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Sample records for fire resistant panels

  1. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  2. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  3. Use of FGD gypsum in fire resistant panels

    SciTech Connect

    Leiva, C.; Garcia Arenas, C.; Vilches, L.F.; Vale, J.; Gimenez, A.; Ballesteros, J.C.

    2010-06-15

    Gypsum from power plant flue gas desulphurization units (FGD gypsum) is a combustion by-product produced in high quantities. In this paper, gypsum panels composed of 100% FGD gypsum from two power plants have been subjected to different physico-chemical (density, pH, humidity), mechanical (flexural and compressive strength, surface hardness, impact resistance), fire resistance and environmental tests (leaching and radioactivity). The results obtained have been compared with the requirements established in some European standards for commercial gypsum and other standards for similar products. In addition, the panels manufactured have been compared with commercial gypsum panels in order to determine the recycling possibilities of this kind of material in this application.

  4. Development of fire-resistant wood structural panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, T. W.; Etzold, R.

    1977-01-01

    Structural panels made with Xylok 210 resin as the binder had a burn-through resistance at least equal to the structural panels made with Kerimid 500. Therefore, because of its comparative ease of handling, Xylok 210 was selected as the resin binder to provide the baseline panel for the study of a means of improving the flame-spread resistance of the structural panels. The final resin-filler system consisted of Xylok 210 binder with the addition of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate to the strands of the surface layers, using 24% of each salt based upon the air-dry weight of the strands. This system resulted in a panel with a flame-spread code of about 60, a Class 2 classification. A standard phenolic based structural panel had a flame-spread greater than 200 for laboratory prepared panels. The burn-through tests indicated an average burn-through time of 588 seconds for the specimens made with the final system. This compares to an average burn-through time of 287 seconds for the standard phenolic base structural specimen. One full-size panel was made with the final system.

  5. Fabrication and testing of fire resistant graphite composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022m, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. Described are the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  6. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-21

    1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory...testing. The focus of this report will be the outcomes of the series of pilot-scale (4’×4’×6”) tests on geopolymer concrete panels, which were conducted

  7. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics. Phase 4: Sandwich panel decorative ink development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayarajan, A.; Johnson, G. A.; Korver, G. L.; Anderson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Five chemically different resin systems with improved fire resistance properties were studied for a possible screenprinting ink application. Fire resistance is hereby defined as the cured ink possessing improvements in flammability, smoke emission, and thermal stability. The developed ink is for application to polyvinyl fluoride film. Only clear inks without pigments were considered. Five formulations were evaluated compared with KC4900 clear acrylic ink, which was used as a baseline. The tests used in the screening evaluation included viscosity, smoke and toxic gas emission, limiting oxygen index (LOI), and polyvinyl fluoride film (PVF) printability. A chlorofluorocarbon resin (FPC461) was selected for optimization studies. The parameters for optimization included screenprinting process performance, quality of coating, and flammability of screenprinted 0.051-mm (0.002-in.) white Tedlar. The quality of the screenprinted coating on Tedlar is dependent on viscosity, curing time, adhesion to polyvinyl fluoride film, drying time (both inscreen and as an applied film), and silk screen mesh material and porosity.

  8. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics. Phase 2: Sandwich panel resin system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Arnold, D. B.; Johnson, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-funded program is described which aims to develop a resin system for use in the construction of lavatory wall panels, sidewall panels, and ceiling panels possessing flammability, smoke and gas emission, and toxicity (FS&T) characteristics superior to the existing epoxy resin. Candidate resins studied were phenolic, polyimide, and bismaleimide. Based on the results of a series of FS&T as well as mechanical and aesthetic property tests, a phenolic resin was chosen as the superior material. Material and process specifications covering the phenolic resin based materials were prepared and a method of rating sandwich panel performance was developed.

  9. Development of lightweight fire retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. B.; Burnside, J. V.; Hajari, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Fire resistance mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex honeycomb core. The test results were compared to proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels.

  10. Analysis of panel dent resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical technique for elastic-plastic deformation of panels was developed, which is employed to analyze the denting mechanisms of panels resulting from point projectile impacts and impulsive loadings. The correlations of analytical results with the experimental measurements are considered quite satisfactory. The effect of elastic springback on the dent resistance analysis is found to be very significant for the panel (122 cm x 60.9 cm x 0.076 cm) subjected to a point projectile impact at 16.45 m/sec. While the amount of springback decreases as the loading speed increases, the effect due to the strain rate hardening of material, such as low carbon steel, becomes more dominant and is demonstrated in the analysis of dent resistance of a rectangular steel plate impulsively loaded.

  11. Fire-Resistant TFE Extrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Fire resistance of extruded tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) polymers improved by substitution of chlorinated hydrocarbon as wetting agent. Replacement of naphtha with perchloroethylene yields polymer that extrudes well and generates fewer pinholes. Product less susceptible to fire during manufacturing and in service.

  12. Fire-Resistant TFE Extrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Fire resistance of extruded tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) polymers improved by substitution of chlorinated hydrocarbon as wetting agent. Replacement of naphtha with perchloroethylene yields polymer that extrudes well and generates fewer pinholes. Product less susceptible to fire during manufacturing and in service.

  13. Lightweight, Fire-Resistant Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; MING-TA-HSU

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft safety improved with interior paneling made of new laminate with good thermophysical properties. Featuring lightweight graphite composite, laminate more heat-and flame-resistant and produces much less smoke in fire than commonly used epoxy-resin-containing laminates. New laminate prepared without epoxy resin. Graphite unidirectional cloth preimpregnated with blend of vinyl polystyrylpyridine and bismaleimide (VPSP-BMI). Either of two types of VPSP-BMI blend used, depending on method of preparation of chemicals and technique used to fabricate panel.

  14. 77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing at right, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 124. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM PANEL AT WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM PANEL AT WEST SIDE OF SOUTH WALL, TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  17. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  18. Improved fire-resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, J. B.; Stuart, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Water-base coatings containing potassium silicate show improvement in areas of quick air-drying, crack, craze, and abrasion resistance, adherence, and leach resistance. Coatings are useful as thermal-barrier layers in furnaces, and as general purpose fire resistant surfaces where vapor impermeability is not a requirement.

  19. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  20. Fire resistant oil spill barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.

    1986-08-12

    A fire-resistant, portable, barrier for the containment of marine oil spill, is described which consists of: (A) a continuous length of a fire-resistant fabric comprising interwoven yarns of heat-resistant material, coated with a liquid-impermeable film; the fabric being impermeable to a hydrocarbon petroleum oil; (B) buoyant bodies attached to the fabric in a quantity and at positions sufficient to buoy the length of fabric on a body of water; and (C) means for stabilizing the length of fabric when buoyed upon the body of water.

  1. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  2. Fire-Resistant Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Resin blend produces high-char-yield, low-smoke composites. Diglycidyl Ether of Bis-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-Fluorene is prepared by reacting epichlorohydrin and sodium hydroxide with 9,9-bis(hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. End of reaction determined by gas or liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy or infrared techniques. Used to manufacture printed circuit boards and panels for buildings, ships and aircraft.

  3. Development of lightweight, fire-retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Ougland, R. M.; Karch, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive fire resistance and mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesive to Nomex honeycomb and foam core. The test results were used to select a combination of materials that would improve the fire safety of the airplane without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels. A test panel is being service evaluated in a commercial aircraft.

  4. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  5. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  6. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  7. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  8. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  9. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  10. Fire Resistant Energy Attenuating Materials for Use in Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Fire Resistant Energy Attenuating Materials for use in Military Vehicles...determines whether adding energy attenuating materials would be beneficial in reducing potential head impact injuries. • Impact locations were selected...Threshold requirement met for 1 location – Driver Sidewall • Driver sidewall location consists of an electrical door panel which may act as an energy

  11. Physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of treated oriented strandboard

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; S Nami Kartal; Theodore L. Laufenberg; Jerrold E. Winandy; Robert H. White

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a number of chemicals on the physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), boric acid (BA), melamine phosphate (MP), and a BA/DOT mixture were sprayed onto the furnish at varying concentrations. The panels were tested for...

  12. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  13. Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

  14. Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

  15. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  16. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  17. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics, phase 1: Fire containment test of a wide body aircraft lavatory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Arnold, D. B.; Johnson, G. A.; Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate the fire containment characteristics of a Boeing 747 lavatory module. Results showed that the fire was contained within the lavatory during the 30-minute test period with the door closed. The resistance of the lavatory wall and ceiling panels and general lavatory construction to burn-through under the test conditions was demonstrated.

  18. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  4. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  5. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  6. Wildland fire management futures: insights from a foresight panel

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston; Leif A. DeVaney; Trevor A.C. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildland fire management faces unprecedented challenges in the 21st century: the increasingly apparent effects of climate change, more people and structures in the wildland-urban interface, growing costs associated with wildfire management, and the rise of high-impact fires, to name a few. Given these significant and growing challenges, conventional fire management...

  7. Fire-Resistant, Plastic-Foam Airducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacawy, Souzane H.; Trabold, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyimide-foam airducts low in cost and light in weight. Relatively safe in fires because they resist spread of flames and generate little smoke. Polyimide-foam ducts less expensive to manufacture. Suitable for heating and air-conditioning in airplanes, ships, trains, and buildings.

  8. Light weight fire resistant graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hsu, M. T. S.

    1986-01-01

    Composite structures with a honeycomb core and characterized by lightweight and excellent fire resistance are provided. These sandwich structures employ facesheets made up of bismaleimide-vinyl styrylpyridine copolymers with fiber reinforcement such as carbon fiber reinforcement. In preferred embodiments the facesheets are over layered with a decorative film. The properties of these composites make them attractive materials of construction aircraft and spacecraft.

  9. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  10. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  11. Heat-resistant anemometers for fire research

    Treesearch

    John R. Murray; Clive M. Countryman

    1968-01-01

    Heat-resistant anemometers have been developed for measuring horizontal and vertical air flow in fire behavior studies. The anemometers will continue to produce data as long as the anemometer body is less than 650°F. They can survive brief immersion in flame without major damage. These air-flow sensors have aluminum bodies and rotor hubs and stainless steel...

  12. Measurements of the response of transport aircraft ceiling panels to fuel pool fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the responses of various aircraft ceiling panel configurations to a simulated post-crash fire. Attention was given to one currently used and four new ceiling configurations exposed to a fuel pool fire in a circulated air enclosure. The tests were controlled to accurately represent conditions in a real fire. The panels were constructed of fiberglass-epoxy, graphite-phenolic resin, fiberglass-phenolic resin, Kevlar-epoxy, and Kevlar-phenolic resin materials. The phenolic resin-backed sheets performed the best under the circumstances, except when combined with Kevlar, which became porous when charred.

  13. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  14. Development of Fire-Resistant Tentage Fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    MATERIALS YARNS WATER REPELLENCY ;09 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) In order to develop a fire-resistant...constructions on the physical and water repellency properties of the fabrics were investigated. This report and a 50-yard sample of the best candidate fabric...complete this project. Phase I is to study the effects of fiber blend compositions, yarn size and fabric constructions on the physical and water repellency prop

  15. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  16. Fire resistance of wood members with directly applied protection

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-resistive wood construction is achieved either by having the structural elements be part of fire-rated assemblies or by using elements of sufficient size that the elements themselves have the required fire-resistance ratings. For exposed structural wood elements, the ratings in the United States are calculated using either the T.T. Lie method or the National...

  17. Intermediate-scale Fire Performance of Composite Panels under Varying Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Jernigan, Dann A.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    New aircraft are being designed with increasing quantities of composite materials used in their construction. Different from the more traditional metals, composites have a higher propensity to burn. This presents a challenge to transportation safety analyses, as the aircraft structure now represents an additional fuel source involved in the fire scenario. Most of the historical fire testing of composite materials is aime d at studying kinetics, flammability or yield strength under fire conditions. Most of this testing is small - scale. Heterogeneous reactions are often length - scale dependent, and this is thought to be particularly true for composites which exhibit signific ant microscopic dynamics that can affect macro - scale behavior. We have designed a series of tests to evaluate composite materials under various structural loading conditions with a consistent thermal condition. We have measured mass - loss , heat flux, and temperature throughout the experiments. Several types of panels have been tested, including simple composite panels, and sandwich panels. The main objective of the testing was to understand the importance of the structural loading on a composite to its b ehavior in response to fire - like conditions. During flaming combustion at early times, there are some features of the panel decomposition that are unique to the type of loading imposed on the panels. At load levels tested, fiber reaction rates at later t imes appear to be independent of the initial structural loading.

  18. Analytical modeling of fire growth on fire-resistive wood-based materials with changing conditions

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger

    2006-01-01

    Our analytical model of fire growth for the ASTM E 84 tunnel, which simultaneously predicts heat release rate, flame-over area, and pyrolysis area as functions of time for constant conditions, was documented in the 2001 BCC Symposium for different treated wood materials. The model was extended to predict ignition and fire growth on exterior fire-resistive structures...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  7. Open cell fire-resistant foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. E.; Wittman, J. W.; Reynard, K. A.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate polyphosphazene polymers were investigated to develop a fire-resistant, thermally stable and flexible open cell foam. The copolymers were prepared in several mole ratios of the substituent side chains and a (nominal) 40:60 derivative was selected for formulation studies. Synthesis of the polymers involved solution by polymerization of hexachlorophosphazene to soluble high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene), followed by derivatization of the resultant polymer in a normal fashion to give polymers in high yield and high molecular weight. Small amounts of a cure site were incorporated into the polymer for vulcanization purposes. The poly(aryloxyphosphazenes) exhibited good thermal stability and the first polymer mentioned above exhibited the best thermal behavior of all the candidate polymers studied.

  8. Termite resistance of MDF panels treated with various boron compounds.

    PubMed

    Usta, Mustafa; Ustaomer, Derya; Kartal, Saip Nami; Ondaral, Sedat

    2009-06-19

    In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX), boric acid (BA), zinc borate (ZB), or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH(4)Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased.

  9. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Mustafa; Ustaomer, Derya; Kartal, Saip Nami; Ondaral, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX), boric acid (BA), zinc borate (ZB), or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased. PMID:19582229

  10. Fire-resistant wellhead equipment for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.R.; Keene, K.

    1984-02-01

    A new generation of fire-resistant wellhead equipment has been developed for offshore platforms. This paper presents the design concepts and principles of operation of this new equipment, and it describes the engineering approach taken during its development. These new wellheads and christmas trees have survived numerous laboratory fire tests which simulated offshore platform fire conditions. No leakage was permissible during the test burns nor during the subsequent cooldown periods. The laboratory fire test results confirmed the performance predicted by computer Finite Element Analysis and verified the design procedures employed. This new fire resistant wellhead equipment promises to significantly reduce the fire hazard associated with the production of oil and gas from offshore platform wells.

  11. Flash-Fire Propensity and Heat-Release Rate Studies of Improved Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-six improved fire resistant materials were tested for flash-fire propensity and heat release rate properties. The tests were conducted to obtain a descriptive index based on the production of ignitable gases during the thermal degradation process and on the response of the materials under a specific heat load.

  12. Fire Resistant Fuel for Military Compression Ignition Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    to statistically optimize and quantify FRF emulsion stability. Variables include: temperature (hot or cold ), base fuel, amount and type of emulsifier...developing a fire resistant fuel water emulsion and how the use of JP-8, as intended by the single fuel forward concept, affects this development. 15...This paper will discuss some of the aspects and limitations of developing a fire resistant fuel water emulsion and how the use of JP-8, as intended

  13. Candidate materials for advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Arnett, J. C.; Samuelson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A cooperative, cost-sharing research effort to develop a technology base required to construct fire-ratable photovoltaic modules has resulted in the identification of several high-temperature, back-surface candidate materials capable of raising the fire-resistance of modules using hydrocarbon encapsulants to Class A and B levels. Advanced experimental module configurations have been developed using back surfaces consisting of Kapton, Tedlar laminates, metal-foils, and fiberglass materials with high-temperature coatings. Test results (October 1984; March 1985; May 1985; and October 1985) indicate that several of these advanced module configurations are capable of achieving Class B fire-resistance levels, while a few configurations can achieve Class A levels. The paper summarizes activities to date, discussing flammability failure mechanisms, time-temperature profiles, and results of Block V environmental exposure tests of a candidate material suitable for both Class B and Class A fire-resistance levels.

  14. Highly Flexible Superhydrophobic and Fire-Resistant Layered Inorganic Paper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Shen, Yue-Qin

    2016-12-21

    Traditional paper made from plant cellulose fibers is easily destroyed by either liquid or fire. In addition, the paper making industry consumes a large amount of natural trees and thus causes serious environmental problems including excessive deforestation and pollution. In consideration of the intrinsic flammability of organics and minimizing the effects on the environment and creatures, biocompatible ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires are an ideal building material for inorganic fire-resistant paper. Herein, a new kind of free-standing, highly flexible, superhydrophobic, and fire-resistant layered inorganic paper has been successfully prepared using ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires as building blocks after the surface modification with sodium oleate. During the vacuum filtration, ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires assemble into self-roughened setalike microfibers, avoiding the tedious fabrication process to construct the hierarchical structure; the self-roughened microfibers further form the inorganic paper with a nacrelike layered structure. We have demonstrated that the layered structure can significantly improve the resistance to mechanical destruction of the as-prepared superhydrophobic paper. The as-prepared superhydrophobic and fire-resistant inorganic paper shows excellent nonflammability, liquid repellency to various commercial drinks, high thermal stability, and self-cleaning property. Moreover, we have explored the potential applications of the superhydrophobic and fire-resistant inorganic paper as a highly effective adsorbent for oil/water separation, fire-shielding protector, and writing paper.

  15. Determination of the fire hazards of mine materials using a radiant panel

    PubMed Central

    Harteis, S.P.; Litton, C.D.; Thomas, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a laboratory-scale method to rank the ignition and fire hazards of commonly used underground mine materials and to eliminate the need for the expensive large-scale tests that are currently being used. A radiant-panel apparatus was used to determine the materials’ relevant thermal characteristics: time to ignition, critical heat flux for ignition, heat of gasification, and mass-loss rate. Three thermal parameters, TRP, TP1 and TP4, were derived from the data, then developed and subsequently used to rank the combined ignition and fire hazards of the combustible materials from low hazard to high hazard. The results compared favorably with the thermal and ignition hazards of similar materials reported in the literature and support this approach as a simpler one for quantifying these combustible hazards. PMID:26877552

  16. Foam composite structures. [for fire retardant airframe materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Milligan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The need to include fire resistant foams into state of the art aircraft interior paneling to increase passenger safety in aircraft fires was studied. Present efforts were directed toward mechanical and fire testing of panels with foam inclusions. Skinned foam filled honeycomb and PBI structural foams were the two constructions investigated with attention being directed toward weight/performance/cost trade-off. All of the new panels demonstrated improved performance in fire and some were lighter weight but not as strong as the presently used paneling. Continued efforts should result in improved paneling for passenger safety. In particular the simple partial filling (fire side) of state-of-the-art honeycomb with fire resistant foams with little sacrifice in weight would result in panels with increased fire resistance. More important may be the retarded rate of toxic gas evolution in the fire due to the protection of the honeycomb by the foam.

  17. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  18. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  19. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  20. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  1. Research on Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    dielectric loss measurement to monitor the water content of these emulsions . Microwave dielectric loss at a fre- quency of about 23 to 24 GHz is specific...diesel fuel micro- emulsions could be prepared and that they exhibit reduced mist flammability and self-extinguishing pool fires at temperatures...68 21 Transient NMR Data for an FRF and Its Components. . . . 76 22 Typical Effects of Aging on Dielectric Constant of W/O Emulsions

  2. Investigation of Fire-Vulnerability-Reduction Effectiveness of Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel in Armored Vehicular Fuel Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    Page 1 Six Generations of Fire-Resistant Fuel Formulations Investigated by the U.S. Army.................................. 2 Referee-Grade-Base-Fuel...A. Background Information Six generations of fire-resistant fuel have ,een investigated by the Army, and these are summarized in Table 1. (2,3) The...8217. . ’ , I TABLE I. SIX GENERATIONS OF FIRE-RESISTANT FUEL FORMULATIONS INVESTIGATED BY THE U.S. ARMY 1. Fuel gellation just prior to hazard

  3. Development and testing of advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    The evaluation of back-surface materials flammability in order to identify fire resistant module designs is examined. The fire test apparatus, burning-brand test sequence, and spread-of-flame test sequence are described. Video recordings and time-temperature profiles of module back surfaces are utilized to study the flammability failure mechanism and identify high-temperature materials. A table of flammability test results for various module designs is provided. The data reveals that 2-mil kapton, fiberglass cloth coated or impregnated with a material to plug pores, and metal foil back-surface materials achieve class A and B fire-resistance levels, and are applicable for photovoltaic module designs.

  4. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Treesearch

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  5. A new family of fire-resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1981-01-01

    Need for lightweight flame-resistant, nonsmoking materials in interiors of spacecraft has spawned family of foams that could find applications in aircraft and other vehicles. Polyimide-based foams are being developed as resilient fillers for seat cushions, as rigid, low-density wall panels, as high-strength sheets for floors, and as thermal and acoustical insulation.

  6. A new family of fire-resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1981-01-01

    Need for lightweight flame-resistant, nonsmoking materials in interiors of spacecraft has spawned family of foams that could find applications in aircraft and other vehicles. Polyimide-based foams are being developed as resilient fillers for seat cushions, as rigid, low-density wall panels, as high-strength sheets for floors, and as thermal and acoustical insulation.

  7. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  8. Analytical methods for determining fire resistance of timber members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    The fire resistance ratings of wood members and assemblies, as of other materials, have traditionally been obtained by testing the assembly in a furnace in accordance with ASTM International (ASTM) Standard E119, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 834, and similar standards. These ratings are published in listings, such as Underwriters...

  9. Fire resistance of engineered wood rim board products.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2003-01-01

    Engineered wood products, such as oriented strandboard, laminated veneer lumber, and other composite wood products, are being used more often in construction. This includes use as rim boards, which are the components around the perimeter of a floor assembly. This situation has increased the need for information about the fire resistance of these products. In this study...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  12. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation that...

  13. Fire-resistant aircraft materials development and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.; Stuckey, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to provide a more fire-resistant commercial aircraft interior and to improve the fuselage insulation barrier between the cabin interior and an exterior fuel fire. Significant secondary objectives are to reduce the smoke and toxic gas production of the materials and to meet the end item use requirements pertaining to wearability, color fastness, and aesthetic appeal. It is shown that the fuselage insulation materials must meet stringent requirements pertaining to acoustic attenuation, low density, and water repellency.

  14. Fire-resistant aircraft materials development and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.; Stuckey, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to provide a more fire-resistant commercial aircraft interior and to improve the fuselage insulation barrier between the cabin interior and an exterior fuel fire. Significant secondary objectives are to reduce the smoke and toxic gas production of the materials and to meet the end item use requirements pertaining to wearability, color fastness, and aesthetic appeal. It is shown that the fuselage insulation materials must meet stringent requirements pertaining to acoustic attenuation, low density, and water repellency.

  15. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, N. Othman, W. M. S. W. Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  16. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  17. Preparation for foam composites. [using polybenzimidazole for fireproofing panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximovich, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Methods were developed for the fabrication of fire resistant panels utilizing polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Kerimid 601 resins along with glass, quartz, and Kevlar reinforcements. Stitched truss structure, both unfilled and filled with PBI foam, were successfully fabricated and tested. Second generation structures were then selected, fabricated, and tested, with a PBI/glass skin/PBI foam sandwich structure emerging as the optimum panel concept. Mechanical properties, smoke generation, and fire resistance were determined for the candidate panels.

  18. Rigid fire-resistant foams for walls and floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous techniques for fabricating rigid fire-resistant polyimide foams by compressing already-foamed precursor have been supplanted by one-step constrained-rise process. Precursor mixed with reinforcing fillers is placed between rigid substrates that constrain expansion of foam as it is heated by microwave energy. Process works for both liquid and powder precursors and can also be adapted to attach woven fiberglass skins at same time prcursor is being foamed.

  19. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  20. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  1. Rigid fire-resistant foams for walls and floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous techniques for fabricating rigid fire-resistant polyimide foams by compressing already-foamed precursor have been supplanted by one-step constrained-rise process. Precursor mixed with reinforcing fillers is placed between rigid substrates that constrain expansion of foam as it is heated by microwave energy. Process works for both liquid and powder precursors and can also be adapted to attach woven fiberglass skins at same time prcursor is being foamed.

  2. Resistance of Six Wood Products Used in Paneling to Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Treesearch

    Bradford M. Kard; E.J. Mallette

    1997-01-01

    Six wood products used in wall paneling were tested for resistance to feeding damage by the eastern subterranean termite, Reticuli termesflavipes (Kollar). Alaska-cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, fiber without wax and resin treatments normally used in paneling production was not a preferred food source in choice tests where all 6 wood products plus...

  3. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  4. Edge attachment study for fire-resistant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintermute, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-two resin systems were evaluated in laminate form for possible use as edge attachment material for fire-resistant canopies. The evaluation uncovered an unexpected development when the laminates were subjected to an intense flame: (1) the high-heat-resistant materials could withstand the flame test quite well, but experienced rapid heat transfer through the test specimen; (2) the laminates which exhibited a low rate of heat transfer were materials which lost strength rapidly in the presence of the flame by decomposition, delamination, and blistering.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrates required to be employed in the hydraulic system of underground equipment in accordance with the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  7. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials (FIREMEN): A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA Fire Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Ames Research Center on April, 13, 14, 1978 are reported. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the results of NASA in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire resistant materials. The program components include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) bibliography related and/or generated from the program.

  8. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials: A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor); Johnson, G. A. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA IRE Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington, on March 1-2, 1979 are reported. The conference was to discuss the results of research by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire-resistant materials. The program topics include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) fire modeling.

  9. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  10. Fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds and common fire retardants

    Treesearch

    Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal; Robert White; Katsumi Shinoda; Yuji Imamura

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the fire performance and decay resistance of solid wood and plywood treated with quaternary ammonia compounds (didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF)) were compared with the performance of untreated control specimens and specimens treated with common fire retardants ((monoammonium phosphate (MAP),...

  11. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

  12. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  13. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  14. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  15. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. ...

  16. Public acceptance of wildland fire and fuel management: Panel responses in seven locations

    Treesearch

    Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler; Sarah McCaffrey; James. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire affects both public and private resources throughout the United States. A century of fire suppression has contributed to changing ecological conditions and accumulated fuel loads. Managers have used a variety of approaches to address these conditions and reduce the likelihood of wildland fires that may result in adverse ecological impacts and threaten...

  17. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Surpkis, D. E.; Price, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests to evaluate the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials by comparing their burning characteristics with those of older aircraft materials are described. Three tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1, using pre-1968 materials, was run to correlate the procedures and to compare the results with previous tests by other organizations. Test 2 included newer, improved fire-resistant materials. Test 3 was essentially a duplicate of test 2, but a smokeless fuel was used. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the pre-1968 materials ignited easily, allowed the fire to spread, produced large amounts of smoke and toxic combustion products, and resulted in a flash fire and major fire damage. The newer fire-resistant materials did not allow the fire to spread. Furthermore, they produced less, lower concentrations of toxic combustion products, and lower temperatures. The newer materials did not produce a flash fire.

  18. Fire-resistant phosphorus containing polyimides and copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing polyimides and copolyimides are synthesized in a two-step polycondensation reaction from 1- (diorganooxyphosphonl)methly 2,4- and 2,6-diaminobenzenes and tetracarboxylic anhydride. The diorgano position of the diorganooxyphosphonyl group includes alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted alkyl, such as 2-chloroethyl, and aryl such as phenyl. The tetracarboxylic anhydries include compounds such as pyrometallitic dianhydride and benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyimides is reduced by incorporation of the (dialkoxyphosphonyl)methyl groups. The phosphorus-containing copolyimides show a considerably higher degree of fire-resistance as compared to that of the corresponding common polyimides.

  19. Advanced thermoset resins for fire-resistant composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal and flammability properties of some thermoset polymers and composites are described. The processing and evaluation of composites fabricated from currently used resins and advanced fire-resistant resins are also described. Laboratory test methodology used to qualify candidate composite materials includes thermochemical characterization of the polymeric compounds and evaluation of the glass reinforced composites for flammability and smoke evolution. The use of these test methods will be discussed in comparing advanced laminating resins and composites consisting of modified epoxies, phenolics and bismaleimide, with conventional baseline materials consisting of epoxy.

  20. Microemulsion-Type Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Temperature Flow--Minimum Temperatures 2 . Low-Temperature Filtration--Suction Versus Pressure 3. Is FRF Newtonian? 4 . Additive Effects D . Engine...oxyethylene groups (Igepal DM-430) C. H o(C( 2 CH2 0) 7H C H1 9 19 d ) A proprietary anionic phosphate ester derivative of the polyethoxy- lated...AD-A157 i25 MICROEMULSION-TYPE FIRE-RESISTANT DIESEL FUEL(U) i/ 2 SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB W D

  1. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large effect QTL for fire blight resistance has been pre...

  2. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  3. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  4. Development of lightweight, fire-retardant, low smoke, high strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Karch, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    Boeing's participation in a NASA funded program (FIREMEN) to develop materials for use as floor panels possessing flammability, smoke and toxicity characteristics superior to current materials is outlined. The objectives of the program are to develop an aircraft floor paneling suitable for high traffic areas, e.g., aisle or galley and to install and certify the panel in a commercial aircraft for service evaluation.

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel for Etiologic Diagnosis of Infectious Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Leber, Amy; Chapin, Kimberle; Fey, Paul D.; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Jones, Matthew K.; Rogatcheva, Margarita; Kanack, Kristen J.; Bourzac, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate treatment and control of infectious gastroenteritis depend on the ability to rapidly detect the wide range of etiologic agents associated with the disease. Clinical laboratories currently utilize an array of different methodologies to test for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of gastroenteritis, a strategy that suffers from poor sensitivity, potentially long turnaround times, and complicated ordering practices and workflows. Additionally, there are limited or no testing methods routinely available for most diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains, astroviruses, and sapoviruses. This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, adenovirus F 40/41, astrovirus, norovirus GI/GII, rotavirus A, and sapovirus. Prospectively collected stool specimens (n = 1,556) were evaluated using the BioFire FilmArray GI Panel and tested with conventional stool culture and molecular methods for comparison. The FilmArray GI Panel sensitivity was 100% for 12/22 targets and ≥94.5% for an additional 7/22 targets. For the remaining three targets, sensitivity could not be calculated due to the low prevalences in this study. The FilmArray GI Panel specificity was ≥97.1% for all panel targets. The FilmArray GI Panel provides a comprehensive, rapid, and streamlined alternative to conventional methods for the etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in the laboratory setting. The potential

  6. Multicenter evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal panel for etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Buss, Sarah N; Leber, Amy; Chapin, Kimberle; Fey, Paul D; Bankowski, Matthew J; Jones, Matthew K; Rogatcheva, Margarita; Kanack, Kristen J; Bourzac, Kevin M

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate treatment and control of infectious gastroenteritis depend on the ability to rapidly detect the wide range of etiologic agents associated with the disease. Clinical laboratories currently utilize an array of different methodologies to test for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of gastroenteritis, a strategy that suffers from poor sensitivity, potentially long turnaround times, and complicated ordering practices and workflows. Additionally, there are limited or no testing methods routinely available for most diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains, astroviruses, and sapoviruses. This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, adenovirus F 40/41, astrovirus, norovirus GI/GII, rotavirus A, and sapovirus. Prospectively collected stool specimens (n = 1,556) were evaluated using the BioFire FilmArray GI Panel and tested with conventional stool culture and molecular methods for comparison. The FilmArray GI Panel sensitivity was 100% for 12/22 targets and ≥94.5% for an additional 7/22 targets. For the remaining three targets, sensitivity could not be calculated due to the low prevalences in this study. The FilmArray GI Panel specificity was ≥97.1% for all panel targets. The FilmArray GI Panel provides a comprehensive, rapid, and streamlined alternative to conventional methods for the etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in the laboratory setting. The potential

  7. 76 FR 32843 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of Military Uniforms (DFARS Case 2011-D021) AGENCY... fiber in solicitations issued before January 1, 2015. DATES: Effective date: June 6, 2011. Comment date... 2011 (Pub. L. 111-383). Section 821 prohibits specification of the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber...

  8. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  9. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public acceptance of wildland fire and fuel management: panel responses in seven locations.

    PubMed

    Toman, Eric; Shindler, Bruce; McCaffrey, Sarah; Bennett, James

    2014-09-01

    Wildland fire affects both public and private resources throughout the United States. A century of fire suppression has contributed to changing ecological conditions and accumulated fuel loads. Managers have used a variety of approaches to address these conditions and reduce the likelihood of wildland fires that may result in adverse ecological impacts and threaten communities. Public acceptance is a critical component of developing and implementing successful management programs. This study examines the factors that influence citizen support for agency fuel reduction treatments over time-particularly prescribed fire and mechanical vegetation removal. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study examining resident beliefs and attitudes regarding fire management and fuels treatments in seven states: Arizona, Colorado, Oregon, Utah, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The study was implemented in two phases over a 6-year period using mail surveys to residents of communities adjacent to federal lands in each location. Questions replicated measures from the original project as well as some new items to allow a more in-depth analysis of key concepts. The study design enables comparisons over time as well as between locations. We also assess the factors that influence acceptance of both prescribed fire and mechanical vegetation removal. Findings demonstrate a relative stability of attitudes toward fuels management approaches over time and suggest that this acceptance is strongly influenced by confidence in resource managers and beliefs that the treatments would result in positive outcomes.

  11. Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels

    Treesearch

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2008-01-01

    Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150°C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in...

  12. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  13. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets as High-Performance Binder-Free Fire-Resistant Wood Coatings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Kutty, Rajendrannair Govindan; Zheng, Qingshen; Eswariah, Varrla; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Liu, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are synthesized through a facile shear force liquid phase exfoliation method and their use as a binder-free oxidation and fire-resistant wood coating is demonstrated. Characterized by intrinsic low thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity, h-BN nanosheet coatings show an excellent fire resistance and oxidation resistance up to 900 °C in air. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  15. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of flammability by the use of materials obtained from foamy polyimide resins is developed. The ability of these materials to provide fire protection is demonstrated. The development of processes for producing resilient cell foam for use in aircraft seating, thermal acoustical insulation, floor and wall panels, coated glass fabrics, and molded hardware.

  16. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  17. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  18. Numerical estimation of fire resistance and a flexible design of fire protection for structures made of reinforced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaledin, Vl. O.; Mitkevich, A. B.; Strakhov, V. L.

    2012-07-01

    The basic principles of a progressive methodology for calculating the fire resistance of reinforced structures, meant for application to high-rise, multifunctional, and unique buildings, are presented. The methodology is universal with respect to materials, types of building structures with fire protection, and different force and heat loads acting on them under the conditions of fire. It permits one to take into account all particularities of the thermomechanical behavior of structures in the case of joint action of thermal and force loads. The solution procedure is based on using high-level mathematical models and universal methods of numerical analysis, i.e., the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM). To simplify and reduce the labor content of computational algorithms, a mathematical model of special beam finite element has been developed, which in a natural way takes into account the complex structure of buildings, spatial nonuniformity of temperature fields, and the nonlinear behavior of materials. This procedure allowed us to determine the limits of applicability of the known approximate approach, which is based on the use of the concept of "critical temperature," to the estimation of fire resistance and to the design of fire protection of concrete structures. The procedure has been used in designing a number of unique structures built in Moscow.

  19. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  20. Impact of Prescribed Fire and Thinning on Host Resistance to the Southern Pine Beetle: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Treesearch

    M. Forbes Boyle; Roy L. Hedden; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    The southern pine beetle ( Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) is considered one of the most aggressive insect pests in the Southern United States. Resistance to southern pine beetle infestations in southern pines depends largely on oleoresin flow rate and total flow. Treatments, such as prescribed fire and thinning, can be used to reduce stand infestation susceptibil-ity by...

  1. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    DOEpatents

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  2. Impact damage resistance of flat glass/cellular glass solar mirror experimental panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varner, J. R.; Akbar Ali, M.; Adams, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the hail-impact behavior of a solar concentrator structural material which consists of thin, second-surface silvered glass sheets bonded to structural support panels of cellular glass. The resulting glass/cellular glass panel can be described as a thin, brittle plate supported by an elastic foundation, with the adhesive bonding the two as a third component. The plate will bend during impact. Attention is experimentally given to how variations in the characteristics or geometry of the flat glass, adhesive and cellular glass affect hail-impact damage resistance. The critical energy needed to cause impact damage is calculated from the critical velocity of the iceball by means of the kinetic energy formula. The complexity of this structural system and the variability of the specimens render it impossible to completely develop an analytical treatment for the prediction of impact damage resistance.

  3. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for commercial aircraft and spacecraft using a basic polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    A terpolyimide precursor was developed which can be foamed by microwave methods and yields foams possessing the best seating properties. A continuous process, based on spray drying techniques, permits production of polyimide powder precursors in large quantities. The constrained rise foaming process permits fabrication of rigid foam panels with improved mechanical properties and almost unlimited density characteristics. Polyimide foam core rigid panels were produced by this technique with woven fiberglass fabric bonded to each side of the panel in a one step microwave process. The fire resistance of polyimide foams was significantly improved by the addition of ceramic fibers to the powder precursors. Foams produced from these compositions are flexible, possess good acoustical attenuation and meet the minimum burnthrough requirements when impinged by high flux flame sources.

  4. Fabrication of pixilated architecture large panel organic flexible solar cell by reducing bulk electrical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panag, Jasmeet Singh

    This study investigates experimentally the photovoltaic behavior and performance of a new pixilated architecture of large organic photovoltaic panels made of a large array of high-aspect ratio three-dimensional pillars surrounded by a matrix of polymer photoactive material. A least addressed problem in organic and thin-film solar cells is the high bulk resistance of cathodic and anodic layers that result in drastic reduction of currents and power conversion efficiency (PCE). For such panels to be practical and commercially competitive, this huge bulk-resistance has to be minimized as much as possible. In this study, therefore, we introduce a new novel architecture that essentially compartmentalizes large panels into smaller modules that are connected to each other in a parallel fashion. In this architecture, the metal cathode layer is applied on the top as a series of lines whereas the anodic layer is independently connected to the pixilated cells at the bottom. As a result, these modules act like independent pixel cells wherein the damage from process and operation is limited individual pixel cells. The factors considered in validating the pixilated architecture presented here consisted of effect of number of pixels on efficiency and bulk electrical resistance. In addition, the study shows that pixilated architecture offers more uniform photoactive layers, and hence better photovoltaic performance because of the compartmentalization.

  5. Chemically amplified i-line positive resist for next-generation flat panel display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsing-Chieh; Lu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Shin-Yih; Lan, Wei-Jen; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Traditional diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) positive photoresists are widely used for TFT-LCD array process. Current LTPS technology has more than 600ppi resolution is required for small or middle-sized TFT liquid crystal display panels. One of the ways to enhance resolution is to apply i-line single exposure system instead of traditional g/h/ibroadband exposure system. We have been developing i-line chemically amplified photoresist ECA 200 series for the next generation flat panel display (FPD). ECA 200 consists of three components: a phenol resin, a photo acid generator and dissolution enhancer. We applied two different types of dissolution enhancers with two different kinds of protected groups to our resist materials. As a result, we achieved higher sensitivity, higher resolution, less footing of the resist profile and reduced standing wave effect compared with traditional DNQ photoresists. In addition, we have found further property of photoresist that does not need post exposure bake (PEB) process. This resist has a great advantage at most of current panel plants without PEB process.

  6. Development of fire-resistant wellhead and Christmas tree equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.; van Dort, R.; Harmer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sarawak Shell Berhad (SSB) has adopted the philosophy that wellhead equipment for platforms and other congested high-risk areas should be designed to withstand a fire in a neighboring well. This paper outlines the considerations leading to the development of the fireresistant wellhead and Christmas tree and describes the weaknesses inherent in standard wellhead equipment exposed to fire.

  7. Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2011-01-01

    Settlement by Anglo-Americans in the desert shrublands of North America resulted in the introduction and subsequent invasion of multiple nonnative grass species. These invasions have altered presettlement fire regimes, resulted in conversion of native perennial shrublands to nonnative annual grasslands, and placed many native desert species at risk. Effective management of these ecosystems requires an understanding of their ecological resistance to invasion and resilience to fire. Resistance and resilience differ among the cold and hot desert shrublands of the Great Basin, Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts in North America. These differences are largely determined by spatial and temporal patterns of productivity but also are affected by ecological memory, severity and frequency of disturbance, and feedbacks among invasive species and disturbance regimes. Strategies for preventing or managing invasive plant/fire regimes cycles in desert shrublands include: 1) conducting periodic resource assessments to evaluate the probability of establishment of an altered fire regime; 2) developing an understanding of ecological thresholds associate within invasion resistance and fire resilience that characterize transitions from desirable to undesirable fire regimes; and 3) prioritizing management activities based on resistance of areas to invasion and resilience to fire.

  8. Novel fire-resistant polyphosphazenes and phosphazene-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan Paul

    functionalized via the Staudinger reaction with phosphazene cyclic trimers bearing an azide side group. The phosphazene rings bore trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups as the cosubstituents. All the polymers were characterized by multi-nuclear NMR, GPC, and DSC. The mechanisms of flame retardance were studied with TGA and OI methods. The chemical structures of the polymer backbone and of the phosphazene side groups affected the thermal stability and fire resistance of the final materials.

  9. Establishing a panel of chemo-resistant mesothelioma models for investigating chemo-resistance and identifying new treatments for mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Amanda L.; Weir, Chris; Moon, Elizabeth; Harvie, Rozelle; Klebe, Sonja; Clarke, Stephen J.; Pavlakis, Nick; Howell, Viive M.

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is inherently chemo-resistant with only 50% of patients responding to the standard of care treatments, and consequently it has a very grim prognosis. The aim of this study was to establish a panel of chemo-resistant mesothelioma models with clinically relevant levels of resistance as tools for investigating chemo-resistance and identifying new treatments for mesothelioma. Chemo-resistant cell lines were established in vitro and characterized in vivo using syngeneic Fischer rats. Tumors derived from all chemo-resistant cell lines were immunohistochemically classified as mesothelioma. Homozygous deletion of p16INK4A/p14ARF and increased expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporters were demonstrated, consistent with findings in human mesothelioma. Further, the acquisition of chemo-resistance in vitro resulted in changes to tumor morphology and overall survival. In conclusion, these models display many features corresponding with the human disease, and provide the first series of matched parental and chemo-resistant models for in vitro and in vivo mesothelioma studies. PMID:25141917

  10. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    PubMed

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire.

  11. Fire

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    In some areas, many aspen stands are all the same age, dating from a single great fire or a year of widespread fires (fig. 1). The 1879 fire in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming (Loope and Gruell 1973) and the 1904 fires in Arizona's White Mountains (Kallander 1969) are examples. Choate (1966) found that almost all aspen stands in New Mexico were even-aged, many...

  12. Fire-resistant pits: Reducing the probability of accidental plutonium dispersal from fuel fires

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Reductions in risk of Pu dispersal from hydrocarbon fuel fires were estimated using pool and spill fire data. Improvements in FRP temperature capabilities, on a system-independent basis, lead to the following estimated reductions in risk, using three probabilistic temperature distributions normalized to a temperature capability of 640[degree]C (the melting point of plutonium): 1OOO[degree]C - factor of 3 to 5; 11OO[degree]C - factor of 10 to 13; and 1200[degree]C - factor of 120 to 300. The above values would, of course, vary for a different normalization temperature. These values were derived to be as system-independent as possible. Incorporation of fuel fire durations or of longer time-averaging (than the two minutes employed in this study) would tend to increase these FRP improvement factors. Incorporation of propellant fires, burning metal or of combined impact/fire accidents would tend to decrease them. Further studies of fuel fire durations, particularly of a fuel fire duration model, is recommended, as is an uncertainty analysis of the temperature distributions.

  13. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  14. Fire Resistance Testing of Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    consisted of a steel plate identical to that used in the Class A-0 assembly, but rockwool insulation was applied to the fire side of the steel plate and...penetration samples were then insulated with rockwool batts to form a Class A-60 assembly (Figure 2). Between nine and twenty-eight temperature readings...representative of Class A-O construction. The UL staff secured insulation ( rockwool batts) to the fire side of the steel plates and penetrating items to prepare

  15. Indications of vigor loss after fire in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) from electrical resistance measurements

    Treesearch

    T.E. Paysen; A.L. Koonce; E. Taylor; M.O. Rodriquez

    2006-01-01

    In May 1993, electrical resistance measurements were performed on trees in burned and unburned stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) in north-eastern Nicaragua to determine whether tree vigor was affected by fire. An Osmose model OZ-67 Shigometer with digital readout was used to collect the sample electrical resistance data. Computer-...

  16. Categorical modeling on electrical anomaly of room-and-pillar coal mine fires and application for field electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wujun; Wang, Yanming; Shao, Zhenlu

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of fire area delineation in coalfield with electrical prospecting, the categorical geoelectric models of coal fires are established according to geological and mining conditions. The room-and-pillar coal mine fires are divided into three types which are coal seam fire, goaf fire and subsidence area fire, respectively, and forward electrical simulations and inversion analysis of each type of coal fire are implemented. Simulation results show that the resistance anomalies of goaf fires exist around one and a half to two times higher than background field, in contrast, coal seam and subsidence area fires performance low resistivity response which are roughly half to two-third of background field resistivity, respectively. Identification of different fire types and delineation of coal fire areas are further presented. The inversion results which are validated by borehole survey prove that the presented method could eliminate the omission of coal fires with high resistance anomaly and provide a novel reference for fire extinguishing in the future.

  17. Physical and Mechanical Properties and Fire, Decay, and Termite Resistance of Treated Oriented Strandboard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    mechanical properties and fire, decay, andtermite re- sistance of oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), boric acid ... Boric acid DOT MP BA/DOTb Content aBA = boric acid DOT = disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: MP =melamine phosphate. bHereafter these will be...mechanical and physical properties in medium den- sity fiberboard treated with zinc borate at retentions of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 per- cent boric acid

  18. Vegetation fires, particulate air pollution and asthma: a panel study in the Australian monsoon tropics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fay H; Webby, Rosalind J; Pilotto, Louis S; Bailie, Ross S; Parry, David L; Halpin, Stephen J

    2006-12-01

    We examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) <10 and <2.5 microns in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5) generated by vegetation fires and daily health outcomes in 251 adults and children with asthma over a 7-month period. Data were analysed using generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential environmental confounders, autocorrelation, weekends and holidays. PM10 ranged from 2.6 - 43.3 microg m-3and was significantly associated with onset of asthma symptoms, commencing oral steroid medication, the mean daily symptom count and the mean daily dose of reliever medication. Similar results were found for PM2.5. No associations were found with the more severe outcomes of asthma attacks, increased health care attendances or missed school/work days. These results help fill a gap in the evidence about the population health impacts of lower levels of pollution characteristic of deliberate landscape burning to control fuel loads versus the better documented risks of more intense and severely polluting wildfires.

  19. Electrical Resistivity Tomography for coal fire mapping over Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Bharti, A. K.; Pathak, V. K.; Kumar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Over the decades, coal fires are serious global concern posing grievous hazards to the valuable energy resources, local environments and human life. The coal seam and coal mine fires may be initiated due to improper mining activities, exothermic reactions, lighting, forest fire and other anthropic activities, which burn the coal and may continue underground for decades. The burning of concealed coal seams is a complex process involving numerous ill-defined parameters. Generally, the coal exhibits resistivity of 100 to 500Ωm at normal temperature conditions. During the pyrolysis process, at temperatures greater than 6500C coal became a good conductor with a resistivity of approximately 1 Ωm. The present study deals with the mapping of coal fire over Jharia coal field, India using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). A state-of-the-art 61-channel 64 electrode FlashRES-Universal ERT data acquisition system has been used for data acquisition in the field. The ERT data have been collected using Gradient array and processed in FlashRES Universal survey data checking program for removing noisy data. Then, filtered output data have been inverted using a 2.5D resistivity inversion program. Low resistivity anomalies over 80m-125m and 320m-390m along the profile are inferred to be active coal fire in seam- XVI at a depth of 25m -35m(Figure 1). High resistivity anomaly over 445m - 510m at a depth of 25m -35m has been delineated, due to void associated with complete combustion of seam- XVI coal, followed by char and ash formation resulting from the coal seam fire. Results prove the efficacy of the ERT study comprising Gradient array for coal fire mapping over, Jharia coal field, India.

  20. Ballistic resistance of honeycomb sandwich panels under in-plane high-velocity impact.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs.

  1. Ballistic Resistance of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels under In-Plane High-Velocity Impact

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs. PMID:24187526

  2. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  3. Low-smoke, halogenfree ship-offshore/onshore cables with improved flame retardance and fire resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J. R.; Holte, T. A.; Johansen, E.

    Cables with improved fire resistance and flame retardance have been developed. They will continue to function at least 3 hours even at temperatures up to 1000 C and do not propagate fire when tested according to IEC 332 part 3 1982, category A. Made with halogenfree materials they give off no corrosive gases and very little visible smoke in cases of fire. Cables are made for power, signal and instrument installations in hospitals, high rise buildings, railroad cars, subways, on board ship, oil rigs and oil production platforms. The offshore cables are specially constructed to withstand the rugged climatic conditions in the North Sea area.

  4. Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

  5. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Caroline; Fontaine, Gaëlle; Bourbigot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered. PMID:28883337

  6. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Sarah C; Nimmo, Dale G; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  7. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Sarah C.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26571383

  8. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  9. Fire resistant polyamide based on 1-(diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl-2,4- and -2,6diamino benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A. (Inventor); Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    1-(Diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl2,4- and-2,6diamino benzenes are reacted with polyacylhalides and optionally comonomers to produce polyamides which have desirable heat and fire resistance properties. These polymers are used to form fibers and fabrics where fire resistance properties are important, e.g., aircraft equipment and structures.

  10. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  11. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  12. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  13. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam...

  14. Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray® GastrointestinalPanel in a Midwestern Academic Hospital.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C N; Fowler, R C; Iwen, P C; Fey, P D

    2017-04-01

    The BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) was implemented to replace traditional stool culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for stool pathogens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection rate, incidence of coinfection, and culture recovery rate of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens detected by the GIP over a 1-year period. A total of 2257 stools collected from January to December 2015 were tested using the GIP. Clostridium difficile colonization was also evaluated by an antigen/toxin EIA and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GIP detected one pathogen in 911 (40.4%) specimens. Coinfections were detected in 176 (7.8%) of these specimens. The most frequently detected pathogens were C. difficile (15.2%), norovirus (8.9%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (7.1%), enteroaggregative E. coli (3.4%), Campylobacter spp. (2.3%), and sapovirus (2.0%). Each of the remaining GIP targets had a detection rate of ≤1.6%. The recovery of bacteria for public health investigations varied, with rates as high as 77% for Salmonella to as low as 30% for Yersinia enterocolitica. Of stools positive for C. difficile on the GIP that were tested by EIA, only 42.7% (88/206) were found to be producing detectable toxin. Overall, the implementation of the GIP resulted in high detection rates of GI pathogens, including the frequent detection of coinfections. This is a promising test to streamline the testing of agents causing infectious gastroenteritis from multiple tests down to a single order with limited hands-on time. Ongoing studies will need to assess the impact that the GIP has on downstream patient care and public health practices.

  15. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength. PMID:28788279

  16. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-12-08

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete's compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  17. Fire-Resistant Hydrogel-Fabric Laminates: A Simple Concept That May Save Lives.

    PubMed

    Illeperuma, Widusha R K; Rothemund, Philipp; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J

    2016-01-27

    There is a large demand for fabrics that can survive high-temperature fires for an extended period of time, and protect the skin from burn injuries. Even though fire-resistant polymer fabrics are commercially available, many of these fabrics are expensive, decompose rapidly, and/or become very hot when exposed to high temperatures. We have developed a new class of fire-retarding materials by laminating a hydrogel and a fabric. The hydrogel contains around 90% water, which has a large heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization. When the laminate is exposed to fire, a large amount of energy is absorbed as water heats up and evaporates. The temperature of the hydrogel cannot exceed 100 °C until it is fully dehydrated. The fabric has a low thermal conductivity and maintains the temperature gradient between the hydrogel and the skin. The laminates are fabricated using a recently developed tough hydrogel to ensure integrity of the laminate during processing and use. A thermal model predicts the performance of the laminates and shows that they have excellent heat resistance in good agreement with experiments, making them viable candidates in life saving applications such as fire-resistant blankets or apparel.

  18. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  19. Identification of QTLs for resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is the progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 (‘Royal Gala’ X PI631981) is segregating for resistance to both apple scab and fire bl...

  20. Fire-Resistant Reinforcement Makes Steel Structures Sturdier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Built and designed by Avco Corporation, the Apollo heat shield was coated with an ablative material whose purpose was to burn and, thus, dissipate energy. The material charred to form a protective coating which blocked heat penetration beyond the outer surface. Avco Corporation subsequently entered into a contract with Ames Research Center to develop spinoff applications of the heat shield in the arena of fire protection, specifically for the development of fire-retardant paints and foams for aircraft. This experience led to the production of Chartek 59, manufactured by Avco Specialty Materials (a subsidiary of Avco Corporation eventually acquired by Textron, Inc.) and marketed as the world s first intumescent epoxy material. As an intumescent coating, Chartek 59 expanded in volume when exposed to heat or flames and acted as an insulating barrier. It also retained its space-age ablative properties and dissipated heat through burn-off. Further applications were discovered, and the fireproofing formulation found its way into oil refineries, chemical plants, and other industrial facilities working with highly flammable products.

  1. The genetic basis for variation in resistance to infection in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic reference panel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals vary extensively in the way they respond to disease but the genetic basis of this variation is not fully understood. We found substantial individual variation in resistance and tolerance to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Ma549 using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). In addition, we found that host defense to Ma549 was correlated with defense to the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa14, and several previously published DGRP phenotypes including oxidative stress sensitivity, starvation stress resistance, hemolymph glucose levels, and sleep indices. We identified polymorphisms associated with differences between lines in both their mean survival times and microenvironmental plasticity, suggesting that lines differ in their ability to adapt to variable pathogen exposures. The majority of polymorphisms increasing resistance to Ma549 were sex biased, located in non-coding regions, had moderately large effect and were rare, suggesting that there is a general cost to defense. Nevertheless, host defense was not negatively correlated with overall longevity and fecundity. In contrast to Ma549, minor alleles were concentrated in the most Pa14-susceptible as well as the most Pa14-resistant lines. A pathway based analysis revealed a network of Pa14 and Ma549-resistance genes that are functionally connected through processes that encompass phagocytosis and engulfment, cell mobility, intermediary metabolism, protein phosphorylation, axon guidance, response to DNA damage, and drug metabolism. Functional testing with insertional mutagenesis lines indicates that 12/13 candidate genes tested influence susceptibility to Ma549. Many candidate genes have homologs identified in studies of human disease, suggesting that genes affecting variation in susceptibility are conserved across species. PMID:28257468

  2. Early detection of oxacillin-resistant staphylococcal strains with hypertonic broth diluent for microdilution panels.

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, L K; Howe, S E

    1984-01-01

    A total of 292 coagulase-positive and 111 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains were tested in microdilution MIC panels containing 16 to 0.13 microgram of oxacillin per ml diluted in cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth with and without an additional 2% NaCl. All strains were tested using the stationary-phase inoculum procedure with an incubation temperature of 35 degrees C. Test results were recorded after 16 to 20 h of incubation; staphylococcal strains susceptible to oxacillin (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml) were reincubated for 20 to 24 h, and endpoints were determined again. Oxacillin resistance was found in 27 (9%) of the 292 coagulase-positive strains and 39 (35%) of the 111 coagulase-negative strains. Of these resistant strains, 5 (19%) of the 27 coagulase-positive strains and 13 (33%) of the 39 coagulase-negative strains were detected 24 h earlier in cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% NaCl than in cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth without the additional NaCl. However, 9 (33%) of the 27 resistant coagulase-positive strains and 10 (26%) of the 39 resistant coagulase-negative strains were detected only after an additional 24 h of incubation. Oxacillin MICs for the 265 coagulase-positive susceptible strains and 72 coagulase-negative susceptible strains were not affected by the additional 2% NaCl. These results support the utility of adding 2% NaCl to the broth diluent for the early detection of oxacillin-resistant staphylococcal strains and the necessity of extended incubation for those strains which initially appear to be susceptible to oxacillin after only 16 to 20 h of incubation. PMID:6562124

  3. The Effect of Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on the Fatigue Resistance of Friction Stir Welded Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodopoulos, C. A.; Pantelakis, Sp. G.; Papadopoulos, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    In this work, the results of an experimental study for assessing the effects of Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on the fatigue resistance of Friction Stir Welded aluminum alloy panels are presented. Although the significant compressive residual stress introduced on the material by ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) was expected to cause retardation in the crack growth rate, this was only noted at low initial Δ Κ values. At high Δ Κ values, the effect of UIT practically diminishes. The phenomenon was attributed to the relaxation/redistribution of the residual stresses with fatigue damage. This provides an alarming situation where damage tolerance design relies on models where only the initial residual stress profile is taken into account without knowledge of the potential re-distribution of the residual stresses caused by the fatigue damage accumulation. The findings of this work also indicate that any FCG tests performed can only be considered as case-specific and conclusions can only be drawn for the case studied.

  4. Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergun; Altinok, Mustafa; Colak, Mehmet; Ozaki, S Kiyoka; Toker, Hilmi

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi (Mirb.) Franco) specimens treated with borate supplemented aqueous solutions of brutia pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder, and gall-nut powder. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) were used as borates which are the most commonly used fire retardants in wood preservation industry. Natural extractives (brutia pine bark powder, sumach leaf powder, acorn powder, and gall-nut powder) were also used which have toxic efficiency against insects and fungi due to their tannin contents. A commercial treatment compound Tanalith-CBC (copper-borate-chromate), which is an impregnation chemical, is used for comparison. The fire test method was performed in three stages: flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage. Results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with BA and BX mixture (7:3; weight:weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of BA and BX. Natural extractives did not improve fire resistance of the samples. However, boric acid and borax had excellent fire retardant effectiveness over untreated and treated samples with natural extractives.

  5. Study of coatings for improved fire and decay resistance of mine timbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to find a fire- and rot-retardant polymer/fungicide reaction product for coating mine timbers. Fire-retardant polymers were screened as films and coatings on fir wood. Curable polyimide appeared to be flame retardant and evolved a minimum of fumes when exposed to a flame. Several organic and metal, low toxicity, fungicides were reacted with the polyimide in-situ on the wood. These coated samples were screened for fungus resistance. All formulations rated well - even the polyimide film without additives was fungicidal. The fir wood control itself resisted internal damage during the ten weeks of fungus exposure. A more severe test for fungus resistance will be required.

  6. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  7. Enhancing pathogen identification in patients with meningitis and a negative Gram stain using the BioFire FilmArray(®) Meningitis/Encephalitis panel.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Susan H; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hemmert, Andrew C; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-04-21

    Meningitis with a negative cerebrospinal (CSF) Gram stain represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the BioFire FilmArray(®) Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA ME) panel in patients presenting with community-acquired meningitis with a negative Gram stain. CSF from 48 patients with community-acquired meningitis with a negative Gram stain admitted to four hospitals in Houston, TX underwent additional testing by the FA ME. FA ME results were compared to results obtained as part of routine evaluation. The panel detected pathogens not previously identified in 11 (22.9 %) of 48, but did not detect pathogens identified by standard technique (West Nile virus, Histoplasma) in 5 (15.2 %) patients. Rapid testing for the most common pathogens causing meningitis will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with meningitis.

  8. Fire

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsClimate forecasts indicate that the South’s spring and fall wildfire seasons will be extended.Prescribed fires, currently conducted on roughly a 3 to 5 year rotation across much of the South, would need to become more frequent if conditions become drier.Major wildfire events, such as the 2007...

  9. Wet-spinning of continuous montmorillonite-graphene fibers for fire-resistant lightweight conductors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bo; Peng, Li; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2015-05-26

    All-inorganic fibers composed of neat 2D crystals possessing fascinating performance (e.g., alternately stacking layers, high mechanical strength, favorable electrical conductivity, and fire-resistance) are discussed in detail. We developed a wet-spinning assmebly strategy to achieve continuous all-inorganic fibers of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoplatelets by incorporation of a graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystal (LC) template at a rate of 9 cm/s, and the templating role of GO LC is confirmed by in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy and polarized optical microscopy inspections. After protofibers underwent thermal reduction, the obtained binary complex fibers composed of neat 2D crystals integrate the outstanding fire-retardance of MMT nanoplatelets and the excellent conductivity of graphene nanosheets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope observations reveal the microstructures of fibers with compactly stacking layers. MMT-graphene fibers show increaing tensile strengths (88-270 MPa) and electrical conductivities (130-10500 S/m) with increasing graphene fraction. MMT-graphene (10/90) fibers are used as fire-resistant (bearing temperature in air: 600-700 °C), lightweight (ρ < 1.62 g/cm(3)) conductors (conductivity: up to 1.04 × 10(4) S/m) in view of their superior performance in high-temperature air beyond commercial T700 carbon fibers. We attribute the fire-resistance of MMT-graphene fibers to the armor-like protection of MMT layers, which could shield graphene layers from the action of oxidative etching. The composite fibers worked well as fire-resistant conductors when being heated to glowing red by an alcohol lamp. Our GO LC-templating wet-spinning strategy may also inspire the continuous assembly of other layered crystals into high-performance composite fibers.

  10. Test and Evaluation of Four Fire Resistant Booms at OHMSETT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    steel Proprietary Stainless steel Resistant Material information (SS) woven blend of Inconel® and Fiberfrax ® Tension Member 3/8" Galvanized Stainless...material ( Fiberfrax ) which was severely damaged during the bum tests. In terms of percentages, and relative to baseline loss speeds, The first wave

  11. Competitive effects of fire-resistant saplings on their fire-sensitive neighbors are greater than the reverse

    Treesearch

    J. Stephen Brewer

    2015-01-01

    Although repeated fires are generally thought to reduce competition, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare. Furthermore, recent theory predicts that fires can increase competitive effects of fireresistant species on fire-sensitive species and thus create stable assemblages dominated by the former. In this study, I quantified competition between saplings of fire-...

  12. Can fire safety in hotels be improved? Results from the survey of a panel of experts in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Márquez-Sierra, Francisco; Suárez-Cebador, Manuel

    2016-06-08

    The hotel industry is an important driver of the European labour market with over 250,000 hotels employing some 2 million people. In Spain, 240 workers were injured by fires in hotels from 2004 to 2008. Fire is considered to be the most important risk in the hotel industry, but the lack of an EU-wide data recording system for hotels makes it difficult to give exact figures for fire events. We analysed the state of fire prevention systems in hotels in Spain with the aim of proposing strategies to improve fire safety. A 10-item questionnaire was administered from 2007 to 2009 to 15 Spanish experts in fire safety. The questions were measured using a Likert scale and classified into 4 sections: current state of installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations and priority ranking of actions. Descriptive statistics summarized the data and t-tests evaluated the agreement foreach statement in the questionnaire. The statistical analysis showed homogeneity in the responses by the experts in all four categories: current state of fire safety installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations, and priority of actions. There was consensus among the experts over the necessity to improve the enforcement of regulations and also regarding the existence of an association between the hotel category (in Spain they are ranked using a 1 to 5 "star" rating system) and the level of fire safety; hotels with a higher category had higher levels of safety. There is a need to identify ways to apply fire safety standards to older hotels so that they comply with new regulations, to standardize regulations for different regions and countries, to improve the maintenance of installations and equipment, to increase the effectiveness of inspections conducted by government bodies, and to raise the general awareness of stakeholders involved in hotel fire prevention.

  13. The phylogenetic signal of species co-occurrence in high-diversity shrublands: different patterns for fire-killed and fire-resistant species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using phylogenies in community ecology is now commonplace, but typically, studies assume and test for a single common phylogenetic signal for all species in a community, at a given scale. A possibility that remains little-explored is that species differing in demographic or ecological attributes, or facing different selective pressures, show different community phylogenetic patterns, even within the same communities. Here I compare community phylogenetic patterns for fire-killed and fire-resistant Banksia species in the fire-prone shrublands of southwest Australia. Results Using new Bayesian phylogenies of Banksia, together with ecological trait data and abundance data from 24 field sites, I find that fire regeneration mode influences the phylogenetic and phenotypic signal of species co-occurrence patterns. Fire-killed species (reseeders) show patterns of phylogenetic and phenotypic repulsion consistent with competition-driven niche differentiation, but there are no such patterns for fire-resistant species (resprouters). For pairs of species that differ in fire response, co-occurrence is mediated by environmental filtering based on similarity in edaphic preferences. Conclusions These results suggest that it may be simplistic to characterize an entire community by a single structuring process, such as competition or environmental filtering. For this reason, community analyses based on pairwise species co-occurrence patterns may be more informative than those based on whole-community structure metrics. PMID:23016574

  14. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  15. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  16. Processing and properties of a lightweight fire resistant core material for sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, K.N.; Argade, S.D.; Sadler, R.L.; Sharpe, M.M.; Dunn, L.; Swaminathan, G.; Sorathia, U.

    2006-01-15

    A process for syntactic foam made from fly ash, a waste product of coal combustion from thermal power plants, has been developed using phenolic resin binders at low levels. The fly ash consists of hollow glass or ceramic microspheres and needs to be treated to remove contaminants. The production process is easily scalable and can be tailored to produce foams of desired properties for specific applications. Complex shaped parts also are possible with appropriate compression mold tooling. Mechanical properties, compression, tension, shear and fracture toughness, have been determined in this preliminary investigation on this syntactic material and are found to be comparable or better than commercially available core materials. Initial testing for fire resistance has indicated very encouraging results. Further work is being continued to develop this core material with superior mechanical and fire resistance properties.

  17. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  18. Fire-resistant fuel program analysis and program management documentation. Final report, December 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, C.A.

    1986-01-31

    There was an urgent need to transition management of the Fire Resistant Fuel (FRF) Program from the Materials Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (MFLL) to the Logistics Support Directorate (LSD). It is recommended that the LSD develop program management documentation (PMD) that supports a Milestone I review as soon as possible to include the following: System Concept Paper, Concept Formulation Package and a Test Evaluation Master Plan. This report describes programmatic analyses and subsequent programmatic recommendations.

  19. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-06-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  20. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-02-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  1. Evaluation and test of improved fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors. Volume 1. Fluid evaluation, bearing model tests, motor tests, and fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Fires within nuclear containment have occurred when the lubricants used in reactor coolant pump motors have leaked or spilled onto the hot insulated main coolant piping. This project was directed toward determining the applicability of commercially available fire resistant fluid lubricants to the lubrication of the bearings of a reactor coolant pump motor. This report describes the evaluation of candidate fluids, the testing of these fluids, and the selection of a lubricant for use in a standard reactor coolant pump motor test. The test results indicated that the phosphate ester lubricants, when properly inhibited and maintained, are acceptable for use. Recommendations are presented for further work necessary to the successful application of the fire resistant fluid lubricant.

  2. A Diverse Panel of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Use in Vaccine Research Reveals Extremes of Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Richard A.; McClure, C. Patrick; Brown, Richard J. P.; Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Persson, Mats A. A.; Krey, Thomas; Irving, William L.; Tarr, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite significant advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the need to develop preventative vaccines remains. Identification of the best vaccine candidates and evaluation of their performance in preclinical and clinical development will require appropriate neutralization assays utilizing diverse HCV isolates. We aimed to generate and characterize a panel of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins suitable for subsequent use in vaccine and therapeutic antibody testing. Full-length E1E2 clones were PCR amplified from patient-derived serum samples, cloned into an expression vector, and used to generate viral pseudoparticles (HCVpp). In addition, some of these clones were used to generate cell culture infectious (HCVcc) clones. The infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of these viruses were then determined. Bioinformatic and HCVpp infectivity screening of approximately 900 E1E2 clones resulted in the assembly of a panel of 78 functional E1E2 proteins representing distinct HCV genotypes and different stages of infection. These HCV glycoproteins differed markedly in their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We used this panel to predict antibody efficacy against circulating HCV strains, highlighting the likely reason why some monoclonal antibodies failed in previous clinical trials. This study provides the first objective categorization of cross-genotype patient-derived HCV E1E2 clones according to their sensitivity to antibody neutralization. It has shown that HCV isolates have clearly distinguishable neutralization-sensitive, -resistant, or -intermediate phenotypes, which are independent of genotype. The panel provides a systematic means for characterization of the neutralizing response elicited by candidate vaccines and for defining the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a global burden of more than 170 million people, many of whom cannot attain the new, expensive, direct-acting antiviral

  3. A Diverse Panel of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Use in Vaccine Research Reveals Extremes of Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Resistance.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Brown, Richard J P; Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Persson, Mats A A; Krey, Thomas; Irving, William L; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W

    2015-12-23

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the need to develop preventative vaccines remains. Identification of the best vaccine candidates and evaluation of their performance in preclinical and clinical development will require appropriate neutralization assays utilizing diverse HCV isolates. We aimed to generate and characterize a panel of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins suitable for subsequent use in vaccine and therapeutic antibody testing. Full-length E1E2 clones were PCR amplified from patient-derived serum samples, cloned into an expression vector, and used to generate viral pseudoparticles (HCVpp). In addition, some of these clones were used to generate cell culture infectious (HCVcc) clones. The infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of these viruses were then determined. Bioinformatic and HCVpp infectivity screening of approximately 900 E1E2 clones resulted in the assembly of a panel of 78 functional E1E2 proteins representing distinct HCV genotypes and different stages of infection. These HCV glycoproteins differed markedly in their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We used this panel to predict antibody efficacy against circulating HCV strains, highlighting the likely reason why some monoclonal antibodies failed in previous clinical trials. This study provides the first objective categorization of cross-genotype patient-derived HCV E1E2 clones according to their sensitivity to antibody neutralization. It has shown that HCV isolates have clearly distinguishable neutralization-sensitive, -resistant, or -intermediate phenotypes, which are independent of genotype. The panel provides a systematic means for characterization of the neutralizing response elicited by candidate vaccines and for defining the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a global burden of more than 170 million people, many of whom cannot attain the new, expensive, direct-acting antiviral therapies. A safe and

  4. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Thomas D.; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar ‘Gala Galaxy’ using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  5. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    PubMed Central

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  7. Pressure Vessel with Impact and Fire Resistant Coating and Method of Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and hear absorption.

  8. Fire and heat resistant laminating resins based on maleimido substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazene polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Devendra (Inventor); Fohlen, George M. (Inventor); Parker, John A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    4-Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes are reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleamic acids which are converted to the maleimides. The maleimides are polymerized. By selection of starting materials (e.g., hexakis amino or trisaminophenoxy trisphenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes), selection of molar proportions of reactants, use of mixtures of anhydrides and use of dianhydrides as bridging groups a variety of maleimides and polymers are produced. The polymers have high limiting oxygen indices, high char yields and other useful heat and fire resistant properties making them useful as, for example, impregnants of fabrics.

  9. Pressure Vessel with Impact and Fire Resistant Coating and Method of Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and hear absorption.

  10. Pressure vessel with impact and fire resistant coating and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and heat absorption.

  11. Prefabricated Tilt-up Concrete Panels for Blast Resistant Design PREPRINT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    purposed providing a comparison of analytical results to a theoretical wall section. Wall sections were cast with normal weight concrete having...were due to the test setup. While testing the precast wall panels, the deflection was measured through the use of scratch gauges placed at quarter...developed by AFRL at Tyndall APB. As was assumed at the outset of this effort, precast concrete panels are a viable option for goveTUIUent and

  12. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor

  13. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanchao; Wang, Guojian

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played an important protecting role for the inner char residue and improved the fire protection of the coatings. TGA result demonstrated that silicon enhanced the thermo-oxidation resistance of coatings efficiently. Furthermore, real-time FTIR revealed the intumescent process of the fire resistant coatings according to the chemical structure changes of char residue.

  14. Charring Rate for Fire Exposed X-Lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Bernice VY; Fah Tee, Kong

    2017-06-01

    Design of timber structures has been outlined in Eurocode 5. Notional charring rate for softwood and hardwood timber is given. For the performance of X-LAM panels in fire, only little information on charring is available and whether the fire behaviour of X-LAM is similar to homogenous timber panels has not yet been systematically analysed. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of X-LAM and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature as an element of structure in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Numerical study has been carried out based on available experimental results. Charring rates for X-LAM panels obtained from experimental results are compared with those obtained from Eurocode 5 and proposed simplified model.

  15. [Study on discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Song, Wen-qi; Li, Shu-chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid identification of fire resistive coating for steel structure of different brands in circulating, a new method for the fast discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure by means of near infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The raster scanning near infrared spectroscopy instrument and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to collect the spectral curve of different brands of fire resistive coating for steel structure and the spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation(standard normal variate transformation, SNV) and Norris second derivative. The principal component analysis (principal component analysis, PCA)was used to near infrared spectra for cluster analysis. The analysis results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 to PC5 were 99. 791%. The 3-dimentional plot was drawn with the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 X 10, which appeared to provide the best clustering of the varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure. A total of 150 fire resistive coating samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 125 samples with 25 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 25 samples with 5 samples of each variety. According to the principal component scores of unknown samples, Mahalanobis distance values between each variety and unknown samples were calculated to realize the discrimination of different varieties. The qualitative analysis model for external verification of unknown samples is a 10% recognition ration. The results demonstrated that this identification method can be used as a rapid, accurate method to identify the classification of fire resistive coating for steel structure and provide technical reference for market regulation.

  16. The effect of heat treatment simulating porcelain firing processes on titanium corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Rylska, Dorota; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of titanium used in metal-ceramic restorations in manufacturing is based on the presence of oxide layer on the metal surface. The procedures used during combining metallic material with porcelain may affect the changes in oxide layers structure, and thus anticorrosive properties of metallic material. The aim of the study was an evaluation of potential changes in the structure and selected corrosion properties of titanium after sandblasting and thermal treatment applicable to the processes of ceramics fusion. Milled titanium elements were subjected to a few variants of the processes typical of ceramics fusion and studied in terms of resistance to electrochemical corrosion. The study included the OCP changes over time, measurements of Icorr, Ecorr and Rp as well as potentiodynamic examinations. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were analyzed using SEM and EDS methods. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the processes corresponding to ceramic oxidation and fusion on titanium in the variants used in the study do not cause deterioration of its anticorrosive properties, and partially enhance the resistance. This depends on the quality of oxide layers structure. Titanium elements treated by porcelain firing processes do not lose their corrosion resistance.

  17. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  18. Research on fire-resistant diesel fuel. Interim report 1 Oct 79-31 Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, W.D. Jr; Fodor, G.E.; Kanakia, M.D.; Naegeli, D.W.; Wright, B.R.

    1981-12-01

    When development of aqueous fire-resistant diesel fuel (FRF) was previously reported, it was shown that clear-to-hazy water-in-fuel, diesel fuel micro-emulsions could be prepared and that they exhibit reduced mist flammability and self-extinguishing pool fires at temperatures above the base fuel flash point. It was also demonstrated that unmodified diesel engines start, idle, and run without difficulty on such fuels. Research has been continued to establish compositional requirements for base fuels, surfactants, and water used in FRF formulations. DF-2, DF-1, DF-A, and NATO diesel fuel samples were obtained from refineries, bulk storage, and service stations. Aromatic concentrate (AC) products from various sources were evaluated for use in adjusting the total aromatic ring carbon (TARC) content of FRF formulations. Neat base fuel and AC-containing base fuel TARC effects on microemulsification efficacy were established for water containing various amounts of total dissolved solids and for the amide/amine/soap emulsifier with various levels of total acid number.

  19. Heat-resistant fiber and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurada, I.; Kaji, K.; Okada, T.

    1984-08-21

    A heat resistant and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber is obtained by a process comprising immersing a polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating a polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid and irradiating the polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid, or a process comprising irradiating a polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation and then immersing the polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating the polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid.

  20. Development of a Fire-Resistant Anti-Sweat Submarine Hull Insulation Based on Fiber Glass Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A6w " ;’’ ..J’ d’ ,.,, -,,,.. ,.- -,. . 11111, , .. b,, I - - -.. .,. , .. . ..°.. III. . . ,Lm’ Johns ... Manville Research & Development Center DEVELOPMENT OF A FIRE-RESISTANT ANTI-SWEAT SUBMARINE HULL INSULATION BASED ON FIBER *" GLASS MATERIALS Oct icrb iz Ic

  1. Analysis of a Panel of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria for Resistance to Aldehyde-based Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Mary Ann; Gibbs, Sara; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Burgess, Winona; Richardson, Kris; Kasperbauer, Shannon; Madinger, Nancy; Jackson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Summary After several accounts across the globe of mycobacterial outbreaks associated with medical procedures and aldehyde disinfectants resistance, we undertook an analysis of mycobacteria isolated from patients seen in a hospital in the United States between 1994 and 2008 to determine prevalence of resistance to aldehyde-based disinfectants. Out of the 117 clinical isolates screened, six isolates belonging to the emerging Mycobacterium abscessus group were found to display significant levels of resistance to glutaraldehyde and ortho-phthalaldehyde. PMID:25087149

  2. Using loose-fill perlite with normal weight precast wall panels to lower the cost, time of construction projects, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al kulabi, Ahmed Kamil

    Lightweight concrete has been used in construction because of its properties, such as thermal, and fire resistances although it is more expensive and less available than normal weight concrete. One way to save time, cost, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete in construction projects is to reduce the number of installed insulations on precast wall panels and to improve the properties of normal weight concrete panels, respectively. These goals can be achieved by improving the four properties of precast panels, such as thermal resistance, fire resistance, heat capacity, and sound insulation by using perlite as insulation. The main goals of this research are getting buildings constructed or modified in less time and cost by producing superior wall panels and improving the properties of normal weight panels. Superior wall panels are new panels that provide the four properties listed above. Precast panels with different cross sections, concrete type, and different amounts of perlite will be investigated to observe the impact of each factor on the mentioned properties. The cost of each panel will be studied, and analytical methods will be used to find the optimum panel that provides the four mentioned properties with least cost. Moreover, theoretical methods will be applied to calculate the four properties for each panel. The preliminary theoretical calculations approved a good improvement in the four properties. In summary, the four properties of precast panels can be improved, time, and cost of construction can be reduced by using perlite as insulation.

  3. Biotic resistance and disturbance: rodent consumers regulate post-fire plant invasions and increase plant community diversity.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Samuel B; O'Connor, Rory; Gill, Richard; McMillan, Brock

    2016-07-01

    Biotic resistance and disturbance are fundamental processes influencing plant invasion outcomes; however, the role of consumers in regulating the establishment and spread of plant invaders and how disturbance modifies biotic resistance by consumers is unclear. We document that fire in combination with experimental exclusion of rodent consumers shifted a native desert shrubland to a low-diversity, invasive annual grassland dominated by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass). In contrast, burned plots with rodents present suppressed invasion by cheatgrass and developed into a more diverse forb community. Rodents created strong biotic resistance to the establishment of aggressive plant invaders likely through seed and seedling predation, which had cascading effects on plant competition and plant community diversity. Fire mediated its positive effects on plant invaders through native plant removal and by decreasing the abundance and diversity of the rodent community. The experimental disruption of plant and consumer-mediated biotic resistance of plant invaders using fire and rodent exclusion treatments provides strong evidence that native plants and rodents are important regulators of plant invasion dynamics and plant biodiversity in our study system. While rodents conferred strong resistance to invasion in our study system, fluctuations in rodent populations due to disturbance and climatic events may provide windows of opportunity for exotic plant species to escape biotic resistance by rodent consumers and initiate invasions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    PubMed Central

    Coser, Sara M.; Chowda Reddy, R. V.; Zhang, Jiaoping; Mueller, Daren S.; Mengistu, Alemu; Wise, Kiersten A.; Allen, Tom W.; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and greenhouse screenings, and to conduct GWAS to identify candidate genes and associated molecular markers. New sources for CR resistance were identified from both field and greenhouse screening from maturity groups I, II, and III. Five significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and putative candidate genes related to abiotic and biotic stress responses are reported from the field screening; while greenhouse screening revealed eight loci associated with eight candidate gene families, all associated with functions controlling plant defense response. No overlap of markers or genes was observed between field and greenhouse screenings suggesting a complex molecular mechanism underlying resistance to CR in soybean with varied response to different environments; but our findings provide useful information for advancing breeding for CR resistance as well as the genetic mechanism of resistance. PMID:28983305

  5. Low-energy impact resistance of graphite-epoxy plates and ALS honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David

    1989-01-01

    Low energy impact may be potentially dangerous for many highly optimized stiff structures. Impact by foreign objects such as birds, ice, and runways stones or dropping of tools occur frequently and the resulting damage and stress concentrations may be unacceptable from a designer's standpoint. The barely visible, yet potentially dangerous dents due to impact of foreign objects on the Advanced Launch System (ALS) structure are studied. Of particular interest is the computation of the maximum peak impact force for a given impactor mass and initial velocity. The theoretical impact forces will be compared with the experimental dropweight results for the ALS face sheets alone as well as the ALS honeycomb sandwich panels.

  6. Analysis of a panel of rapidly growing mycobacteria for resistance to aldehyde-based disinfectants.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Mary Ann; Gibbs, Sara; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Burgess, Winona; Richardson, Kris; Kasperbauer, Shannon; Madinger, Nancy; Jackson, Mary

    2014-08-01

    After several accounts across the globe of mycobacteria outbreaks associated with medical procedures and aldehyde disinfectants resistance, we undertook an analysis of mycobacteria isolated from patients seen in a hospital in the United States between 1994 and 2008 to determine prevalence of resistance to aldehyde-based disinfectants. Out of the 117 clinical isolates screened, 6 isolates belonging to the emerging Mycobacterium abscessus group were found to display significant levels of resistance to glutaraldehyde and ortho-phthalaldehyde. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  8. Anti-cancer drug characterisation using a human cell line panel representing defined types of drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, S.; Nygren, P.; Csoka, K.; Botling, J.; Nilsson, K.; Larsson, R.

    1996-01-01

    Differential drug response in a human cell line panel representing defined types of cytotoxic drug resistance was measured using the non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). In total 37 drugs were analysed; eight topoisomerase II inhibitors, eight anti-metabolites, eight alkylating agents, eight tubulin-active agents and five compounds with other or unknown mechanisms of action, including one topoisomerase I inhibitor. Correlation analysis of log IC50 values obtained from the panel showed a high degree of similarity among the drugs with a similar mechanism of action. The mean percentage of mechanistically similar drugs included among the ten highest correlations, when each drug was compared with the remaining data set, was 100%, 92%, 88% and 52% for the topoisomerase II inhibitors, alkylators, tubulinactive agents and anti-metabolites respectively. Classification of drugs into the four categories representing different mechanisms of action using a probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis resulted in 29 (91%) correct predictions. The results indicate the feasibility of using a limited number of cell lines for prediction of mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. The present approach may be well suited for initial classification and evaluation of novel anti-cancer drugs and as a potential tool to guide lead compound optimisation. Images Figure 2 PMID:8826854

  9. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for commercial aircraft and spacecraft using a basic polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data pertinent to flexible resilient foams, low density wall panels, high strength floor panels and thermal acoustical insulation are presented. An evaluation of the effect of the heterocyclic diamine component on the compression set of the foams was carried out. Processes and compositions for fabricating wall panels were evaluated. Thermal acoustical polyimide materials were developed to replace conventional glass batting insulation. To reduce the thermal stresses and improve the burn through resistance, cross linked polyimide foams were developed but not evaluated.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  11. Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestestinal parasite infections associated to a panel of SNPs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  12. Impacts of tundra fire on active layer condition and estimation of true resistivity value of soil in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Narita, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    In Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, large tundra fires were occurred in 1997 and 2002, and a discontinuous permafrost area burned widely near the Kougarok River. After fires, a vegetation condition was destroyed and a ground surface thermal condition was changed. Then, field observations were conducted at burned and unburned sites in summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in order to clarify impacts of the tundra fire on thermal and water conditions of active layer. From pit surveys, ground temperatures at burned sites showed 4-5 °C higher values than those at unburned sites. Soil water contents at burned sites showed relative high values in 2005, but low in 2006. Active layer thicknesses were significantly different between burned and unburned sites, about 60cm and 40cm, respectively. There is no significant increasing of the thickness between 2005 and 2006, however, the thickness in 2007 at north-facing sites increased to 80cm at the burned site and 50cm at the unburned site, respectively. Apparent electrical resistivity values up to 1m deep were obtained from electrical soundings in 2006, and values at burned sites were lower than those at unburned sites due to the thick active layer whose resistivity value is relatively low. As an apparent resistivity value is generally produced from the combination of a true resistivity value and a thickness of a layer, a simple calculation was carried out in order to estimate a true resistivity value of unfrozen mineral soil in the active layer. The calculated results showed that the true resistivity at burned sites was higher than that at unburned sites, which was seemed to correspond to a relative low water condition. This result is in agreement with the measured result of water content in 2006. Using this method, the apparent resistivity may show a soil water condition.

  13. Performance of a New MicroScan WalkAway PC30 panel and disk diffusion method for detection of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Gallon, Olivier; Pina, Patrick; Gravet, Alain; Laurent, Frederic; Lamy, Brigitte; Delarbre, Jean-Marie; Doucet-Populaire, F; Decousser, J W

    2011-06-01

    The performance of the MicroScan WalkAway PC30 panel for detection of oxacillin resistance was evaluated by use of a collection of 420 staphylococcus isolates. The addition of a cefoxitin test (4 mg/liter) to the oxacillin MIC determination increased its raw performance for Staphylococcus aureus; additional data were required for coagulase-negative staphylococci.

  14. Preparation, testing, and delivery of low density polyimide foam panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, G. L., III; Post, L. K.; Salyer, I. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plastic foams based on polyimide resins were shown to be stable at relatively high temperatures, and to possess very low flame spread and smoke generation characteristics. A system and process were developed to prepare low-density polyimide foam from a liquid formulation. The system is based on the reaction of micropulverized grade pyromellitic dianhydride with a polymeric diisocyanate. The panels produced were postcured at elevated temperatures to achieve maximum thermal and fire resistance, and incorporation of a fire retardant into the formulation was considered. The effects of a flame retardant (Flameout 5600B1) were investigated, but eliminated in preference to the postcuring approach.

  15. Does prescribed fire promote resistance to drought in low elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a primary tool used to restore western forests following more than a century of fire exclusion, reducing fire hazard by removing dead and live fuels (small trees and shrubs).  It is commonly assumed that the reduced forest density following prescribed fire also reduces competition for resources among the remaining trees, so that the remaining trees are more resistant (more likely to survive) in the face of additional stressors, such as drought.  Yet this proposition remains largely untested, so that managers do not have the basic information to evaluate whether prescribed fire may help forests adapt to a future of more frequent and severe drought.During the third year of drought, in 2014, we surveyed 9950 trees in 38 burned and 18 unburned mixed conifer forest plots at low elevation (<2100 m a.s.l.) in Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite national parks in California, USA.  Fire had occurred in the burned plots from 6 yr to 28 yr before our survey.  After accounting for differences in individual tree diameter, common conifer species found in the burned plots had significantly reduced probability of mortality compared to unburned plots during the drought.  Stand density (stems ha-1) was significantly lower in burned versus unburned sites, supporting the idea that reduced competition may be responsible for the differential drought mortality response.  At the time of writing, we are not sure if burned stands will maintain lower tree mortality probabilities in the face of the continued, severe drought of 2015.  Future work should aim to better identify drought response mechanisms and how these may vary across other forest types and regions, particularly in other areas experiencing severe drought in the Sierra Nevada and on the Colorado Plateau.

  16. Wildfire-resistant biological soil crusts and fire-induced loss of soil stability in Palouse prairies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Rosentreter, R.; Graham, B.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent low-intensity fires are a natural component of the ecology of the Palouse prairies of northwestern North America. To study the effects of fire upon biological soil crusts (BSCs) occurring in these grasslands, we sampled three burned (in 2000) sites and three unburned sites in the Hell's Canyon area (OR, USA) ???1 year post-fire. We measured vascular plant and BSC cover, soil microbe pigmentation, texture and chemistry, and soil surface physical properties (stability and rugosity). Festuca idahoensis was two times more abundant in unburned plots (P=0.0006), and vascular plant and litter cover were generally higher in unburned plots. At the community scale, there was no difference in the lichen and moss species composition, suggesting much less drastic effects of fire on BSCs than reported in other systems. Soil surface stability (measured using slake value) was significantly lower in burned sites than unburned sites (median value=5 versus 6, P=0.008), a result which is likely due to the greater density of lichens and mosses encountered in the unburned plots. Soil microbe pigmentation was lower in burned plots (P=0.03), suggesting that the biomass of photosynthetic microbes had decreased; however, the presence of intra- and extracellular pigments in burned soils indicates that microorganisms were not eradicated. Pigments most strongly associated with cyanobacteria were more abundant in unburned sites, suggesting that cyanobacteria may have been more strongly impacted by the fire than other BSC components. Composition of nutrients and surface rugosity did not differ significantly between treatments. We hypothesize that Palouse prairie soil crusts are relatively resistant to wildfire because of low fire intensity and their occupation of space away from the vascular plant fuel load.

  17. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  18. Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-07-01

    Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16' × 'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ≥0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7 days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14 days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Small-diameter timber alchemy: can utilization pay the way toward fire-resistant forests

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Fried; R. Jamie Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn Christensen; Guy Pinjuv

    2008-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biomass removed from hazardous fuels reduction treatments in wood-fired electrical generation facilities. An application of FIA BioSum to southwest Oregon’s Klamath ecoregion assessed the financial feasibility of fuel treatment and biomass generation under a range of product prices and fire hazard-motivated silvicultural prescriptions...

  20. Measuring the firing rate of high-resistance neurons with cell-attached recording.

    PubMed

    Alcami, Pepe; Franconville, Romain; Llano, Isabel; Marty, Alain

    2012-02-29

    Cell-attached recording is extensively used to study the firing rate of mammalian neurons, but potential limitations of the method have not been investigated in detail. Here we perform cell-attached recording of molecular layer interneurons in cerebellar slices from rats and mice, and we study how experimental conditions influence the measured firing rate. We find that this rate depends on time in cell-attached mode, on pipette potential, and on pipette ionic composition. In the first minute after sealing, action currents are variable in shape and size, presumably reflecting membrane instability. The firing rate remains approximately constant during the first 4 min after sealing and gradually increases afterward. Making the pipette potential more positive leads to an increase in the firing rate, with a steeper dependence on voltage if the pipette solution contains K(+) as the main cation than if it contains Na(+). Ca(2+) imaging experiments show that establishing a cell-attached recording can result in an increased somatic Ca(2+) concentration, reflecting an increased firing rate linked to an increase in the pipette-cell conductance. Pipette effects on cell firing are traced to a combination of passive electrical coupling, opening of voltage- and Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels (BK channels) after action potentials, and random activation of voltage-insensitive, presumably mechanosensitive, cationic channels. We conclude that, unless experimental conditions are optimized, cell-attached recordings in small neurons may report erroneous firing rates.

  1. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  2. Evaluation of kasugamycin for fire blight management, effect on nontarget bacteria, and assessment of kasugamycin resistance potential in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and spread of streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora in Michigan has necessitated the evaluation of new compounds effective for fire blight control. The aminoglycoside antibiotic kasugamycin (Ks) targets the bacterial ribosome and is particularly active against E. amylovora. The efficacy of Ks formulated as Kasumin 2L for control of fire blight was evaluated in six experiments conducted over four field seasons in our experimental orchards in East Lansing, MI. Blossom blight control was statistically equivalent to the industry standard streptomycin in all experiments. E. amylovora populations remained constant on apple flower stigmas pretreated with Kasumin and were ≈100-fold lower than on stigmas treated with water. Kasumin applied to apple trees in the field also resulted in a 100-fold reduced total culturable bacterial population compared with trees treated with water. We performed a prospective analysis of the potential for kasugamycin resistance (Ks(R)) development in E. amylovora which focused on spontaneous resistance development and acquisition of a transferrable Ks(R) gene. In replicated lab experiments, the development of spontaneous resistance in E. amylovora to Ks at 250 or 500 ppm was not observed when cells were directly plated on medium containing high concentrations of the antibiotic. However, exposure to increasing concentrations of Ks in media (initial concentration 25 μg ml(-1)) resulted in the selection of Ks resistance (at 150 μg ml(-1)) in the E. amylovora strains Ea110, Ea273, and Ea1189. Analysis of mutants indicated that they harbored mutations in the kasugamycin target ksgA gene and that all mutants were impacted in relative fitness observable through a reduced growth rate in vitro and decreased virulence in immature pear fruit. The possible occurrence of a reservoir of Ks(R) genes in orchard environments was also examined. Culturable gram-negative bacteria were surveyed from six experimental apple orchards

  3. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  4. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  5. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Jiang; Zeng, Baoqing; Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  6. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  7. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  8. Fire Resistant Composite Closed Cell Foam and Nonwoven Textiles for Tents and Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    11 3.3 Adhesives (PVC Plastisols ...gases produced during a fire event, making the off-gas less corrosive to the occupants and electronics. The use of PVC plastisol with a plasticizer...modification of the composition and/or structure. The PVC plastisol was used to form the final composite structure during this project is difficult to scale

  9. Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America

    Treesearch

    Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Settlement by Anglo-Americans in the desert shrublands of North America resulted in the introduction and subsequent invasion of multiple nonnative grass species. These invasions have altered presettlement fire regimes, resulted in conversion of native perennial shrublands to nonnative annual grasslands, and placed many native desert species at risk. Effective...

  10. Demonstration of Corrosion-Resistant Fire Hydrant Retrofits for Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Language ......... 28 Appendix B : Fire Hydrant Performance Characteristics .................................................. 31 ERDC/CERL TR-13-20 iv...13-20 x Unit Conversion Factors Multiply By To Obtain degrees Fahrenheit ( F -32)/1.8 degrees Celsius feet 0.3048 meters gallons (US liquid...Figure 5) found to be in the poorest condition. More details about hydrant models and materials used can be found in Appendix B . Figure 4. DATV

  11. Pre-fire grazing by cattle increases postfire resistance to exotic annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and dominance for decades

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Fire, herbivory and their interaction influence plant community dynamics. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire herbivory on post-fire plant community response, particularly long-term resilience to post-fire exotic plant invasion in areas that historically experienced limited ...

  12. Ultralight, highly thermally insulating and fire resistant aerogel by encapsulating cellulose nanofibers with two-dimensional MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Mukhopadhyay, Alolika; Jiao, Yucong; Yong, Qiang; Chen, Liao; Xing, Yingjie; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-08-17

    Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds. Thus, in this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were nano-wrapped with ultrathin 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets via chemical crosslinking, to produce an aerogel. Thermal and combustion characterization revealed highly desirable properties (thermal conductivity k = 28.09 mW m(-1) K(-1), insulation R value = 5.2, limit oxygen index (LOI) = 34.7%, total heat release = 0.4 MJ m(-2)). Vertical burning tests also demonstrated excellent fire retardant and self-extinguishing capabilities. Raman spectra further revealed that MoS2 remained unscathed after 30 seconds of burning in a 1300 °C butane flame. Considering the inherently low density of this material, there is significant opportunity for its usage in a number of insulating applications demanding specific fire resistance properties.

  13. Evaluation and test of improved fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors. Volume 2. Fluid/metal compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Fires within nuclear containment have occurred when the lubricants used in reactor coolant pump motors have leaked or spilled onto the hot insulated main coolant piping. This project was directed toward determining the applicability of commercially available fire resistant fluid lubricants to the lubrication of the bearings of a reactor coolant pump motor. This report describes the evaluation of candidate fluids, the testing of these fluids, and the selection of a lubricant for use in a standard reactor coolant pump motor test. The test results indicated that the phsophate ester lubricants, when properly inhibited and maintained, are acceptable for use. Recommendations are presented for further work necessary to the successful application of the fire resistant fluid lubricant.

  14. Development of Erosion-Corrosion-Resistant Cold-Spray Nanostructured Ni-20Cr Coating for Coal-Fired Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, N.; Chavan, N. M.; Kumar, S.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of a cold-spray nanostructured Ni-20Cr coating was studied under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. This study was done for 15 cycles (1500 h), in which each cycle comprised 100 h of heating in the boiler environment, followed by 1 h of cooling under ambient air conditions. The E-C extent was evaluated in terms of thickness loss data of the samples. The eroded-corroded samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping analyses. The nanostructured coating offered excellent E-C protection to boiler tube material (SA 516 steel) under harsh live conditions of the boiler. This E-C resistance offered by investigated coating may be attributed to the presence of protective NiO and Cr2O3 phases in its oxide scale and its superior as-sprayed microhardness.

  15. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the sierra mixed conifer type and the sierra true fir type.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance: of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Sierra Mixed Conifer Type, Sierra True Fir Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1979. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-095. Portland, OR: U.S....

  16. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  17. The effect of the fires on gypseous soil properties: changes of the hydrology and splash resistance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Echeverría, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have been severely affected by fires in the last decades. Due to social and economical changes, wildfires have caused hydrological and geomorphologic changes to be more pronounced, resulting in enhanced soil erosion. Soil heating caused by fires affects soil aggregates stability, water infiltration and may generate hydrophobicity. In order to understand how wildfire affects soil hydrological behavior in general, and splash and runoff processes in particular, of gypsum soils,it is advantageous to use a rainfall simulator. In August 2009 a large forest fire affected 6700 ha in Remolinos (NW Zaragoza, Spain). The area is covered by shrubs such as gorse (Genista scorpius L.), broom (Retama sphaerocarpa L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and with small areas occupied by Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill) and Kermes evergreen-oak (Quercus coccifera L.). This region has a semarid Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall ca 560 mm and a mean annual temperature of 12.5°C, resulting in an estimated climatic water deficit of ca. 400mm. The relief consists of stepped slopes (200-748 m), on two different types of soil have developed: Renzic Phaeozem, on limestone, and Haplic Gypsisol, on gypsum (IUSS, 2006). Within this study, we wanted to investigate the differences in affection by fire of the different soil types, as it may be caused by different fire intensities. Therefore, both soil types were sampled after fire. Also, similar locations were sampled which were not affected by the wildfires. With this, we could differentiate 4 treatments: burnt and unburnt pine forest and burnt and unburnt shrub on gypseous soils. We designed a set of lab experiments to elucidate the effect of heat on soil composition, aggregate stability, and splash susceptibility. Samples were taken using cylinders of 5 cm depth. Under laboratory conditions were measured pH, CE, organic matter (OM), soil aggregates stability (SAS), bulk density, porosity

  18. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens.

    PubMed

    Leber, Amy L; Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L; Chapin, Kimberle C; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L; Carroll, Karen C; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C; Bourzac, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J. Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L.; Carroll, Karen C.; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C.; Bourzac, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii. We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated. PMID:27335149

  20. Identification of a major QTL together with several minor additive or epistatic QTLs for resistance to fire blight in apple in two related progenies.

    PubMed

    Calenge, F; Drouet, D; Denancé, C; Van de Weg, W E; Brisset, M-N; Paulin, J-P; Durel, C-E

    2005-06-01

    Although fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica) worldwide, no major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified to date in apple. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in two F(1) progenies derived from crosses between the cultivars Fiesta and either Discovery or Prima. Both progenies were inoculated in the greenhouse with the same strain of E. amylovora, and the length of necrosis was scored 7 days and 14 days after inoculation. Additive QTLs were identified using the MAPQTL: software, and digenic epistatic interactions, which are an indication of putative epistatic QTLs, were detected by two-way analyses of variance. A major QTL explaining 34.3--46.6% of the phenotypic variation was identified on linkage group (LG) 7 of Fiesta in both progenies at the same genetic position. Four minor QTLs were also identified on LGs 3, 12 and 13. In addition, several significant digenic interactions were identified in both progenies. These results confirm the complex polygenic nature of resistance to fire blight in the progenies studied and also reveal the existence of a major QTL on LG7 that is stable in two distinct genetic backgrounds. This QTL could be a valuable target in marker-assisted selection to obtain new, fire blight-resistant apple cultivars and forms a starting point for discovering the function of the genes underlying such QTLs involved in fire blight control.

  1. A genome-wide association study of a global rice panel reveals resistance in Oryza sativa to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dimkpa, Stanley O. N.; Lahari, Zobaida; Shrestha, Roshi; Douglas, Alex; Gheysen, Godelieve; Price, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most serious nematode pests worldwide and represents a major constraint on rice production. While variation in the susceptibility of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) exists, so far no strong and reliable resistance has been reported. Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance have been reported but no underlying genes have been tagged or cloned. Here, 332 accessions of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were assessed for gall formation, revealing large variation across all subpopulations of rice and higher susceptibility in temperate japonica accessions. Accessions Khao Pahk Maw and LD 24 appeared to be resistant, which was confirmed in large pot experiments where no galls were observed. Detailed observations on these two accessions revealed no nematodes inside the roots 2 days after inoculation and very few females after 17 days (5 in Khao Pahk Maw and <1 in LD 24, in comparison with >100 in the susceptible controls). These two cultivars appear ideal donors for breeding root-knot nematode resistance. A genome-wide association study revealed 11 quantitative trait loci, two of which are close to epistatic loci detected in the Bala x Azucena population. The discussion highlights a small number of candidate genes worth exploring further, in particular many genes with lectin domains and genes on chromosome 11 with homology to the Hordeum Mla locus. PMID:26552884

  2. A genome-wide association study of a global rice panel reveals resistance in Oryza sativa to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Stanley O N; Lahari, Zobaida; Shrestha, Roshi; Douglas, Alex; Gheysen, Godelieve; Price, Adam H

    2016-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most serious nematode pests worldwide and represents a major constraint on rice production. While variation in the susceptibility of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) exists, so far no strong and reliable resistance has been reported. Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance have been reported but no underlying genes have been tagged or cloned. Here, 332 accessions of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were assessed for gall formation, revealing large variation across all subpopulations of rice and higher susceptibility in temperate japonica accessions. Accessions Khao Pahk Maw and LD 24 appeared to be resistant, which was confirmed in large pot experiments where no galls were observed. Detailed observations on these two accessions revealed no nematodes inside the roots 2 days after inoculation and very few females after 17 days (5 in Khao Pahk Maw and <1 in LD 24, in comparison with >100 in the susceptible controls). These two cultivars appear ideal donors for breeding root-knot nematode resistance. A genome-wide association study revealed 11 quantitative trait loci, two of which are close to epistatic loci detected in the Bala x Azucena population. The discussion highlights a small number of candidate genes worth exploring further, in particular many genes with lectin domains and genes on chromosome 11 with homology to the Hordeum Mla locus.

  3. 76 FR 71831 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... respondents, the law does not address DoD's ability to specify inherently flame-resistant cellulosic fibers... Amendment. F. Inequity in the Treatment of Foreign Fibers Comment: Nine respondents stated that the law produces inequity in the treatment of foreign fibers that are specified by DoD and are purchased under...

  4. A genome-wide association study reveals genes associated with fusarium ear rot resistance in a maize core diversity panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a ne...

  5. Characterization of a maize association mapping panel for new sources of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize (Zea mays L.) susceptibility to ear rot and aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus (Link:Fr) causes significant economic and human health damage worldwide. Although host plant resistance is an ideal solution to the problem, no commercial varieties display sufficient levels of resistance ...

  6. Panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria are presented for the prediction of panel flutter, determination of its occurrence, design for its prevention, and evaluation of its severity. Theoretical analyses recommended for the prediction of flutter stability boundaries, vibration amplitudes, and frequencies for several types of panels are described. Vibration tests and wind tunnel tests are recommended for certain panels and environmental flow conditions to provide information for design of verification analysis. Appropriate design margins on flutter stability boundaries are given and general criteria are presented for evaluating the severity of possible short-duration, limited-amplitude panel flutter on nonreusable vehicles.

  7. Two distinct major QTL for resistance to fire blight co-localize on linkage group 12 in apple genotypes 'Evereste' and Malus floribunda clone 821.

    PubMed

    Durel, C-E; Denancé, C; Brisset, M-N

    2009-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus xdomestica) worldwide. No major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified so far in apple. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed in two F1 progenies derived from two controled crosses: one between the susceptible rootstock cultivar 'MM106' and the resistant ornamental cultivar 'Evereste' and the other one between the moderately susceptible cultivar 'Golden Delicious' and the wild apple Malus floribunda clone 821, with unknown level of fire blight resistance. Both progenies were inoculated in the greenhouse with the same reference strain of E. amylovora. The length of stem necrosis was scored 7 and 14 days after inoculation. A strong QTL effect was identified in both 'Evereste' and M. floribunda 821 at a similar position on the distal region of linkage group 12 of the apple genome. From 50% to 70% of the phenotypic variation was explained by the QTL in 'Evereste' progeny according to the scored trait. More than 40% of the phenotypic variation was explained by the M. floribunda QTL in the second progeny. It was shown that 'Evereste' and M. floribunda 821 carried distinct QTL alleles at that genomic position. A small additional QTL was identified in 'Evereste' on linkage group 15, which explained about 6% of the phenotypic variation. Although it was not possible to confirm whether or not 'Evereste' and M. floribunda QTL belonged to the same locus or two distinct closely related loci, these QTL can be valuable targets in marker-assisted selection to obtain fire blight resistant apple cultivars and form a starting point for discovering the function of the genes controlling apple fire blight resistance.

  8. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  9. Fire-retardant-treated strandboard : properties and fire performance

    Treesearch

    Jerrold Winandy; Qingwen Wang; Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a series of single-layer, randomly oriented strandboard panels made with one resin type, a single resin loading level, and four fire-retardant-treatment levels. The fire retardant (FR) evaluated was a pH-buffered combination of boric acid and organic phosphate. Siberian larch strands were separated into five batches. One batch of strands served as...

  10. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Aćimović, Srđan G.; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C.; Sundin, George W.; Wise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1–2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  11. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    PubMed

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  12. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  13. Multisensor Fire Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boquist, C.

    2004-01-01

    This DVD includes animations of multisensor fire observations from the following satellite sources: Landsat, GOES, TOMS, Terra, QuikSCAT, and TRMM. Some of the animations are included in multiple versions of a short video presentation on the DVD which focuses on the Hayman, Rodeo-Chediski, and Biscuit fires during the 2002 North American fire season. In one version of the presentation, MODIS, TRMM, GOES, and QuikSCAT data are incorporated into the animations of these wildfires. These data products provided rain, wind, cloud, and aerosol data on the fires, and monitored the smoke and destruction created by them. Another presentation on the DVD consists of a panel discussion, in which experts from academia, NASA, and the U.S. Forest Service answer questions on the role of NASA in fighting forest fires, the role of the Terra satellite and its instruments, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in fire fighting decision making, and the role of fire in the Earth's climate. The third section of the DVD features several animations of fires over the years 2001-2003, including animations of global and North American fires, and specific fires from 2003 in California, Washington, Montana, and Arizona.

  14. Multisensor Fire Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boquist, C.

    2004-01-01

    This DVD includes animations of multisensor fire observations from the following satellite sources: Landsat, GOES, TOMS, Terra, QuikSCAT, and TRMM. Some of the animations are included in multiple versions of a short video presentation on the DVD which focuses on the Hayman, Rodeo-Chediski, and Biscuit fires during the 2002 North American fire season. In one version of the presentation, MODIS, TRMM, GOES, and QuikSCAT data are incorporated into the animations of these wildfires. These data products provided rain, wind, cloud, and aerosol data on the fires, and monitored the smoke and destruction created by them. Another presentation on the DVD consists of a panel discussion, in which experts from academia, NASA, and the U.S. Forest Service answer questions on the role of NASA in fighting forest fires, the role of the Terra satellite and its instruments, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in fire fighting decision making, and the role of fire in the Earth's climate. The third section of the DVD features several animations of fires over the years 2001-2003, including animations of global and North American fires, and specific fires from 2003 in California, Washington, Montana, and Arizona.

  15. Reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PC21 panel in identifying and detecting oxacillin resistance in clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci strains.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, A N; Barros, E M; Laport, M S; Dos Santos, K R N; Giambiagi-Demarval, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PosCombo21 (PC21) system for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains and the detection of oxacillin resistance. Using molecular and phenotypic methods, 196 clinical strains were evaluated. The automated system demonstrated 100 % reliability for the identification of the clinical strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus cohnii; 98.03 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis; 70 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis; 40 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus warneri; and 28.57 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus capitis, but no reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. We concluded that the automated system provides accurate results for the more common CNS species but often fails to accurately identify less prevalent species. For the detection of oxacillin resistance, the automated system showed 100 % specificity and 90.22 % sensitivity. Thus, the PC21 panel detects oxacillin-resistant strains, but is limited by the heteroresistance that is observed when using most phenotypic methods.

  16. The corrosion resistance of nickel-containing alloys in coal-fired boiler environments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Patel, S.J.; Farr, N.C.; Hoffmann, M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper examines the nature of coal ash/flue gas corrosion and factors influencing its degree of aggressiveness. Citing both laboratory and plant experience, the performance of a number of nickel-containing alloys are assessed as to their general performance limits based on corrosion resistance. The role of certain key alloying elements is addressed. Corrosion behavior is examined in terms of chromium content of the alloy, the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} content of the flue gas, the alkali content of the coal ash and the surface temperature of the alloy exposed to the environment.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanooctahedra MnFe2O4 onto the Wood Surface with Soft Magnetism, Fire Resistance and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanwei; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Zhongqing; Sun, Qingfeng; Fan, Bitao; Jin, Chunde; Chen, Yipeng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe2O4 were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe2O4/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (<±5 Oe) were observed in the magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments. Additionally, this composite revealed good electromagnetic wave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of −9.3 dB at 16.48 GHz. Therefore, the MW has great potential in the fields of special decoration and indoor electromagnetic wave absorbers. PMID:28545233

  18. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ onto the Wood Surface with Soft Magnetism, Fire Resistance and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanwei; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Zhongqing; Sun, Qingfeng; Fan, Bitao; Jin, Chunde; Chen, Yipeng

    2017-05-23

    In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe₂O₄/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (<±5 Oe) were observed in the magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments. Additionally, this composite revealed good electromagnetic wave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of -9.3 dB at 16.48 GHz. Therefore, the MW has great potential in the fields of special decoration and indoor electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  19. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  20. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the Douglas fir-hemlock type and the coastal Douglas-fir-hardwood type.

    Treesearch

    David V. SANDBERG; Franklin R. Ward

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Coastal Douglas-fir—Hemlock Type, Coastal Douglas-fir—Hardwood Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-051....

  1. QTL detection for coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) resistance in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross, using a medium-density SNP panel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied. Results Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL. Conclusions The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between

  2. Fire- and heat-resistant laminating resins based on maleimido-substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A novel class of flame- and heat-resistant polymers has been synthesized by the thermal polymerization of maleimido-substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazenes. The polymer obtained from tris-(aminophenoxy)tris(maleimidophenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene has good thermal stability and is noteworthy for its high char yield, viz., 82 percent at 800 C in nitrogen and 81 percent at 700 C in air. Graphite-fabric laminates prepared with this polymer did not burn in pure oxygen, even at 300 C, and were tested for mechanical properties. Hexakis(4-maleimidophenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene and some fluorine-containing monomers have also been synthesized. The structures of these cyclic phosphazene precursors and polymers were characterized by FT IR spectrophotometry, H-1 NMR, F-19 NMR, and P-31 solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The curing behavior of the polymer precursors and the thermal stabilities of the polymers were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA).

  3. Solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    A solar panel includes a base within which are mounted transversely extending conduits. A heat collector plate in the base is in heat conductive relationship with the conduits for the heating of a fluid medium. The base additionally supports a transparent cover outwardly spaced from the heat collector plate to provide a protective insulative air space over the plate. A manifold communicates one series of panels with those of an adjacent series. A modified base dispenses with a collector plate and is formed so as to define integral lengthwise extending passageways for the solar heated medium. Inserted nipples interconnect the passageways of adjacent panels.

  4. Plate-fin panel heat exchanger and panel components thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Heronemus, W.E.

    1985-02-05

    A plate-fin panel for a heat exchanger may be either formed as an aluminum extrusion or fabricated from a corrugated metal sheet sandwiched between two flat metal sheets. The extruded aluminum version may be clad with protective sheet metal jackets made of, or coated with, a corrosion resistant Cu-Ni alloy. Individual panel sections can be joined together by tongue and groove engagement to obtain a total desired panel width if available extrusion press or rolling mill capacity is insufficient. The plate-fin panels are assembled into slotted headering plates, and a layer of synthetic plastics potting compound seals dissimilar metal joints against electrolytic corrosion as well as leakage and provides sufficient adhesive strength to reduce or eliminate the need for welding the panels to the headers. Mechanical brush or hydraulic jet apparatus is capable of continuously or intermittently cleaning slime or encrustations from all panel surfaces exposed to seawater.

  5. Screening a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, are among the most economically important root and hypocotyl diseases in the world and affect a wide range of hosts including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). To identify potential sources of resistance, screening material was ...

  6. Association analysis of stem solidness and wheat stem sawfly resistance in a panel of North American spring wheat germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expansion of the geographical range of the wheat stem sawfly, coupled with the limited number of effective control measures, calls for a need to better characterize and explore genetic variability for resistance in wheat germplasm from North America. An association mapping analysis for stem solidne...

  7. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  8. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nitrogen-rich and fire-resistant carbon aerogels for the removal of oil contaminants from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Tong, Zhen; Ngai, To; Wang, Chaoyang

    2014-05-14

    Effective removal of crude oils, petroleum products, organic solvents, and dyes from water is of significance in oceanography, environmental protection, and industrial production. Various techniques including physical and chemical absorption have been developed, but they suffer from problems such as low separation selectivity, a complicated and lengthy process, as well as high costs for reagents and devices. We present here a new material, termed nitrogen-rich carbon aerogels (NRC aerogels,) with highly porous structure and nitrogen-rich surfaces, exhibiting highly efficient separation of specific substances such as oils and organic pollutants. More importantly, we demonstrate that the fabricated NRC aerogels can also collect micrometer-sized oil droplets from an oil-water mixture with high efficiency that is well beyond what can be achieved by most existing separation methods, but is extremely important in practical marine oil-spill recovery because a certain amount of oils often shears into many micrometer-sized oil droplets by the sea wave, resulting in enormous potential destruction to marine ecosystem if not properly collected. Furthermore, our fabricated material can be used like a recyclable container for oils and chemicals cleanup because the oil/chemical-absorbed NRC aerogels can be readily cleaned for reuse by direct combustion in air because of their excellent hydrophobicity and fire-resistant property. We demonstrate that they keep 61.2% absorption capacity even after 100 absorption/combustion cycles, which thus has the highest recyclability of the reported carbon aerogels. All these features make these fabricated NRC aerogels suitable for a wide range of applications in water purification and treatment.

  10. Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS.

  11. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms.

  12. Effects of fire retardants on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of flat-pressed WPCs

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (10% by weight) at different levels of wood flour (WF) content, 40, 50, or 60 wt%, were investigated. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP), and fire retardant (FR) powders with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2...

  13. Drug resistance features and S-phase fraction as possible determinants for drug response in a panel of human ovarian cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kolfschoten, G M; Hulscher, T M; Pinedo, H M; Boven, E

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and more specifically the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) have been studied extensively in vitro. Unfortunately, it appears that the predictive value of MDR recognized in vitro is mostly an incorrect measure to determine the responsiveness of a particular tumour in the clinic. This misunderstood or overvalued role of MDR might explain the failure of strategies to reverse Pgp function by the use of modulators in solid tumours. To obtain more insight in in vivo drug resistance we investigated a panel of 15 human ovarian cancer xenografts consisting of the most common histological subtypes known in ovarian cancer patients. The response rate to cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin in the xenografts resembled the results of phase II trials with these agents in ovarian cancer patients. This resemblance justifies drug resistance studies in this experimental in vivo human tumour system. We determined the expression levels of MDR 1, MRP 1, LRP and topoisomerase IIα mRNA by the RNase protection assay and the presence of MRP1 and LRP proteins by immunohistochemistry. The S-phase fraction was investigated as a separate parameter by flow cytometry. In none of the 15 ovarian cancer xenografts was MDR 1 expression detectable. The expression levels of MRP 1 and LRP were low to moderate and resembled the presence of the MRP1 and LRP proteins. There was a weak, inverse relationship between the expression levels of LRP and sensitivity to cisplatin and cyclophosphamide (r = –0.44 and –0.45), but not to doxorubicin. The levels of topoisomerase IIα varied among the xenografts (0.73–2.66) and failed to correlate with doxorubicin resistance (r = 0.14). The S-phase fraction, however, showed a relation with the sensitivity to cisplatin (r = 0.66). Among the determinants studied in ovarian cancer in vivo, LRP mRNA and the S-phase fraction were the best predictive factors for drug response and most specifically for the activity of cisplatin.

  14. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  15. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  16. Sex-dependent and body weight-dependent associations between environmental PAHs exposure and insulin resistance: Korean urban elderly panel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of metabolic diseases rises rapidly with an ageing population. Recent studies suggest the potential involvement of environmental chemicals in insulin resistance (IR) that plays a core role in the development of metabolic diseases. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous components of outdoor and indoor air pollution. The influence of PAHs on IR may differ depending on sex and weight. We examined the association between exposure to environmental PAHs and IR in Korean urban elderly adults controlling for major risk factors that contribute to an increase in IR. Between 2008 and 2010, PAH metabolite levels (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)) and the homoeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR) were repeatedly measured in 502 adults aged ≥60 years. Linear mixed effect models were fit to evaluate the associations of 1-OHP concentration with HOMA-IR. Subgroups were modelled by sex and weight. After adjusting for sociodemographics, air pollution and metabolic disease status, the highest (vs lowest) quartile of 1-OHP was associated with an 0.57 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.04) increase in the HOMA-IR score (p trend=0.037). When stratified by sex, women presented a significantly dose-dependent trend of 1-OHP with HOMA-IR (p trend=0.013), whereas no association was observed in men (p trend=0.904). When further stratified by weight (body mass index ≥25 vs <25 kg/m(2)), a significant association was found only in overweight women (p trend=0.023). Our results suggest that environmental exposure to PAHs is associated with increased IR in elderly adults and that the association may be limited to overweight women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Sex-dependent and body weight-dependent associations between environmental PAHs exposure and insulin resistance: Korean urban elderly panel

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic diseases rises rapidly with an ageing population. Recent studies suggest the potential involvement of environmental chemicals in insulin resistance (IR) that plays a core role in the development of metabolic diseases. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous components of outdoor and indoor air pollution. The influence of PAHs on IR may differ depending on sex and weight. Objectives We examined the association between exposure to environmental PAHs and IR in Korean urban elderly adults controlling for major risk factors that contribute to an increase in IR. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, PAH metabolite levels (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)) and the homoeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR) were repeatedly measured in 502 adults aged ≥60 years. Linear mixed effect models were fit to evaluate the associations of 1-OHP concentration with HOMA-IR. Subgroups were modelled by sex and weight. Results After adjusting for sociodemographics, air pollution and metabolic disease status, the highest (vs lowest) quartile of 1-OHP was associated with an 0.57 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.04) increase in the HOMA-IR score (p trend=0.037). When stratified by sex, women presented a significantly dose-dependent trend of 1-OHP with HOMA-IR (p trend=0.013), whereas no association was observed in men (p trend=0.904). When further stratified by weight (body mass index ≥25 vs <25 kg/m2), a significant association was found only in overweight women (p trend=0.023). Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental exposure to PAHs is associated with increased IR in elderly adults and that the association may be limited to overweight women. PMID:25669219

  18. Fire Resistant Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    Table A19 - Stanadyne Pump Calibration, Pre and Post Test .................................................... A-5  Table A20 - Transfer Pump Blade ...A-4  Figure A35 - Dimensional Key for Transfer Pump Blade Measurements .................................. A-6  Figure A36 - SN14959137 Transfer Pump... Blades (Side), Before ............................................. A-9  Figure A37 - SN14959137 Transfer Pump Blades (Side), After

  19. Fire Resistant Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Retardants And Inhibitors MATERIAL COMM4ERCIAL NAME 8UPPLIER Zinc lorate Firebrake ZB U.S. Borax, Montvale, NJ Hexabromobiphenyl Firemaster BP-6 Michigan...34 " " 10, " 50 Firemaster 10 3.8 " ’ " 11. CAB MIL SPEC 85 Firebrake ZB 9 6,3 " " " 12 CAB Tenite 70 14.3 Wire Breaks 13. CAB MIL SPEC 56 Firebrake ZB...20 >30 Smoking Decomp. 14. Polyurethane Foam 45 Antimony Oxide + Firemaster 18 7.2 Breaks Wire 15. Geon 650x17 71 None >30 Smokes to Black Ash 16

  20. Performance of the FilmArray® blood culture identification panel utilized by non-expert staff compared with conventional microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance gene detection from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Morgan H; Relich, Ryan F; Davis, Thomas E; Schmitt, Bryan H

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of commercially available rapid platforms for microbial identification from positive blood cultures is useful during periods of, or in laboratories with, limited expert staffing. We compared the results of the FilmArray® BCID Panel performed by non-expert technologists to those of conventional methods for organism identification performed by skilled microbiologists. Within 8 h of signalling positive by a continuous monitoring blood culture system, positive bottles were analysed by the FilmArray BCID Panel. Data from these analyses were compared to standard-of-care testing, which included conventional and automated methods. To gauge the ease of use of the BCID Panel by non-expert staff, technologists unfamiliar with diagnostic bacteriology performed the testing without prior knowledge of the Gram stain results, or even whether organisms were detected. Identifications of 172/200 (86 %) positive blood cultures using the BCID Panel were consistent with identifications provided by standard-of-care methods. Standard-of-care testing identified organisms in 20 positive blood cultures, which were not represented on the BCID Panel. Seven (3.5 %) blood cultures demonstrated a discrepancy between the methods, which could not be attributed to either a lack of representation on the panel or unclear separate detection of organisms in a mixed blood culture of a shared genus or grouping of organisms, e.g. Staphylococcus or Enterobacteriaceae . One (0.5 %) blood culture yielded invalid results on two separate panels, so it was eliminated from the study. The easy-to-use FilmArray® technology shows good correlation with blood culture identification and antibiotic resistance detection performed by conventional methods. This technology may be particularly useful in laboratories with limited staffing or limited technical expertise.

  1. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Treesearch

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  2. The NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway is associated with tumor cell resistance to arsenic trioxide across the NCI-60 panel

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is associated with increased risk for different types of cancer. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide can also be used to induce remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a success rate of approximately 80%. A comprehensive study examining the mechanisms and potential signaling pathways contributing to the anti-tumor properties of arsenic trioxide has not been carried out. Methods Here we applied a systems biology approach to identify gene biomarkers that underlie tumor cell responses to arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The baseline gene expression levels of 14,500 well characterized human genes were associated with the GI50 data of the NCI-60 tumor cell line panel from the developmental therapeutics program (DTP) database. Selected biomarkers were tested in vitro for the ability to influence tumor susceptibility to arsenic trioxide. Results A significant association was found between the baseline expression levels of 209 human genes and the sensitivity of the tumor cell line panel upon exposure to arsenic trioxide. These genes were overlayed onto protein-protein network maps to identify transcriptional networks that modulate tumor cell responses to arsenic trioxide. The analysis revealed a significant enrichment for the oxidative stress response pathway mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) with high expression in arsenic resistant tumor cell lines. The role of the NRF2 pathway in protecting cells against arsenic-induced cell killing was validated in tumor cells using shRNA-mediated knock-down. Conclusions In this study, we show that the expression level of genes in the NRF2 pathway serve as potential gene biomarkers of tumor cell responses to arsenic trioxide. Importantly, we demonstrate that tumor cells that are deficient for NRF2 display increased sensitivity to arsenic trioxide. The results of our study will be useful in understanding the mechanism of

  3. Forming Process Simulation of Truss Core Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Sunao; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Honeycomb panel is widely used as flooring or wall material in various structure including buildings, aircraft, train and so on due to high stiffness and lightness at present. Honeycomb panel, however, has a disadvantage that adhesive used to glue honeycomb core and top plate may burn by fire. On the other hand truss core panel has equivalent stiffness as honeycomb panel and is expected to be an alternative to honeycomb panel as it is safer for fire. However, in general, difficulty exists to form truss core and forming techniques should be developed for practice use of truss core panel. In this paper, firstly theoretical forming limitation is discussed for tetrahedral truss core . Secondly single stage forming simulation of truss core panel using explicit FEM technique was performed for preliminary investigation to estimate formability and thickness distribution. Finally multi-stage forming simulation was presented and possibility to apply press forming for truss core panel production through the simulation. In addition some results of the simulation was compared with the experiment and good agreement of both results was shown.

  4. 61. Upper panel in cornerpower panel lcpa lower panel in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Upper panel in corner-power panel lcpa lower panel in corner-oxygen regeneration unit, at right-air conditioner control panel, on floor-bio-pack 45 for emergency breathing, looking northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. Architectural Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  6. Architectural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  7. Evaluation of the NanoCHIP® Infection Control Panel test for direct detection and screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Judith; Arielly, Haia; Ganor, Nirit; Paitan, Yossi

    2015-06-01

    Rapid detection of infection control targets is needed and several bacterial target assays are commercially available. Detection of patients colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC-CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) comprises an essential part of infection control programs. This study evaluated the performance and feasibility of a novel molecular-based diagnostic screening test, the NanoCHIP(®) Infection Control Panel (ICP) assay (Savyon Diagnostics, Israel), which enables simultaneous detection of KPC-CRE, MRSA and VRE directly from swab samples and compares its sensitivity and specificity to culture. Prospective direct swab analysis of 338 (70 CRE, 198 MRSA and 70 VRE) screening swab samples. Including all targets and all valid samples, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the NanoCHIP(®) ICP assay were 91.1, 99.5, 99.1 and 94.9 %, respectively. As far as we know, this is the first report regarding a single molecular-based system that detects all three targets (CRE-KPC, MRSA and VRE) simultaneously, directly from swab samples, using the same reaction and platform. Overall, the assay was easy to perform, enabling medium- to high-throughput screening. Same day results enable efficient infection control interventions, such as carrier isolation.

  8. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas-fired furnaces. Final report Oct 79-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Schaus, O.O.

    1982-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired heat exchangers and similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were examined on test equipment built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchangers. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloys, anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  9. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the Lc gene of maize show an altered growth habit and increased resistance to apple scab and fire blight.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Richter, Klaus; Peil, Andreas; Höfer, Monika; Dörschel, Claudia; Schmoock, Sylvia; Gau, Achim E; Halbwirth, Heidrun; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2010-02-01

    Transgenic apple plants (Malus x domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox') overexpressing the Leaf Colour (Lc) gene from maize (Zea mays) exhibit strongly increased production of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols (catechins, proanthocyanidins). Greenhouse plants investigated in this study exhibit altered phenotypes with regard to growth habit and resistance traits. Lc-transgenic plants show reduced size, transversal gravitropism of lateral shoots, reduced trichome development, and frequently reduced shoot diameter and abnormal leaf development with fused leaves. Such phenotypes seem to be in accordance with a direct or an indirect effect on polar-auxin-transport in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, leaves often develop necrotic lesions resembling hypersensitive response lesions. In tests, higher resistance against fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora) and against scab (caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis) is observed. These phenotypes are discussed with respect to the underlying altered physiology of the Lc-transgenic plants. The results are expected to be considered in apple breeding strategies.

  10. Implementation and performance of the BioFire FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification panel with antimicrobial treatment recommendations for bloodstream infections at a midwestern academic tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Southern, Timothy R; VanSchooneveld, Trevor C; Bannister, Dianna L; Brown, TeAnne L; Crismon, Amy S; Buss, Sarah N; Iwen, Peter C; Fey, Paul D

    2015-02-01

    The FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel was recently implemented at a midwestern academic tertiary care hospital to provide rapid identification (ID) of common pathogens from positive blood cultures. This study evaluated the clinical performance of the BCID panel compared to culture-based ID methods. One hundred thirty-eight monomicrobial and 8 polymicrobial blood cultures were evaluated during the 30-day study resulting in the ID of 152 total organisms by culture with 115 organisms correctly identified using the BCID panel. The BCID panel had sensitivities of 80.4% (115/152) for all organisms identified during the study and 94.6% (115/122) when considering only on-panel organisms. BCID panel specificity was 100%. Implementation of the BCID panel was coupled with the development of empiric therapy recommendations for bloodstream infections by the antimicrobial stewardship team. Based on this study, the FilmArray® BCID panel is a rapid and reliable test for the detection of common bloodstream pathogens, and therapeutic decisions can be based upon panel results.

  11. 24. VAL, CONTROL PANELS FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VAL, CONTROL PANELS FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND WINDSTAY WINCHES OVERLOOKING FIRING RANGE AND MORRIS DAM LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It…

  13. The Influence of Arc-Flash and Fire-Resistant Clothing on Thermoregulation during Exercise in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martin P; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Friesen, Brian J; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of arc-flash and fire-resistant (AFR) clothing ensembles (CE) on whole-body heat dissipation during work in the heat. On 10 occasions, 7 males performed four 15-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C), each separated by 15-min of recovery. Whole-body heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was calculated as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss. Responses were compared in a semi-nude state and while wearing two CE styles: (1) single-piece (coveralls) and (2) two-piece (workpant + long-sleeve shirt). For group 1, there was one non-AFR single-piece CE (CE1STD) and three single-piece CE with AFR properties (CE2AFR, CE3AFR, CE4AFR). For group 2, there was one non-AFR two-piece CE (CE5STD) and four two-piece CE with AFR properties (CE6AFR, CE7AFR, CE8AFR, CE9AFR). The workpants for CE6AFR were not AFR-rated, while a cotton undershirt was also worn for conditions CE8AFR and CE9AFR and for all single-piece CE. Heat storage for all conditions (CE1STD: 328 ± 55, CE2AFR: 335 ± 87, CE3AFR: 309 ± 95, CE4AFR: 403 ± 104, CE5STD: 253 ± 78, CE6AFR: 268 ± 89, CE7AFR: 302 ± 70, CE8AFR: 360 ± 36, CE9AFR: 381 ± 99 kJ) was greater than the semi-nude state (160 ± 124 kJ) (all p ≤ 0.05). No differences were measured between single-piece uniforms (p = 0.273). Among the two-piece uniforms, heat storage was greater for CE8AFR and CE9AFR relative to CE5STD and CE6AFR (all p ≤ 0.05), but not CE7AFR (both p > 0.05). Differences between clothing styles were measured such that greater heat storage was observed in both CE1STD and CE2-4AFR relative to CE5STD. Further, heat storage was greater in CE2AFR and CE4AFR relative to CE6AFR, while it was greater in CE4AFR compared to CE7AFR. Body heat storage during work in the heat was not influenced by the use of AFR fabrics in the single- or two-piece uniforms albeit

  14. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas fired furnaces. Annual report Oct 79-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Khoo, S.W.; Schaus, O.O.

    1981-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired furnace heat exchangers and in similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were selected and tested on one of two identical test rigs built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in an actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchanger. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated and CaCO3 dipped galvanized steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloy anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  15. Progression and Behavior of the Canoe Fire in Coast Redwood

    Treesearch

    Hugh Scanlon

    2007-01-01

    Lightning caused fires occur in coast redwood forests, but large fires have been rare since the 1930s. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is considered fire resistant. In 2003, the Canoe Fire, a lightning fire started in an old-growth redwood stand in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, burned 5,554 hectares (13,774 acres) before it was contained. Fuel...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1107 - Fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire suppression devices. 75.1107 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107 Fire suppression devices. On and...

  17. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  18. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  19. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  20. The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W.; Flintoft, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.

  1. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  2. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  3. The outer membrane protein TolC is required for phytoalexin resistance and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Al-Karablieh, Nehaya; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2009-07-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on several plant species such as apple and pear, which produce diverse phytoalexins as defence mechanisms. An evolutionary successful pathogen thus must develop resistance mechanisms towards these toxic compounds. The E. amylovora outer membrane protein, TolC, might mediate phytoalexin resistance through its interaction with the multidrug efflux pump, AcrAB. To prove this, a tolC mutant and an acrB/tolC double mutant were constructed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of diverse antimicrobials and phytoalexins were determined for these mutants and compared with that of a previously generated acrB mutant. The tolC and arcB/tolC mutants were considerably more susceptible than the wild type but showed similar levels as the acrB mutant. The results clearly indicated that neither TolC nor AcrAB significantly interacted with other transport systems during the efflux of the tested toxic compounds. Survival and virulence assays on inoculated apple plants showed that pathogenicity and the ability of E. amylovora to colonize plant tissue were equally impaired by mutations of tolC and acrB/tolC. Our results allowed the conclusion that TolC plays an important role as a virulence and fitness factor of E. amylovora by mediating resistance towards phytoalexins through its exclusive interaction with AcrAB.

  4. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  5. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  6. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  7. Fire and heat resistant laminating resins based on maleimido and citraconimido substituted 1-(diorgano oxyphosphonyl) methyl -2,4- and -2,6- diaminobenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, John A. (Inventor); Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A class of fire and heat resistant bisimide resins prepared by thermal polymerization of maleimido or citraconimido substituted 1-((dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl)-2-4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes are described. The polymer precursors are prepared by reacting 1-((diorganooxyphosphonyl) methyl)-2-4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes with maleic anhydride or citraconic anhydride in a mole ratio 1:2. Chain extension of the monomers is achieved by reacting the mono-N-maleimido derivatives of 1-((diorganooxyphosphonyl) methyl)-2,4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes with aryl tetracarboxylic dianhydrides, such as benzophenone tetracarbocylic dianhydride, or aryl diisocyanates, such as methylenebis (4-phenylisocyanate), in a mole ratio 2:1. The polymerization of the monomers is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the thermal stability of the polymers is ascertained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  8. Fire and heat resistant laminating resins based on malemeido and citraconimido substituted 1 -2,4- and -2,6- diaminobenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, John A.; Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of fire and heat resistant bisimide resins prepared by thermal polymerization of maleimido or citraconimido substituted 1-(dialkox phosphonyl) methyl-2-4 and -2,6-diamino benzenes was presented. The polymer precursors are prepared by reacting 1-(diorgano oxyphosphonyl) methyl-2-4- and -2,6-diamino benzenes with maliec anhydride or citraconic anhydride in a mole ratio 1:2. Chain extension of the monomers is achieved by reacting the mono-N-maleimido derivaties of 1 (diorgano oxyphosphonyl) methyl -2,4- and -2,6-diamino benzenes with aryl tetracarboxylic dianhydrides, such as benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride, or aryl diisocyanates, such as methylene bis(4-phenyl isocyanate), in a mole ratio 2:1. The polymerization of the monomers is studied by diferential scanning calorimetry and the thermal stability of the polymers is ascertained by thermogravimetric analysis.

  9. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  10. Large-Scale Automated Production of Highly Ordered Ultralong Hydroxyapatite Nanowires and Construction of Various Fire-Resistant Flexible Ordered Architectures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie

    2016-12-27

    Practical applications of nanostructured materials have been largely limited by the difficulties in controllable and scaled-up synthesis, large-sized highly ordered self-assembly, and macroscopic processing of nanostructures. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), the major inorganic component of human bone and tooth, is an important biomaterial with high biocompatibility, bioactivity, and high thermal stability. Large-sized highly ordered HAP nanostructures are of great significance for applications in various fields and for understanding the formation mechanisms of bone and tooth. However, the synthesis of large-sized highly ordered HAP nanostructures remains a great challenge, especially for the preparation of large-sized highly ordered ultralong HAP nanowires because ultralong HAP nanowires are easily tangled and aggregated. Herein, we report our three main research findings: (1) the large-scale synthesis of highly flexible ultralong HAP nanowires with lengths up to >100 μm and aspect ratios up to >10000; (2) the demonstration of a strategy for the rapid automated production of highly flexible, fire-resistant, large-sized, self-assembled highly ordered ultralong HAP nanowires (SHOUHNs) at room temperature; and (3) the successful construction of various flexible fire-resistant HAP ordered architectures using the SHOUHNs, such as high-strength highly flexible nanostructured ropes (nanoropes), highly flexible textiles, and 3-D printed well-defined highly ordered patterns. The SHOUHNs are successively formed from the nanoscale to the microscale then to the macroscale, and the ordering direction of the ordered HAP structure is controllable. These ordered HAP architectures made from the SHOUHNs, such as highly flexible textiles, may be engineered into advanced functional products for applications in various fields, for example, fireproof clothing.

  11. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  12. Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  13. Characterization of AcrD, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type multidrug efflux pump from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux pumps are membrane translocases that have the ability to extrude a variety of structurally unrelated compounds from the cell. AcrD, a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) transporter, was shown to be involved in efflux of highly hydrophilic aminoglycosides and a limited number of amphiphilic compounds in E. coli. Here, a homologue of AcrD in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora was identified. Results The substrate specificity of AcrD was studied by overexpression of the corresponding gene from a high-copy plasmid in E. amylovora Ea1189-3, which is hypersensitive to many drugs due to a deficiency of the major multidrug pump AcrB. AcrD mediated resistance to several amphiphilic compounds including clotrimazole and luteolin, two compounds hitherto not described as substrates of AcrD in enterobacteria. However, AcrD was not able to expel aminoglycosides. An acrD mutant exhibited full virulence on apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. RT-PCR analysis revealed an induction of acrD expression in infected apple tissue but not on pear fruits. Moreover, a direct binding of BaeR, the response regulator of the two-component regulatory system BaeSR, to the acrD promoter was observed as has already been shown in other enterobacteria. Conclusions AcrD from E. amylovora is involved in resistance to a limited number of amphiphilic compounds, but in contrast to AcrD of E. coli, it is not involved in resistance to aminoglycosides. The expression of acrD was up-regulated by addition of the substrates deoxycholate, naringenin, tetracycline and zinc. AcrD appears to be regulated by the BaeSR two-component system, an envelope stress signal transduction pathway. PMID:24443882

  14. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  15. Panel resonant behavior of wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-03-01

    The principal design drivers in the certification of wind turbine blades are ultimate strength, fatigue resistance, adequate tip-tower clearance, and buckling resistance. Buckling resistance is typically strongly correlated to both ultimate strength and fatigue resistance. A composite shell with spar caps forms the airfoil shape of a blade and reinforcing shear webs are placed inside the blade to stiffen the blade in the flap-wise direction. The spar caps are dimensioned and the shear webs are placed so as to add stiffness to unsupported panel regions and reduce their length. The panels are not the major flap-wise load carrying element of a blade; however, they must be designed carefully to avoid buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static testing of blades under a simulated extreme loading condition. The focus of this paper is on the use of experimental modal analysis to measure localized resonances of the blade panels. It can be shown that the resonant behavior of these panels can also provide a means to evaluate buckling resistance by means of analytical or experimental modal analysis. Further, panel resonances have use in structural health monitoring by observing changes in modal parameters associated with panel resonances, and use in improving panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. In recent modal testing of wind turbine blades, a set of panel modes were measured. This paper will report on the findings of these tests and accompanying numerical and analytical modeling efforts aimed at investigating the potential uses of panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design.

  16. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  17. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  18. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  19. Understory Fires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  20. Graphite/epoxy orthogrid panel fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The structural concept considered for a spacecraft body structure is a grid stiffened skin with a skin laminate configuration and the stiffener grid geometry selected to best suit the design requirements. The orthogrid panel developed weighs 0.55 lb/sq ft and resisted an ultimate in-plane shear load of 545 lbf/in. The basic concept of a grid stiffener composite panel is that a relatively thin skin is reinforced with a gridwork of stiffeners so that the overall panel can resist design loads without becoming structurally unstable or being overstressed. The main feature of the orthogrid panel design is that it provides the potential for low cost structural panels when advanced to the production phase. The most innovative part of the fabrication method is the foam/fiberglass stiffener web grid billet fabrication and machining to size.

  1. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall consist of a dripproof enclosed panel containing visible and audible fire alarm signalling devices... supplies. (b) Fire alarms—(1) General. The operation of a fire detecting and alarm system must cause... provided; (2) Maintaining alarm. The audible and visible alarms resulting from the operation of a fire...

  2. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall consist of a dripproof enclosed panel containing visible and audible fire alarm signalling devices... supplies. (b) Fire alarms—(1) General. The operation of a fire detecting and alarm system must cause... provided; (2) Maintaining alarm. The audible and visible alarms resulting from the operation of a fire...

  3. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  4. Investigation of the fire performance of building insulation in full-scale and laboratory fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfelder, W.A.

    1984-04-01

    Twenty-two insulations are exposed to fire tests including the 25 ft Tunnel test, the Attic Floor Radiant Panel test and actual fire conditions of a simulated attic configuration. The insulations consisted of a number of cellulose fiber insulations, utilizing various chemical treatments, glass fiber and mineral fiber insulations. The fire performance characteristics of the insulations were measured in each of the three test scenarios and the report compares their results.

  5. Fire fighting aboard ships. Volume 2: Structural design and fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavitskiy, M.G.; Kortunov, M.F.; Sidoryuk, V.M.; Vostryakov, V.I.; Martynenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains recommendations for the prevention, detection, and suppression of fires on ships. It suggests practical measures for decreasing the risk of fire during preparatory work, construction, and repair of ships. Information is in accordance with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention on Life Safety at Sea, the rules of the USSR Registry, and the resolutions of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. This book analyzes recent international and national standards for fire protection of ships, and reviews the future trends of the international fire protection standards. It also includes the results of research on ship-building materials, fire-resistant and fire-retardant assemblies, and fire-suppression means.

  6. Determination of fire blight resistance and construction of a molecular genetic map in a bi-parental Malus sieversii population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is believed to be the main progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 [‘Royal Gala’ (RG) X PI631981] is segregating for resistance to b...

  7. Development of fire test methods for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests were conducted in a 737 airplane fuselage at NASA-JSC to characterize jet fuel fires in open steel pans (simulating post-crash fire sources and a ruptured airplane fuselage) and to characterize fires in some common combustibles (simulating in-flight fire sources). Design post-crash and in-flight fire source selections were based on these data. Large panels of airplane interior materials were exposed to closely-controlled large scale heating simulations of the two design fire sources in a Boeing fire test facility utilizing a surplused 707 fuselage section. Small samples of the same airplane materials were tested by several laboratory fire test methods. Large scale and laboratory scale data were examined for correlative factors. Published data for dangerous hazard levels in a fire environment were used as the basis for developing a method to select the most desirable material where trade-offs in heat, smoke and gaseous toxicant evolution must be considered.

  8. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Penetrations in the walls must not reduce the specified fire resistance ratings. The fire resistance ratings of... records storage areas with at least a 2-hour rated fire barrier wall. (r) Hazardous materials, including...

  9. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  10. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  11. Effect of firing cycle and surface finishing on the sag resistance of long-span metal ceramic framework using base metal alloys-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Poonam; D'Souza, Dsj; Kumar, Manjit; Viswambaran, M

    2012-04-01

    The search for the ideal restorative material or combination of materials in dentistry is still the subject of modern dental research. In clinical practice, there are increased numbers of ceramo-metal restorations being fabricated which replace multiple missing teeth in a single framework. The literature is scanty with regard to investigations of the 'sag' resistance of base metal alloys commonly used for ceramo-metal restorations and specifically for long-span restorations. An in vitro study was carried out to investigate the effects of surface finishing and simulated porcelain-firing on the sag resistance of long-span ceramo-metal frameworks using base metal alloys. Four types of alloys were used. A total of 80 samples were selected for the study and they were divided into four groups of 20 samples each. 'As cast' metal specimens in group I, group II and with surface finishing in group III and group IV. Each test sample was mounted on the sample holding accessory of the custom made thermo mechanical analyser and subjected to three firing cycles. Each sample was evaluated for the sag-related deflection recorded by the dial gauge with an accuracy of 1 µm. The data recorded was subjected to a statistical analysis using unpaired t-test to compare the relative difference in the sag-related deflection values. It was observed that the values for sag-related deflection were significantly less for the 'as cast' samples of all the alloy groups. Nickelchromium (NiCr) and cobaltchromium (CoCr) exhibited value of 19.4 μm and 14.8 μm, respectively. Among the four groups of alloys tested, CoCr based alloy exhibited the least amount of sag-related deflection. The results show that the sag-related deflection was less in Co-Cr alloys as compared with the NiCr alloys, still Ni-Cr alloys in fixed dental prostheses frameworks are used due to their desirable physical and chemical properties.

  12. Evaluation of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel: Results of a Multicenter Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, Hossein; Fairfax, Marilynn R; Lephart, Paul R; Schreckenberger, Paul; DesJarlais, Sharon M; Johnson, J Kristie; Robinson, Gwen; Carroll, Karen C; Greer, Amy; Morgan, Margie; Chan, Raymond; Loeffelholz, Michael; Valencia-Shelton, Frances; Jenkins, Stephen; Schuetz, Audrey N; Daly, Judy A; Barney, Trenda; Hemmert, Andrew; Kanack, Kristen J

    2016-03-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical expense. Rapid diagnosis improves outcomes and reduces costs. The FilmArray blood culture identification panel (BioFire Diagnostics LLC, Salt Lake City, UT), a highly multiplexed PCR assay, can identify 24 etiologic agents of sepsis (8 Gram-positive, 11 Gram-negative, and 5 yeast species) and three antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, vanA/B, and blaKPC) from positive blood culture bottles. It provides results in about 1 h with 2 min for assay setup. We present the results of an eight-center trial comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the panel with those of the laboratories' standard phenotypic identification techniques, as well as with molecular methods used to distinguish Acinetobacter baumannii from other members of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and to detect antimicrobial resistance genes. Testing included 2,207 positive aerobic blood culture samples, 1,568 clinical and 639 seeded. Samples were tested fresh or were frozen for later testing within 8 h after the bottles were flagged as positive by an automated blood culture system. At least one organism was detected by the panel in 1,382 (88.1%) of the positive clinical specimens. The others contained primarily off-panel organisms. The panel reported multiple organisms in 81 (5.86%) positive clinical specimens. The unresolved blood culture identification sensitivity for all target detections exceeded 96%, except for Klebsiella oxytoca (92.2%), which achieved 98.3% sensitivity after resolution of an unavoidable phenotypic error. The sensitivity and specificity for vanA/B and blaKPC were 100%; those for mecA were 98.4 and 98.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Salimnia et al.

  13. Evaluation of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel: Results of a Multicenter Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salimnia, Hossein; Lephart, Paul R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; DesJarlais, Sharon M.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Robinson, Gwen; Carroll, Karen C.; Greer, Amy; Morgan, Margie; Chan, Raymond; Loeffelholz, Michael; Valencia-Shelton, Frances; Jenkins, Stephen; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Daly, Judy A.; Barney, Trenda; Hemmert, Andrew; Kanack, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical expense. Rapid diagnosis improves outcomes and reduces costs. The FilmArray blood culture identification panel (BioFire Diagnostics LLC, Salt Lake City, UT), a highly multiplexed PCR assay, can identify 24 etiologic agents of sepsis (8 Gram-positive, 11 Gram-negative, and 5 yeast species) and three antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, vanA/B, and blaKPC) from positive blood culture bottles. It provides results in about 1 h with 2 min for assay setup. We present the results of an eight-center trial comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the panel with those of the laboratories' standard phenotypic identification techniques, as well as with molecular methods used to distinguish Acinetobacter baumannii from other members of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and to detect antimicrobial resistance genes. Testing included 2,207 positive aerobic blood culture samples, 1,568 clinical and 639 seeded. Samples were tested fresh or were frozen for later testing within 8 h after the bottles were flagged as positive by an automated blood culture system. At least one organism was detected by the panel in 1,382 (88.1%) of the positive clinical specimens. The others contained primarily off-panel organisms. The panel reported multiple organisms in 81 (5.86%) positive clinical specimens. The unresolved blood culture identification sensitivity for all target detections exceeded 96%, except for Klebsiella oxytoca (92.2%), which achieved 98.3% sensitivity after resolution of an unavoidable phenotypic error. The sensitivity and specificity for vanA/B and blaKPC were 100%; those for mecA were 98.4 and 98.3%, respectively. PMID:26739158

  14. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Treesearch

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  15. Fire and heat resistant laminating resin based on maleimido and citraconimido substituted 1-(diorganooxyphosphonyl-methyl)-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, James M. (Inventor); Mikroyannidis, John A. (Inventor); Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The subject invention pertains to a novel class of fire-and heat-resistant bisimide resins prepared by thermal polymerization of maleimido or citraconimido substituded 1-(dialkoxyphosphonyl)-methyl-2-4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes. Typical polymer presursors have the chemical structure wherein R is alkyl, substituted alkyl or aryl, and R sup 1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl. The polymer precursors are prepared by reacting 1-(diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl-2-4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes with maleic anhydride or citraconic anhydride in a mole ratio 1:2. Chains extension of the monomers is achieved by reacting the mono-N-maleimido derivatives of 1-(diorganooxyphosphonyl)methyl-2,4 and -2,6-diaminobenzenes with aryl tetracarboxylic dianhydrides, such as benzophenone tetracarboxylic diandydride, or aryl diisocyanates, such as methylenebis (4-phenylisocyanate), in a mole ratio 2:1. The polymerization of the monomers is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the thermal stability of the polymers is ascertained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  16. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  17. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  19. Prefabricated Refractory Panels for Use in KSC's Flame Deflectors: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Maria; Trejo, David

    2010-01-01

    refractory panels on the deflector. Panels could be fabricated and processed off-site in a controlled environment to maximize performance. These panels could then be transported to KSC and installed on the flame deflector. The findings of this report indicate that conventionally reinforced, prefabricated refractory panels can likely be designed, fabricated, and placed on the deflector. Post-tensioning of the panels will reduce the amount of "open' joints, which can be susceptible to accelerated erosion and abrasion. The panels, produced with newer, better performing refractory materials, should exhibit lower deterioration, providing a more economical system. A method for placing the panels has been provided. The findings of this research indicate that post-tensioned, prefabricated refractory panels can be placed on the flame deflectors and should exhibit improved performance when compared with the current method of gunning the refractories on the deflector. Further evaluation will be needed to confirm these findings. Specific focus should be placed on the performance of the joints transverse to the exhaust flow, erosion/abrasion rates of "closed" joints, uplift forces at joints transverse to the exhaust flow, development of composite action between the steel base and the refractory panels, and refractory material resistance to the launch and Florida coast environment.

  20. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107 - Fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107 Fire suppression devices. On and... be installed on unattended underground equipment and suitable fire-resistant hydraulic fluids approved by the Secretary shall be used in the hydraulic systems of such equipment. Such fluids shall...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107 - Fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107 Fire suppression devices. On and... be installed on unattended underground equipment and suitable fire-resistant hydraulic fluids approved by the Secretary shall be used in the hydraulic systems of such equipment. Such fluids shall...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107 - Fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107 Fire suppression devices. On and... be installed on unattended underground equipment and suitable fire-resistant hydraulic fluids approved by the Secretary shall be used in the hydraulic systems of such equipment. Such fluids shall...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... electrical cables on the equipment which are subject to flexing or to external damage; and (2) All...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... electrical cables on the equipment which are subject to flexing or to external damage; and (2) All...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... electrical cables on the equipment which are subject to flexing or to external damage; and (2) All...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... electrical cables on the equipment which are subject to flexing or to external damage; and (2) All...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... electrical cables on the equipment which are subject to flexing or to external damage; and (2) All...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1107-3 - Fire suppression devices; approved components; installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-3... Protection” (NFPA No. 22-1971). (c) The cover of hose of fire suppression devices, if used on the protected...

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  12. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke Plumes from the B&B Complex Fires, Oregon     View Larger Image ... of smoke originating from the B&B Complex Fires in central Oregon are captured in these September 4, 2003 views from the Multi-angle ...

  13. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Blankets Northern California     View Larger Image ... strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging ... June 27, 2008 - Smoke from fires in northern California. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  15. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Hayman fire and from the Ponil Complex fires south of the New Mexico-Colorado border are portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle ... x 565 kilometers. They use data from blocks 58 to 61 within World Reference System-2 path 32. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  16. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  17. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  18. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  19. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  20. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  1. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water...

  2. Forest-fire models

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  3. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  4. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  5. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  6. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  7. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  8. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  9. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  10. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  11. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    PubMed

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  13. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  14. Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

  15. The impact of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein on the brain pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a panel of MEK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Gooijer, Mark C; Zhang, Ping; Weijer, Ruud; Buil, Levi C M; Beijnen, Jos H; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2017-09-16

    Mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials for treatment of intracranial neoplasms, including glioblastoma (GBM), but efficacy of these drugs has not yet been demonstrated. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major impediment to adequate delivery of drugs into the brain and may thereby also limit the successful implementation of MEK inhibitors against intracranial malignancies. The BBB is equipped with a range of ATP-dependent efflux transport proteins, of which P-gp (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2) are the two most dominant for drug efflux from the brain. We investigated their impact on the pharmacokinetics and target engagement of a panel of clinically applied MEK inhibitors, in order to select the most promising candidate for brain cancers in the context of clinical pharmacokinetics and inhibitor characteristics. To this end, we used in vitro drug transport assays and conducted pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in wildtype and ABC-transporter knockout mice. PD0325901 displayed more promising characteristics than trametinib (GSK1120212), binimetinib (MEK162), selumetinib (AZD6244), and pimasertib (AS703026): PD0325901 was the weakest substrate of P-gp and BCRP in vitro, its brain penetration was only marginally higher in Abcb1a/b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, and efficient target inhibition in the brain could be achieved at clinically relevant plasma levels. Notably, target inhibition could also be demonstrated for selumetinib, but only at plasma levels far above levels in patients receiving the maximum tolerated dose. In summary, our study recommends further development of PD0325901 for the treatment of intracranial neoplasms. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  17. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  18. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  19. Evaluation of Shear Tie Connectors for Use in Insulated Concrete Sandwich Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    of non-load bearing precast /prestressed or tilt-up concrete sandwich wall panels (WP) are examined. These components are used extensively in modern...prestress wall panels, precast wall panels, tilt-up wall panels, concrete insulted wall systems U U U UU 37 Paul Sheppard Reset i Table of...illustrate this concept, the blast resistances of non-load bearing precast /prestressed or tilt-up concrete sandwich wall panels were examined. These

  20. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  1. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  2. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  3. Solar reflection panels

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W.; Reshetnik, Michael

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  4. High-efficiency screen-printed solar cell on edge-defined film-fed grown ribbon silicon through optimized rapid belt co-firing of contacts and high-sheet-resistance emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Hilali, Mohamed M.; Nakayashiki, Kenta

    2004-04-01

    High-quality screen-printed contacts were achieved on a high-sheet-resistance emitter (˜100 Ω/sq.) using PV168 Ag paste and rapid co-firing in the belt furnace. The optimized co-firing cycle developed for a 100 Ω/sq. emitter produced 16.1% efficient 4 cm2 planar edge-defined film-fed grown (EFG) ribbon Si cells with a low series-resistance (0.8 Ω cm2), high fill factor of ˜0.77, along with very significant bulk lifetime enhancement from 3 to 100 μs. This represents the highest-efficiency screen-printed EFG Si cells with single-layer antireflection (AR) coating. These cells were fabricated using a simple process involving POCl3 diffusion for a high-sheet-resistance emitter, SiNx AR coating and rapid cofiring of Ag grid and Al-doped back-surface field in a conventional belt furnace. The rapid cofiring process also prevented junction shunting while maintaining very effective SiNx-induced hydrogen passivation of defects, resulting in an average bulk lifetime exceeding 100 μs.

  5. New Technology for the Fire Attire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Although little can be done to reduce the risks of firefighting, something can be done to curb the injuries and fatalities. This is the goal of Project FIRES, a program jointly sponsored by NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Agency's U.S. Fire Administration with technical management provided by Marshall Space Flight Center. Project FIRES (Firefighter's Integrated Response Equipment System) involves applications of advanced materials and design concepts, derived from Apollo to update existing gear which does not adequately protect against many of the hazards encountered in fire suppression activities. A major focus of the effort involves application to the FIRES ensemble of lightweight, fire-resistant, heat-protective materials originally developed for use in astronauts' space suits or in spacecraft components which require thermal protection. Data from the fourteen municipal fire departments participating in the field evaluation will form a basis for development of new nationwide protective ensemble students.

  6. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  7. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    MiELAS T PTfR SECURITY CLASSIFICAiON OF THIS PAOI6111 DN4~mta𔃾 (BLOCK 20 continued) r. The DuPont " Freon " E6.5 fluid and the Halocarbon AO-8 fluid were...However, a number of problems, stemming primarily from its high density, high cost, and effect on seal elastomers, require solution before it can be...material and support noted is gratefully acknowledged: DuPont " Freon " Products Division, and Halocarbon Products Corporation: hydraulic fluid and data for

  8. Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-15

    emulsion droplet undergoes combustion, heat is tranferred from the surrounding diffusion flame to the drop. Sufficient superheating may occur so that...after the method used in earlier work. (5) A small amount of the 1005 oil was added and the mixture heated to 150°C to evaporate the solvents. When a...inhibit or prevent combustion would perhaps be even somewhat less understood. Clearly though, the heat involved in the combustion process is sufficient to

  9. 51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL CONTAINS UMBILICAL MAST POWER CONNECTORS; RAIL AND FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES IN FOREGROUND; TELEVISION CAMERA AND CAMERA TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Identifying the location of fire refuges in wet forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berry, Laurence E; Driscoll, Don A; Stein, John A; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Bradstock, Ross A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies. We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches, including generalized linear modeling, variogram analysis, and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC). We found that the amount of unburned habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution. Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential

  11. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  12. Durability of structural panels

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; [Editor

    1984-01-01

    Twenty papers from the proceedings of a workshop are presented on the durability of a group of structural panels for use in roof, wall, and floor sheathing applications. The panel types are waferboard,flakeboard, strandboard, oriented structural board, and structural particleboard. A summary of the proceedings is given as the final presentation.

  13. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  14. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  15. SNP panels/Imputation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Participants from thirteen countries discussed services that Interbull can perform or recommendations that Interbull can make to promote harmonization and assist member countries in improving their genomic evaluations in regard to SNP panels and imputation. The panel recommended: A mechanism to shar...

  16. Flexible optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  17. Reinventing the solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, M.

    1995-08-01

    This article discusses new technology in solar panels. PowerSource is a solar collector which not only is less expensive than conventional panels to purchase and install, but also increases the electrical output by almost 20%. This article describes the results of testing this system.

  18. Microgravity Science Research Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.; Trinh, Eugene H.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Larson, David; Koss, Matthew; Ostrach, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This document is a transcription of the Microgravity Science Research Panel's discussion about their research and about some of the contributions that they feel have been important to the field during their time with the program. The panel includes Dr. Eugene Trinh, Dr. Lawrence DeLucas, Dr. Charles Bugg, Dr. David Larson, and Dr. Simon Ostrach.

  19. Development of Cladding Materials for Evacuated Panel Superinsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.; Weaver, F.J.; Cumberbatch, G.M.; Begnoche, B.; Brodie, V.; Lamb, W.; Reitz, R.; Caldwell, P.; Meyer, C.

    1999-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, VacuPanel, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Evacuated panel superinsulations have thermal resistivities (R) substantially above that of conventional existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as foam insulations blown with Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  20. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  3. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  4. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil, water, or other fluids that may be...

  5. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil, water, or other fluids that may be...

  6. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil, water, or other fluids that may be...

  7. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil, water, or other fluids that may be...

  8. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream...

  9. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1)...

  10. Fire in the Shop!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.; Buchanan, Joseph P.

    1977-01-01

    Fire emergency preparedness measures to take to prevent school fires and to protect against injury and minimize damage when fire does occur are presented. Includes fire safety practices, extinguishers for different classes of fires and their use, and the need for fire safety training in schools. (MF)

  11. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  12. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  13. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firing line terminals test. 7.68 Section 7.68... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal... to each firing line terminal according to the manufacturer's instructions. (b) Acceptable performance...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107 - Fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Secretary shall be used in the hydraulic systems of such equipment. Such fluids shall be used in the hydraulic systems of other underground equipment unless fire suppression devices meeting... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107 Fire suppression devices. On...

  15. Design of structures against fire. Civil engineering/buildings, architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Anchor, R.D.; Malhotra, H.L.; Purkiss, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The book covers structural design criteria, along with background theory on fire protection methods for structures from a variety of materials, including timber, steel, and concrete. Research on the behavior of structural materials in the presence of fire is highlighted, and the need for fire-resistant materials is addressed.

  16. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2001-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars requires tree survival of fire exposure. Trees survive fire exposure by: (1) avoidance of injury through constitutive protection and (2) induced defense. Induced defenses include (a) compartmentalization processes that resist the spread of injury and infection and (b) closure processes that restore the continuity of the...

  17. Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  18. Idaho Fires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This full-frame ASTER image, acquired August 30, 2000, covers an area of 60 by 60 km in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. In this color infrared composite, vegetation is red, clouds are white, and smoke from forest fires is blue. An enlargement (Figure 1) covers an area of 12 x 15 km. A thermal infrared band is displayed in red, a short wave infrared band is displayed in green, and a visible band is displayed in blue. In this combination, fires larger than about 50 m appear yellow because they are bright in both infrared bands. Smaller fires appear green because they are too small to be seen by the 90 m thermal pixels, but large enough to be detected in the 30 m short wave infrared pixels. We are able to see through the smoke in the infrared bands, whereas in the visible bands, the smoke obscures detection of the active fires. This image is located at 44.8 degrees north latitude and 114.8 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11088

  19. Appalachian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of smoke from forest fires in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia was taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on November 15, 2001. Smoke is visible extending over the Chesapeake Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  1. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  2. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  3. A Tool for Rating the Resilience of Critical Infrastructures in Extreme Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    against extreme fires. An Advisory Board was formed with 15 members from government departments, fire services, engineering and extreme fire experts...fire resistance evaluation of critical structures or any HJA 43 acceptable curve following an engineering analysis. The RWS time-temperature...Ministry of Transport in the Netherlands based on the assumption that, in a worst case scenario, a 50 m3 fuel, oil or petrol tanker fire, with a fire load

  4. Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Larry E.; Adams, Daniel O.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potential benefits provided by the addition of through-the-thickness reinforcement to sandwich structures. Through-the-thickness stitching is proposed to increase the interlaminar strength and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. A low-cost, out-of-autoclave processing method was developed to produce composite sandwich panels with carbon fiber face sheets, a closed-cell foam core, and through-the-thickness Kevlar stitching. The sandwich panels were stitched in a dry preform state, vacuum bagged, and infiltrated using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processing. For comparison purposes, unstitched sandwich panels were produced using the same materials and manufacturing methodology. Test panels were produced initially at the University of Utah and later at NASA Langley Research Center. Four types of mechanical tests were performed: flexural testing, flatwise tensile testing, core shear testing, and edgewise compression testing. Drop-weight impact testing followed by specimen sectioning was performed to characterize the damage resistance of stitched sandwich panels. Compression after impact (CAI) testing was performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the sandwich panels. Results show significant increases in the flexural stiffness and strength, out-of-plane tensile strength, core shear strength, edgewise compression strength, and compression-after-impact strength of stitched sandwich structures.

  5. Flutter Research on Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D.

    1960-01-01

    Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is presented in the appendix.

  6. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  7. Assessing post-fire Douglas-fir mortality and Douglas-fir beetle attacks in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz; Ken Gibson; Kevin Ryan; Gregg DeNitto

    2007-01-01

    Douglas-fir has life history traits that greatly enhance resistance to injury from fire, thereby increasing post-fire survival rates. Tools for predicting the probability of tree mortality following fire are important components of both pre-fire planning and post-fire management efforts. Using data from mixed-severity wildfire in Montana and Wyoming, Hood and Bentz (...

  8. Fire regimes of remnant pitch pine communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of central Pennsylvania, USA. Forests

    Treesearch

    Joseph Marschall; Michael Stambaugh; Benjamin Jones; Richard Guyette; Patrick Brose; Daniel C. Dey

    2016-01-01

    Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent...

  9. Meeting Materials for the December 4-6, 2013 Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Meeting Materials for the December 4-6, 2013 Scientific Advisory Panel on Scientific Uncertainties Associated with Corn Rootworm Resistance Monitoring for Bt Corn Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs)

  10. Fire Detection Organizing Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

  11. Panel 4: Report of the Microbiology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Hakansson, Anders P.; Heikkinen, Terho; King, Samantha; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Novotny, Laura A.; Patel, Janak A.; Pettigrew, Melinda; Swords, W. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive review of the literature from July 2011 until June 2015 on the virology and bacteriology of otitis media in children. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Two subpanels comprising experts in the virology and bacteriology of otitis media were created. Each panel reviewed the relevant literature in the fields of virology and bacteriology and generated draft reviews. These initial reviews were distributed to all panel members prior to meeting together at the Post-symposium Research Conference of the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media, National Harbor, Maryland, in June 2015. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by all panel members. Conclusions Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing our understanding of the microbiology of otitis media. Numerous advances were made in basic laboratory studies, in animal models of otitis media, in better understanding the epidemiology of disease, and in clinical practice. Implications for Practice (1) Many viruses cause acute otitis media without bacterial coinfection, and such cases do not require antibiotic treatment. (2) When respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and influenza virus peak in the community, practitioners can expect to see an increase in clinical otitis media cases. (3) Biomarkers that predict which children with upper respiratory tract infections will develop otitis media may be available in the future. (4) Compounds that target newly identified bacterial virulence determinants may be available as future treatment options for children with otitis media. PMID:28372529

  12. Utilization of localized panel resonant behavior in wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-11-01

    The shear webs and laminates of core panels of wind turbine blades must be designed to avoid panel buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static loading of a blade to failure under a simulated extreme loading condition. This paper examines an alternative means for evaluating blade buckling resistance using non-destructive modal tests or FEA. In addition, panel resonances can be utilized for structural health monitoring by observing changes in the modal parameters of these panel resonances, which are only active in a portion of the blade that is susceptible to failure. Additionally, panel resonances are considered for updating of panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. During blade modal tests conducted at Sandia Labs, a series of panel modes with increasing complexity was observed. This paper reports on the findings of these tests, describes potential ways to utilize panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design, and reports recent numerical results to evaluate panel resonances for use in blade structural health assessment.

  13. Application of full-scale fire tests to characterize and improve the aircraft postcrash fire environment.

    PubMed

    Sarkos, C P

    1996-12-31

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has conducted numerous full-scale fire tests for the purpose of characterizing the postcrash cabin fire environment and developing improved fire test criteria for cabin materials. The tests consistently demonstrated the importance of cabin flashover on occupant survivability. Flashover is basically a sudden, very rapid spread of fire, generating large quantities of heat, smoke, and toxic gases that quickly fill the cabin. Before flashover, the cabin environment is largely survivable; after flashover, occupant survival becomes highly unlikely. Thermal incapacitation is more important near the fire origin and at higher elevations, whereas toxic gas incapacitation is predominant away from the fire origin and at lower elevations. The FAA has developed and adopted improved fire test methods for seat cushions (fire blocking layers) and interior panels (low heat release). In both cases, the fire test methods are consistent with full-scale test results and serve to improve occupant survivability by delaying the onset of flashover, thereby providing substantially greater available time for occupant evacuation.

  14. Sundance Fire: an analysis of fire phenomena

    Treesearch

    Hal E. Anderson

    1968-01-01

    The Sundance Fire on September 1, 1967, made a spectacular run of 16 miles in 9 hours and destroyed more than 50,000 acres. This run became the subject of a detailed research analysis of the environmental, topographic, and vegetation variables aimed at reconstructing and describing fire phenomena. This report details the fire's progress; discusses the fire's...

  15. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  16. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  17. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... HDL) and bad (LDL) cholesterol, as well as triglycerides (a certain type of fat). A lipid panel ... results for your good and bad cholesterol and triglycerides.Good (HDL) cholesterol: Your body needs good cholesterol ...

  18. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  19. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  20. CF Mutation Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities CF Gene Mutations Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Cystic Fibrosis Genotyping; CF DNA Analysis; CF Gene Mutation Panel; ...

  1. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: CMP; Chem 12; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; SMA 12; SMA 20; SMAC (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  2. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: BMP; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; Chem 7; SMA 7; SMAC7 (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  3. Fire water systems in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sundt, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Due to corrosion problems in fire water systems offshore there is a need for a corrosion resistant material to improve the reliability of onboard fire fighting systems. Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe is seen as a cost effective and light weight alternative to metals. Through a test program run by AMAT, Advanced Materials a/s in collaboration with the Norwegian Fire and Research Laboratory (NBL, SINTEF), GRE pipes have proved to be viable materials for offshore fire water systems. The test program included furnace testing, jetfire testing and simulated explosion testing. GRE pipes (2--12 inches) from two suppliers were fire tested and evaluated. Both adhesively bonded joints and flange connections were tested. During the course of the project, application methods of passive fire protection and nozzle attachments were improved.

  4. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  5. Hexagon solar power panel

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  6. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  7. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  8. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  9. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  10. Hexagon solar power panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  11. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  12. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  13. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  14. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  15. 30 CFR 7.68 - Firing line terminals test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line terminals test. (a) Test procedures. (1) The contact resistance through each firing line terminal.... (1) The contact resistance shall not be greater than 1 ohm. (2) The No. 18 gauge wire shall...

  16. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  17. Fire Maintenance and Logistics Analysis (Fire Main)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    medical evacuation, (2) supply transportation, (3) fire / water bucket support, (4) troop movement, and (&) miscei~areojs. Tabi .1-1. shows the...operation. On average, for the 4-12 September fierce fire fighting period, 44 percent of the helicopters were used for fire / water bucket operations, 2P...the operation. As expected the largest percentage of the helicopters were used for fire / water bucket operations during both the fierce fire fighting

  18. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural Fire Protection § 149.641 What are... central alarm panel; and (3) Independent fire walls are constructed and installed so as to be of size and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the structural fire...

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  20. Reintroducing fire in regenerated dry forests following stand-replacing wildfire.

    Treesearch

    David W. Peterson; Paul F. Hessburg; Brion Salter; Kevin M. James; Matthew C. Dahlgreen; John A. Barnes

    2007-01-01

    Prescribed fire use may be effective for increasing fire resilience in young coniferous forests by reducing surface fuels, modifying overstory stand structure, and promoting development of large trees of fire resistant species. Questions remain, however, about when and how to reintroduce fire in regenerated forests, and to what end. We studied the effects of spring...

  1. Effectiveness of fire-retardant treatments for shingles after 10 years of outdoor weathering

    Treesearch

    S. L. LeVan; C. A. Holmes

    Some building codes require wood shingles to be fire-retardant treated. Because exterior fire-retardant treatments are subjected to weathering, treatment durability and leach resistance are critical for insuring adequate fire protection. We examined the effectiveness of various fire-retardant treatments on wood after 0, 2, 5, and 10 years of outdoor exposure. We used a...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-3 - Fire suppression devices; approved components; installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-3... Protection” (NFPA No. 22-1971). (c) The cover of hose of fire suppression devices, if used on the protected... requirements of Part 18 of this chapter (Bureau of Mines Schedule 2G). (d) Fire suppression devices required...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-3 - Fire suppression devices; approved components; installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-3... Protection” (NFPA No. 22-1971). (c) The cover of hose of fire suppression devices, if used on the protected... requirements of Part 18 of this chapter (Bureau of Mines Schedule 2G). (d) Fire suppression devices required...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-3 - Fire suppression devices; approved components; installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-3... Protection” (NFPA No. 22-1971). (c) The cover of hose of fire suppression devices, if used on the protected... requirements of Part 18 of this chapter (Bureau of Mines Schedule 2G). (d) Fire suppression devices required...

  5. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    Treesearch

    Nolan W. Brewer; Alistair M.S. Smith; Jeffery A. Hatten; Philip E. Higuera; Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Wade T. Tinkham

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide an avenue in which fire-affected ecosystems can accumulate carbon over time, through the generation of highly resistant fire-altered carbon. Identifying how fuel moisture, and subsequent changes in the fire behavior, relates to the production of fire-altered carbon is...

  6. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  7. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  8. Study of noise reduction characteristics of multilayered panels and dual pane windows with Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental noise attenuation characteristics of flat, general aviation type, multilayered panels are discussed. Experimental results of stiffened panels, damping tape, honeycomb materials and sound absorption materials are presented. Single degree of freedom theoretical models were developed for sandwich type panels with both shear resistant and non-shear resistant core material. The concept of Helmholtz resonators used in conjunction with dual panel windows in increasing the noise reduction around a small range of frequency was tested. It is concluded that the stiffening of the panels either by stiffeners or by sandwich construction increases the low frequency noise reduction.

  9. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and evaluation of heat pipe thermal conditioning panels are discussed. The panels were designed and fabricated to be compatible with several planned NASA space vehicles, in terms of panel size, capacity, temperature gradients, and integration with various heat exchangers and electronic components. It was satisfactorily demonstrated that the heat pipe thermal conditioning panel meets the thermal efficiency and heat transport requirements.

  10. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  11. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  12. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  13. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  14. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  15. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  16. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  17. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  18. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  19. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  20. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…