectors," Fire Technology , Vol. 8, p. 181, 1972. 51. Babrauskas, V., "Estimating Large Pool Burning Rates...34 Fire Technology , 1983. 52. Larson, T. E., "Detecting Fires with Ultraviolet and Infrared," Specifying Engineer, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 62- 65 (May 1985

  1. Fire

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    In some areas, many aspen stands are all the same age, dating from a single great fire or a year of widespread fires (fig. 1). The 1879 fire in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming (Loope and Gruell 1973) and the 1904 fires in Arizona's White Mountains (Kallander 1969) are examples. Choate (1966) found that almost all aspen stands in New Mexico were even-aged, many...

  2. Fire-resistant pits: Reducing the probability of accidental plutonium dispersal from fuel fires

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Reductions in risk of Pu dispersal from hydrocarbon fuel fires were estimated using pool and spill fire data. Improvements in FRP temperature capabilities, on a system-independent basis, lead to the following estimated reductions in risk, using three probabilistic temperature distributions normalized to a temperature capability of 640[degree]C (the melting point of plutonium): 1OOO[degree]C - factor of 3 to 5; 11OO[degree]C - factor of 10 to 13; and 1200[degree]C - factor of 120 to 300. The above values would, of course, vary for a different normalization temperature. These values were derived to be as system-independent as possible. Incorporation of fuel fire durations or of longer time-averaging (than the two minutes employed in this study) would tend to increase these FRP improvement factors. Incorporation of propellant fires, burning metal or of combined impact/fire accidents would tend to decrease them. Further studies of fuel fire durations, particularly of a fuel fire duration model, is recommended, as is an uncertainty analysis of the temperature distributions.

  3. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  4. Hot fire test results of subscale tubular combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced, subscale, tubular combustion chambers were built and test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants to assess the increase in fatigue life that can be obtained with this type of construction. Two chambers were tested: one ran for 637 cycles without failing, compared to a predicted life of 200 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. The other chamber failed at 256 cycles, compared to a predicted life of 118 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. Posttest metallographic analysis determined that the strain-relieving design (structural compliance) of the tubular configuration was the cause of this increase in life.

  5. Fire Behaviour of Structural Steel - Code vs. Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrina, Tudor

    2016-10-01

    This article shows part of the results of a complex research on the behaviour of steel beam-to-column end-plate connections under the fire action. In the paper, a parallel between a computation made with the help of a computer model, based on the prescriptions of the European design code EN 1993 and experimental tests conducted on real scale substructures is presented. The main goal of this work is to find the difference, in terms of strength and mode of failure, between the European design code and the experimental situation in the testing facility.

  6. Water Mist Fire Tests For Class 2 & 3 Engine Rooms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    system, the fire-test-procedure working group at FP39 focused on water mist systems. Only limited data(3) were available to the working group on water...sources described in Table 2. The working group initially felt that, given the limited testing experience, a protocol was appropriate for spaces 10 m x 10...greater than 5 m, no data were available to the working group at FP39. (Note that Class II engine rooms are between 500 m3 and 3000 M3 in volume, while

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  12. Fire Chemistry Testing of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was initiated that included the long-term testing of the following SOFI materials, which make up the majority of the Thermal Protection System of the Shuttle External Tank: NCFI 24-124 (acreage foam) and BX-265 (close-out foam, including the intertank flange and bipod areas). A potential alternate material, NCFI 27-68 (acreage foam with flame retardant removed), was also tested. Fire chemistry testing was completed on samples that were retrieved after aging/weathering at intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months. The testing included three standard test methods: limiting oxygen index (ASTM G125), radiant panel (ASTM E162), and cone calorimeter (ASTM E1354).

  13. Terahop and Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryStructural Fire RF Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, P; Pratt, G

    2007-02-26

    wait for the entire day of exercises to complete. Unfortunately, RF transmission directly through the central location of the fire on the first floor was not possible, so the transmission path had to be shifted approximately 6-feet off the side of the fire's center. The corner where the fire was located on the first floor was re-enforced with a mixture of concrete and metal fibers for heat resistance. This material was highly reflective, permitting very little RF energy to pass through it. This phenomenon was also observed and verified by Terahop's testing, discussed in the next section. An image of these re-enforced walls and a close up of the actual wall material containing the metal fibers can bee seen in Figure 3.

  14. Indications of vigor loss after fire in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) from electrical resistance measurements

    Treesearch

    T.E. Paysen; A.L. Koonce; E. Taylor; M.O. Rodriquez

    2006-01-01

    In May 1993, electrical resistance measurements were performed on trees in burned and unburned stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) in north-eastern Nicaragua to determine whether tree vigor was affected by fire. An Osmose model OZ-67 Shigometer with digital readout was used to collect the sample electrical resistance data. Computer-...

  15. Clinimetric quality of the fire fighting simulation test as part of the Dutch fire fighters Workers' Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinimetric data for the fire fighting simulation test (FFST), a new test proposed for the Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) of Dutch fire fighters, were evaluated. Methods Twenty-one fire fighters took the FFST three times with one and three weeks between testing. Clinimetric quality was determined by means of reliability, agreement and validity. For reliability and agreement, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and standard error of measurement (SEM), were analysed. For construct validity, the tests from 45 fire fighters were correlated with their own and their supervisors' rated work ability. Results The ICCs were 0.56 and 0.79 at the one-week and three-week test-retest periods, respectively. Testing times ranged from 9 to 17 minutes; the SEMs were 70 s at the one-week and 40 s at the three-week test-retest periods. The construct validity was moderate (-0.47 ≤ r ≤ -0.33; p < 0.05). Conclusions The FFST was reliable with acceptable agreement after three weeks. Construct validity was moderate. We recommend using FFST as a part of the WHS for Dutch fire fighters. It is advised that fire fighters should perform the FFST once as a trial before judging their performance in testing time during the second performance. PMID:20132538

  16. Categorical modeling on electrical anomaly of room-and-pillar coal mine fires and application for field electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wujun; Wang, Yanming; Shao, Zhenlu

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of fire area delineation in coalfield with electrical prospecting, the categorical geoelectric models of coal fires are established according to geological and mining conditions. The room-and-pillar coal mine fires are divided into three types which are coal seam fire, goaf fire and subsidence area fire, respectively, and forward electrical simulations and inversion analysis of each type of coal fire are implemented. Simulation results show that the resistance anomalies of goaf fires exist around one and a half to two times higher than background field, in contrast, coal seam and subsidence area fires performance low resistivity response which are roughly half to two-third of background field resistivity, respectively. Identification of different fire types and delineation of coal fire areas are further presented. The inversion results which are validated by borehole survey prove that the presented method could eliminate the omission of coal fires with high resistance anomaly and provide a novel reference for fire extinguishing in the future.

  17. A summary of the Fire Testing Program at the German HDR Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the fire safety experiments performed under the sponsorship of the German government in the containment building of the decommissioned pilot nuclear power plant known as HDR. This structure is a highly complex, multi-compartment, multi-level building which has been used as the test bed for a wide range of nuclear power plant operation safety experiments. These experiments have included numerous fire tests. Test fire fuel sources have included gas burners, wood cribs, oil pools, nozzle release oil fires, and cable in cable trays. A wide range of ventilation conditions including full natural ventilation, full forced ventilation, and combined natural and forced ventilation have been evaluated. During most of the tests, the fire products mixed freely with the full containment volume. Macro-scale building circulation patterns which were very sensitive to such factors as ventilation configuration were observed and characterized. Testing also included the evaluation of selective area pressurization schemes as a means of smoke control for emergency access and evacuation stairwells.

  18. Electrical Resistivity Tomography for coal fire mapping over Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Bharti, A. K.; Pathak, V. K.; Kumar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Over the decades, coal fires are serious global concern posing grievous hazards to the valuable energy resources, local environments and human life. The coal seam and coal mine fires may be initiated due to improper mining activities, exothermic reactions, lighting, forest fire and other anthropic activities, which burn the coal and may continue underground for decades. The burning of concealed coal seams is a complex process involving numerous ill-defined parameters. Generally, the coal exhibits resistivity of 100 to 500Ωm at normal temperature conditions. During the pyrolysis process, at temperatures greater than 6500C coal became a good conductor with a resistivity of approximately 1 Ωm. The present study deals with the mapping of coal fire over Jharia coal field, India using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). A state-of-the-art 61-channel 64 electrode FlashRES-Universal ERT data acquisition system has been used for data acquisition in the field. The ERT data have been collected using Gradient array and processed in FlashRES Universal survey data checking program for removing noisy data. Then, filtered output data have been inverted using a 2.5D resistivity inversion program. Low resistivity anomalies over 80m-125m and 320m-390m along the profile are inferred to be active coal fire in seam- XVI at a depth of 25m -35m(Figure 1). High resistivity anomaly over 445m - 510m at a depth of 25m -35m has been delineated, due to void associated with complete combustion of seam- XVI coal, followed by char and ash formation resulting from the coal seam fire. Results prove the efficacy of the ERT study comprising Gradient array for coal fire mapping over, Jharia coal field, India.

  19. Tests of Turbulators for Fire-Tube Boilers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    ARD-Ri57 0 538 TESTS OF TURBULATORS FOR FIRE-TUBE BOILERS(U) IOWR 1/1 STATE UNIV AMES HEAT TRANSFER LAB G H JUNKHAN ET AL. OCT 82 HTL-29 UNCLASSIFIED...FESA-E-83023 Heat Transfer LaboratoryA Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Research Institute ’ouci a enapoa Iowa tate niverity, mes...introduction of "turbulators" into the boiler tubes. These inserts increase gas-side heat transfer coefficients, thereby increasing the heat removed

  20. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  1. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  2. Development of fire-resistant wood structural panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, T. W.; Etzold, R.

    1977-01-01

    Structural panels made with Xylok 210 resin as the binder had a burn-through resistance at least equal to the structural panels made with Kerimid 500. Therefore, because of its comparative ease of handling, Xylok 210 was selected as the resin binder to provide the baseline panel for the study of a means of improving the flame-spread resistance of the structural panels. The final resin-filler system consisted of Xylok 210 binder with the addition of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate to the strands of the surface layers, using 24% of each salt based upon the air-dry weight of the strands. This system resulted in a panel with a flame-spread code of about 60, a Class 2 classification. A standard phenolic based structural panel had a flame-spread greater than 200 for laboratory prepared panels. The burn-through tests indicated an average burn-through time of 588 seconds for the specimens made with the final system. This compares to an average burn-through time of 287 seconds for the standard phenolic base structural specimen. One full-size panel was made with the final system.

  3. Numerical field model simulation of full scale fire tests in a closed spherical/cylindrical vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raycraft, Janet K.

    1987-12-01

    Most of the casualties incurred during a fire are due to the smoke generated. An understanding of the way smoke and fire spread during a fire would provide a valuable tool to save lives and minimize damage. The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a full scale test facility called Fire-1. The computer model developed in this thesis is based on the actual geometry of Fire-1 and uses field modeling. It is a three dimensional, finite difference model using primitive variables. The model includes local and global pressure corrections, surface radiation, turbulence, strong buoyancy, and conjugate boundary conditions. Given heat input data, the computer code produces pressure, temperature, density, and velocity fields. Experimental fire tests conducted in Fire-1 are used to validate the computer code. Reasonable agreement in the results has been found. Because of the model's ability to account for pressure, temperature and smoke buildup, its envisioned use is to predict fires aboard ships and submarines.

  4. Next-generation fire extinguishing agent. Phase 2: Laboratory tests and scoping trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapscott, Robert E.; May, John H.; Moore, Joanne P.; Lee, Michael E.; Walker, Joseph L.

    1990-04-01

    Concepts were orginated for next-generation fire extinguishing agents. In Phase 2, laboratory tests and scoping trials were performed to initiate a program for replacement of halon fire extinguishants in Air Force fire protection and firefighter training. Facilities were also established to perform laser Raman spectroscopic investigations of flame suppression halon agents, and initial, baseline Raman studies were carried out.

  5. Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

  6. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Caroline; Fontaine, Gaëlle; Bourbigot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered. PMID:28883337

  7. Preliminary battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle first stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maemura, Takashi; Atsumi, Masahiro

    The development, objectives, facilities, and results of a preliminary battleship tank firing test series of the first stage propulsion system of the H-II rocket are discussed. The test series included two engine chilldown tests and 12 short-duration hot firing tests. The results verify the basic compatibility of the tank system and the LE-7 engine.

  8. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    PubMed

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  9. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  10. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  11. U. S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

    1982-05-01

    Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered. (DLC)

  12. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Sarah C; Nimmo, Dale G; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  13. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Sarah C.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26571383

  14. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food.

  16. Fire resistant polyamide based on 1-(diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl-2,4- and -2,6diamino benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A. (Inventor); Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    1-(Diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl2,4- and-2,6diamino benzenes are reacted with polyacylhalides and optionally comonomers to produce polyamides which have desirable heat and fire resistance properties. These polymers are used to form fibers and fabrics where fire resistance properties are important, e.g., aircraft equipment and structures.

  17. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  18. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  19. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  20. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam...

  1. Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle - First stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Atsutaro; Endo, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Isao; Maemura, Takashi; Namikawa, Tatsuo

    1991-06-01

    The H-II launch vehicle capable of placing 2-ton-class payloads on geostationary orbits is outlined, and focus is placed on its propulsion system. The development status of the project, including component development, preliminary battleship tank firing test (BFT-1), battleship tank firing test (BFT-2), and flight-type tank firing test (CFT) is discussed. The configuration and schematic diagram of BFT-2 are presented, and the firing test results of BFT-2 first series are analyzed, including engine performance, interface compatibility, and pressurization of subsystems.

  2. Fire-Resistant Hydrogel-Fabric Laminates: A Simple Concept That May Save Lives.

    PubMed

    Illeperuma, Widusha R K; Rothemund, Philipp; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J

    2016-01-27

    There is a large demand for fabrics that can survive high-temperature fires for an extended period of time, and protect the skin from burn injuries. Even though fire-resistant polymer fabrics are commercially available, many of these fabrics are expensive, decompose rapidly, and/or become very hot when exposed to high temperatures. We have developed a new class of fire-retarding materials by laminating a hydrogel and a fabric. The hydrogel contains around 90% water, which has a large heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization. When the laminate is exposed to fire, a large amount of energy is absorbed as water heats up and evaporates. The temperature of the hydrogel cannot exceed 100 °C until it is fully dehydrated. The fabric has a low thermal conductivity and maintains the temperature gradient between the hydrogel and the skin. The laminates are fabricated using a recently developed tough hydrogel to ensure integrity of the laminate during processing and use. A thermal model predicts the performance of the laminates and shows that they have excellent heat resistance in good agreement with experiments, making them viable candidates in life saving applications such as fire-resistant blankets or apparel.

  3. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  4. Using HIV resistance tests in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephen; Jayasuriya, Ashini; Smit, Erasmus

    2009-08-01

    Genotypic resistance testing is now a standard of care in HIV management. Although there are clear, published guidelines to recommend the appropriate use of these tests, clinicians and scientists still struggle to determine the optimal use of resistance tests given the finite budgets and time constraints under which they work. In this article we discuss some 'real-life' clinical situations and aim to provide a useful insight into when and where genotypic resistance testing can be optimally applied in the management of HIV-positive adults.

  5. Identification of QTLs for resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is the progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 (‘Royal Gala’ X PI631981) is segregating for resistance to both apple scab and fire bl...

  6. Fire Tests on E-vehicle Battery Cells and Packs.

    PubMed

    Sturk, David; Hoffmann, Lars; Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abuse conditions, including realistic crash scenarios, on Li ion battery systems in E-vehicles in order to develop safe practices and priorities when responding to accidents involving E-vehicles. External fire tests using a single burning item equipment were performed on commercial Li ion battery cells and battery packs for electric vehicle (E-vehicle) application. The 2 most common battery cell technologies were tested: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and mixed transition metal oxide (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, NMC) cathodes against graphite anodes, respectively. The cell types investigated were "pouch" cells, with similar physical dimensions, but the NMC cells have double the electric capacity of the LFP cells due to the higher energy density of the NMC chemistry, 7 and 14 Ah, respectively. Heat release rate (HRR) data and concentrations of toxic gases were acquired by oxygen consumption calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The test results indicate that the state of charge (SOC) affects the HRR as well as the amount of toxic hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas formed during combustion. A larger number of cells increases the amount of HF formed per cell. There are significant differences in response to the fire exposure between the NMC and LFP cells in this study. The LFP cells generate a lot more HF per cell, but the overall reactivity of the NMC cells is higher. However, the total energy released by both batteries during combustion was independent of SOC, which indicates that the electric energy content of the test object contributes to the activation energy of the thermal and heat release process, whereas the chemical energy stored in the materials is the main source of thermal energy in the batteries. The results imply that it is difficult to draw conclusions about higher order system behavior with respect to HF emissions based on data from tests on single

  7. Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MRI6180--03-8668 Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility...Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 604567N 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 61-8257-0-3...Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555-6100 14. ABSTRACT This report outlines the requirements for a flight deck fire fighting

  8. News from the Test Resistance Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    2001-01-01

    An experienced teacher deplores the loony test questions used to make pass/fail decisions for Atlanta-area students. Test resistance is growing. Concerned teachers and parents nationwide are mailing copies of high-stakes tests to the media, lobbying legislators, spearheading protest organizations, and challenging politicians to take tests. (MLH)

  9. Fire-Resistant Reinforcement Makes Steel Structures Sturdier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Built and designed by Avco Corporation, the Apollo heat shield was coated with an ablative material whose purpose was to burn and, thus, dissipate energy. The material charred to form a protective coating which blocked heat penetration beyond the outer surface. Avco Corporation subsequently entered into a contract with Ames Research Center to develop spinoff applications of the heat shield in the arena of fire protection, specifically for the development of fire-retardant paints and foams for aircraft. This experience led to the production of Chartek 59, manufactured by Avco Specialty Materials (a subsidiary of Avco Corporation eventually acquired by Textron, Inc.) and marketed as the world s first intumescent epoxy material. As an intumescent coating, Chartek 59 expanded in volume when exposed to heat or flames and acted as an insulating barrier. It also retained its space-age ablative properties and dissipated heat through burn-off. Further applications were discovered, and the fireproofing formulation found its way into oil refineries, chemical plants, and other industrial facilities working with highly flammable products.

  10. Fire safety in space - beyond flammability testing of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Niehaus, Justin; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Legros, Guillaume; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; T`ien, James S.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2015-04-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 179 - Procedures for Simulated Pool and Torch-Fire Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Testing B Appendix B to Part 179 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Pt. 179, App. B Appendix B to Part 179—Procedures for Simulated Pool and Torch-Fire...-minus one minute, of simulated pool-fire exposure. b. A thermal protection system must be tested in the...

  12. Time - Temperature Relationships of Test Head Fired and Backfires

    Treesearch

    Lawrence S. Davis; Robert E. Martin

    1960-01-01

    Time-temperature relations were measured during the course of a preliminary investigation of the thermal characteristics of forest fires. Observations on 5 head fires and 5 backfires in 8-year-old gallberry-palmetto roughs on the Alapaha Experimental Range near Tifton, Georgia, are the basis for this report.

  13. DM-8 test firing at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Development Motor (DM) 8 successfully fired in the first full-scale, full-duration igniting of the new solid rocket motor (SRM) design at Wasatch Operations, Morton Thiokol, Utah. Three days of delays for various reasons preceded the successful firing.

  14. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in fire fighter testing.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, G J M; Verhoogen, R A J R; Van Cauwenbergh, A F M; Godderis, L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current daily practice of aerobic capacity testing in Belgian fire fighters. The impact of personal and test-related parameters on the outcome has been evaluated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) results of 605 male fire fighters gathered between 1999 and 2010 were analysed. The maximal cardio respiratory exercise tests were performed at 22 different centres using different types of tests (tread mill or bicycle), different exercise protocols and measuring equipment. Mean VO2 max was 43.3 (SD = 9.8) ml/kg.min. Besides waist circumference and age, the type of test, the degree of performance of the test and the test centre were statistically significant determinants of maximal oxygen uptake. Test-related parameters have to be taken into account when interpreting and comparing maximal oxygen uptake tests of fire fighters. It highlights the need for standardization of aerobic capacity testing in the medical evaluation of fire fighters.

  15. Assessment of simulation predictions of hydrocarbon pool fire tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2010-04-01

    An uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is performed on the fuel regression rate model within SIERRA/Fuego by comparing to a series of hydrocarbon tests performed in the Thermal Test Complex. The fuels used for comparison for the fuel regression rate model include methanol, ethanol, JP8, and heptane. The recently implemented flamelet combustion model is also assessed with a limited comparison to data involving measurements of temperature and relative mole fractions within a 2-m diameter methanol pool fire. The comparison of the current fuel regression rate model to data without UQ indicates that the model over predicts the fuel regression rate by 65% for methanol, 63% for ethanol, 95% for JP8, and 15% for heptane. If a UQ analysis is performed incorporating a range of values for transmittance, reflectance, and heat flux at the surface the current model predicts fuel regression rates within 50% of measured values. An alternative model which uses specific heats at inlet and boiling temperatures respectively and does not approximate the sensible heat is also compared to data. The alternative model with UQ significantly improves the comparison to within 25% for all fuels except heptane. Even though the proposed alternative model provides better agreement to data, particularly for JP8 and ethanol (within 15%), there are still outstanding issues regarding significant uncertainties which include heat flux gauge measurement and placement, boiling at the fuel surface, large scale convective motion within the liquid, and semi-transparent behavior.

  16. Monopropellant Thruster Firing Test using KC12GA Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Kagawa, H.; Hattori, A.; Kajiwara, K.

    2004-10-01

    Many monopropellant thrusters use a catalyst for decomposing the propellant, hydrazine. The catalyst directly affects the thruster performance and lifetime. Therefore, it is important to confirm that the catalyst is suitable for our thrusters. Until 2002, we used Shell405 catalyst for satellite and H-IIA launch vehicle upperstage RCS thrusters. In 2002, however, Shell Chemical Inc. ceased manufacturing Shell405 catalyst and transferred the product to AEROJET, where it was renamed S405. We found KC12GA (Hydrazine decomposition catalyst, manufactured by Solvay, Belgium) as well as S405 and checked physical properties of KC12GA and S405. We then conducted a series of spontaneous tests, including life firing tests on various monopropellant thrusters (20N, 4N and 1N) loaded with KC12GA. The result showed that KC12GA was compatible with Shell 405, and that thrusters with KC12GA might have longer life than thrusters with Shell 405. This paper reports our comparison of Shell 405 and KC12GA applied to JAXA/lA monopropellant thrusters.

  17. Laser detonator development for test-firing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, A. C.; Thomas, K. A.; Kennedy, J. E.; Akinci, A. A.; Mallett, H. L.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has historically fielded two types of electro-explosive detonators. The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW) has an exploding wire as the initiating element, a low-density transfer charge and a high-density output pellet. The slapper detonator, or exploding-foil initiator (EFI), utilizes an exploding foil to drive a flying plate element into a high-density output pellet. The last twenty years has seen various research and development activities from many laboratories and manufacturing facilities around the world to develop laser-driven analogs of these devices, but to our knowledge none of those is in general use. Los Alamos is currently committed to design and manufacture a laser analog to the long-standing, generic, general-purpose SE-1 EBW detonator, which is intended to provide increased safety in large-scale test-firing operations. This paper will discuss the major design parameters of this laser detonator and present some preliminary testing results.

  18. Fairchild C-82 Packet Destroyed in NACA Crash Fire Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-09-21

    A Fairchild C-82 Packet is purposely destroyed by researchers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. In response to an escalating number of transport aircraft crashes in the mid-1940s, the NACA researchers undertook a decade-long investigation into a number of issues surrounding low-altitude aircraft crashes. The tests were conducted at the Ravenna Arsenal, approximately 60 miles south of the Lewis laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The aircraft were excess military transports from World War II. The aircraft was guided down the runway at speeds of 80 to 105 miles per hour. It came into contact with poles which tore open the 1500-gallon fuel tanks in the wings before reaching the barriers at the end of the runway. Fuel poured from the tanks and supply lines, resulting in the spread of both liquid fuel and a large cloud of spray. Solomon Weiss developed a method of dying the fuel red to improve its visibility during the crashes. This red fuel cloud trailed slightly behind the skidding aircraft, then rushed forward when the aircraft stopped. The nine-crash initial phase of testing used Lockheed C-56 Lodestar and C-82 transport aircraft to identify potential ignition sources and analyze the spread of flammable materials. The researchers were able to identify different classes of ignition sources, fuel disbursement patterns, the time when a particular ignition source might appear, rate of the fire spread, cabin survival times, and deceleration rates.

  19. Fire testing and analysis of TRUPACT-I Thermal Test Article

    SciTech Connect

    Romesberg, L.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Joseph, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report documents the fabrication and thermal test of a full-scale prototype of the revised TRUPACT-I design. The fire test demonstrated that the response of the Test Article to a jet-fueled pool fire, subsequent to the impact and puncture tests, meets the impact, puncture, and thermal performance requirements of the regulations governing transport of radioactive materials. The Test Article was a replica of the front half (closure end) of the revised TRUPACT-I design. To simulate the cumulative effect of the regulatory hypothetical accident sequence, the Test Article included the structural damage found in TRUPACT-I, Unit 0 after regulatory drop and puncture testing. The Test Article was totally engulfed in a pool fire fueled by JP-4 jet fuel for 46 minutes. The maximum temperature reached at the inner door seals was 149/degree/C (300/degree/F) and the maximum temperature at the inner door filters was 171/degree/C (340/degree/F). Both temperatures are within the normal working range for these components. Post-test leak rate measurements of 0.0041 atm-cm/sup 3//s (ANSI standard air) between the innermost pair of door seals and 0.0046 atm-cm/sup 3//s (ANSI standard air) between the outermost pair of door seals verified that the performance of the silicone seals met the design requirements. Since no detectable leakage was measured to a sensitivity of 1.0E-7 atm-cm/sup 3//s for the filter installation seal or quick-connect valve seal post-test, the total leak rate for the containment system was less than the maximum allowable 0.01 atm-cm/sup 3//s (ANSI standard air). 10 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Fire

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsClimate forecasts indicate that the South’s spring and fall wildfire seasons will be extended.Prescribed fires, currently conducted on roughly a 3 to 5 year rotation across much of the South, would need to become more frequent if conditions become drier.Major wildfire events, such as the 2007...

  1. Fire tests and analyses of a rail cask-sized calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Greiner, Miles

    2010-10-01

    Three large open pool fire experiments involving a calorimeter the size of a spent fuel rail cask were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Lurance Canyon Burn Site. These experiments were performed to study the heat transfer between a very large fire and a large cask-like object. In all of the tests, the calorimeter was located at the center of a 7.93-meter diameter fuel pan, elevated 1 meter above the fuel pool. The relative pool size and positioning of the calorimeter conformed to the required positioning of a package undergoing certification fire testing. Approximately 2000 gallons of JP-8 aviation fuel were used in each test. The first two tests had relatively light winds and lasted 40 minutes, while the third had stronger winds and consumed the fuel in 25 minutes. Wind speed and direction, calorimeter temperature, fire envelop temperature, vertical gas plume speed, and radiant heat flux near the calorimeter were measured at several locations in all tests. Fuel regression rate data was also acquired. The experimental setup and certain fire characteristics that were observed during the test are described in this paper. Results from three-dimensional fire simulations performed with the Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) fire code are also presented. Comparisons of the thermal response of the calorimeter as measured in each test to the results obtained from the CAFE simulations are presented and discussed.

  2. Wet-spinning of continuous montmorillonite-graphene fibers for fire-resistant lightweight conductors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bo; Peng, Li; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2015-05-26

    All-inorganic fibers composed of neat 2D crystals possessing fascinating performance (e.g., alternately stacking layers, high mechanical strength, favorable electrical conductivity, and fire-resistance) are discussed in detail. We developed a wet-spinning assmebly strategy to achieve continuous all-inorganic fibers of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoplatelets by incorporation of a graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystal (LC) template at a rate of 9 cm/s, and the templating role of GO LC is confirmed by in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy and polarized optical microscopy inspections. After protofibers underwent thermal reduction, the obtained binary complex fibers composed of neat 2D crystals integrate the outstanding fire-retardance of MMT nanoplatelets and the excellent conductivity of graphene nanosheets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope observations reveal the microstructures of fibers with compactly stacking layers. MMT-graphene fibers show increaing tensile strengths (88-270 MPa) and electrical conductivities (130-10500 S/m) with increasing graphene fraction. MMT-graphene (10/90) fibers are used as fire-resistant (bearing temperature in air: 600-700 °C), lightweight (ρ < 1.62 g/cm(3)) conductors (conductivity: up to 1.04 × 10(4) S/m) in view of their superior performance in high-temperature air beyond commercial T700 carbon fibers. We attribute the fire-resistance of MMT-graphene fibers to the armor-like protection of MMT layers, which could shield graphene layers from the action of oxidative etching. The composite fibers worked well as fire-resistant conductors when being heated to glowing red by an alcohol lamp. Our GO LC-templating wet-spinning strategy may also inspire the continuous assembly of other layered crystals into high-performance composite fibers.

  3. A new family of fire-resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1981-01-01

    Need for lightweight flame-resistant, nonsmoking materials in interiors of spacecraft has spawned family of foams that could find applications in aircraft and other vehicles. Polyimide-based foams are being developed as resilient fillers for seat cushions, as rigid, low-density wall panels, as high-strength sheets for floors, and as thermal and acoustical insulation.

  4. A new family of fire-resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1981-01-01

    Need for lightweight flame-resistant, nonsmoking materials in interiors of spacecraft has spawned family of foams that could find applications in aircraft and other vehicles. Polyimide-based foams are being developed as resilient fillers for seat cushions, as rigid, low-density wall panels, as high-strength sheets for floors, and as thermal and acoustical insulation.

  5. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  6. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  12. Fire alarm system acceptance test procedure for Project W-164, Sample Equipment Cleaning Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, P.J.

    1995-04-17

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection System functions as required by project criteria. The test results will be issued as an acceptance test report (ATR) after all testing is complete. Components that are covered by this procedure are the fire alarm control system, power transfer to battery backup, switching circuits, alarm input devices, and battery capacity and recharge capability. Bldg 6268 is part of the Effluent Treatment and Laboratory Project.

  13. Data for fire hazard assessment of selected non-halogenated and halogenated fire retardants: Report of Test FR 3983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. H.; Babrauskas, V.; Levin, B. C.; Paabo, M.

    1991-10-01

    Five plastic materials, with and without fire retardants, were studied to compare the fire hazards of non-halogenated fire retardant additives with halogenated flame retardents. The plastic materials were identified by the sponsors as unsaturated polyesters, thermoplastic high density, low density and cross-linked low density polyethylenes, polypropylene, flexible and rigid poly(vinyl chlorides), and cross-linked and thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. The non-halogenated fire retardants tested were aluminum hydroxide, also known as alumina trihydrate, sodium alumino-carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. The halogenated flame retardants were chlorine or bromine/antimony oxides. The plastics were studied using the Cone Calorimeter and the cup furnace smoke toxicity method (high density polyethylene only). The Cone Calorimeter provided data on mass consumed; time to ignition; peak rate and peak time of heat release; total heat release; effective heat of combustion; average yields of CO, CO2, HCl, and HBr; and average smoke obscuration. The concentrations of toxic gases generated in the cup furnace smoke toxicity method were used to predict the toxic potency of the mixed thermal decomposition products. The data from the Cone Calorimeter indicate that the non-halogenated fire retardants were, in most of the tested plastic formulations, more effective than the halogenated flame retardants in increasing the time to ignition. The non-halogenated fire retardants were also more effective in reducing the mass consumed, peak rate of heat release, total heat released, and effective smoke produced. The use of halogenated flame retardants increased smoke production and CO yields and, additionally, produced the known acid gases and toxic irritants, HCl and HBr, in measureable quantities.

  14. Application of the relative energy release criteria to enclosure fire testing. [aircraft compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Coulbert, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The five relative energy release criteria (RERC) which are a first step towards formulating a unified concept that can be applied to the development of fires in enclosures, place upper bounds on the rate and amount of energy released during a fire. They are independent, calculated readily, and may be applied generally to any enclosure regardless of size. They are useful in pretest planning and for interpreting experimental data. Data from several specific fire test programs were examined to evaluate the potential use of RERC to provide test planning guidelines. The RERC were compared with experimental data obtained in full-scale enclosures. These results confirm that in general the RERC do identify the proper limiting constraints on enclosure fire development and determine the bounds of the fire development envelope. Plotting actual fire data against the RERC reveals new valid insights into fire behavior and reveals the controlling constraints in fire development. The RERC were calculated and plotted for several descrpitions of full-scale fires in various aircraft compartments.

  15. Test of wind predictions for peak fire-danger stations in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Relative accuracy of several wind-speed forecasting methods was tested during the forest fire seasons of 1950 and 1951. For the study, three fire-weather forecast centers of the U. S. Weather Bureau prepared individual station forecasts for 11 peak stations within the national. forests of Oregon and Washington. These spot forecasts were considered...

  16. A simplified test for adhesive behavior in wood sections exposed to fire

    Treesearch

    E. L. Schaffer

    1968-01-01

    A relatively simple test procedure was developed to evaluate the behavior of various adhesives near fire-exposed surfaces in laminated constructions. A number of sections cut from laminated blocks were exposed to fire on one surface. After this exposure, the sections were transversely cut, and the gluelines were examined for separation depth. In addition, the cool...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  18. Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle second stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshihiko

    The objectives, facilities, articles, and results are presented of a series of battleship tank firing tests on the second stage propulsion systems of the H-II launch vehicle. The test series included 11 hot firing tests under first burn conditions, restart conditions, and idle mode conditions. Oscillatory perturbations were added to the LOX flow in some cases to obtain data concerning POGO oscillation. The results verify the functions of the second stage propulsion system.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  20. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  1. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  2. Vulnerability Methodology and Protective Measures for Aircraft Fire and Explosion Hazards. Volume 2. Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test Programs. Part 1. Fire Detection, Fire Extinguishment and Surface Ignition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    injection method , has a negative margin of fifty (50) degrees ( 975 minus 1025). MIL-H—5606 has a zero margin, ie, the HIT is equal to but not less...Development of "Standard" Fires in F~16 Simulator 54 6.2.1 Selection of Fuel Flow Rate 54 6.2.2 "Standard" F-16 Nacelle Simulator Fire Test 55 6.3...variables which affect the hazard of accidental fire in an engine compartment are complex: 0 The fuel type, its temperature and pressure, and its method of

  3. Fired worker fails to meet ADA's 'regarded as' test.

    PubMed

    1998-08-07

    [Name removed], a waiter at a Long Island [name removed], claimed that he was fired based on the misconception that because he was gay, he was HIV-positive. [Name removed] sued under the Federal Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, because there is not a law in NY that protects people from discrimination based on sexual orientation. The court rejected his claim by saying that he failed to provide a factual basis for his allegations. The employers stated that they fired [name removed] for using profanity toward a coworker, while on the job.

  4. Ventilation Controlled Fires: Smoke Obscuration and Venting in Cable Fire Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the cables were not -lamped to maintain the spacing or hold them straight. When it became apparent that the cable fires would not propagate ...following characteristics: *Without thermal reinforcement from other burning fuels, the flames did not propagate along the cables in the horizontal...a very hot compartment such as under flashover conditions, a similar water spray could generate superheated steam and a much greater insu~it. IA The

  5. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  6. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  7. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Fire Station Little Mountain Test Annex, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    deficiencies are related to living areas, size of fire station bays and doors, disinfection facilities, and hazardous materials response capability. Scope...15 Figure 5: State of Utah Recommended Areas of Non-Attainment for Ozone ............................. 16 Figure 6...Protection Association NHPA National Historic Preservation Act NOx Oxides of Nitrogen O3 Ozone OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  8. 78 FR 70324 - Thy Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Thy Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire... Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor... Safety and Health Administration, Room N-2625, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210...

  9. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics. Phase 4: Sandwich panel decorative ink development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayarajan, A.; Johnson, G. A.; Korver, G. L.; Anderson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Five chemically different resin systems with improved fire resistance properties were studied for a possible screenprinting ink application. Fire resistance is hereby defined as the cured ink possessing improvements in flammability, smoke emission, and thermal stability. The developed ink is for application to polyvinyl fluoride film. Only clear inks without pigments were considered. Five formulations were evaluated compared with KC4900 clear acrylic ink, which was used as a baseline. The tests used in the screening evaluation included viscosity, smoke and toxic gas emission, limiting oxygen index (LOI), and polyvinyl fluoride film (PVF) printability. A chlorofluorocarbon resin (FPC461) was selected for optimization studies. The parameters for optimization included screenprinting process performance, quality of coating, and flammability of screenprinted 0.051-mm (0.002-in.) white Tedlar. The quality of the screenprinted coating on Tedlar is dependent on viscosity, curing time, adhesion to polyvinyl fluoride film, drying time (both inscreen and as an applied film), and silk screen mesh material and porosity.

  10. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  11. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Thomas D.; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar ‘Gala Galaxy’ using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  12. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  13. General Atomics Smart Microsensors - FY05 Laboratory Fire Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    recognition; Cyclic voltammetry , Microsensor arrays; Sensor arrays This report describes the cermet sensors and system control software recently evaluated...high temperature operation and are used as electrodes to perform electrochemical cyclic voltammetry on gases. A natural extension of this is to...capability the cyclic voltammetry has over the simple ionization or photoelectric methods the EST detectors use. For three of the flaming fires

  14. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time.

  15. Guidelines of the Design of Electropyrotechnic Firing Circuit for Unmanned Flight and Ground Test Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Massie, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, Engineering Directorate, Electronic System Branch, is responsible for providing pyrotechnic support capabilities to Langley Research Center unmanned flight and ground test projects. These capabilities include device selection, procurement, testing, problem solving, firing system design, fabrication and testing; ground support equipment design, fabrication and testing; checkout procedures and procedure?s training to pyro technicians. This technical memorandum will serve as a guideline for the design, fabrication and testing of electropyrotechnic firing systems. The guidelines will discuss the entire process beginning with requirements definition and ending with development and execution.

  16. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  17. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... resistance requirements for chemical cartridge respirators are as follows: Maximum Resistance Type...

  18. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... resistance requirements for chemical cartridge respirators are as follows: Maximum Resistance Type...

  19. Full-scale flammability test data for validation of aircraft fire mathematical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Bricker, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five large scale aircraft flammability tests were conducted in a Boeing 737 fuselage at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The objective of this test program was to provide a data base on the propagation of large scale aircraft fires to support the validation of aircraft fire mathematical models. Variables in the test program included cabin volume, amount of fuel, fuel pan area, fire location, airflow rate, and cabin materials. A number of tests were conducted with jet A-1 fuel only, while others were conducted with various Boeing 747 type cabin materials. These included urethane foam seats, passenger service units, stowage bins, and wall and ceiling panels. Two tests were also included using special urethane foam and polyimide foam seats. Tests were conducted with each cabin material individually, with various combinations of these materials, and finally, with all materials in the cabin. The data include information obtained from approximately 160 locations inside the fuselage.

  20. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  1. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  2. Fabrication and testing of fire resistant graphite composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022m, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. Described are the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  3. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  4. Pressure Vessel with Impact and Fire Resistant Coating and Method of Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and hear absorption.

  5. Fire and heat resistant laminating resins based on maleimido substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazene polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Devendra (Inventor); Fohlen, George M. (Inventor); Parker, John A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    4-Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes are reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleamic acids which are converted to the maleimides. The maleimides are polymerized. By selection of starting materials (e.g., hexakis amino or trisaminophenoxy trisphenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes), selection of molar proportions of reactants, use of mixtures of anhydrides and use of dianhydrides as bridging groups a variety of maleimides and polymers are produced. The polymers have high limiting oxygen indices, high char yields and other useful heat and fire resistant properties making them useful as, for example, impregnants of fabrics.

  6. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  7. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  8. Pressure Vessel with Impact and Fire Resistant Coating and Method of Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and hear absorption.

  9. Pressure vessel with impact and fire resistant coating and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and heat absorption.

  10. 7. COMPLETE X15 VEHICLE TEST STAND AFTER AN ENGINE FIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COMPLETE X-15 VEHICLE TEST STAND AFTER AN ENGINE FIRE OR EXPLOSION. Wreckage of engine is still fixed in its clamp; X-15 vehicle lies on the ground detached from engine. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Hot-Fire Testing of 5N and 22N HPGP Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin W.; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends.NASA completed hot-fire testing of 5N and 22N HPGP thrusters at the Marshall Space Flight Center’s Component Development Area altitude test stand in April 2015. Both thrusters are ground test articles and not flight ready units, but are representative of potential flight hardware with a known path towards flight application. The purpose of the 5N testing was to perform facility check-outs and generate a small set of data for comparison to ECAPS and Orbital ATK data sets. The 5N thruster performed as expected with thrust and propellant flow-rate data generated that are similar to previous testing at Orbital ATK. Immediately following the 5N testing, and using the same facility, the 22N testing was conducted on the same test stand with the purpose of demonstrating the 22N performance. The results of 22N testing indicate it performed as expected.The results of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  12. Flash and fire test: Evaluation of the behavior of nonmetallic materials in hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tests conducted to evaluate the behavior of nonmetallic materials in hydrogen are described. The results of the flash and fire test are presented. The flash and fire test is used to evaluate the tendency of heated materials to ignite in a hydrogen atmosphere when subjected to an ignition source. The test represents a hydrogen parallel to a hazard condition known to exist in oxygen systems. Ten nonmetallic materials were evaluated to establish baseline data on the behavior of the materials and to characterize one mode of material failure considered to be a factor pertinent to the safe use of a material in hydrogen.

  13. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  14. Fire protection at the Fast Flux Test Facility (a sodium cooled test reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.R.

    1980-09-19

    For purposes of this presentation, fire protection at the FFTF is subdivided into two catagories; protection for non-sodium areas and protection for areas containing sodium. Fire protection systems and philosophies for non-sodium areas at the FFTF are very similar to those used at conventional power plants being constructed throughout the country. They follow, essentially, the NRC rules and guidelines and ANSI 59.4 Generic Requirements for Light Water Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection. The FFTF with its support facilities have their own water system comprised of a looped 8'' and 10'' underground distribution system, three 1500 GPM fire pumps and three ground level storage tanks totaling 736,000 gallons with 420,000 reserved for fire protection. Fire hydrants are enclosed with hose houses outfitted for use by the Emergency Response Team (ERT). Fire prevention systems for sodium areas of the FFTF are also described.

  15. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor

  16. Model test on underground coal gasification (UCG) with low-pressure fire seepage push-through. Part I: Test conditions and air fire seepage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    The technology of a pushing-through gallery with oxygen-enriched fire-seepage combustion was studied during shaft-free UCG in this article, and the main experiment parameters were probed. The test results were analyzed in depth. The patterns of variation and development were pointed out for the fire source moving speed, temperature field, leakage rate, the expanding diameter for the gasification gallery, and blasting pressure. Test results showed that, with the increase in the wind-blasting volume, the moving velocity for the fire source speeded up, and the average temperature for the gallery continuously rose. Under the condition of oxygen-enriched air blasting, when O{sub 2} contents stood at 90%, the moving speed for the fire source was 4-5 times that of air blasting. In the push-through process, the average leakage rate for the blasting was 82.23%, with the average discharge volume of 3.43 m{sup 3}/h and average gallery diameter of 7.87 cm. With the proceeding of firepower seepage, the extent of dropping for the leakage rate increased rapidly, and the drop rate for the blasting pressure gradually heightened.

  17. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  18. Quick look test report: MPT static firing no. 2 test MPT-S2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The three engine cluster was fired at 70 percent power level for a nominal 15 seconds to evaluate the integrated performance of the main propulsion system. Engine ignition occurred at approximately 1403 with the planned mainstage duration achieved for all three engines. Operation of all systems was as expected with the exception of the recirculation pumps. The pumps were started while the propellant loading was in fast fill, but they cavitated and lost head at the termination of fast fill. The pumps were subsequently restarted after pressurizing the tank and draining back propellant to get good quality. Post test inspection of the engines revealed some discoloration on the inside of the thrust chamber and distorted drain lines for engine #2.

  19. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  20. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  1. Ultralight, highly thermally insulating and fire resistant aerogel by encapsulating cellulose nanofibers with two-dimensional MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Mukhopadhyay, Alolika; Jiao, Yucong; Yong, Qiang; Chen, Liao; Xing, Yingjie; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-08-17

    Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds. Thus, in this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were nano-wrapped with ultrathin 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets via chemical crosslinking, to produce an aerogel. Thermal and combustion characterization revealed highly desirable properties (thermal conductivity k = 28.09 mW m(-1) K(-1), insulation R value = 5.2, limit oxygen index (LOI) = 34.7%, total heat release = 0.4 MJ m(-2)). Vertical burning tests also demonstrated excellent fire retardant and self-extinguishing capabilities. Raman spectra further revealed that MoS2 remained unscathed after 30 seconds of burning in a 1300 °C butane flame. Considering the inherently low density of this material, there is significant opportunity for its usage in a number of insulating applications demanding specific fire resistance properties.

  2. Halon 1211 Alternative Systems Testing for Flight Decks: Report of Jet Engine Fire Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Bicarbonate Powder (PKP), FE-36, FM-200, Water Mist, Halotron 1, 16. PRICE CODE Windmilling , Engine Load, Engine Unload, Pool Fire, Pan Fire 17...occur to materials not in close proximity to the fire. So, the first step in identifying potential Halon 1211 replacement systems for flight deck use...the engine is windmilling (Reference 7). Several people interviewed said that the required guidelines are not appropriate in all cases. For example

  3. Enhancements in Glovebox Design Resulting from Laboratory-Conducted FIre Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Wunderlich, Gregory M.; Mcentire, James R.; Richmond, William G.

    2013-06-14

    The primary mission of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project was to disassemble nuclear weapons pits and convert the resulting special nuclear materials to a form suitable for further disposition. Because of the nature of materials involved, the fundamental system which allowed PDCF to perform its mission was a series of integrated and interconnected gloveboxes which provided confinement and containment of the radioactive materials being processed. The high throughput planned for PDCF and the relatively high neutron and gamma radiation levels of the pits required that gloveboxes be shielded to meet worker dose limits. The glovebox shielding material was required to contain high hydrogen concentrations which typically result in these materials being combustible. High combustible loadings created design challenges for the facility fire suppression and ventilation system design. Combustible loading estimates for the PDCF Plutonium (Pu) Processing Building increased significantly due to these shielding requirements. As a result, the estimates of combustible loading substantially exceeded values used to support fire and facility safety analyses. To ensure a valid basis for combustible loading contributed by the glovebox system, the PDCF Project funded a series of fire tests conducted by the Southwest Research Institute on door panels and a representative glovebox containing Water Extended Polyester (WEP) radiological shielding to observe their behavior during a fire event. Improvements to PDCF glovebox designs were implemented based on lessons learned during the fire test. In particular, methods were developed to provide high levels of neutron shielding while maintaining combustible loading in the glovebox shells at low levels. Additionally, the fire test results led to design modifications to mitigate pressure increases observed during the fire test in order to maintain the integrity of the WEP cladding. These changes resulted in significantly

  4. Suite of proposed imaging performance metrics and test methods for fire service thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Francine; Lock, Andrew; Bryner, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    The use of thermal imaging cameras (TIC) by the fire service is increasing as fire fighters become more aware of the value of these tools. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is currently developing a consensus standard for design and performance requirements for TIC as used by the fire service. This standard will include performance requirements for TIC design robustness and image quality. The National Institute of Standards and Technology facilitates this process by providing recommendations for science-based performance metrics and test methods to the NFPA technical committee charged with the development of this standard. A suite of imaging performance metrics and test methods based on the harsh operating environment and limitations of use particular to the fire service has been proposed for inclusion in the standard. The performance metrics include large area contrast, effective temperature range, spatial resolution, nonuniformity, and thermal sensitivity. Test methods to measure TIC performance for these metrics are in various stages of development. An additional procedure, image recognition, has also been developed to facilitate the evaluation of TIC design robustness. The pass/fail criteria for each of these imaging performance metrics are derived from perception tests in which image contrast, brightness, noise, and spatial resolution are degraded to the point that users can no longer consistently perform tasks involving TIC due to poor image quality.

  5. Predicting bending strength of fire-retardant-treated plywood from screw-withdrawal tests

    Treesearch

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow; W. Nelson

    This report describes the development of a test method and predictive model to estimate the residual bending strength of fire-retardant-treated plywood roof sheathing from measurement of screw-withdrawal force. The preferred test methodology is described in detail. Models were developed to predict loss in mean and lower prediction bounds for plywood bending strength as...

  6. [Study on discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Song, Wen-qi; Li, Shu-chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid identification of fire resistive coating for steel structure of different brands in circulating, a new method for the fast discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure by means of near infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The raster scanning near infrared spectroscopy instrument and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to collect the spectral curve of different brands of fire resistive coating for steel structure and the spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation(standard normal variate transformation, SNV) and Norris second derivative. The principal component analysis (principal component analysis, PCA)was used to near infrared spectra for cluster analysis. The analysis results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 to PC5 were 99. 791%. The 3-dimentional plot was drawn with the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 X 10, which appeared to provide the best clustering of the varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure. A total of 150 fire resistive coating samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 125 samples with 25 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 25 samples with 5 samples of each variety. According to the principal component scores of unknown samples, Mahalanobis distance values between each variety and unknown samples were calculated to realize the discrimination of different varieties. The qualitative analysis model for external verification of unknown samples is a 10% recognition ration. The results demonstrated that this identification method can be used as a rapid, accurate method to identify the classification of fire resistive coating for steel structure and provide technical reference for market regulation.

  7. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  8. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  9. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  10. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  11. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  12. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  13. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The maximum allowable resistance requirements for gas masks are...

  14. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation... continuous rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance of demand apparatus shall not...

  15. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation... continuous rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance of demand apparatus shall not...

  16. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  17. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The maximum allowable resistance requirements for gas masks are...

  18. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  19. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  20. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  1. The effect of heat treatment simulating porcelain firing processes on titanium corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Rylska, Dorota; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of titanium used in metal-ceramic restorations in manufacturing is based on the presence of oxide layer on the metal surface. The procedures used during combining metallic material with porcelain may affect the changes in oxide layers structure, and thus anticorrosive properties of metallic material. The aim of the study was an evaluation of potential changes in the structure and selected corrosion properties of titanium after sandblasting and thermal treatment applicable to the processes of ceramics fusion. Milled titanium elements were subjected to a few variants of the processes typical of ceramics fusion and studied in terms of resistance to electrochemical corrosion. The study included the OCP changes over time, measurements of Icorr, Ecorr and Rp as well as potentiodynamic examinations. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were analyzed using SEM and EDS methods. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the processes corresponding to ceramic oxidation and fusion on titanium in the variants used in the study do not cause deterioration of its anticorrosive properties, and partially enhance the resistance. This depends on the quality of oxide layers structure. Titanium elements treated by porcelain firing processes do not lose their corrosion resistance.

  2. A Survey of Vegetation and Wildland Fire Hazards on the Nevada Test Site, September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nevada, Bechtel

    2004-09-01

    In the spring of 2004 a survey was conducted by Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services on the Nevada Test Site to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The field surveyed assessed 211 sites along major Nevada Test Site corridors for the abundance of native perennial and annual species and invasive weeds. The abundance of fine-textured (grasses and herbs) and coarse-textured (woody) biomass was visually estimated on numerical scales ranging from one to five. Wildland fires are costly to control and to mitigate once they occur. Revegetation of burned areas is very slow without reseeding or transplanting with native species and other rehabilitation efforts. Untreated areas become much more vulnerable to future fires once invasive species, rather than native species, colonize a burned area.The annual assessment of wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site is scheduled to be implemented each spring in the near future with results being reported directly to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Bechtel Nevada Fire Marshal.

  3. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  4. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  5. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  6. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  7. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    2004-10-21

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx}150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  8. Fire, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Dale M.

    2005-04-15

    The overall vision for FIRE is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing DT fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx} 150 - 300 MW and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. 'Steady-state' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high {beta}, high bootstrap fraction and 100% non-inductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/AT operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE H-modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3 - 10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2 - 4 MW m{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  9. Laboratory test methods for evaluating the fire response of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The test methods which were developed or evaluated were intended to serve as means of comparing materials on the basis of specific responses under specific sets of test conditions, using apparatus, facilities, and personnel that would be within the capabilities of perhaps the majority of laboratories. Priority was given to test methods which showed promise of addressing the pre-ignition state of a potential fire. These test methods were intended to indicate which materials may present more hazard than others under specific test conditions. These test methods are discussed and arranged according to the stage of a fire to which they are most relevant. Some observations of material performance which resulted from this work are also discussed.

  10. Research on fire-resistant diesel fuel. Interim report 1 Oct 79-31 Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, W.D. Jr; Fodor, G.E.; Kanakia, M.D.; Naegeli, D.W.; Wright, B.R.

    1981-12-01

    When development of aqueous fire-resistant diesel fuel (FRF) was previously reported, it was shown that clear-to-hazy water-in-fuel, diesel fuel micro-emulsions could be prepared and that they exhibit reduced mist flammability and self-extinguishing pool fires at temperatures above the base fuel flash point. It was also demonstrated that unmodified diesel engines start, idle, and run without difficulty on such fuels. Research has been continued to establish compositional requirements for base fuels, surfactants, and water used in FRF formulations. DF-2, DF-1, DF-A, and NATO diesel fuel samples were obtained from refineries, bulk storage, and service stations. Aromatic concentrate (AC) products from various sources were evaluated for use in adjusting the total aromatic ring carbon (TARC) content of FRF formulations. Neat base fuel and AC-containing base fuel TARC effects on microemulsification efficacy were established for water containing various amounts of total dissolved solids and for the amide/amine/soap emulsifier with various levels of total acid number.

  11. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  12. Polychloroprene flexible foam as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Morford, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Polychloroprene flexible foam was evaluated as a reference material for fire toxicity tests. A commercial sample was evaluated using nine different test conditions of the USF methodology. The material exhibited a wide range of relative toxicity depending on the test conditions. Times to incapacitation and times to death were shortest at 16 ml/sec (1 l/min) air flow, at any fixed heating rate and upper limit temperature.

  13. Polychloroprene flexible foam as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Morford, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Polychloroprene flexible foam was evaluated as a reference material for fire toxicity tests. A commercial sample was evaluated using nine different test conditions of the USF methodology. The material exhibited a wide range of relative toxicity depending on the test conditions. Times to incapacitation and times to death were shortest at 16 ml/sec (1 l/min) air flow, at any fixed heating rate and upper limit temperature.

  14. The EX-SHADWELL-Full Scale Fire Research and Test Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-20

    protection through expansion of the USCG fire and Safety Test Detachment ( F &STD) in Mobile, Alabama, and to include joint research projects, information...utilized under this JRA: 3.la The USN will supplement the F &STD facility at Little Sand Island, Mobile, Alabama by incorporating a retired surface combatant...and performing tests, but will closely coordinate all testing with the USCG Research and Development Center, Groton, Connecticut. The overall F &STD

  15. Cold Regions Test of Indirect Fire Weapons Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-08

    comparison with test item is on hand. Inspect all test ammunition shipping containers for com- pleteness, general condition, and damage. Record all lot numbers and...insure that the temperature of the ammunition components are at near ambient. During this period ammunition lot numbers and serial numbers will be

  16. Results of acoustic emission tests on Halon fire bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Shurtleff, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    An acoustic emission tester for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed. The necessary load is applied by heating the bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored during the heating by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. This fixture was designed to fit spheres with diameters between 5 and 16 inches. A prototype has been undergoing testing in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97 percent of the bottles tested show no indications of any flaws. The other three percent have had indications of flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test required by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

  17. Heat-resistant fiber and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurada, I.; Kaji, K.; Okada, T.

    1984-08-21

    A heat resistant and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber is obtained by a process comprising immersing a polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating a polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid and irradiating the polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid, or a process comprising irradiating a polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation and then immersing the polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating the polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid.

  18. Development of a Fire-Resistant Anti-Sweat Submarine Hull Insulation Based on Fiber Glass Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A6w " ;’’ ..J’ d’ ,.,, -,,,.. ,.- -,. . 11111, , .. b,, I - - -.. .,. , .. . ..°.. III. . . ,Lm’ Johns ... Manville Research & Development Center DEVELOPMENT OF A FIRE-RESISTANT ANTI-SWEAT SUBMARINE HULL INSULATION BASED ON FIBER *" GLASS MATERIALS Oct icrb iz Ic

  19. Reassessing the Representative Heuristic of the Plywood Ballistic Mannequin Used in Live-Fire Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    and its possible effect on live-fire testing analyses. The US Army Research Laboratory’s Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate recommends a...the frontal presented areas of the standing BRL and proposed ARL plywood ballistic mannequins, based on zones above the ground plane...proposed ARL plywood ballistic mannequins, based on zones from the seat pan

  20. Cost-Effective Live-Fire Test and Evaluation Strategies: The Missions and Means Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    A methodology is presented for constructing cost-effective live-fire test and evaluation (LFT&E) programs within the Missions and Means Framework environment...tasks and achieving mission success in the joint environment. A Missions and Means Framework -based system of systems task-focused LFT&E strategy is

  1. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... weight loss exceeds 10% of weight of charge. Test time delays, alarms, and ventilation shutdowns with.... Inspect hoses and nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss...

  2. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-11-25

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively.

  3. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... weight loss exceeds 10% of weight of charge. Test time delays, alarms, and ventilation shutdowns with.... Inspect hoses and nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss...

  5. Comparing fire spread algorithms using equivalence testing and neutral landscape models

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Miranda; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jian Yang; Eric J. Gustafson

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to evaluate the degree to which a meta-model approximates spatial disturbance processes represented by a more detailed model across a range of landscape conditions, using neutral landscapes and equivalence testing. We illustrate this approach by comparing burn patterns produced by a relatively simple fire spread algorithm with those generated by...

  6. A survey of vegetation and wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site

    Treesearch

    Dennis J. Hansen; W. Kent Ostler

    2008-01-01

    In the springs of 2004, 2005, and 2006, surveys were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The NTS includes both Great Basin Desert and Mojave Desert ecosystems and a transitional zone between these two deserts. The field surveys assessed 211 sites along...

  7. Pettit performs a session of BASS Fire Safety Tests at the MSG

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-30

    ISS030-E-178648 (30 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs a session of Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) fire safety tests at the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) in the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory. BASS uses Smoke Point in Coflow Experiment (SPICE) equipment but burns solid fuel samples instead of gaseous jets.

  8. Completion of One-Year Bioventing Test, Fire Training Area, FT-03

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) one-year bioventing test and evaluation project at the Fire Training Area, FT-03 has been...results from your site and 109 other sites currently under operation, bioventing is cost-effectively remediating fuel contamination in a reasonable time frame.

  9. Biotic resistance and disturbance: rodent consumers regulate post-fire plant invasions and increase plant community diversity.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Samuel B; O'Connor, Rory; Gill, Richard; McMillan, Brock

    2016-07-01

    Biotic resistance and disturbance are fundamental processes influencing plant invasion outcomes; however, the role of consumers in regulating the establishment and spread of plant invaders and how disturbance modifies biotic resistance by consumers is unclear. We document that fire in combination with experimental exclusion of rodent consumers shifted a native desert shrubland to a low-diversity, invasive annual grassland dominated by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass). In contrast, burned plots with rodents present suppressed invasion by cheatgrass and developed into a more diverse forb community. Rodents created strong biotic resistance to the establishment of aggressive plant invaders likely through seed and seedling predation, which had cascading effects on plant competition and plant community diversity. Fire mediated its positive effects on plant invaders through native plant removal and by decreasing the abundance and diversity of the rodent community. The experimental disruption of plant and consumer-mediated biotic resistance of plant invaders using fire and rodent exclusion treatments provides strong evidence that native plants and rodents are important regulators of plant invasion dynamics and plant biodiversity in our study system. While rodents conferred strong resistance to invasion in our study system, fluctuations in rodent populations due to disturbance and climatic events may provide windows of opportunity for exotic plant species to escape biotic resistance by rodent consumers and initiate invasions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  11. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  12. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  13. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  14. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan...

  15. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  16. Tests of Fire Suppression Effectiveness of Damaged Water Mist Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    essure the damage pi essure is installed in the test compa Damage pipe no essur Pipe 7 104.9 12.9 31.0 22.0 132.5...pipe is installed in the test compartment, see Figure 68 Damage pipe no. Total [L/ Pr no [ba r u [ba v r [b a ea [L flow min] essure at rth...nozzle r] P so essure at th nozzle r] A p erage essure ar] C l lculated k flow /min] Pipe 4 104 35 23 29 66.9 .6 .8 .7 .5

  17. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  19. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  3. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  4. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  5. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  6. Contact-resistance test probes: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.; Mc Dermott, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Devices are used in inspection of contact resistance in plated connectors after assembly into cables. System permits rapid inspection of connectors when mating connectors or special apparatus are not available, and enables source of excessive resistance to be precisely determined.

  7. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  8. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  9. Fire water systems in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sundt, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Due to corrosion problems in fire water systems offshore there is a need for a corrosion resistant material to improve the reliability of onboard fire fighting systems. Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe is seen as a cost effective and light weight alternative to metals. Through a test program run by AMAT, Advanced Materials a/s in collaboration with the Norwegian Fire and Research Laboratory (NBL, SINTEF), GRE pipes have proved to be viable materials for offshore fire water systems. The test program included furnace testing, jetfire testing and simulated explosion testing. GRE pipes (2--12 inches) from two suppliers were fire tested and evaluated. Both adhesively bonded joints and flange connections were tested. During the course of the project, application methods of passive fire protection and nozzle attachments were improved.

  10. Fiber Bragg grating sensors embedded in concrete samples for a normalized fire test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Torres, Benjamín; Barrera, David; Calderón, Pedro; Lloris, José Manuel; López, María José; Sales, Salvador

    2011-05-01

    Optical fiber sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) have been embedded in concrete samples for temperature measurement. Three different types of gratings have been used in this experiment: FBGs inscribed in photosensitive germanium-boron codoped fiber and Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBG) inscribed in germanium doped and in germanium-boron codoped fiber. The concrete samples were placed inside a fire chamber where the temperature was increased above 1000ºC as described in the Spanish/European standard UNE-EN 1363-1 temperature profile for concrete resistance to real fire. The temperature was monitored in real time. We have compared the performance of the optical sensors and electrical thermocouples. The RFBGs have shown a very good performance while the FBGs are able to monitor high-temperatures until their disappearance.

  11. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  12. A miniscale ballistic test motor for propellant burning rate characterization from one motor firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Robert H.; Boyles, Sharon M.; Obney, Phyllis

    1992-07-01

    A mini ballistic test motor for burn rate characterization from one motor firing has been developed. The small charge weight required for this motor allows ballistic characterization of small scale lot set evaluation and R&D propellant mixes in a rocket motor environment. This paper presents results comparing the mini-motor to the standard Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (IHDIVNAVSURFWARCEN) ballistic test motor, (BTM). Burn rate data from the standard BTM and mini BTM show excellent agreement.

  13. Solid rocket motor fire tests: Phases 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Hunter, Lawrence W.; Han, David K.; Thomas, Michael E.; Cain, Russell P.; Lennon, Andrew M.

    2002-01-01

    JHU/APL conducted a series of open-air burns of small blocks (3 to 10 kg) of solid rocket motor (SRM) propellant at the Thiokol Elkton MD facility to elucidate the thermal environment under burning propellant. The propellant was TP-H-3340A for the STAR 48 motor, with a weight ratio of 71/18/11 for the ammonium perchlorate, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Combustion inhibitor applied on the blocks allowed burning on the bottom and/or sides only. Burns were conducted on sand and concrete to simulate near-launch pad surfaces, and on graphite to simulate a low-recession surface. Unique test fixturing allowed propellant self-levitation while constraining lateral motion. Optics instrumentation consisted of a longwave infrared imaging pyrometer, a midwave spectroradiometer, and a UV/visible spectroradiometer. In-situ instrumentation consisted of rod calorimeters, Gardon gauges, elevated thermocouples, flush thermocouples, a two-color pyrometer, and Knudsen cells. Witness materials consisted of yttria, ceria, alumina, tungsten, iridium, and platinum/rhodium. Objectives of the tests were to determine propellant burn characteristics such as burn rate and self-levitation, to determine heat fluxes and temperatures, and to carry out materials analyses. A summary of qualitative results: alumina coated almost all surfaces, the concrete spalled, sand moisture content matters, the propellant self-levitated, the test fixtures worked as designed, and bottom-burning propellant does not self-extinguish. A summary of quantitative results: burn rate averaged 1.15 mm/s, thermocouples peaked at 2070 C, pyrometer readings matched MWIR data at about 2400 C, the volume-averaged plume temperatures were 2300-2400 C with peaks of 2400-2600 C, and the heat fluxes peaked at 125 W/cm2. These results are higher than other researchers' measurements of top-burning propellant in chimneys, and will be used, along with Phase 3 test results, to analyze hardware response to these environments, including General

  14. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  15. Test Methodology for Characterizing the SEE Sensitivity of a Commercial IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidleck, C.; Kim, H.; Buchner, S.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Single Event Effect (SEE) responses of two FireWire serial buses based on the IEEE 1394 standard were tested with heavy ions and protons. A unique approach to testing and categorizing the SEEs is presented.

  16. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, John

    2012-09-30

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding. It involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing has shown that the diffusion rate of Zn through the FeCrAl alloy is much faster than through the nickel superalloys. This means that the FeCrAl will serve as a sink for the Zn bonding alloy during the evaporative metal bonding process. Also, the testing has shown that the Zn diffusion mechanism is bulk diffusion, and not intergranular. This is a surprise. However, it means that quantification of the Zn diffusivities in these samples will be significantly simpler than would have been the case if grain boundary diffusion dominated. In addition to the laboratory testing, gas impinger and particulate samples are being collected from a combustor firing syngas and natural gas to determine what types of microcontaminants may reach a turbine firing syngas. The syngas is created in one of two different pilot-scale pressurized coal gasifiers. The initial analysis of the impinger solutions was for standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29 determination of hazardous metals and did not include major element analysis. When syngas is fired, the amount of Mn in the combustor gas increases substantially. Halogens (Br2 and Cl2) and hydrogen

  17. Foam composite structures. [for fire retardant airframe materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Milligan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The need to include fire resistant foams into state of the art aircraft interior paneling to increase passenger safety in aircraft fires was studied. Present efforts were directed toward mechanical and fire testing of panels with foam inclusions. Skinned foam filled honeycomb and PBI structural foams were the two constructions investigated with attention being directed toward weight/performance/cost trade-off. All of the new panels demonstrated improved performance in fire and some were lighter weight but not as strong as the presently used paneling. Continued efforts should result in improved paneling for passenger safety. In particular the simple partial filling (fire side) of state-of-the-art honeycomb with fire resistant foams with little sacrifice in weight would result in panels with increased fire resistance. More important may be the retarded rate of toxic gas evolution in the fire due to the protection of the honeycomb by the foam.

  18. Zero Gravity Aircraft Testing of a Prototype Portable Fire Extinguisher for Use in Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, J.; Carriere, T.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Easton, J.

    2012-01-01

    For the past five years ADA Technologies has been developing a portable fire extinguisher (PFE) for use in microgravity environments. This technology uses fine water mist (FWM) to effectively and efficiently extinguish fires representative of spacecraft hazards. Recently the FWM PFE was flown on a Zero-G (reduced gravity) aircraft to validate the performance of the technology in a microgravity environment. Test results demonstrated that droplet size distributions generated in the reduced gravity environment were in the same size range as data collected during normal gravity (1-g) discharges from the prototype PFE. Data taken in an obscured test configuration showed that the mist behind the obstacle was more dense in the low-g environment when compared to 1-g discharges. The mist behind the obstacle tended to smaller droplet sizes in both the low-g and 1-g test conditions.

  19. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    produces a flame duration of more than 5 seconds. Even a fraction of a second difference in the burn duration can change the relative performance of...appropriate for the sensor. 12.1.1.1 Discussion— Different laboratories use different sensor technologies. Each requires a different method to... LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FLAME RETARDANT PROPANE PROTECTION TEST FACILITIES FIRE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TEXTILES DEFICIENCIES

  20. Designing and Implementation a Lab Testing Method for Power Cables Insulation Resistance According with STAS 10411-89, SR EN ISO/CEI/17025/2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Marc, G.; Risteiu, M.; Antonov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Insulation resistance measurement is one of the most important tests required by standards and regulations in terms of electrical safety. Why these tests are is to prevent possible accidents caused by electric shock, damage to equipment or outbreak of fire in normal operating conditions of electrical cables. The insulation resistance experiment refers to the testing of electrical cable insulation, which has a measured resistance that must be below the imposed regulations. Using a microcontroller system data regarding the insulation resistance of the power cables is acquired and with SCADA software the test results are displayed.

  1. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) engine test firing on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This 1964 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph shows a ground engine test underway on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw

  2. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) engine test firing on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This 1964 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph shows a ground engine test underway on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw

  3. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical resistance test. 159.117...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.117 Chemical resistance test. (a) In each case where the recognized facility doubts the ability of a material to withstand exposure to...

  4. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical resistance test. 159.117...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.117 Chemical resistance test. (a) In each case where the recognized facility doubts the ability of a material to withstand exposure to...

  5. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical resistance test. 159.117...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.117 Chemical resistance test. (a) In each case where the recognized facility doubts the ability of a material to withstand exposure to...

  6. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... insulation plus the battery cover or box material. The insulation thickness shall be representative of that...

  7. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas-fired furnaces. Final report Oct 79-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Schaus, O.O.

    1982-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired heat exchangers and similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were examined on test equipment built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchangers. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloys, anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  8. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

  9. Test results from a comparative evaluation of a condensation nuclei fire detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The fire/smoke alarm response of a condensation nuclei fire detector (CNFD) was compared with photoelectric and ionization detectors. Tests were conducted in a former control room 8.5 m by 8.9 with a 2.7 m ceiling. The room had air supplied from above the ceiling and under the floor with return air exiting from ceiling grills. The environment was varied from 278 to 305 K and relative humidities from 8 to 65%. Four detection zones were located in the room. Each zone contained a sampling head for the CNDF, a photodetector, and an ionization detector so that each detector system had four opportunities to alarm during tests. The particle level in the test room was also monitored during tests with a condensation nuclei particle counter. The CNFD responded to 90% of exposures to smoldering plastic and 84% of exposures to visible fire. The photoelectric response was 43 and 12.5% respectively for the same conditions. The ionization response was 9 and 48 respectively.

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  13. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... developed respiratory protection for this occupational setting, firefighters battling wild fires often... Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures for Composite Multi-Gas and Particulate Protection and Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland...

  14. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, John P.; Cavalli, Matthew N.

    2016-06-30

    The goal of this project was to take a recently developed method of bonding oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl plating to nickel superalloys closer to commercial use in syngas-fired turbines. The project was designed to better understand and develop the bonding process and to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant ODS FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The superalloys investigated for protection were CM247LC and Rene® 80, both alumina scale-forming alloys. The method for bonding the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding, which involves placing a thin foil of zinc between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the zinc melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The zinc then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces, creating a bond between the APMT and the superalloy that is stronger than the APMT itself. Testing showed that the diffusivity of zinc in both APMT and CM247LC is quite similar at 700°C but 15 times higher in the APMT at 1214°C. Coefficients of thermal expansion were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information was entered into a finite-element model using ANSYS, which was used to design a clamping jig for pressing the APMT to the superalloys at the bonding temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of representative joints showed that no zinc remained in the alloys after bonding Unfortunately, the analyses also showed some small pieces of broken aluminum oxide scale near the bond lines, indicating that its scale was not sufficiently removed during prebonding cleaning. Samples from each of the bonded blocks were sent to Siemens for

  15. Impacts of tundra fire on active layer condition and estimation of true resistivity value of soil in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Narita, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    In Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, large tundra fires were occurred in 1997 and 2002, and a discontinuous permafrost area burned widely near the Kougarok River. After fires, a vegetation condition was destroyed and a ground surface thermal condition was changed. Then, field observations were conducted at burned and unburned sites in summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in order to clarify impacts of the tundra fire on thermal and water conditions of active layer. From pit surveys, ground temperatures at burned sites showed 4-5 °C higher values than those at unburned sites. Soil water contents at burned sites showed relative high values in 2005, but low in 2006. Active layer thicknesses were significantly different between burned and unburned sites, about 60cm and 40cm, respectively. There is no significant increasing of the thickness between 2005 and 2006, however, the thickness in 2007 at north-facing sites increased to 80cm at the burned site and 50cm at the unburned site, respectively. Apparent electrical resistivity values up to 1m deep were obtained from electrical soundings in 2006, and values at burned sites were lower than those at unburned sites due to the thick active layer whose resistivity value is relatively low. As an apparent resistivity value is generally produced from the combination of a true resistivity value and a thickness of a layer, a simple calculation was carried out in order to estimate a true resistivity value of unfrozen mineral soil in the active layer. The calculated results showed that the true resistivity at burned sites was higher than that at unburned sites, which was seemed to correspond to a relative low water condition. This result is in agreement with the measured result of water content in 2006. Using this method, the apparent resistivity may show a soil water condition.

  16. Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation in Rocket Engine Hot Fire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Schmidt, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Hot fire testing of rocket engine components and rocket engine systems is a critical aspect of the development process to understand performance, reliability and system interactions. Ground testing provides the opportunity for highly instrumented development testing to validate analytical model predictions and determine necessary design changes and process improvements. To properly obtain discrete measurements for model validation, instrumentation must survive in the highly dynamic and extreme temperature application of hot fire testing. Digital Image Correlation has been investigated and being evaluated as a technique to augment traditional instrumentation during component and engine testing providing further data for additional performance improvements and cost savings. The feasibility of digital image correlation techniques were demonstrated in subscale and full scale hotfire testing. This incorporated a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The development process, setup and calibrations, data collection, hotfire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  17. Development and Testing of Dry Chemicals in Advanced Extinguishing Systems for Jet Engine Nacelle Fires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    BURNING REGION IFUEL CAPILLARY TUBES TO EACH FLAME SITE CHANNEL AIR FLOW ,JV.TO~/HEATEDSUFCBo ’ SURFACET )J TO SCRUBBER BURNER INTERNAL PIN FINS EXHAUST...PROPANE-AIR THREE STAGGERED ROWS SWIRL BURNER TWO PARALLEL RODS TO RETAIN FUEL ON CURVED OUTER HOT SURFACE NOTE: Assemblage is approximately 50 cm in...preliminary experimental system. Data clearly indicated that B10 3 had virtually no fire fighting ability of its own and the static - testing procedure

  18. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  19. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  20. Four-terminal electrical testing device. [initiator bridgewire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Robert L. (Inventor); Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hoffman, William C., III (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention relates to a four-terminal electrical connector device for testing and measuring unknown resistances of initiators used for starting pyrotechnic events aboard the space shuttle. The testing device minimizes contact resistance degradation effects and so improves the reliability of resistance measurements taken with the device. Separate and independent voltage sensing and current supply circuits each include a pair of socket contacts for mating engagement with the pins of the initiator. The unknown resistance that is measured by the device is the resistance of the bridgewire of the initiator which is required to be between 0.95 and 1.15 ohms.

  1. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  2. Status of Proof-Of-Concept testing at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Chapman, J.N.; Johanson, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Proof-of-concept (POC) testing, and collection and evaluation of data continued at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility during the past year. Following four preliminary tests firing Rosebud coal in 1991 to establish base conditions for the Rosebud coal POC tests, three POC tests were run in 1992, and a fourth test early in 1993. Major equipment additions or modifications included installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which replaced a badly deteriorated venturi. This component also provides improved capability to meet Tennessee pollution regulations while operating the dry ESP and/or baghouse off design, or if one of these two control devices does not function properly. Improvements were also made to the dry ESP prior to the 1993 test, which appear to have improved the performance of this equipment. This paper will present an overview of the major results obtained during the Rosebud coal POC tests, including the performance of the dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Differences between the Rosebud and Illinois coals will be described, but it is emphasized that these observations are based on incomplete results for the Rosebud coal.

  3. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the Lc gene of maize show an altered growth habit and increased resistance to apple scab and fire blight.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Richter, Klaus; Peil, Andreas; Höfer, Monika; Dörschel, Claudia; Schmoock, Sylvia; Gau, Achim E; Halbwirth, Heidrun; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2010-02-01

    Transgenic apple plants (Malus x domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox') overexpressing the Leaf Colour (Lc) gene from maize (Zea mays) exhibit strongly increased production of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols (catechins, proanthocyanidins). Greenhouse plants investigated in this study exhibit altered phenotypes with regard to growth habit and resistance traits. Lc-transgenic plants show reduced size, transversal gravitropism of lateral shoots, reduced trichome development, and frequently reduced shoot diameter and abnormal leaf development with fused leaves. Such phenotypes seem to be in accordance with a direct or an indirect effect on polar-auxin-transport in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, leaves often develop necrotic lesions resembling hypersensitive response lesions. In tests, higher resistance against fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora) and against scab (caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis) is observed. These phenotypes are discussed with respect to the underlying altered physiology of the Lc-transgenic plants. The results are expected to be considered in apple breeding strategies.

  4. Orbital transfer vehicle 3000 LBF thrust chamber assembly hot fire test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Hayden, Warren R.

    1988-01-01

    The Aerojet Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA) concept consists of a hydrogen cooled chamber, and annular injector, and an oxygen cooled centerbody. The hot fire testing of a heat sink version of the chamber with only the throat section using hydrogen cooling is documented. Hydraulic performance of the injector and cooled throat were verified by water flow testing prior to TCA assembly. The cooled throat was proof tested to 3000 psia to verify the integrity of the codeposited EF nickel-cobalt closeout. The first set of hot fire tests were conducted with a heat sink throat to obtain heat flux information. After demonstration of acceptable heat fluxes, the heat sink throat was replaced with the LH2 cooled throat section. Fourteen tests were conducted with a heat sink chamber and throat at chamber pressures of 85 to 359 psia. The injector face was modified at this time to add more face coolant flow. Ten tests were then conducted at chamber pressures of 197 to 620 psia. Actual heat fluxes at the higher chamber pressure range were 23 percent higher than the average of 10 Btu/in 2 predicted.

  5. Enhanced heat transfer rocket combustor technology component hot-fire test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William S.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of a method for enhancing combustor hot-gas wall heat extraction by using hot-fire tests of a rocket engine combustor calorimeter with hot-gas wall ribs is presented. The capability for enhanced heat extraction is required to increase available turbine drive energy for high chamber pressure operation, and therefore higher overall expander cycle engine performance. Determination of the rib effectiveness for incorporation into the design of a high-performance combustor for an advanced expander cycle combustor intended for use in an orbital transfer vehicle or advanced space engine, was the objective of these tests.

  6. Test Firing of Saturn IB S-IB-1 at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    S-IB-1, the first flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), undergoes a full-duration static firing in Saturn IB static test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on April 13, 1965. Developed by the MSFC and built by the Chrysler Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana, the 90,000-pound booster utilized eight H-1 engines to produce a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds. Between April 1965 and July 1968, MSFC performed thirty-two static tests on twelve different S-IB stages.

  7. Does prescribed fire promote resistance to drought in low elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a primary tool used to restore western forests following more than a century of fire exclusion, reducing fire hazard by removing dead and live fuels (small trees and shrubs).  It is commonly assumed that the reduced forest density following prescribed fire also reduces competition for resources among the remaining trees, so that the remaining trees are more resistant (more likely to survive) in the face of additional stressors, such as drought.  Yet this proposition remains largely untested, so that managers do not have the basic information to evaluate whether prescribed fire may help forests adapt to a future of more frequent and severe drought.During the third year of drought, in 2014, we surveyed 9950 trees in 38 burned and 18 unburned mixed conifer forest plots at low elevation (<2100 m a.s.l.) in Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite national parks in California, USA.  Fire had occurred in the burned plots from 6 yr to 28 yr before our survey.  After accounting for differences in individual tree diameter, common conifer species found in the burned plots had significantly reduced probability of mortality compared to unburned plots during the drought.  Stand density (stems ha-1) was significantly lower in burned versus unburned sites, supporting the idea that reduced competition may be responsible for the differential drought mortality response.  At the time of writing, we are not sure if burned stands will maintain lower tree mortality probabilities in the face of the continued, severe drought of 2015.  Future work should aim to better identify drought response mechanisms and how these may vary across other forest types and regions, particularly in other areas experiencing severe drought in the Sierra Nevada and on the Colorado Plateau.

  8. Wildfire-resistant biological soil crusts and fire-induced loss of soil stability in Palouse prairies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Rosentreter, R.; Graham, B.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent low-intensity fires are a natural component of the ecology of the Palouse prairies of northwestern North America. To study the effects of fire upon biological soil crusts (BSCs) occurring in these grasslands, we sampled three burned (in 2000) sites and three unburned sites in the Hell's Canyon area (OR, USA) ???1 year post-fire. We measured vascular plant and BSC cover, soil microbe pigmentation, texture and chemistry, and soil surface physical properties (stability and rugosity). Festuca idahoensis was two times more abundant in unburned plots (P=0.0006), and vascular plant and litter cover were generally higher in unburned plots. At the community scale, there was no difference in the lichen and moss species composition, suggesting much less drastic effects of fire on BSCs than reported in other systems. Soil surface stability (measured using slake value) was significantly lower in burned sites than unburned sites (median value=5 versus 6, P=0.008), a result which is likely due to the greater density of lichens and mosses encountered in the unburned plots. Soil microbe pigmentation was lower in burned plots (P=0.03), suggesting that the biomass of photosynthetic microbes had decreased; however, the presence of intra- and extracellular pigments in burned soils indicates that microorganisms were not eradicated. Pigments most strongly associated with cyanobacteria were more abundant in unburned sites, suggesting that cyanobacteria may have been more strongly impacted by the fire than other BSC components. Composition of nutrients and surface rugosity did not differ significantly between treatments. We hypothesize that Palouse prairie soil crusts are relatively resistant to wildfire because of low fire intensity and their occupation of space away from the vascular plant fuel load.

  9. Epidemiological control of drug resistance and compensatory mutation under resistance testing and second-line therapy.

    PubMed

    Saddler, Clare A; Wu, Yue; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2013-12-01

    The fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in the absence of treatment raises the possibility that prudent use of drugs may slow or reverse the rise of resistance. Unfortunately, compensatory mutations that lower this cost may lead to entrenched resistance. Here, we develop a mathematical model of resistance evolution and compensatory mutation to determine whether reversion to sensitivity can occur, and how disease control might be facilitated by a second-line therapy. When only a single antibiotic is available, sensitive bacteria reach fixation only under treatment rates so low that hardly any cases are treated. We model a scenario in which drug sensitivity can be accurately tested so that a second-line therapy is administered to resistant cases. Before the rise of resistance to the second drug, disease eradication is possible if resistance testing and second-line treatment are conducted at a high enough rate. However, if double drug resistance arises, the possibility of disease eradication is greatly reduced and compensated resistance prevails in most of the parameter space. The boundary separating eradication from fixation of compensated resistance is strongly influenced by the underlying basic reproductive number of the pathogen and drug efficacy in sensitive cases, but depends less on the resistance cost and compensation. When double resistance is possible, the boundary is affected by the relative strengths of resistance against the two drugs in the double-resistant-compensated strain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-07-01

    Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16' × 'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ≥0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7 days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14 days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Small-diameter timber alchemy: can utilization pay the way toward fire-resistant forests

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Fried; R. Jamie Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn Christensen; Guy Pinjuv

    2008-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biomass removed from hazardous fuels reduction treatments in wood-fired electrical generation facilities. An application of FIA BioSum to southwest Oregon’s Klamath ecoregion assessed the financial feasibility of fuel treatment and biomass generation under a range of product prices and fire hazard-motivated silvicultural prescriptions...

  12. Laboratory test method for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shiwei; Zheng, Xueying; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Quan

    2017-03-01

    The pollution characteristics of current atmospheric particulates was summarized in the present investigation. The composition and proportion of the pollution sources used for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal test were adjusted, and the pollution sources used for new type dirt pickup resistance and stain removal test produced. In addition, a new dirt pickup method was adopted, and a set of new type laboratory dirt pickup resistance and stain removal tests developed by taking comprehensive consideration of the existing state and dirt pickup mode of actual atmospheric particulates. It verifies the rationality, feasibility and effectiveness of new test methods for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal based on the contrast test over the new and old test methods.

  13. Performance testing of commercial containers for collection and storage of fire debris evidence.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Fire debris evidence may contain ignitable liquid residues valuable in the investigation of a potential arson scene. The ability to obtain evidence containers that are contaminant-free and vapor-tight is essential to the analysis and storage of fire debris evidence. Commercial containers such as metal "paint" cans, glass mason jars, and polymer bags are often employed as fire debris evidence containers. The purpose of this research was to determine which of these three types of containers provided the most vapor-tight seal for the prevention of ignitable liquid vapor loss and to assess the potential for cross-contamination. Leak rates for each type of container were measured under controlled conditions. Simple mixtures of hydrocarbons were utilized in these experiments. Leak rates were determined based on the amounts of hydrocarbon recovered from activated charcoal located outside the test container and within a secondary container. Quantitation of the hydrocarbons recovered from activated charcoal was calculated using external standard calibration curves following analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that glass jars had the fastest leak rate followed by metal paint cans and properly heat-sealed polymer bags with the slowest leak rate. Each container exhibited a different leak mechanism, which resulted in an observable effect on the composition of hydrocarbons lost from the container. Hydrocarbon transfer from one container to another is also demonstrated. This study presents results that reveal the most vapor-tight container to be a properly heat-sealed copolymer bag.

  14. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. However, an analytical solution does not exist to model the diffusion of zinc through the alloys. For this reason, a finite difference algorithm using MATLAB was developed. It makes use of the hopscotch algorithm. The model allows the user to specify the dimensions of the metal parts, the Zn concentration at the bondline, the mesh size, time step, and Zn diffusivity. The experimentally measured values of diffusivity for Zn in APMT and Rene 80/CM 247LC are approximately 2.7 × 10-12 and 4 × 10-14 m2/s, respectively. While the qualitative behavior of the model appears correct, a comparison of the diffusion predictions with the experimental results from earlier in the project indicates that the expected Zn concentration is significantly higher than that measured experimentally. The difference depends on the assumed initial concentration, which is difficult to quantify exactly under experimental conditions for t = 0. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information

  15. Laboratory host specificicty testing of the fire ant microsporidian pathogen Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host specificity of Vairimorpha invictae, a microsporidian pathogen of fire ants in South America, was assessed in the laboratory with the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, the southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni, and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile. The two fire ant species are fo...

  16. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a...

  17. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with a...

  18. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with a...

  19. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a... solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) by mixing 853 ml of water with 199 ml of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) with a...

  20. Virologic Tools for HCV Drug Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fourati, Slim; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the development of new antiviral drugs that target specific steps of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) lifecycle. These drugs, collectively termed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), include non-structural (NS) HCV protein inhibitors, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (nucleotide analogues and non-nucleoside inhibitors), and NS5A inhibitors. Due to the high genetic variability of HCV, the outcome of DAA-based therapies may be altered by the selection of amino-acid substitutions located within the targeted proteins, which affect viral susceptibility to the administered compounds. At the drug developmental stage, preclinical and clinical characterization of HCV resistance to new drugs in development is mandatory. In the clinical setting, accurate diagnostic tools have become available to monitor drug resistance in patients who receive treatment with DAAs. In this review, we describe tools available to investigate drug resistance in preclinical studies, clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26690198