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Sample records for fire safety volume

  1. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 7. Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    cotton bags. The bags were filled with mineral wool . They were somewhat effective in retarding the sprpad of fire. There was no sprinkler...inches of mineral wool insulation. • Interior foamed plastic trim, covering not more than 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area, is permitted...inch thickness when separated from the interior of the mobile home by a minimum of 2-inches of mineral wool insulation or equivalent fire protective

  2. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  3. Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:…

  4. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  5. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  6. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 5. Elements of Polymer Fire Safety and Guide to the Designer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    can be prepared by substituting the corresponding acid for hydrochloric acid in the reaction with phosphine and formaldehyde . A fire retardant for...one phenolic fiber, Kynol®, has been developed. In its preparation a phenol- formaldehyde polymer is first spun into multifilament yarns and is then...cured with formaldehyde . The Kynol® fiber is light yellow, but can be bleached to a pure white. The strength of the fiber is low, as is its abrasion

  8. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  9. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Fires and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  10. Fire Safety in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Despite rigorous fire-safety policies and practices, fire incidents are possible during lunar and Martian missions. Fire behavior and hence preventive and responsive safety actions in the missions are strongly influenced by the low-gravity environments in flight and on the planetary surfaces. This paper reviews the understanding and key issues of fire safety in the missions, stressing flame spread, fire detection, suppression, and combustion performance of propellants produced from Martian resources.

  11. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 10. Mines and Bunkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    fire. Approximately 800 linear feet of conveyor and 400 feet of rope -supported structure were destroyed by the fire. Analysis The exact cause of the...exchange has served to empha- siw the hazard of vertical and grouped cableways and the flammability of PVC insulation in an actual fire.) In the

  12. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 11 on Aircraft Fire Safety. Volume 2. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    the development of transparencies to resist sustained fire warrant consideration in addition to the aforementioned individual life support hood. (5...internal electrical system distribution. Advantages result from the continuous improvement in explosion resistance due to design progress, particularly...systems other non- metallic. - oxygen systems, seat covers, and other furnishings - may similarly become less fire resistant with age. A research program

  13. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 8. Land Transportation Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    material and raising the combustion temperature of the burning plastics . In two tunnel fires, one in the Montreal Subway in January 1974, and the other in...the back seat, found a pack of matches. The upholstery materials in the back seat became ignited, and then the foam plastic padding material became in...extinguish the fire with a portable extinguisher but was driven back by the intense smoke. The foam plastic seating was the initial material observed to

  14. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 1. Materials. State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    fire retarding finishes for cotton fab- rics. A mixture of pyrophosphoric acid and a melamine - formaldehyde resin is the basis for a permanent fire...heat-cured coatings, based upon melamine formaldehyde and phenol formalde- hyde resins may find significant utility on factory coated wood paneling...Westport, Ct. 06880. Sunshine, N. 8., "Flame Retardance of Phenolic Resins and Urea- and Melamine - Formaldehyde Resins," in: Kuryla and Papa (1973). 118

  15. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 6. Aircraft. Civil and Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT ANALYSIS) ■ thermoplastics, wiring insulation , wood frames for the vertical and ceiling panels, and neoprene/nylon vapor barrier covering the...materials, and the wiring insulation prevented access for fire control. In the forward (first class) cabin, damage was far less severe. The contribution...of insulation , or breaking of the wire . Insulation of the wire should be selected with regard to fire retardance and the products of combustion of

  16. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    methods may measure different fire hazard characteristics such as: ease of ignition surface flame spread heat release smoke evolution toxic gas...of toxic gases , the time to flashover , the time of structural failure, the time to the start of decay, and the time of extinction. The second is...room or compartment, the stage at which all exposed fuel surfaces become involved is termed " flashover " (Waterman, 1968). At this point, conditions

  17. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 3. Smoke and Toxicity (Combustion Toxicology of Polymers)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    led some investigators to regard toxic effects short of death as endpoints in animals exposed to artificial or actual combustion mix- tures. Such...Sidor and J. M. Peters, "Fire Fighting and Pulmon .ry Fun.tiin An Epidemiologic Study," American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 109, pp. 249-254...regulatory practices for protecting the health of people, which with few exceptions address health questions such as: How much artificial color is safe

  18. Fire safety at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  19. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  20. Fire Safety Analysis of the Polar Icebreaker Replacement Design. Volume 3. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    ICEBREAKER REPLACEMENT (drawings dated 5/12/1987) 3 Compartment: 1-319-0-LP PASSAGE USE: LP Passageways AREA: 347 sq.ft. DECK HEIGHT: 13.0 ft. VOLUME...DECK LEVEL) Barrijers Mat D"H Area- Tbar Dbar %heat (Adjoining Compts ID and Name) ID sq.ft. rel I2-162-0-TU UPTAKE 2 weJ 0 144.0 s0 100 5 2-162-1-TS

  1. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  3. Wild Fire Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... small fires before emergency responders arrive. Ë Select building materials and plants that resist fire. Ë Regularly clean ... and dust. Ë Listen and watch for air quality reports and health warnings about smoke. Ë Keep ...

  4. Fire Safety Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Planning and prevention is the best defense against fires in school. This is particularly true in the science laboratory due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids, combustibles, and other potential sources of fire. Teachers can prevent fires from starting by maintaining prudent lab practices when dealing with combustible and flammable…

  5. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About ...

  6. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  7. Demonstration of Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2012-01-01

    During the Constellation Program, the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies were focused on the immediate questions related to the atmosphere of the habitable volume and implementation of fire detection, suppression, and postfire clean-up systems into the vehicle architectures. One of the difficulties encountered during the trade studies for these systems was the frequent lack of data regarding the performance of a technology, such as a water mist fire suppression system or an optically-based combustion product monitor. Even though a spacecraft fire safety technology development project was being funded, there was insufficient time and funding to address all the issues as they were identified. At the conclusion of the Constellation Program, these knowledge gaps formed the basis for a project proposed to the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. This project, subsequently funded by the AES Program and in operation since October 2011, has as its cornerstone the development of an experiment to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the European Space Agency (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Science s Cygnus vehicle after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. The technology development efforts being conducted in this project include continued quantification of low- and partial-gravity maximum oxygen concentrations of spacecraft-relevant materials, development and verification of sensors for fire detection and post-fire monitoring, development of standards for sizing and selecting spacecraft fire suppression systems, and demonstration of post-fire cleanup strategies. The major technology development efforts are identified in this paper but its primary purpose is to describe the spacecraft fire safety demonstration being planned for the reentry vehicle.

  8. Fire fighting aboard ships. Volume 2: Structural design and fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavitskiy, M.G.; Kortunov, M.F.; Sidoryuk, V.M.; Vostryakov, V.I.; Martynenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains recommendations for the prevention, detection, and suppression of fires on ships. It suggests practical measures for decreasing the risk of fire during preparatory work, construction, and repair of ships. Information is in accordance with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention on Life Safety at Sea, the rules of the USSR Registry, and the resolutions of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. This book analyzes recent international and national standards for fire protection of ships, and reviews the future trends of the international fire protection standards. It also includes the results of research on ship-building materials, fire-resistant and fire-retardant assemblies, and fire-suppression means.

  9. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans..., including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling systems. The proposed amendments would help.... Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN57--Updating Fire...

  10. 76 FR 10246 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans... for VA approval of such facilities, including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling.... Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN57--Updating Fire...

  11. Risk-based Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolakis, G.; Catton, I.; Issacci, F.; Paulos, T.; Jones, S.; Paxton, K.; Paul, M.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on risk-based spacecraft fire safety experiments are presented. Spacecraft fire risk can never be reduced to a zero probability. Probabilistic risk assessment is a tool to reduce risk to an acceptable level.

  12. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  13. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-12-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  14. Fight Fire with These Safety Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides expert guidelines on ways to keep schools and children safe from building fires, such as maintenance of exits for easy egress in emergencies, maintaining fire-protection systems, and utilizing evacuation planning and drilling. Highlights fire-safety ideas as part of school-building and renovation projects. (GR)

  15. 76 FR 70885 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... automatic sprinkler requirement of the 2009 edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101..., Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers; NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities; NFPA 101,...

  16. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  17. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  18. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  19. Fire safety of acoustical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Klaus

    2005-09-01

    Recent deadly fires in overcrowded nightclubs used open cell foam material for sound absorption. The rapid progression of fire and release of opaque smoke contributed to the inability of some of the patrons to escape the fire. Suggestions for limiting the use of such materials in places of assembly are provided. Illogical use of such sound-absorbing materials to reduce sound transmission to adjoining spaces or outdoors are discussed.

  20. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  1. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant know how about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  2. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the first of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  3. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  4. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  5. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a..., 1999, materials introduced in a passenger car or a locomotive cab, as part of any kind of rebuild, refurbishment, or overhaul of the car or cab, shall meet the test performance criteria for flammability...

  6. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a..., 1999, materials introduced in a passenger car or a locomotive cab, as part of any kind of rebuild, refurbishment, or overhaul of the car or cab, shall meet the test performance criteria for flammability...

  7. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a..., 1999, materials introduced in a passenger car or a locomotive cab, as part of any kind of rebuild, refurbishment, or overhaul of the car or cab, shall meet the test performance criteria for flammability...

  8. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a..., 1999, materials introduced in a passenger car or a locomotive cab, as part of any kind of rebuild, refurbishment, or overhaul of the car or cab, shall meet the test performance criteria for flammability...

  9. Fire Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Fire Safety at Home English (Arabic) السلامة ...

  10. Many Ignore Fire Safety at Home, Survey Reveals

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162699.html Many Ignore Fire Safety at Home, Survey Reveals Holiday activities can ... dangerous time of year, but many families ignore fire and burn safety tips, a new survey finds. ...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.502 - Fire safety plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire safety plan. 1915.502 Section 1915.502 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.502 Fire safety plan. (a) Employer responsibilities. The employer must develop...

  12. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  13. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  14. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  15. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  16. 36 CFR 910.37 - Fire and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire and life safety. 910.37... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.37 Fire and life safety. As a... recommended that all new development be guided by standards of the NFPA Codes for fire and life safety...

  17. 36 CFR 910.37 - Fire and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire and life safety. 910.37... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.37 Fire and life safety. As a... recommended that all new development be guided by standards of the NFPA Codes for fire and life safety...

  18. 36 CFR 910.37 - Fire and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire and life safety. 910.37... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.37 Fire and life safety. As a... recommended that all new development be guided by standards of the NFPA Codes for fire and life safety...

  19. 36 CFR 910.37 - Fire and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire and life safety. 910.37... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.37 Fire and life safety. As a... recommended that all new development be guided by standards of the NFPA Codes for fire and life safety...

  20. 36 CFR 910.37 - Fire and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fire and life safety. 910.37... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.37 Fire and life safety. As a... recommended that all new development be guided by standards of the NFPA Codes for fire and life safety...

  1. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  3. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    floors leading to sumps should be provided so submersible pumps can be used to remove accumulated water. Where floor drains penetrate EMP protection...ALARM CONTROL SYSTEM 14 2.5 FIRE SUPPRESSION 15 2.6 FIRE PUMPS , FIRE MAINS AND WATER SUPPLIES 23 2.7...supports for fire pumps , fire mains, sprinklers, smoke exhaust ducts and so on need to be coordinated with a structural dynamics engineer. This is

  4. The three Rs of fire safety, emergency action, and fire prevention planning: promoting safety at the worksite.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella R

    2003-04-01

    Fire safety is of paramount importance for everyone. In many workplaces, the occupational health nurse's scope of practice encompasses safety related activities. Included within this role is the responsibility for fire safety, emergency action, and fire prevention planning. The Three Rs of fire safety, emergency action, and fire prevention plans are rules, responsibilities, and resources. Myriad building and fire safety codes, regulations, and standards exist with which an employer must comply. An employer's responsibility for installing, testing, inspecting, and maintaining fire safety related equipment is extensive. Emergency action and fire prevention planning begins with conducting a detailed physical survey and preparing site maps. It includes making key policy decisions, writing procedures, and training employees in those procedures by practicing and executing site drills. The best resources available for emergency planning are the local fire department and the property insurer. Planning ahead means an efficient emergency response if disaster strikes. It saves lives, limits property damage, and preserves the environment.

  5. Charged Up for Fire Safety. Fifth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the fifth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of fifth grade students, its objectives include: (1) exploring heating equipment safety, (2) analyzing the impact of fire on the outdoor environment and methods to reduce that impact, (3) developing…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  7. Fire safety: A case study of technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    Two basic ways in which NASA-generated technology is being used by the fire safety community are described. First, improved products and systems that embody NASA technical advances are entering the marketplace. Second, NASA test data and technical information related to fire safety are being used by persons concerned with reducing the hazards of fire through improved design information and standards. The development of commercial fire safety products and systems typically requires adaptation and integration of aerospace technologies that may not have been originated for NASA fire safety applications.

  8. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire...

  9. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire...

  10. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire...

  11. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire...

  12. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire...

  13. School Fires. Topical Fire Research Series. Volume 8, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Using the past 3 years of data, for 2003 to 2005, from the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) database, the yearly national fire loss for fires on nonadult school properties is estimated at $85 million. Such losses are the result of an estimated annual average of 14,700 fires that required a fire department response. Fires on school…

  14. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  15. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  16. Responsible for Fire Safety. Seventh Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the seventh grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of seventh grade students, its objectives include: (1) practicing responsible decision-making regarding fire and burn hazards, including peer pressure related to fire risks; and (2) practicing…

  17. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  18. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with applicable State or local fire and safety laws. (b) In family housing and...

  19. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with applicable State or local fire and safety laws. (b) In family housing and...

  20. Thermal radiation from LNG trench fires. Volume 2. Data. Final report, September 1982-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhouse, J.; Croce, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    The current federal regulations for LNG facilities require a thermal radiation exclusion zone for public safety around spill-impoundment systems. The size of this zone is determined by applying a thermal-radiation model that was developed for large circular or near-circular pool fires. Since trench (elongated pool) fires behave differently from circular pool fires, an experimental test program was conducted to monitor the fire behavior and thermal radiation from large-scale LNG trench fires. This volume presents all of the data obtained from the trench fire experiments. Details of each experiment, the various types of instrumentation employed, their method of calibration, and data analysis techniques are described in Volume I of this report, along with a discussion of project results, including a new trench fire radiation model.

  1. Updating fire safety standards. Final rule; affirmation.

    PubMed

    2011-11-16

    This document affirms as final, without changes, a provision included in a final rule with request for comments that amended the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulations concerning community residential care facilities, contract facilities for certain outpatient and residential services, and State home facilities. That provision established a five-year period within which all covered buildings with nursing home facilities existing as of June 25, 2001, must conform to the automatic sprinkler requirement of the 2009 edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101. This rule helps ensure the safety of veterans in the affected facilities.

  2. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  3. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  4. Fire Safety Power. Sixth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the sixth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of sixth grade students, its objectives include: (1) developing a comprehensive understanding of fire physics, (2) evaluating electrical hazards and how to respond to those hazards, and (3)…

  5. Risks, designs, and research for fire safety in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Urban, David

    1991-01-01

    Current fire protection for spacecraft relies mainly on fire prevention through the use of nonflammable materials and strict storage controls of other materials. The Shuttle also has smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, using technology similar to aircraft practices. While experience has shown that the current fire protection is adequate, future improvements in fire safety technology to meet the challenges of long duration space missions, such as the Space Station Freedom, are essential. All spacecraft fire protection systems, however, must deal with the unusual combustion characteristics and operational problems in the low gravity environment. The features of low gravity combustion that affect spacecraft fire safety, and the issues in fire protection for Freedom that must be addressed eventually to provide effective and conservative fire protection systems are discussed.

  6. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  7. Systematic control of nonmetallic materials for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The elements of a systematic fire safety program are summarized and consist of fire safety criteria, design considerations, testing of materials, development of nonmetallic materials, nonmetallic materials information systems, design reviews, and change control. The system described in this report was developed for the Apollo spacecraft. The system can, however, be tailored to many industrial, commercial, and military activities.

  8. Quantitative assessment of building fire risk to life safety.

    PubMed

    Guanquan, Chu; Jinhua, Sun

    2008-06-01

    This article presents a quantitative risk assessment framework for evaluating fire risk to life safety. Fire risk is divided into two parts: probability and corresponding consequence of every fire scenario. The time-dependent event tree technique is used to analyze probable fire scenarios based on the effect of fire protection systems on fire spread and smoke movement. To obtain the variation of occurrence probability with time, Markov chain is combined with a time-dependent event tree for stochastic analysis on the occurrence probability of fire scenarios. To obtain consequences of every fire scenario, some uncertainties are considered in the risk analysis process. When calculating the onset time to untenable conditions, a range of fires are designed based on different fire growth rates, after which uncertainty of onset time to untenable conditions can be characterized by probability distribution. When calculating occupant evacuation time, occupant premovement time is considered as a probability distribution. Consequences of a fire scenario can be evaluated according to probability distribution of evacuation time and onset time of untenable conditions. Then, fire risk to life safety can be evaluated based on occurrence probability and consequences of every fire scenario. To express the risk assessment method in detail, a commercial building is presented as a case study. A discussion compares the assessment result of the case study with fire statistics.

  9. Spacecraft Fire Safety: A Human Space Flight Program Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the International Space Station's fire safety program from a human space flight perspective. The topics include: 1) Typical Manned Spacecraft Materials; 2) Typical Flammable Hardware Protection; 3) Materials Flammability; 4) Fire Retardants; 5) Nonflammable Foam Cushion Material; 6) Electrical Wire and Cable; 7) Russian Solid-Fuel Oxygen Generator (SFOG); 8) GOX Ignition Mechanisms; 9) Fire Detection; and 10) Fire Suppression.

  10. Demonstration Experiments to Advance Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Dietrich, D.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety technologies developed during the implementation of NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) highlighted the need for a range of normal-gravity and low-gravity technology demonstration experiments. Terrestrial fire safety technologies have relied heavily on both bench-scale and full-scale experiments and have included extensive study of the ignitability of materials and fire behavior, quantification of fire signatures, fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire fighter protection equipment. Full-scale tests of these technologies in terrestrial fire-fighting applications are frequently performed to demonstrate their performance and give first-responders hands-on experience in their use. However, experiments conducted to aid the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies have generally been performed at length and time scales that make extrapolation of the results to full scale unreliable. Extrapolation of the results of the relatively few spacecraft fire safety experiments conducted in long- term low-gravity to spacecraft-relevant length and time scales is problematic. In general, the results cannot be verified in ground-based low-g facilities and remains a challenging problem for current numerical simulations. This paper will highlight low-g and ground-based experiments and demonstrations that are being conducted and planned to provide relevant spacecraft fire safety data.

  11. Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

  12. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  13. Science and technology issues in spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1987-01-01

    The space station, a permanently-inhabited orbiting laboratory, places new demands on spacecraft fire safety. Long-duration missions may call for more-constrained fire controls, but the accessibility of the space station to a variety of users may call for less-restrictive measures. This paper discusses fire safety issues through a review of the state of the art and a presentation of key findings from a recent NASA Lewis Research Center Workshop. The subjects covered are the fundamental science of low-gravity combustion and the technology advances in fire detection, extinguishment, materials assessment, and atmosphere selection. Key concerns are for the adoption of a fire-safe atmosphere and the substitution for the effective but toxic extinguishant, halon 1301. The fire safety studies and reviews provide several recommendations for further action. One is the expanded research in combustion, sensors, and materials in the low-gravity environment of space. Another is the development of generalized fire-safety standards for spacecraft through cooperative endeavors with aerospace and outside Government and industry sources.

  14. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  15. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section 654.417 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and...

  16. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  17. OPERATION CASTLE. Radiological Safety. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    has •’ ’. /,V been detetmined to be critical military information which could reveal system te^jp-^ - or equipment vulnerabilities and is...V-V Part 11a - Radiologteal Safety • 1. Discussion A temporary washdovn system consisting of hoses and special no’zles connected to the fire...main system , like that used in IVY, was installed by a ’iuShios representative on all manned ships engaged in CASTLE, with the exception of the USS

  18. Railroad safety program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Since 1981, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has annually prepared a National Inspection Plan (NIP) whose purpose is to summarize regional efforts to improve railroad transportation safety. The research concluded on the following tasks including the problems, conclusions and recommendations associated with these tasks is summarized: (1) the preparation of the 1983 NIP, with recommended procedures for improving future NIPs; (2) the development of an outline for the 1984 NIP, including a methodology for the allocation of inspection resources and other specialized regional activities; (3) the management and development of the 1984 NIP; and (4) the development of an instruction manual to be used in the preparation of future NIPs.

  19. Findings of a review of spacecraft fire safety needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Catton, I.; Paulos, T.; Paxton, K.; Jones, S.

    1992-07-01

    Discussions from a workshop to guide UCLA and NASA investigators on the state of knowledge and perceived needs in spacecraft fire safety and its risk management are reviewed, for an introduction to an analytical and experimental project in this field. The report summarizes the workshop discussions and includes the visual aids used in the presentations. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods, which are currently not used, would be of great value to the designs and operation of future human-crew spacecraft. Key points in the discussions were the importance of understanding and testing smoldering as a likely fire scenario in space and the need for smoke damage modeling, since many fire-risk models ignore this mechanism and consider only heat damage.

  20. Findings of a review of spacecraft fire safety needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Catton, I.; Paulos, T.; Paxton, K.; Jones, S.

    1992-01-01

    Discussions from a workshop to guide UCLA and NASA investigators on the state of knowledge and perceived needs in spacecraft fire safety and its risk management are reviewed, for an introduction to an analytical and experimental project in this field. The report summarizes the workshop discussions and includes the visual aids used in the presentations. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods, which are currently not used, would be of great value to the designs and operation of future human-crew spacecraft. Key points in the discussions were the importance of understanding and testing smoldering as a likely fire scenario in space and the need for smoke damage modeling, since many fire-risk models ignore this mechanism and consider only heat damage.

  1. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  2. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  3. Technology Development for Fire Safety in Exploration Spacecraft and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Fire during an exploration mission far from Earth is a particularly critical risk for exploration vehicles and habitats. The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and has the goal to enhance crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the mission, crew, or system. Within the past year, the FPDS project has been formalized within the ETDP structure and has seen significant progress on its tasks in fire prevention, detection, and suppression. As requirements for Constellation vehicles and, specifically, the CEV have developed, the need for the FPDS technologies has become more apparent and we continue to make strides to infuse them into the Constellation architecture. This paper describes the current structure of the project within the ETDP and summarizes the significant programmatic activities. Major technical accomplishments are identified as are activities planned for FY07.

  4. Technology Development for Fire Safety in Exploration Spacecraft and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Fire during an exploration mission far from Earth is a particularly critical risk for exploration vehicles and habitats. The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and has the goal to enhance crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the mission, crew, or system. Within the past year, the FPDS project has been formalized within the ETDP structure and has seen significant progress on its tasks in fire prevention, detection, and suppression. As requirements for Constellation vehicles and, specifically, the CEV have developed, the need for the FPDS technologies has become more apparent and we continue to make strides to infuse them into the Constellation architecture. This paper describes the current structure of the project within the ETDP and summarizes the significant programmatic activities. Major technical accomplishments are identified as are activities planned for FY07.

  5. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde

    2013-01-01

    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is under development to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. Future crewed missions are expected to be more complex and longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this gap in knowledge, a project has been established under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program under the Human Exploration and Operations Mission directorate with the goal of substantially advancing our understanding of the spacecraft fire safety risk. Associated with the project is an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The experiments are under development to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development. The status of the overall experiment and the associated international technology development efforts are summarized.

  6. Program for developing and implementing a new approach to designing for fire safety in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The traditional method of providing for fire safety in buildings through reliance on codes and standards that prescribe specific measures to be taken in the design and construction of buildings to minimize the potential for a fire occurring and to protect property and life should a fire occur was evaluated. A new approach to designing for fire safety in buildings is outlined.

  7. Fire Suppression by Halon 2402, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    samples were taken of the fire products during extinguishment of each test fire. A 4-inch stainless steel tube, supported by a steel frame (Figure 19...4J1 Ie w .5. 600 41 :004 X:I-) r 4) afa ccm to C-4 IV u 11- gg x .1 X >- C- C en EU0 44- 󈧭 La Ch Cl 00 S L- a o. S.. 41 0EU 4J) C _) M Ln r- 61...inch stainless steel pan 0.375 inch deep was used. The area of this cup was 8 in.2 . Each test began with 8 mL of fuel measured into a 5-liter glass

  8. Research Needs in Fire Safety for the Human Exploration and Utilization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on developments in spacecraft fire safety research. The presentation includes an overview of the previous Spacecraft Fire Safety Workshop, from 1986, and the influences since then of bioastronautics on combustion science and fire safety. The presentation then gives of overview of the current conference, stating goals and giving a schedule.

  9. 78 FR 17140 - Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1634 Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments... a meeting on upholstered furniture fire safety technologies. The meeting will be held at the CPSC's... titled, ``Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Technology Meeting.'' You may submit written...

  10. Fire Safety: Stop the Heat. Fourth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the fourth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of fourth grade students, its objectives include: (1) understanding principles of extinguishing fires, (2) investigating issues of peer pressure related to fire setting, (3) developing…

  11. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  12. Positively Fire Safe. Third Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the third grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of third grade students, its objectives include: (1) acquiring basic knowledge of hazards and safe storage of flammable liquids; and (2) developing positive actions to prevent fires and burns or to…

  13. Characteristics of sprinklers and water spray mists for fire safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Louise A.; Lavelle, Stephen P.; Nolan, P. F.

    1991-04-01

    In order to predict the type of sprinkler or spray head required for fire safety in buildings and transport systems (e.g. aircraft) it is necessary to model the interaction of water droplets with the thermally buoyant fire gases. Such modelling requires a detailed knowledge of the mean droplet size, the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity and trajectory. Many existing systems for the characterisation of droplets are indirect in that an optical property is measured and the results are subject to "black box" data processing. A direct method can be developed using a synchronised metal vapour laser and high speed cine camera with appropriate optics. Results on both sprinkler and spray mist will be presented and a basis for the choice of active fire protection systems will be outlined.

  14. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  15. Fire safety in space - beyond flammability testing of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Niehaus, Justin; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Legros, Guillaume; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; T`ien, James S.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2015-04-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.

  16. Engineering and Development Program Plan, Aircraft Cabin Fire Safety.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    tolerance limits to be established by planned research (section 2.3.2.2.1) to calculate the hazard. Another approach which may prove to be impractical or... limits ). Once the nature of the problem is reasonably well understood, three approaches are available for improving fire safety: (1) management of...Combined Hazard Index or CHIi). e. Determine escape impairment limits for major irritant gaseous combustion products and develop a "$state-of-the-art

  17. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  19. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety 1956 to 1999: An Annotated Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of fire safety in spacecraft has resulted from over 50 years of investigation and experience in space flight. Current practices and procedures for the operation of the Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed from this expertise, much of which has been documented in various reports. Extending manned space exploration from low Earth orbit to lunar or Martian habitats and beyond will require continued research in microgravity combustion and fire protection in low gravity. This descriptive bibliography has been produced to document and summarize significant work in the area of spacecraft fire safety that was published between 1956 and July 1999. Although some important work published in the late 1990s may be missing, these citations as well as work since 2000 can generally be found in Web-based resources that are easily accessed and searched. In addition to the citation, each reference includes a short description of the contents and conclusions of the article. The bibliography contains over 800 citations that are cross-referenced both by topic and the authors and editors. There is a DVD that accompanies this bibliography (available by request from the Center for Aerospace Information) containing the full-text articles of selected citations as well as an electronic version of this report that has these citations as active links to their corresponding full-text article.

  1. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  2. An organizational process for promoting home fire safety in two community settings.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; Twyman, Stephanie; Fahey, Erin; Coty, Mary-Beth; Williams, Joe; Scrivener, Drane; Wishnia, Gracie; Myers, John

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the home fire safety quality improvement model designed to aid organizations in achieving institutional program goals. The home fire safety model was developed from community-based participatory research (CBPR) applying training-the-trainer methods and is illustrated by an institutional case study. The model is applicable to other types of organizations to improve home fire safety in vulnerable populations. Utilizing the education model leaves trained employees with guided experience to build upon, adapt, and modify the home fire safety intervention to more effectively serve their clientele, promote safety, and meet organizational objectives.

  3. A composite system approach to aircraft cabin fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Lerner, N. R.; Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of one of the baremaleimide composites are detailed.

  4. Safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty.

    PubMed

    Giese, S Y

    2001-11-01

    Proper patient selection, diligent fluid management, and attention to body temperature are important safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty (LVL). Complications related to fluid overload, lidocaine toxicity, coagulopathies, and lengthy combined surgical procedures are preventable and not directly linked to LVL technique. Benefits as well as morbidity and mortality from LVL can be weighed against risk factors such as obesity, a prediabetic condition, and/or adverse effects of weight-loss medications. The author describes how she incorporates safeguards into her LVL procedures. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:545-548.).

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) A Appendix A to Subpart P to Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard...

  6. Vocabulary of aerospace safety terms pertaining to cryogenic safety, fires, explosions, and structure failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.; Mandel, G.; Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    This vocabulary listing characterizes the contents of over 10,000 documents of the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute's (ASRDI) safety engineering collection. The ASRDI collection is now one of the series accessible on the NASA RECON data base. There are approximately 6,300 postable terms that describe literature in the areas of cryogenic fluid safety, specifically hydrogen, oxygen, liquified natural gas; fire and explosion technology; and the mechanics of structural failure. To facilitate the proper selection of information nonpostable, related and array terms have been included in this listing.

  7. Comparing the performance of residential fire sprinklers with other life-safety technologies.

    PubMed

    Butry, David T

    2012-09-01

    Residential fire sprinklers have long proven themselves as life-safety technologies to the fire service community. Yet, about 1% of all one- and two-family dwelling fires occur in homes protected by sprinklers. It has been argued that measured sprinkler performance has ignored factors confounding the relationship between sprinkler use and performance. In this analysis, sprinkler performance is measured by comparing 'like' structure fires, while conditioning on smoke detection technology and neighborhood housing and socioeconomic conditions, using propensity score matching. Results show that residential fire sprinklers protect occupant and firefighter health and safety, and are comparable to other life-safety technologies.

  8. Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    BENDIXSEN, R.B.

    2001-09-19

    The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety

  9. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 6: Codes and Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 6 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred safety practices) concentrates on codes and laws. The purpose and specific objectives of the Codes and Laws Program, Federal authority in the area of highway safety, and policies regarding traffic regulation are described.…

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  14. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) A Appendix A to Subpart P to Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. P, App. A Appendix A to Subpart P to Part...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) A Appendix A to Subpart P to Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. P, App. A Appendix A to Subpart P to Part...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) A Appendix A to Subpart P of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. P, App. A Appendix A to Subpart P of Part...

  18. Using Modeling and Rehearsal to Teach Fire Safety to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David; Dukes, Charles; Brady, Michael P.; Scott, Jack; Wilson, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an instructional procedure to teach young children with autism to evacuate settings and notify an adult during a fire alarm. A multiple baseline design across children showed that an intervention that included modeling, rehearsal, and praise was effective in teaching fire safety skills. Safety skills generalized to…

  19. A User's Guide for the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    The Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF) is a test facility that can be flown on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft to perform various types of combustion experiments under a variety of experimental conditions. To date, this facility has flown numerous times on the aircraft and has been used to perform experiments ranging from an examination of the effects transient depressurization on combustion, to ignition and flame spread. A list of pubfications/presentations based on experiments performed in the SFSF is included in the reference section. This facility consists of five main subsystems: combustion chamber, sample holders, gas flow system, imaging system, and the data acquisition/control system. Each of these subsystems will be reviewed in more detail. These subsystems provide the experiment operator with the ability to monitor and/or control numerous experimental parameters.

  20. Overview of NASA's microgravity combustion science and fire safety program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.

    1993-01-01

    The study of fundamental combustion processes in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. A few simple, precursor experiments were conducted in the early 1970's. Today the advent of the U.S. space shuttle and the anticipation of the Space Station Freedom provide for scientists and engineers a special opportunity -- in the form of long duration microgravity laboratories -- and need -- in the form of spacecraft fire safety and a variety of terrestrial applications -- to pursue fresh insight into the basic physics of combustion. Through microgravity, a new range of experiments can be performed since: (1) Buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated; (2) Normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated; (3) Gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated; and (4) Larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible.

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  5. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  6. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  7. Fire and worker health and safety: an introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles

    2015-02-01

    One century ago, the landmark fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City claimed the lives of 146 garment workers and helped spur the adoption of fire safety measures and laws targeting dangerous working conditions. Since that time, continuing advances have been made to address the threat of fire-in workplace fire safety practices and regulations, in training and safety requirements for firefighters and first responders, and in hazard communication laws that enhance disaster planning and response. Recent high profile events, including the West, Texas fertilizer plant explosion, derailments of fuel cargo trains, and garment factory fires in Bangladesh, have brought renewed attention to fire as a workplace health and safety issue and to the unevenness of safety standards and regulatory enforcement, in the United States as well as internationally. In this article, we provide an overview of fire as a workplace health and safety hazard and an introduction to the essays included in this special issue of New Solutions on fire and work.

  8. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 4: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of this study considered the first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (10C) during the early 1990's. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris.

  9. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  10. Space station crew safety alternatives study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris.

  11. Fire Safety in the Low-Gravity Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Research in microgravity (low-gravity) combustion promises innovations and improvements in fire prevention and response for human-crew spacecraft. Findings indicate that material flammability and fire spread in microgravity are significantly affected by atmospheric flow rate, oxygen concentration, and diluent composition. This information can lead to modifications and correlations to standard material-assessment tests for prediction of fire resistance in space. Research on smoke-particle changes in microgravity promises future improvements and increased sensitivity of smoke detectors in spacecraft. Research on fire suppression by extinguishing agents and venting can yield new information on effective control of the rare, but serious fire events in spacecraft.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of fire safety education programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Diekman, Shane T; Stewart, Tamara A; Teh, S Leesia; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    This article presents a qualitative evaluation of six fire safety education programs for older adults delivered by public fire educators. Our main aims were to explore how these programs are implemented and to determine important factors that may lead to program success, from the perspectives of the public fire educators and the older adults. For each program, we interviewed the public fire educator(s), observed the program in action, and conducted focus groups with older adults attending the program. Analysis revealed three factors that were believed to facilitate program success (established relationships with the older adult community, rapport with older adult audiences, and presentation relevance) as well as three challenges (lack of a standardized curriculum and program implementation strategies, attendance difficulties, and physical limitations due to age). More fire safety education should be developed for older adult populations. For successful programs, public fire educators should address the specific needs of their local older adult community.

  13. OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 2: Safety and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, C.G.; Baker, M.J.; Labeyrie, J.; Lacasse, S.; Pittaluga, A.

    1993-01-01

    This conference proceedings represents volume 2 of a four-part series on offshore facilities and engineering. It contains papers dealing with probabilistic modeling of the environment, probabilistic response modeling, fatigue reliability, and on general reliability of offshore structures and risk assessment. Several papers deal with fire and pollution risks while the rest deal with mechanical problems caused by wave and other dynamic forces.

  14. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  15. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of...

  17. Safety. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-2-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on safety is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist firefighters in understanding the hazards of their profession and some methods of reducing…

  18. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  19. Using modeling and rehearsal to teach fire safety to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David; Dukes, Charles; Brady, Michael P; Scott, Jack; Wilson, Cynthia L

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an instructional procedure to teach young children with autism to evacuate settings and notify an adult during a fire alarm. A multiple baseline design across children showed that an intervention that included modeling, rehearsal, and praise was effective in teaching fire safety skills. Safety skills generalized to novel settings and maintained during a 5-week follow-up in both training and generalization settings.

  20. Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.

  1. Orbiting propellant depot safety. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendices to support the findings of the Orbiting Propellant Depot Safety study are presented. The subjects discussed are ullage control subsystems, evaluation of methods, propellant transfer, and baseline subsystem selection.

  2. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  3. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  4. Wildland fire management. Volume 2: Wildland fire control 1985-1995. [satellite information system for California fire problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saveker, D. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary design of a satellite plus computer earth resources information system is proposed for potential uses in fire prevention and control in the wildland fire community. Suggested are satellite characteristics, sensor characteristics, discrimination algorithms, data communication techniques, data processing requirements, display characteristics, and costs in achieving the integrated wildland fire information system.

  5. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  6. Evaluated community fire safety interventions in the United States: a review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Ta, Van M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bergen, Gwendolyn; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the state of fire prevention research, provide an updated synthesis of evaluated fire prevention programs, and discuss the role of fire fighters and data systems in prevention efforts. The review included all evaluations of U.S. based fire prevention interventions published between January 1998 and September 2004 and any earlier articles about U.S. fire prevention interventions not included in two prior review articles. We retrieved information from each identified study including evaluation findings, involvement of fire service personnel and use of existing data systems. We identified twelve articles: seven reported on smoke alarm interventions, three on multi-faceted programs, and two other programs. Five programs involved fire service personnel in the design, implementation, and/or evaluation, and three used existing data systems. Studies reviewed suggest that canvassing and smoke alarm installations are the most effective means of distributing alarms and increasing the functional status of distributed alarms. The functionality of smoke alarms, an issue noted in earlier reviews, remains a problem. Programs involving partnerships with fire departments have indicated success in preventing fires and deaths, improving smoke alarm ownership and functional status, and improving children's fire safety knowledge. Using existing data systems to target and to evaluate interventions was effective. In the years since prior reviews, some improvements in the rigor of evaluation designs have been made, but there is still a need for high quality evaluations that will inform fire injury prevention efforts.

  7. "Fishing for Burn Prevention": a novel approach to burn and fire safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, R C; Hansen, S L; Voigt, D W; Paul, C N

    1999-01-01

    "Fishing for Burn Prevention" is an interactive educational burn and fire safety program designed to stimulate family involvement at health fairs, and it provides an alternative to handing out safety information. The program attracts preschoolers through preteens and is staffed by burn center personnel. The design consists of a small pool, a wooden fishing rod, several cutout fish, and hook-and-loop fasteners. Words that will stimulate interaction between the presenter and the participant are written on the fish; these can include "smoke detector," "cool the burn," "fire escape plan," "matches," "grease fire," and "120 degrees F." Providing an interactive, hands-on activity at health fairs can increase burn and fire safety awareness for the entire family.

  8. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) B Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. B Appendix B to Part 1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) 1. General. This Appendix B contains information on the Fire-safety Detection...

  9. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) B Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. B Appendix B to Part 1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) 1. General. This Appendix B contains information on the Fire-safety Detection...

  10. Chemical Safety Alert: Fire Hazard from Carbon Adsorption Deodorizing Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activated carbon systems used to adsorb vapors for odor control may pose a fire hazard when used for certain types of substances, such as crude sulfate turpentine. Facilities should take precautions and proper procedures to avoid or mitigate these hazards.

  11. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  12. Use of automatic door closers improves fire safety.

    PubMed

    Waterman, T E

    1979-01-01

    In a series of 16 full-scale fire tests, investigators at the IIT Research Institute have concluded that automatic door control in the room of fire origin can significantly reduce the spread of toxic smoke and gases. The researchers also investigated the effects of sprinkler actuation, and the functional relationship between sprinklers and automatic door closers. This report presents the results of the study, and presents recommendations for health-care facilities.

  13. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  14. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  15. [Considering the current state of fire safety in Taiwan's care environment from the perspective of the nation's worst recent hospital fire].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Wen; Shih, Chung-Liang; Chien, Shen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan's worst hospital fire in history on October 23rd, 2012 at Sinying Hospital's Bei-Men Branch resulted in 13 elderly patient deaths and over 70 injuries. The heavy casualties were due in part to the serious condition of patients. Some patients on life-support machines were unable to move or be moved. This disaster highlights the issue of fire safety in small-scale hospitals that have transformed existing hospital space into special care environments for elderly patients. Compared with medical centers and general hospitals, these small-scale health facilities are ill equipped to deal properly with fire safety management and emergency response issues due to inadequate fire protection facilities, fire safety equipment, and human resources. Small-scale facilities that offer health care and medical services to mostly immobile patients face fire risks that differ significantly from general health care facilities. This paper focuses on fire risks in small-scale facilities and suggests a strategy for fire prevention and emergency response procedures, including countermeasures for fire risk assessment, management, and emergency response, in order to improve fire safety at these institutions in Taiwan.

  16. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  17. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  18. Position Paper: The Feasibility of Lowering Oxygen Concentrations Aboard Submarines in Order to Improve Fire Safety.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    TO Interim report ITROVE FIRE SAFETY" 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBERNSMRL emo Report 84-5 7. AUTHOR(#) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) D. R. KNIGHT...CAPT, MC, USN 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKNaval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory AREA & WORK... performance ; humans 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeary and Identify by block rnmber) Nitrogen serves as a retardant of fires by diluting the

  19. Passive fire protection--a vital safety role.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Callum; Rankin, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Callum Maclnnes BSc (Hons), AIFireE, an engineer at WSP UK--part of a global design engineering and management consultancy group specialising in property, transport and infrastructure, industry and environment projects--and his colleague, senior engineer, Richard Rankin CEng MEng (Hons) MIFireE, discuss the importance of passive fire protection in healthcare premises at a time when, due particularly to the difficult financial climate, many hospitals are undergoing upgrading and refurbishment, potentially affording an ideal opportunity to ensure that proper fire compartmentation measures are in place.

  20. Establishing fire safety skills using behavioral skills training.

    PubMed

    Houvouras, Andrew J; Harvey, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area, and (c) report the lighter to an adult. The response sequence was maintained for both participants after training. The use of in situ assessment to evoke and observe infrequent behavior is discussed.

  1. Halogenated flame retardants: do the fire safety benefits justify the risks?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Blum, Arlene; Weber, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rich, David; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P; Dobraca, Dina; Hanson, Sarah; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s, an increasing number of regulations have expanded the use of brominated and chlorinated flame retardants. Many of these chemicals are now recognized as global contaminants and are associated with adverse health effects in animals and humans, including endocrine and thyroid disruption, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, cancer, and adverse effects on fetal and child development and neurologic function. Some flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been banned or voluntarily phased out by manufacturers because of their environmental persistence and toxicity, only to be replaced by other organohalogens of unknown toxicity. Despite restrictions on further production in some countries, consumer products previously treated with banned retardants are still in use and continue to release toxic chemicals into the environment, and the worldwide use of organohalogen retardants continues to increase. This paper examines major uses and known toxic effects of commonly-used organohalogen flame retardants, replacements for those that have been phased out, their combustion by-products, and their effectiveness at reducing fire hazard. Policy and other solutions to maintain fire safety while reducing toxicity are suggested. The major conclusions are: (1) Flammability regulations can cause greater adverse environmental and health impacts than fire safety benefits. (2) The current options for end-of-life disposal of products treated with organohalogens retardants are problematic. (3) Life-cycle analyses evaluating benefits and risks should consider the health and environmental effects of the chemicals, as well as their fire safety impacts. (4) Most fire deaths and most fire injuries result from inhaling carbon monoxide, irritant gases, and soot. The incorporation of organohalogens can increase the yield of these toxic by-products during combustion. (5) Fire-safe cigarettes, fire-safe candles, child-resistant lighters, sprinklers, and

  2. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the

  3. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  4. Spacecraft fire-safety experiments for space station: Technology development mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.

    1988-01-01

    Three concept designs for low-gravity, fire-safety related experiments are presented, as selected for the purpose of addressing key issues of enhancing safety and yet encouraging access to long-duration, manned spacecraft such as the NASA space station. The selected low-gravity experiments are the following: (1) an investigation of the flame-spread rate and combustion-product evolution of the burning of typical thicknesses of spacecraft materials in very low-speed flows; (2) an evaluation of the interaction of fires and candidate extinguishers in various fire scenarios; and (3) an investigation of the persistence and propagation of smoldering and deep-seated combustion. Each experiment is expected to provide fundamental combustion-science data, as well as the fire-safety applications, and each requires the unique long-duration, low-gravity environment of the space station. Two generic test facilities, i.e., the Combustion Tunnel Facility and the Combustion Facility, are proposed for space station accommodation to support the selected experiments. In addition, three near-term, fire-safety related experiments are described along with other related precursor activities.

  5. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 9. Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    insulation. Structural Insulation - Varying thickness of non-combustible mineral wool . Decks - 1%- to ’A-inch stiffened steel, covered with magnesite deck...valve requited in cer- Gypsum board faced with steel ra i onfigutron Mineral wool . reinforced with steel Mi:neral wool, tenforved with .laed Plaat.o...Aluminumi faced mineral wool .C-Class 46 CE-K 164.009--Noncombsible All nonoecmbusribln, metals. com- Pout’es of alumnum and fiber- glass "A-Class

  6. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  7. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  8. Station set requirements document. Volume 82: Fire support. Book 2: Preliminary functional fire plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The fire prevention/protection requirements for all shuttle facility and ground support equipment are presented for the hazardous operations. These include: preparing the orbiter for launch, launch operations, landing operations, safing operations, and associated off-line activities.

  9. Thermochemical characterization of polymers for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus has been constructed for studying the thermal decomposition of polymers as a function of temperature. Such data is needed to evaluate the toxic threat presented by polymeric materials under fire conditions such as the smoldering fire of the type that occurs in closed areas such as coat closets in which anaerobic decomposition of polymers occurs. The apparatus allows the products of thermal decomposition to be collected and analyzed by infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Data obtained from dog hair, an aromatic polyamide, polyphenylene sulfide, and polybenzimidazole are presented. It was found that significant amounts of toxic gas were evolved from dog hair at temperatures as low as 250 C, while temperatures in excess of 500 C were necessary in order for the evolution of toxic gas from the aromatic polymers to become significant.

  10. Engineering and Development Program Plan, Aircraft Cabin Fire Safety. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    release rate. Before the onset of flashover in the C-133 test article, the only hazards detected of any consequence were elevated temperature, smoke, and... release . Before the onset of flashover experienced in the C-133 cabin fire tests, con- centrations of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl...irritant gases before the occurrence ot flashover on interior materials design cannot be determined until establishment (1) of the validity o± the C

  11. Risk-Based Fire Safety Experiment Definition for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Ho, V. S.; Marcus, E.; Perry, A. T.; Thompson, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Risk methodology is used to define experiments to be conducted in space which will help to construct and test the models required for accident sequence identification. The development of accident scenarios is based on the realization that whether damage occurs depends on the time competition of two processes: the ignition and creation of an adverse environment, and the detection and suppression activities. If the fire grows and causes damage faster than it is detected and suppressed, then an accident occurred. The proposed integrated experiments will provide information on individual models that apply to each of the above processes, as well as previously unidentified interactions and processes, if any. Initially, models that are used in terrestrial fire risk assessments are considered. These include heat and smoke release models, detection and suppression models, as well as damage models. In cases where the absence of gravity substantially invalidates a model, alternate models will be developed. Models that depend on buoyancy effects, such as the multizone compartment fire models, are included in these cases. The experiments will be performed in a variety of geometries simulating habitable areas, racks, and other spaces. These simulations will necessitate theoretical studies of scaling effects. Sensitivity studies will also be carried out including the effects of varying oxygen concentrations, pressures, fuel orientation and geometry, and air flow rates. The experimental apparatus described herein includes three major modules: the combustion, the fluids, and the command and power modules.

  12. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 3: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains other supporting information, along with quality assurance documentation and safety and test plans. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  13. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intentional or unintentional action, mechanical failure, or act of nature. Fire: Any instance of open flame or... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  14. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intentional or unintentional action, mechanical failure, or act of nature. Fire: Any instance of open flame or... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  15. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intentional or unintentional action, mechanical failure, or act of nature. Fire: Any instance of open flame or... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  16. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intentional or unintentional action, mechanical failure, or act of nature. Fire: Any instance of open flame or... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  17. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intentional or unintentional action, mechanical failure, or act of nature. Fire: Any instance of open flame or... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  18. Relationship between Patient Safety and Hospital Surgical Volume

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Downey, John R; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between hospital volume and in-hospital adverse events. Data Sources Patient safety indicator (PSI) was used to identify hospital-acquired adverse events in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database in abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery bypass graft, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 2005 to 2008. Study Design In this observational study, volume thresholds were defined by mean year-specific terciles. PSI risk-adjusted rates were analyzed by volume tercile for each procedure. Principal Findings Overall, hospital volume was inversely related to preventable adverse events. High-volume hospitals had significantly lower risk-adjusted PSI rates compared to lower volume hospitals (p < .05). Conclusion These data support the relationship between hospital volume and quality health care delivery in select surgical cases. This study highlights differences between hospital volume and risk-adjusted PSI rates for three common surgical procedures and highlights areas of focus for future studies to identify pathways to reduce hospital-acquired events. PMID:22091561

  19. Social validation and training of emergency fire safety skills for potential injury prevention and life saving.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R T; Kazdin, A E; Haney, J I

    1981-01-01

    A multifaceted behavioral program designed to teach emergency fire escape procedures to children was evaluated in a multiple-baseline design. Five children were trained to respond correctly to nine home emergency fire situations under simulated conditions. The situations and responses focused upon in training were identified by a social validation procedure involving consultation with several safety agencies, including the direct input of firefighters. Training, carried out in simulated bedrooms at school, resulted in significant improvements in both overt behavior and self-report of fire safety skills. The gains were maintained at a post-check assessment 2 weeks after training had been terminated. The results are discussed in relation both to the importance of social validation of targets and outcomes and the implications for further research in assessing and developing emergency response skills. PMID:7298537

  20. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-02-15

    This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  1. 42 CFR 403.744 - Condition of participation: Life safety from fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Life safety from fire... Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.744 Condition of participation: Life... provided in this section— (i) The RNHCI must meet the applicable provisions of the 2000 edition of the...

  2. Contributions of Microgravity Test Results to the Design of Spacecraft Fire Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) as compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  3. Field models: Their present and future application in fire safety engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, K. S.; Magnussen, B. F.

    1992-12-01

    Different field models for calculating heat load, fire development, and smoke concentrations have been developed for use in fire safety engineering work. The field model versions of KAMELEON are based on a finite difference solution of the basic equations from fluid dynamics together with different mathematical models. The most important of these models are the kappa-epsilon model of turbulence, the eddy dissipation concept of combustion (EDC), the soot model by Magnussen, and the discrete transfer model for radiation by Shah and Lockwood. All the resulting equations are solved three dimensionally and in transient. A version under development is a calculation tool for flame spread on surface linings. The system uses input data from the cone calorimeter. The paper will mainly deal with the description of the numerical code and especially a version called KAMELEON FIRE E-3D, handling enclosed pool fires.

  4. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Volume 2, Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in Vol. 1 of this Standard. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While Vol. 1 is generally applicable in that requirements there apply to a wide range of fusion facilities, this volume is concerned mainly with large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This volume is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment.

  5. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Fire Safety Requirements for Certain Health Care Facilities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-04

    This final rule will amend the fire safety standards for Medicare and Medicaid participating hospitals, critical access hospitals (CAHs), long-term care facilities, intermediate care facilities for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ICF-IID), ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs), hospices which provide inpatient services, religious non-medical health care institutions (RNHCIs), and programs of all-inclusive care for the elderly (PACE) facilities. Further, this final rule will adopt the 2012 edition of the Life Safety Code (LSC) and eliminate references in our regulations to all earlier editions of the Life Safety Code. It will also adopt the 2012 edition of the Health Care Facilities Code, with some exceptions.

  6. Fire-safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in New York State. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The study found that solid fuel (primarily wood) was a major heat source in 707,000, or 18% of the State's households (excluding Metropolitan New York City and southern Westchester County). Based on a safety evaluation system of 15 quantifiable installation, maintenance, and operation criteria developed during this study, the State's solid fuel heating systems were classified as being either safe (5.5%), unsafe (24.7%), hazardous (57.7%), or extremely hazardous (12.1%). The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. Availability and affordability of safety information, and professional installation and inspection services generally were adequate; however, none of these had a substantial effect on the overall safety of the State's solid fuel systems. Results of the fire chief survey reflected a consensus of opinion on several key solid fuel safety issues. Fire chiefs believed that mandatory compliance by solid fuel users may be necessary for substantial improvement of the solid fuel safety situation due to the prevalence of certain attitudinal barriers. Recommendations designed to correct this situation through new, aggressive information and education programs and/or mandatory rules and regulations are presented and discussed. In addition, recommendations are presented for monitoring solid fuel safety, for cost assistance for homeowners to encourage the use of competent professionals, and for future research efforts. 25 references, 4 figures, 97 tables.

  7. Large volume leukapheresis: Efficacy and safety of processing patient's total blood volume six times.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, Ines; Dubravcic, Klara; Batinic, Drago; Cepulic, Branka Golubic; Mazic, Sanja; Hren, Darko; Nemet, Damir; Labar, Boris

    2011-04-01

    Large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) differs from standard leukapheresis by increased blood flow and an altered anticoagulation regimen. An open issue is to what degree a further increase in processed blood volume is reasonable in terms of higher yields and safety. In 30 LVL performed in patients with hematologic malignancies, 6 total blood volumes were processed. LVL resulted in a higher CD34+ cell yield without a change in graft quality. Although a marked platelet decrease can be expected, LVL is safe and can be recommended as the standard procedure for patients who mobilize low numbers of CD34+ cells and when high number of CD34+ cells are required.

  8. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  9. Fire safety in space - Investigating flame spread interaction over wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citerne, Jean-Marie; Dutilleul, Hugo; Kizawa, Koki; Nagachi, Masashi; Fujita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Masao; Jomaas, Grunde; Rouvreau, Sébastien; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    A new rig for microgravity experiments was used for the study flame spread of parallel polyethylene-coated wires in concurrent and opposed airflow. The parabolic flight experiments were conducted at small length- and time scales, i.e. typically over 10 cm long samples for up to 20 s. For the first time, the influence of neighboring spread on the mass burning rate was assessed in microgravity. The observations are contrasted with the influence characterized in normal gravity. The experimental results are expected to deliver meaningful guidelines for future, planned experiments at a larger scale. Arising from the current results, the issue of the potential interaction among spreading flames also needs to be carefully investigated as this interaction plays a major role in realistic fire scenarios, and therefore on the design of the strategies that would allow the control of such a fire. Once buoyancy has been removed, the characteristic length and time scales of the different modes of heat and mass transfer are modified. For this reason, interaction among spreading flames may be revealed in microgravity, while it would not at normal gravity, or vice versa. Furthermore, the interaction may lead to an enhanced spread rate when mutual preheating dominates or, conversely, a reduced spread rate when oxidizer flow vitiation is predominant. In more general terms, the current study supports both the SAFFIRE and the FLARE projects, which are large projects with international scientific teams. First, material samples will be tested in a series of flight experiments (SAFFIRE 1-3) conducted in Cygnus vehicles after they have undocked from the ISS. These experiments will allow the study of ignition and possible flame spread in real spacecraft conditions, i.e. over real length scale samples within real time scales. Second, concomitant research conducted within the FLARE project is dedicated to the assessment of new standard tests for materials that a spacecraft can be composed of

  10. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the objectives, scope, and conclusions of an effort that was undertaken to develop and analyze a dynamic model/simulation of a coal-fired ship with steam turbine propulsion system. The General Dynamics CV-3600 self-unloading coal collier was used as the basis for this effort. The effort was jointly sponsored by General Dynamics and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, for the purpose of investigating the responsiveness of coal-fired ships in maneuvering and in restricted-water operation. The volume concludes with a set of specification results that indicate the component/control system design trends that should be followed to obtain a rapidly responding coal-fired propulsion system.

  11. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  12. Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Meryl

    For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

  13. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  14. A study on fire spreading model for the safety distance between the neighborhood occupancies and historical buildings in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Chien, S. W.; Ho, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural heritages and historical buildings are vulnerable against severe threats from fire. Since the 1970s, ten fire-spread events involving historic buildings have occurred in Taiwan, affecting a total of 132 nearby buildings. Developed under the influence of traditional Taiwanese culture, historic buildings in Taiwan are often built using non-fire resistant brick-wood structure and located in proximity to residential occupancies. Fire outbreak in these types of neighborhood will lead to severe damage of antiquities, leaving only unrecoverable historical imagery. This study is aimed to investigate the minimal safety distance required between a historical building and its surroundings in order to reduce the risk of external fire. This study is based on literature analysis and the fire spread model using a Fire Dynamics Simulator. The selected target is Jingmei Temple in Taipei City. This study explored local geography to identify patterns behind historical buildings distribution. In the past, risk reduction engineering for cultural heritages and historical buildings focused mainly on fire equipment and the available personnel with emergency response ability, and little attention was given to external fire risks and the affected damage. Through discussions on the required safety distance, this research provides guidelines for the following items: management of neighborhoods with historical buildings and consultation between the protection of cultural heritages and disaster prevention, reducing the frequency and extent of fire damages, and preserving cultural resource.

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 16: Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 16 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on debris hazard control and cleanup. The purpose and objectives of such a program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a debris control…

  17. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  18. Thermal radiation from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) trench fires. Volume 1. Main report. Final report, September 1982-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, P.A.; Mudan, K.S.; Moorhouse, J.

    1984-09-01

    The current federal regulations for LNG facilities require a thermal radiation exclusion zone for public safety around spill impoundment systems. The size of this zone is determined by applying a thermal radiation model that was developed for large circular or near circular pool fires. Since trench (elongated pool) fires behave differently from circular pool fires, an experimental test program was conducted to monitor the fire behavior and thermal radiation from large-scale LNG trench fires. The data in general showed that significantly less distance was required according to measurements than what the code specified as a safe separation distance. Based upon the large-scale fire data, a simple model has been developed for predicting radiation fluxes as a function of distance from LNG trench fires.

  19. Fire safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York state. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in NYS. Based on the research findings, recommendations were developed regarding public and private policies and services, legislation, and financial systems designed to improve the State's solid fuel heating safety situation. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency (i.e., a sense of security grounded in ignorance -- in the nonpejorative sense) and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. The appendices vol. is the survey used.

  20. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  1. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  2. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Materials for Improved Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Manned Spacecraft Center was pleased to host the NASA Conference on Materials for Improved Fire Safety which was held on May 6 and 7, 1970. This document is a compilation of papers presented at the conference and represents the culmination of several years of effort by NASA and industry which was directed toward the common objective of minimizing the fire hazard in manned spacecraft and in some other related areas. One of the more serious problem areas in the Apollo program was the flammability of nonmetallic materials. The effective and timely solution of this problem area resulted from much of the effort reported herein and contributed greatly toward the successful achievement of landing men on the moon and returning them safely to earth.

  3. Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roll over and over to put out the flames. Cover your face with your hands. Cool - Cool ... of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual ...

  4. Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention tips: Don't leave the stove or oven unattended when they are on Don't let children use kitchen appliances unsupervised Don't smoke in bed Make sure your electrical appliances and cords are in good condition It ...

  5. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  6. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 4. Fire Dynamics and Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Executive Director, Electronic Device, Process and Materials Division Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 Dr. Arthur C. Damask...of a flat surface. 5.5 Flaming or Smoldering Combustion Some combustible materials may burn either in a smoldering mode, like a cigarette , 44 JÜ...soot particles capable of obscuring vision even at low concentrations. The lachrymatory effects of gases, such as aldehydes or acids associated with

  7. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  8. Planar measurements of soot volume fraction and OH in a JP-8 pool fire

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Tara L.; Ring, Terry A.; Eddings, Eric G.; Nathan, Graham J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.; Qamar, Nader

    2009-07-15

    The simultaneous measurement of soot volume fraction by laser induced incandescence (LII) and qualitative imaging of OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed in a JP-8 pool fire contained in a 152 mm diameter pan. Line of sight extinction was used to calibrate the LII system in a laminar flame, and to provide an independent method of measuring average soot volume fraction in the turbulent flame. The presence of soot in the turbulent flame was found to be approximately 50% probable, resulting in high levels of optical extinction, which increased slightly through the flame from approximately 30% near the base, to approximately 50% at the tip. This high soot loading pushes both techniques toward their detection limit. Nevertheless, useful accuracy was obtained, with the LII measurement of apparent extinction in the turbulent flame being approximately 21% lower than a direct measurement, consistent with the influence of signal trapping. The axial and radial distributions of soot volume fraction are presented, along with PDFs of volume fraction, and new insight into the behavior of soot sheets in pool fires are sought from the simultaneous measurements of OH and LII. (author)

  9. Loss prevention and fire protection for oil refineries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, N.R.

    1981-04-01

    The handling of large volumes of volatile, toxic, and flammable liquids at high pressures and high temperatures requires special fire protection to reduce fire risk. Fire water systems, fixed water-spray systems, monitors and hose reels, drainage, portable fire extinguishers, process safety and fire protection, control buildings, offsites, storage tank fire protection, fire trucks, utilities and training are methods of fire protection and loss prevention discussed to protect today's sophisticated, expensive oil refineries in the most cost-effective way. These methods are described and discussed individually.

  10. Research Needs in Fire Safety for the Human Exploration and Utilization of Space: Proceedings and Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop documented in this publication was to bring together personnel responsible for the design and operations of the International Space Station (ISS) and the fire protection research community to review the current knowledge in fire safety relative to spacecraft. From this review, research needs were identified that were then used to formulate a research plan with specific objectives. In this document, I have attempted to capture the very informative and lively discussions that occurred in the plenary sessions and the working groups. I hope that it will be useful to readers and serve as a significant step in assuring fire protection for the crews of current and future spacecraft.

  11. 76 FR 31848 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James... the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners from the hazards associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This...

  12. 77 FR 4897 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James... live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners from the hazards associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This...

  13. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P <.001. Gain-framing was associated with increased odds of self-efficacy for both behaviors (burn: AOR = 1.77 and smoke: AOR = 1.77). Messages that show positive outcomes combined with scripted parental mediation appear most effective in communicating safety behaviors, but the overall effectiveness of video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  14. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  15. 36 CFR 1234.32 - What does an agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? (a) Content of documentation... do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? 1234.32 Section 1234.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY...

  16. 36 CFR 1234.32 - What does an agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? (a) Content of documentation... do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? 1234.32 Section 1234.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY...

  17. The safety and economics of high ash anthracite fired mixing with petroleum-coke in pulverized coal-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Li, F.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum-coke was fired only in CFB because of its content of high S and low volatile matter. It will bring environmental and flame stability problems if petroleum-coke is fired in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. Low rank anthracite is fired in many pulverized coal-fired furnaces without flame stability problems. Here the authors blend high ash anthracite with petroleum-coke as the fuel for a pulverized coal-fired furnace to decrease the ash content in the fuel. Experimental results had shown that in mixing with petroleum-coke, the combustion behavior of the blended fuel was improved and ash deposition characteristic would not change compared with high ash anthracite. Using coal/petroleum-coke as the fuel for furnace can bring great benefits for the environment and furnace. But S content in blended fuel must be controlled under the regulation of S content in coal and the volatile content should not decrease too low for the coal-fired furnace design to avoid the environmental and flame stability problems.

  18. Medicare and Medicaid programs; fire safety requirements for certain health care facilities; amendment. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2006-09-22

    This final rule adopts the substance of the April 15, 2004 tentative interim amendment (TIA) 00-1 (101), Alcohol Based Hand Rub Solutions, an amendment to the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This amendment allows certain health care facilities to place alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in egress corridors under specified conditions. This final rule also requires that nursing facilities at least install battery-operated single station smoke alarms in resident rooms and common areas if they are not fully sprinklered or they do not have system-based smoke detectors in those areas. Finally, this final rule confirms as final the provisions of the March 25, 2005 interim final rule with changes and responds to public comments on that rule.

  19. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  20. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release. PMID:27877775

  1. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release.

  2. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You Xu, Jia; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release.

  3. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly.

  4. 33 CFR 165.152 - Coast Guard Station Fire Island, Long Island, New York-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard Station Fire Island, Long Island, New York-safety zone. 165.152 Section 165.152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard...

  5. 33 CFR 165.152 - Coast Guard Station Fire Island, Long Island, New York-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard Station Fire Island, Long Island, New York-safety zone. 165.152 Section 165.152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Contents I. Purpose. II. Work site fire hazards and how to properly control them. III. Alarm... case of fire. II. Work Site Fire Hazards and How To Properly Control Them A. Measures to contain fires... more than one type exists. B. The work site emergency alarm system. C. Procedures for reporting...

  7. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    This report contains information concerning: operational radionuclide control; occupational radiation protection, conduct of operations; initial test program; safety analysis; technical specifications; and quality assurance. (JDB)

  8. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume III. Dynamic analysis of the cv-3600. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the results of a thorough analysis of the CV-3600 dynamic model that was discussed in Volume II. The purpose of this effort was to determine general engineering details and specifications for coal-fired propulsion systems based on a detailed analysis of a specific propulsion system design. The basis for these specifications included the sensitivity of ship propulsion system response to component parameter and control variations such as grate travel speed and controls, spreader and distributor feed and controls, fan speed and damper controls, steam dump (sizing, control valve characteristics and controls), feedwater pump controls (drum level controls), throttle control, and desuperheater steam attemperation controls. To develop greater insight into the effects of these variations, both open-loop (without control) and closed-loop (with control) versions of the propulsion system were studied. The open and closed-loop responses were further analyzed through the use of linear models and eigenvalue analyses. Specific conclusions regarding desirable trends in component specification are provided as part of the conclusions in this volume.

  9. Study of safety implications for shuttle launched spacecraft using fluorinated oxidizers. Volume 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An abbreviated version of the conclusions dealing with the safety implications of using liquid fluorinated oxidizers on space shuttle launched spacecraft was presented. The complete version was presented in volume 1.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  11. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume II. Program documentation and user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume describes the use and internal details of a FORTRAN computer program that has been written for simulating the dynamic (transient) behavior of a dual-fired (coal or oil) ship propulsion system. The FORTRAN program implements and solves a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations that represent all major components of the ship propulsion system (feedwater pumps, boilers, headers, turbines, turbine/gears propeller shaft, and hull). These equations also represent all major control loops. The program incorporates a numerical linearization subroutine that can be used to generate the steady-state conditions for any operating point. This subroutine also produces a linearized version of the model that describes the transient behavior of the propulsion system in a neighborhood of the steady-state operating point. The eigenvalues (reciprocal time constants) of this linear model are also generated. A copy of the FORTRAN program is available on magnetic tape from MARAD.

  12. Liquid hydrogen turbopump ALS advanced development program. Volume 1: Hot fire unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The interface criteria for the Turbopump Test article (TPA) and the Component Test Facility located at NASA, Stennis Space Center is defined by this interface Control Document (ICD). TPA ICD Volume 2 is submitted for the Cold Gas Drive Turbopump Test Article, which is generally similar but incorporates certain changes, particularly in fluid requirements and in instrumentation needs. For the purposes of this ICD, the test article consists of the Hot Fire Drive Turbopump mounted on its test cart, readied for installation in the component test facility. It should be emphasized that the LH2 turbopump program is still in its early concept design phase. Design of the turbopump, test cart, and spools are subject to revisions until successful conclusion of the Detail Design Review (DDR).

  13. Minutes of the 23rd Explosives Safety Seminar, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-08-01

    Some topics of the conference include: Fragment hazards; Airblast interactions; Explosives risk assessment; Structural damage from blast; Demilitarization, disposal, decontamination; Quantity distance application; Fire protection - deluge systems; Debris hazards testing and analysis; Far field airblast effects and mitigation designs consideration; Electrostatic discharge (ESD); Underground explosion effects - large scale tests; Wall and window response to blast loads; Explosives facility design considerations, Accident/explosion effects; and Shock sensitivity of explosives.

  14. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  15. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  16. Nuclear safety, Volume 38, Number 1, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This journal contains nine articles which fall under the following categories: (1) general safety considerations; (2) control and instrumentation; (3) design features (4) environmental effects; (5) US Nuclear Regulatory Commission information and analyses; and (6) recent developments.

  17. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    This report presents preliminary safety information for the standard MHTGR. Topics discussed include: plant protection, instrumentation, and control; electrical systems; service systems; and steam and energy conversion systems. (JDB)

  18. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  19. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This second volume of a four-volume report covers manpower needs in motor vehicle inspection and registration, motorcycle safety, driver education, driver licensing, traffic court, and codes and laws. Aspects of training such as staffing, student recruitment, enrollments, facilities, equipment, and curriculum are discussed. Course outlines are…

  20. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1976-01-01

    A handbook of organizations and experts in specific and well-defined areas of safety technology is presented. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, and operations, as well as information on hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, and materials characteristics. Other related areas include the handling and transportation of hazardous chemicals, radioactive isotopes, and liquified natural gases.

  1. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  2. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  3. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 2: Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Supporting documentation pertaining to the hazards of transporting experimental equipment on the Earth Orbit Shuttle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) experiment and hardware definition, (2) hazard analysis, (3) preventive measure assessment, (4) preventive measures statements, (5) remedial measure assessment, and (6) experiment interaction safety considerations.

  4. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 5: Space Station safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. H.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Safety Plan has been prepared as an adjunct to the subject contract final report, suggesting the tasks and implementation procedures to ensure that threats are addressed and resolution strategy options identified and incorporated into the space station program. The safety program's approach is to realize minimum risk exposure without levying undue design and operational constraints. Safety objectives and risk acceptances are discussed.

  5. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 6: Space base nuclear system safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A qualitative identification of the steps required to assure the incorporation of radiological system safety principles and objectives into all phases of a manned space base program are presented. Specific areas of emphasis include: (1) radiological program management, (2) nuclear system safety plan implementation, (3) impact on program, and (4) summary of the key operation and design guidelines and requirements. The plan clearly indicates the necessity of considering and implementing radiological system safety recommendations as early as possible in the development cycle to assure maximum safety and minimize the impact on design and mission plans.

  6. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    was already out of control and it was too dangerous to stay and fight the fire. Vessel burned to the waterline and sank several hours later...equipment (MDE emergency shutdown ahd> fixed ext. system) avoided a far more - dangerous casualty. The apparent .cause’of the fire was a threaded...INCIDENT BRIEF Fire in the machinery space on the stbd side. Fire believed to have started in the vacinity of the prime mover for the stbd cargo pump

  7. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  8. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  9. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  10. Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

  11. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  12. Fossil-fired boiler tube inspection. Volume 1: nondestructive testing guidelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamping, G.A.; Birring, A.S.; Meredith, W.R.; Singh, G.P.

    1986-08-01

    This Guideline report is for use by electric utility power plant personnel to plan and conduct ultrasonic examinations of tubes in fossil-fired power boilers. Extensive economic benefits in the operation of steam generating equipment can be realized from ultrasonic examinations. Economic benefits of ultrasonic examinations can be calculated and justified using the software package called BEAP (Boiler Economic Analysis Program), developed under this project. The BEAP software package calculates the optimum time for each examination which will maximize the economic benefits to be obtained. The BEAP software also takes into consideration wastage rate, costs of examinations and repairs, and probability of tube failures and associated repair costs. The Guideline report recommends a series of activities for performance by plant personnel to achieve beneficial results. These activities include determining equipment and manpower resources, soliciting proposals from contractors, and monitoring performance during tube examinations. Details are given on ultrasonic testing techniques, procedures, personnel, standards, and equipment employed by nondestructive examination agencies to conduct either tube wall thickness surveys or flaw detection and sizing examinations. The report also discusses a software package called BOTS (Boiler Tube Status) developed during this project to document and analyze the thickness data obtained from ultrasonic examinations. This software displays the thickness data and can be used to determine the condition of the tubes and predict the remaining life and the thickness at a future time. The Guidelines encourage the application of quality control measures to monitor examination activities and obtain the pertinent records for immediate and future reference. The guidelines are contained in Volume 1 of the final report. A computer manual for the BEAP and BOTS codes will be contained in Volume 2. 61 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 2: System safety guidelines and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed system safety guidelines/requirements were developed. Each one describes a safety measure which is suggested as a means of eliminating or reducing a particular hazard, or group of hazards, to an acceptable level, and which, if followed would tend to increase the level of safety in supplying propellants to a user in orbit. The first goal was to identify those actions that should be taken to make propellant logistics operations as safe as possible. The second was to serve as a checklist to verify that these actions had been taken in the design and operation of this and similar programs, or that they had been considered and rejected. The safety measures described in the GLR's are directed toward the prevention of hazards, the avoidance of undesired events, and the protection of the crew.

  14. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  15. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  16. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1; System Safety Framework and Concepts for Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Smith, Curtis; Stamatelatos, Michael; Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    System safety assessment is defined in NPR 8715.3C, NASA General Safety Program Requirements as a disciplined, systematic approach to the analysis of risks resulting from hazards that can affect humans, the environment, and mission assets. Achievement of the highest practicable degree of system safety is one of NASA's highest priorities. Traditionally, system safety assessment at NASA and elsewhere has focused on the application of a set of safety analysis tools to identify safety risks and formulate effective controls.1 Familiar tools used for this purpose include various forms of hazard analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and probabilistic safety assessment (commonly also referred to as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)). In the past, it has been assumed that to show that a system is safe, it is sufficient to provide assurance that the process for identifying the hazards has been as comprehensive as possible and that each identified hazard has one or more associated controls. The NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) has made several statements in its annual reports supporting a more holistic approach. In 2006, it recommended that "... a comprehensive risk assessment, communication and acceptance process be implemented to ensure that overall launch risk is considered in an integrated and consistent manner." In 2009, it advocated for "... a process for using a risk-informed design approach to produce a design that is optimally and sufficiently safe." As a rationale for the latter advocacy, it stated that "... the ASAP applauds switching to a performance-based approach because it emphasizes early risk identification to guide designs, thus enabling creative design approaches that might be more efficient, safer, or both." For purposes of this preface, it is worth mentioning three areas where the handbook emphasizes a more holistic type of thinking. First, the handbook takes the position that it is important to not just focus on risk on an individual

  17. Special Aviation Fire and Explosion Reduction (SAFER) Advisory Committee. Volume IIA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-26

    analytical fire dynamics model that will describe the post-crash fire scenario; and develop other rkew modeling methodologies as required. 3. Determine the... Dynamic Model for the post-crash fire scenario. C. Develop other new model (s) previously identified as necessary to meet ob- jectives and requirements. D...ASTM E162-67) AND BOEING MODIFIED OSU - E. V. TUSTIN - 20 min. DAC MODIFIED OSU - R. J. SUTTON - 10 min. LAB TEST VALUE FOR tATH MODELING - DR. C

  18. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  19. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

  20. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  1. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    Part of a four-volume study on highway safety activities, this report describes the need for breath examiners, accident investigators, emergency medical technicians, and highway engineering personnel. Training needs are discussed, in the context of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment, enrollment, and national…

  2. Irradiated ignition of solid materials in reduced pressure atmosphere with various oxygen concentrations for fire safety in space habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, A.

    Effects of sub-atmospheric ambient pressure and oxygen content on irradiated ignition characteristics of solid combustibles were examined experimentally in order to elucidate the flammability and chance of fire in depressurized systems and give ideas for the fire safety and fire fighting strategies for such environments. Thin cellulosic paper was used as the solid combustible since cellulose is one of major organic compounds and flammables in the nature. Applied atmospheres consisted of inert gases (either CO 2 or N 2) and oxygen at various mixture ratios. Total ambient pressure ( P) was varied from 101 kPa (standard atmospheric pressure, P0) to 20 kPa. Ignition was initiated by external thermal radiation with CO 2 laser (10 W total; 21.3 W/cm 2 of the corresponding peak flux) onto the solid surface. Thermal degradation of the solid produced combustible gaseous products (e.g. CO, H 2, or other low weight of HCs) and these products mixed with ambient oxygen to form the combustible mixture over the solid. Heat transfer from the irradiated surface into the mixture accelerated the exothermic reaction in the gas phase and finally thermal runaway (ignition) was achieved. A digital video camera was used to analyze the ignition characteristics. Flammability maps in partial pressure of oxygen (ppO 2) and normalized ambient pressure ( P/ P0) plane were made to reveal the fire hazard in depressurized environments. Results showed that a wider flammable range was obtained in sub-atmospherics conditions. In middle pressure range (101-40 kPa), the required ppO 2 for ignition decreased almost linearly as the total pressure decreased, indicating that higher fire risk is expected. In lower pressure range (<40 kPa), the required partial pressure of oxygen increased dramatically, then ignition was eventually not achieved at pressures less than 20 kPa under the conditions studied here. The findings suggest that it might be difficult to satisfy safety in space agriculture since it has

  3. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  4. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  5. Medicare and Medicaid programs; fire safety requirements for certain health care facilities; amendment. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2005-03-25

    This interim final rule with comment period adopts the substance of the April 15, 2004 temporary interim amendment (TIA) 00-1 (101), Alcohol Based Hand Rub Solutions, an amendment to the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This amendment will allow certain health care facilities to place alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in egress corridors under specified conditions. This interim final rule with comment period also requires that nursing facilities install smoke detectors in resident rooms and public areas if they do not have a sprinkler system installed throughout the facility or a hard-wired smoke detection system in those areas.

  6. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  7. EPRI/NRC-RES fire PRA guide for nuclear power facilities. Volume 1, summary and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    This report documents state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) application. The methods have been developed under the Fire Risk Re-quantification Study. This study was conducted as a joint activity between EPRI and the U. S. NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) under the terms of an EPRI/RES Memorandum of Understanding [RS.1] and an accompanying Fire Research Addendum [RS.2]. Industry participants supported demonstration analyses and provided peer review of this methodology. The documented methods are intended to support future applications of Fire PRA, including risk-informed regulatory applications. The documented method reflects state-of-the-art fire risk analysis approaches. The primary objective of the Fire Risk Study was to consolidate recent research and development activities into a single state-of-the-art fire PRA analysis methodology. Methodological issues raised in past fire risk analyses, including the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) fire analyses, have been addressed to the extent allowed by the current state-of-the-art and the overall project scope. Methodological debates were resolved through a consensus process between experts representing both EPRI and RES. The consensus process included a provision whereby each major party (EPRI and RES) could maintain differing technical positions if consensus could not be reached. No cases were encountered where this provision was invoked. While the primary objective of the project was to consolidate existing state-of-the-art methods, in many areas, the newly documented methods represent a significant advancement over previously documented methods. In several areas, this project has, in fact, developed new methods and approaches. Such advances typically relate to areas of past methodological debate.

  8. Using LiDAR to Estimate Surface Erosion Volumes within the Post-storm 2012 Bagley Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulovsky, R. P.; De La Fuente, J. A.; Mondry, Z. J.

    2014-12-01

    The total post-storm 2012 Bagley fire sediment budget of the Squaw Creek watershed in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest was estimated using many methods. A portion of the budget was quantitatively estimated using LiDAR. Simple workflows were designed to estimate the eroded volume's of debris slides, fill failures, gullies, altered channels and streams. LiDAR was also used to estimate depositional volumes. Thorough manual mapping of large erosional features using the ArcGIS 10.1 Geographic Information System was required as these mapped features determined the eroded volume boundaries in 3D space. The 3D pre-erosional surface for each mapped feature was interpolated based on the boundary elevations. A surface difference calculation was run using the estimated pre-erosional surfaces and LiDAR surfaces to determine volume of sediment potentially delivered into the stream system. In addition, cross sections of altered channels and streams were taken using stratified random selection based on channel gradient and stream order respectively. The original pre-storm surfaces of channel features were estimated using the cross sections and erosion depth criteria. Open source software Inkscape was used to estimate cross sectional areas for randomly selected channel features and then averaged for each channel gradient and stream order classes. The average areas were then multiplied by the length of each class to estimate total eroded altered channel and stream volume. Finally, reservoir and in-channel depositional volumes were estimated by mapping channel forms and generating specific reservoir elevation zones associated with depositional events. The in-channel areas and zones within the reservoir were multiplied by estimated and field observed sediment thicknesses to attain a best guess sediment volume. In channel estimates included re-occupying stream channel cross sections established before the fire. Once volumes were calculated, other erosion processes of the Bagley

  9. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  10. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  11. Dayton Aircraft Cabin Fire Model, Version 3, Volume I. Physical Description.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    was limited to wide-body cabin configurations. In order to compare the pre- diction of ",, -odel to existing fire test data on standard width cabins...simplifies the calculations for simulating the fire growth while retaining the important geometric features. The method of predicting the burning area on...burning and smoldering materials. Calculation of the radiation intensities, however, is a difficult problem. While much work has been done on the

  12. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  13. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  14. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  15. Using GIS to evaluate a fire safety program in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Thomas; Creppage, Kathleen; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating program impact is a critical aspect of public health. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a novel way to evaluate programs which try to reduce residential fire injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of GIS within the evaluation of a smoke alarm installation program in North Carolina. This approach incorporates national fire incident data which, when linked with program data, provides a clear depiction of the 10 years impact of the Get Alarmed, NC! program and estimates the number of potential lives saved. We overlapped Get Alarmed, NC! program installation data with national information on fires using GIS to identify homes that experienced a fire after an alarm was installed and calculated potential lives saved based on program documentation and average housing occupancy. We found that using GIS was an efficient and quick way to match addresses from two distinct sources. From this approach we estimated that between 221 and 384 residents were potentially saved due to alarms installed in their homes by Get Alarmed, NC!. Compared with other program evaluations that require intensive and costly participant telephone surveys and/or in-person interviews, the GIS approach is inexpensive, quick, and can easily analyze large disparate datasets. In addition, it can be used to help target the areas most at risk from the onset. These benefits suggest that by incorporating previously unutilized data, the GIS approach has the potential for broader applications within public health program evaluation.

  16. A Curriculum Guide to Fire Safety for Elementary Schools. Bulletin, 1946, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, 1946

    1946-01-01

    When teachers as members of the community realize that every day in the United States 10 children of school age or under lose their lives by being burned to death, no effective effort should be considered too great to prevent such tragedies. Those who work constantly in the fire-prevention field say that adults are not easily educated to the need…

  17. 42 CFR 403.744 - Condition of participation: Life safety from fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for inspection at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD or at...; protection of patients, staff, and the public; evacuation; and cooperation with fire fighting authorities. (3... CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD and at the Office of...

  18. 42 CFR 403.744 - Condition of participation: Life safety from fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 403.744 Section 403.744 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. Copies may be obtained from the National Fire Protection Association,...

  19. Operation and maintenance, fire rescue air-pack. Volume 2: Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The operation and maintenance procedures are described for the development model of the fire rescue air pack (FRAP) voice amplifier assembly, including the battery charger. Operational instructions include a general description of the assembly, specifications, and installation and operation. Maintenance instructions include theory of operation, preventive maintenance, repair, adjustment, and a parts list. The FRAP is intended to permit fire rescue personnel to enter a smoke-filled, toxic or oxygen depleted environment carrying their own source of breathing air. The voice amplifier assembly permits the wearer to communicate by voice with other persons in the vicinity. The battery charger assembly provides a means of keeping the amplifier batteries fully charged.

  20. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Vulnerability Methodology and Protective Measures for Aircraft Fire and Explosion Hazards. Volume 2. Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test Programs. Part 1. Fire Detection, Fire Extinguishment and Surface Ignition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    injection method , has a negative margin of fifty (50) degrees ( 975 minus 1025). MIL-H—5606 has a zero margin, ie, the HIT is equal to but not less...Development of "Standard" Fires in F~16 Simulator 54 6.2.1 Selection of Fuel Flow Rate 54 6.2.2 "Standard" F-16 Nacelle Simulator Fire Test 55 6.3...variables which affect the hazard of accidental fire in an engine compartment are complex: 0 The fuel type, its temperature and pressure, and its method of

  3. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    case, a temporary change to a duplex strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually led to an oil...strainer elements. In NTSB01, a temporary change to the strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually...a temporary change to a duplex strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually led to an oil

  4. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents: Volume 2, Safety assessment reports for DOE non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Silver, R.C.; Balas, Y.; Gilmore, W.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of Volume 2 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Assessment Reports (SAs) for DOE non-nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 2 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SAs for DOE non-nuclear facilities.

  5. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  6. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  7. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  8. Aircraft Fire Safety held in Sintra (Portugal) on 22-26 May 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    OF AN AIRCRAFT PASSENGER CABIN by G.J.Treloar 28 FIRE RESISTANCE AND BREAKDOWN EMISSIONS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS by K.W.Smith 29 ADVANCED MATERIALS...MATERIALS by A.Te%2rson and R.G.Zalosh 33 METHOD D’EVALUATION DE LA TOXICITE DES PRODUITS DE THERIIOLYSE DES MATERIAUX DE CABINE AVION - ANALYSE DES...extinguishers, additional and more effective hand-held extinguishers, bum-through resistant cargo liners, heat resistant evacuation slides and crew member

  9. Targeting adequate thermal stability and fire safety in selecting ionic liquid-based electrolytes for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Chancelier, L; Diallo, A O; Santini, C C; Marlair, G; Gutel, T; Mailley, S; Len, C

    2014-02-07

    The energy storage market relating to lithium based systems regularly grows in size and expands in terms of a portfolio of energy and power demanding applications. Thus safety focused research must more than ever accompany related technological breakthroughs regarding performance of cells, resulting in intensive research on the chemistry and materials science to design more reliable batteries. Formulating electrolyte solutions with nonvolatile and hardly flammable ionic liquids instead of actual carbonate mixtures could be safer. However, few definitions of thermal stability of electrolytes based on ionic liquids have been reported in the case of abuse conditions (fire, shortcut, overcharge or overdischarge). This work investigates thermal stability up to combustion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C1C4Im][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PYR14][NTf2]) ionic liquids, and their corresponding electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide LiNTf2. Their possible routes of degradation during thermal abuse testings were investigated by thermodynamic studies under several experimental conditions. Their behaviours under fire were also tested, including the analysis of emitted compounds.

  10. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  11. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    of the double bottom diesel oil tank in the engine room, the self-closing valve of the short sounding pipe in the vicinity of the lower floor was...left open. The inflammable gas generated from the fuel oil occupied the lower floor space, came into contact with a source of fire and ignited...strainer (H type duplex strainer) for the main engine in the lower floor , dispersed, came in contact with the high temperature parts of the main engine

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.; Mouring, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  13. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  14. Vehicle Assembly Building Fire Mishap Investigation Report. Volume I of V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kight, Ira; Luciano, Steven; Stevens, Michael B.; Farley, W. Max; Collins, Bryce D.; Potterger, William C.; Levesque, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    On January 13, 2005, at approximately 1355, smoke was noticed on the 4th floor of D Tower in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Subsequently, a 911 call was made, a fire alarm pull station was activated, and the VAB was evacuated. The source of the smoke was determined to be a fire on the Low Bay M/N section roof near the Launch Control Center (LCC) Crossover. Due to the high visibility of the mishap, the KSC Center Director appointed a Mishap Investigation Board. Damage to government property was limited to the roof and a small number of ceiling tiles that were damaged by the fire fighters during the response. At the time of the mishap, there were hazardous commodities in the VAB including Solid Rocket Motors (SRMs) with open grain due to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) igniter inspections. The Board agrees with the SGS Fire Services' theory that large amounts of smoke concentrated in the VAB D Tower and moved downward into the cable tunnel. The Board determined the proximate cause of this incident to be torching. HRI was installing a torch applied roof membrane which resulted in the ignition of combustible materials under the membrane near a wooden roof expansion joint. The torch applied roofing method is a universally accepted safe industry practice when applied to non-combustible surfaces. The combination of an open flame torch and combustible materiaLs presents an increased level of risk even with skilled applicators. The addition of high winds to this combination results in a risk the Board thinks can not be adequately mitigated. An appropriate risk assessment and analysis must be performed on the proposed roofing method to be used on high visibility facilities which represent unique national assets even when using common industry practices for repair and modification. The Board identified three root causes which contributed to or created the proximate cause and, if eliminated or modified, would have prevented the mishap: 1. Combustible materials in existing

  15. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records storage facilities? (a) The fire detection and protection systems must be designed or reviewed by a licensed fire protection engineer. If the system was not designed by a licensed fire protection engineer, the review requirement is met by furnishing a report under the seal of a licensed fire...

  16. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... records storage facilities? (a) The fire detection and protection systems must be designed or reviewed by a licensed fire protection engineer. If the system was not designed by a licensed fire protection engineer, the review requirement is met by furnishing a report under the seal of a licensed fire...

  17. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... records storage facilities? (a) The fire detection and protection systems must be designed or reviewed by a licensed fire protection engineer. If the system was not designed by a licensed fire protection engineer, the review requirement is met by furnishing a report under the seal of a licensed fire...

  18. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... records storage facilities? (a) The fire detection and protection systems must be designed or reviewed by a licensed fire protection engineer. If the system was not designed by a licensed fire protection engineer, the review requirement is met by furnishing a report under the seal of a licensed fire...

  19. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  20. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  1. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  2. Fire and scald burn risks in urban communities: who is at risk and what do they believe about home safety?

    PubMed

    Parker, E M; Gielen, A C; McDonald, E M; Shields, W C; Trump, A R; Koon, K M; Jones, V

    2013-08-01

    While largely preventable, fire and hot water-related injuries are common in the United States. Measures recommended to reduce these injuries are smoke alarms (SAs) and lowered hot water temperatures. This study aims to: (i) describe the prevalence of working SAs and safe water temperatures among low-income, urban communities and (ii) explore the relationship between these behaviors and individuals' knowledge and beliefs about them. In this cross-sectional study, the Health Belief Model was used as a guide for understanding the safety behaviors. A total of 603 households had their SAs and hot tap water temperatures tested and were surveyed about their knowledge and beliefs related to these safety behaviors. We found that 40% of households had working SAs on every level and 57% had safe hot water temperatures. Perceived severity and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SA coverage, whereas perceived susceptibility and beliefs about benefits were significantly associated with safe hot water temperatures. This study demonstrates the need to increase the number of homes with working SAs and safe hot water temperatures. Messages focused on a safe home environment could communicate the ease and harm reduction features of SAs and benefits and risk reduction features of safe hot water temperatures.

  3. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology: an update on efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jorine E; Klooster, Karin; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for patients with a more homogeneous emphysema disease distribution. Seven years ago, the very first patients were treated with BLVR coil treatment and currently large randomized, controlled trials are underway. The aim of this article is to review the available literature and provide an update on the current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of BLVR treatment with coils.

  4. Airport Crash/Fire/Rescue (CFR) Service Cost and Benefit Analysis. Volume 2. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    aC,4- -i U 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ C Lij NNN In gr cc.I% NNNN~ . NN j i -( C% I I I I IA-9,0 I Ci a coI0 I I I a0 aid ocr~Ia a0 𔄁C,3 ink m ic (it in tiV In I. w ai...was extensively damaged from impact but was virtually free of fire damage. Only light sooting was noted on the bottom skin. IF CI =1 - _ - 7- F-21

  5. Oxygen and Fuel Jet Diffusion Flame Studies in Microgravity Motivated by Spacecraft Oxygen Storage Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Yuan, Z.-G.; Krishnan, S. S.; Abshire, J. M.; Gore, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the absence of past work involving flames similar to the Mir fire namely oxygen-enhanced, inverse gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity the objectives of this work are as follows: 1. Observe the effects of enhanced oxygen conditions on laminar jet diffusion flames with ethane fuel. 2. Consider both earth gravity and microgravity. 3. Examine both normal and inverse flames. 4. Compare the measured flame lengths and widths with calibrated predictions of several flame shape models. This study expands on the work of Hwang and Gore which emphasized radiative emissions from oxygen-enhanced inverse flames in earth gravity, and Sunderland et al. which emphasized the shapes of normal and inverse oxygen-enhanced gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity.

  6. Hydrogen Fire Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Through NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center, two SSC engineers were able to market their hand-held fire imager. Called FIRESCAPE, the device allows firefighters to 'see' the invisible flames of hydrogen and alcohol fires in the daylight, as well as to find victims and burning embers in dense smoke and fog. SafetySCAN, which specializes in fire safety electronic products, will make the device the first affordable commercial product for fire imaging.

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/wet FGD system. Final report, Volume 2 of 2 - appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This volume contains the appendices for a coal-fired power plant toxic emissions study. Included are Process data log sheets from Coal Creek, Auditing information, Sampling protocol, Field sampling data sheets, Quality assurance/quality control, Analytical protocol, and Uncertainty analyses.

  8. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  9. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  10. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  11. SURVIAC Bulletin: F/A-22 Live Fire Repair. Volume 18, Issue 2, 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    interactive geometry editor, raytracing pro- grams and libraries, network-distributed processing and framebuffer libraries, image- and signal...with primitive shapes; viewing, building, and structuring geometry; assigning material properties; and raytracing . Also included in Volume II are...is pleased to announce the availability of the official release of the Advanced Low Attitude Radar Model (ALARM) version 4.4.1. ALARM is a generic

  12. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  13. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 3, 5. 0 Radiation safety and environment; 6. 0 Physics and technology R and D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: safety and environmental requirements and design targets; accident analyses; personnel safety and maintenance exposure; effluent control; waste management and decommissioning; safety considerations in building design; and safety and environmental conclusions and recommendations. (LSP)

  14. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire... laboratories which have expertise in fire technology. In case of dispute, the Secretary shall determine if...

  18. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David; Luketa, Anay; Wocken, Chad; Schlasner, Steve; Aulich, Ted; Allen, Ray; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  19. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  20. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  1. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Book 1, Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Fire Safety: Protecting Our Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (August 11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This hearing, chaired by Representative Patricia Schroeder, was held to find ways to reduce the number of deaths and injuries that result from fires. Testimony or prepared statements were given by Representatives Schroeder, Michael Bilirakis, Romano Mazzoli, and Curt Weldon, as well as nine other individuals involved in fire safety issues,…

  3. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 4: Space shuttle orbiter: Safety requirements and guidelines on-orbit phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety requirements and guidelines are listed for the space shuttle orbiter and for its interface with other vehicles. The requirements and guidelines are specific to the hazards and emergencies in earth orbit. The requirements and guidelines for the orbiter are those with respect to vehicle design, safety devices, warning devices, operational procedures, and residual hazards. The requirements and guidelines for interface with the space station, upper stage vehicles, and sortie payloads are imposed on these vehicles to ensure the safety of the shuttle orbiter. The rationale for the safety requirements and guidelines is also discussed.

  4. Occupancy Fire Record: Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    The considerations of human safety and preservation of facilities are examined in relation to school fires. Various aspects of planning which would decrease the probability of fires and thereby save life and property are reviewed and include--(1) causes, (2) automatic protection devices, (3) evacuation and fire drills, and (4) construction…

  5. A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

  6. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 5: Space shuttle payloads: Safety requirements and guidelines on-orbit phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety requirements and guidelines are listed for the sortie module, upper stage vehicle, and space station for the earth orbit operations of the space shuttle program. The requirements and guidelines are for vehicle design, safety devices, warning devices, operational procedures, and residual hazards.

  7. Evaluation and test of improved fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors. Volume 1. Fluid evaluation, bearing model tests, motor tests, and fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Fires within nuclear containment have occurred when the lubricants used in reactor coolant pump motors have leaked or spilled onto the hot insulated main coolant piping. This project was directed toward determining the applicability of commercially available fire resistant fluid lubricants to the lubrication of the bearings of a reactor coolant pump motor. This report describes the evaluation of candidate fluids, the testing of these fluids, and the selection of a lubricant for use in a standard reactor coolant pump motor test. The test results indicated that the phosphate ester lubricants, when properly inhibited and maintained, are acceptable for use. Recommendations are presented for further work necessary to the successful application of the fire resistant fluid lubricant.

  8. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 1. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume 1 of this report covers the Remedial Investigation conducted on Site 1, Fire Training Area at Volk Field Air National Guard Base. The remedial work is described and the testing conducted after remediation to insure all contamination has been removed. The study as conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents include: Meteorology; Hydrology; Soils; Water wells; Groundwater; Borings; Samplings; Chemical contamination; Migration; Decontamination.

  9. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  10. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  11. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  12. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gas-fueled appliances (such as heaters, stoves, water heaters, or dryers) that don't burn properly, as well as by charcoal grills, automobiles, and fireplaces. Feeling very tired (more than usual), ...

  13. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918-925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

  14. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... your home. Start by keeping these tips in mind: Electrical Appliances, Cords, and Outlets Are your electrical ...

  15. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    A presentation of the Saffire Experiment goals and scientific objectives for the Joint CSA/ESA/JAXA/NASA Increments 47 and 48 Science Symposium. The purpose of the presentation is to inform the ISS Cadre and the other investigators of the Saffire goals and objectives to enable them to best support a successful Saffire outcome.

  16. Aircraft Fire Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    VARIOUS MATERIALS (in addition to carbon monoxide) Material Product Cellulose acetate, some vinyl plastics Acetic acid Nitrogen--containing plastics, such...containing plastics, such as Hydrochloric acid (HCI), carbonyl vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride chloride (phosgene, COCI) Alkyd resins, and...others based on, or Acrolein derived from glycerine Wood Formaldehyde, acetic acid Wool, silk, leather, cheese Hydrogen cyanide Butter and fat Acrolein

  17. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  18. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range. [in spacecraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  19. Measuring hospital-wide activity volume for patient safety and infection control: a multi-centre study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kenshi; Imanaka, Yuichi; Fukuda, Haruhisa

    2007-01-01

    Background In Japan, as in many other countries, several quality and safety assurance measures have been implemented since the 1990's. This has occurred in spite of cost containment efforts. Although government and hospital decision-makers demand comprehensive analysis of these activities at the hospital-wide level, there have been few studies that actually quantify them. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure hospital-wide activities for patient safety and infection control through a systematic framework, and to identify the incremental volume of these activities implemented over the last five years. Methods Using the conceptual framework of incremental activity corresponding to incremental cost, we defined the scope of patient safety and infection control activities. We then drafted a questionnaire to analyze these realms. After implementing the questionnaire, we conducted several in-person interviews with managers and other staff in charge of patient safety and infection control in seven acute care teaching hospitals in Japan. Results At most hospitals, nurses and clerical employees acted as the main figures in patient safety practices. The annual amount of activity ranged from 14,557 to 72,996 person-hours (per 100 beds: 6,240; per 100 staff: 3,323) across participant hospitals. Pharmacists performed more incremental activities than their proportional share. With respect to infection control activities, the annual volume ranged from 3,015 to 12,196 person-hours (per 100 beds: 1,141; per 100 staff: 613). For infection control, medical doctors and nurses tended to perform somewhat more of the duties relative to their share. Conclusion We developed a systematic framework to quantify hospital-wide activities for patient safety and infection control. We also assessed the incremental volume of these activities in Japanese hospitals under the reimbursement containment policy. Government and hospital decision makers can benefit from this type of analytic

  20. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting; Volume 2, Severe accident research, Thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  2. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  3. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  4. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73982, Dec. 9, 2013. All fire testing conducted in accordance...

  5. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  6. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  7. Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of the Safety of Proton Beam Therapy for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nakachi, Kohei; Nishio, Teiji; Mitsunaga, Shuichi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Konishi, Masaru; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Arahira, Satoko; Zenda, Sadamoto; Ogino, Takashi; Kinoshita, Taira

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiotherapy using proton beam (PRT) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Sixty consecutive patients who underwent PRT between May 1999 and July 2007 were analyzed. There were 42 males and 18 females, with a median age of 70 years (48-92 years). All but 1 patient had a single lesion with a median diameter of 45 mm (20-100 mm). Total PRT dose/fractionation was 76-cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE)/20 fractions in 46 patients, 65 CGE/26 fractions in 11 patients, and 60 CGE/10 fractions in 3 patients. The risk of developing proton-induced hepatic insufficiency (PHI) was estimated using dose-volume histograms and an indocyanine-green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15). Results: None of the 20 patients with ICG R15 of less than 20% developed PHI, whereas 6 of 8 patients with ICG R15 values of 50% or higher developed PHI. Among 32 patients whose ICG R15 ranged from 20% to 49.9%, PHI was observed only in patients who had received 30 CGE (V30) to more than 25% of the noncancerous parts of the liver (n = 5) Local progression-free and overall survival rates at 3 years were 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80-99%) and 56% (95% CI, 43-69%), respectively. A gastrointestinal toxicity of Grade {>=}2 was observed in 3 patients. Conclusions: ICG R15 and V30 are recommended as useful predictors for the risk of developing PHI, which should be incorporated into multidisciplinary treatment plans for patients with this disease.

  8. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 2. Development of a safety validation methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luedeke, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The evolution in the implementations of safety critical systems in the railroad industry from simple vital relays to more complex computer-based configurations has raised many issues among users as well as the Federal Railraod Authority (FRA). Foremost among these issues is the need to assure similar or improved levels of safety those currently provided by conventional fail-safe technology. This concern is heightened in newer high-speed rail and maglev systems which operate or are being designed to operate at considerably higher speeds and levels of automation than conventional rail systems. The overall objective of this program was to develop a safety validation methodology that could be considered (by the FRA) for use as a standard for manufacturers and users to help ensure the safe operation of safety critical computer-based system.

  9. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  10. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  11. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and any testing or modeling or other sources used in the design. (b) All interior walls separating...-hour fire barrier walls. A records storage facility may not store more than 250,000 cubic feet total of... barrier walls that meet the following specifications must be provided: (1) For existing records...

  12. Happy 50th, Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Meryl

    In 1994, Smokey Bear turns 50! For a half century, Smokey has been helping children and adults protect forests and wildlands from careless fire. With this kit students can celebrate Smokey's message using a variety of activities that include dramatic play, stories, games, and things to make and do. Through these activities, students learn about…

  13. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  14. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2006 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2006 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2005 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 2, 2006, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2005 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.)

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2004 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 6). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2004 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2003 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 5, 2004, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2003 data and are not included in Table 4-5 in Volume I.)

  16. Physics of reactor safety. Quarterly report, October-December 1980. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The work in the Applied Physics Division includes reports on reactor safety modeling and assessment by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Section. Work on reactor core thermal-hydraulics is performed in ANL's Components Technology Division, emphasizing 3-dimensional code development for LMFBR accidents under natural convection conditions.

  17. Physics of reactor safety. Volume II. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The work in the Applied Physics Division includes reports on reactor safety modeling and assessment by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Section. Work on reactor core thermal-hydraulics is performed in ANL's Components Technology Division, emphasizing 3-dimensional code development for LMFBR accidents under natural convection conditions.

  18. Physics of reactor safety. Quarterly report, January-March 1980. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The work in the Applied Physics Division includes reports on reactor safety modeling and assessment by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Section. Work on reactor core thermal-hydraulics is performed in ANL's Components Technology Division, emphasizing 3-dimensional code development for LMFBR accidents under natural convection conditions.

  19. NASA/Navy Benchmarking Exchange (NNBE). Volume 1. Interim Report. Navy Submarine Program Safety Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/Navy Benchmarking Exchange (NNBE) was undertaken to identify practices and procedures and to share lessons learned in the Navy's submarine and NASA's human space flight programs. The NNBE focus is on safety and mission assurance policies, processes, accountability, and control measures. This report is an interim summary of activity conducted through October 2002, and it coincides with completion of the first phase of a two-phase fact-finding effort.In August 2002, a team was formed, co-chaired by senior representatives from the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and the NAVSEA 92Q Submarine Safety and Quality Assurance Division. The team closely examined the two elements of submarine safety (SUBSAFE) certification: (1) new design/construction (initial certification) and (2) maintenance and modernization (sustaining certification), with a focus on: (1) Management and Organization, (2) Safety Requirements (technical and administrative), (3) Implementation Processes, (4) Compliance Verification Processes, and (5) Certification Processes.

  20. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: safety analysis: Volume 2, supplement 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor Safety Analysis was last updated via ORNL-4169, Vol. 2, Supplement 1, in May of 1978. Since that date, several changes have been effected through the change-memo system described below. While these changes have involved the cooling system, the electrical system, and the reactor instrumentation and controls, they have not, for the most part, presented new or unreviewed safety questions. However, some of the changes have been based on questions or recommendations stemming from safety reviews or from reactor events at other sites. This paper discusses those changes which were judged to be safety related and which include revisions to the syphon-break system and changes related to seismic considerations which were very recently completed. The maximum hypothetical accident postulated in the original safety analysis requires dynamic containment and filtered flow for compliance with 10CFR100 limits at the site boundary.

  1. An Automatic System for Continuously Monitoring Digging Volume of Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In studying the dynamics of ant nest excavation, the nest volume has to be continuously monitored. One common method to estimate nest volume is to weigh the substrate excavated by the ants and then convert the weight into volume. In many laboratory studies, sand has been used as a digging substrat...

  2. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  3. Maritime Standards for Compliance Safety and Health Officers (Instructor Manual). Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    protected according to intensity of radiation by one of following equipped with filter lenses : - Spectacles " - Cup goggles - Helmets - Hand shields...Container V-37-12 Photo Slide Explosion-proof Lighting (*) V-37-13 Photo Slide Fire Extinguishers V-37-14 Photo Slide Face and Eye Protection Against ...prior to application of CHEMICAL CLEANING OPERATION protective coatings sucn as: "o Oil-based paints "o Epoxy paints "o Preservative coatings . 2

  4. Physics of reactor safety. Quarterly report, July-September 1980. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This Quarterly progress report summarizes work done during the months of July-September 1980 in Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Physics and Components Technology Divisions for the Division of Reactor Safety Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work in the Applied Physics Division includes reports on reactor safety modeling and assessment by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Section. Work on reactor core thermal-hydraulics is performed in ANL's Components Technology Division, emphasizing 3-dimensional code development for LMFBR accidents under natural convection conditions. An executive summary is provided including a statement of the findings and recommendations of the report.

  5. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  6. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  7. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  8. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The FY 1979 Federal Inventory contains information on 3506 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects. The Inventory is published in two volumes: Volume I, an executive summary and overview of the data and Volume II, project listings, summaries, and indexes. Research and development (R and D) categories were reorganized into three main areas; environmental and safety control technology, technology impacts overview and assessments, and biological and environmental R and D and assessments. Federal offices submitting project data were: Council on Environmental Quality; Department of Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of the Interior; Department of Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Science Foundation; Office of Technology Assessment; and Tennessee Valley Authority. The inventory also breaks out research sponsored by various federal agencies and the amount of funding provided by each in various research categories. The format and index system allows efficient access to information compiled. Users are able to identify projects by log agency, performing organization, principal investigator and subject.

  9. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Pune (October 2015) Preventing accidental injuries to children in India. Video Changing the News with Neal McDonough: Fire Safety Together, we can change the news by learning simple, effective ways to prevent injuries to children due to fire. Infographic Escuche el Bip Donde ...

  10. Commercial Vessel Safety. Risk Assessment Study. Volume I. Survey of Data for Marine Risk Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    involving barge transport of hazardous chemicals. Twenty three data systems in the following categories were reviewed: marine safety activities, marine ... pollution , marine traffic, vessel repair costs, vessel accidents, personnel injuries, vessel population, and vessel violation injuries. Discussions of

  11. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  12. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  13. Advanced reactor safety research. Quarterly report, April-June 1982. Volume 22

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    Overall objective of this work is to provide NRC a comprehensive data base essential to (1) defining key safety issues, (2) understanding risk-significant accident sequences, (3) developing and verifying models used in safety assessments, and (4) assuring the public that power reactor systems will not be licensed and placed in commercial service in the United States without appropriate consideration being given to their effects on health and safety. This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents, and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  15. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume.

  16. Thermal state of the safety system, reactor, side reflector and shielding of the {open_quote}{open_quote}TOPAZ-2{close_quote}{close_quote} system under conditions of fire caused by a launcher accident at the launch pad

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.S.; Usov, V.A.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents some results of calculational analyses performed to determine thermal state of the TOPAZ II safety system structure, radiation shielding, reactor without the side reflector, rods and inserts of the side reflector under conditions of fire at the launch pad when an accident occurs to a launch vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Advanced reactor safety research quarterly report, October-December 1982. Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water reactors (LWRs) and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  18. Fire Accident Testing Evaluation (FATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Mell, W.; Pettegrew, R.; Hicks, M.; Urban, D.

    2001-01-01

    By performing parametric experiments both in normal gravity and reduced gravity on the KC-135 aircraft, as well as developing and analyzing related modeling, generality of the interpretation of the experimental findings will be pursued along with direct recommendations for fire safety practices and policies for fire safety on spacecraft and in Martian habitats. This is the principal value of the research.

  19. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  20. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.

  1. Respiratory safety pharmacology: concurrent validation of volume, rate, time, flow and ratio variables in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Legaspi, Margarita; Authier, Simon; Gauvin, Dominique; Moreau, Maxim; Beauchamp, Guy; Chaurand, Fernando; Troncy, Eric

    2010-12-01

    This study compares basic respiratory variables (rate, tidal and minute volumes) with time-, flow- and ratio-derived parameters obtained using head-out plethysmography in rats following administration of reference drugs (isotonic saline, 2.0 mL/kg, IV; albuterol, 400 μg/kg, inhalation; methacholine, 136 μg/kg, IV; and remifentanil, 14 μg/kg, IV) to identify respiratory variables with superior sensitivity. Paired t-tests by block-period, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline as covariate and a posteriori pair-wise comparisons using Dunnett's test were used. Variations in respiratory parameters observed over time justify the use of a control group in any respiratory safety pharmacology study for inter-groups comparison. Handling-, and slumbering-, induced perturbations were minimal. The system was sensitive and specific to detect changes in respiratory variables related to pharmacologically-induced bronchodilation, bronchoconstriction and central respiratory depression. The standard variables (respiratory rate, tidal and minute volumes) confirmed to be the cornerstone of respiratory safety pharmacology to detect pharmacological changes. Flow-derived parameters appeared as highly valuable complement for interpretation of respiratory response, whereas time- and ratio-derived parameters presented limited added value during interpretation.

  2. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  3. Toxic Substances Registry System: Index of Material Safety Data Sheets. Volume 1; Manufacturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The April 1998 revision of the Index of Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) is presented. The MSDS lists toxic substances by manufacturer, trade name, stock number, and distributor. The index provides information on hazards, use, and chemical composition of materials stored at KSC.

  4. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  5. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume 4. Safety and health plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Safety and Health Plan recognizes the potential hazards associated with the Project and has been developed specifically to respond to these risks in a positive manner. Prevention, the primary objective of the Plan, starts with building safety controls into the process design and continues through engineering, construction, start-up, and operation of the Project facilities and equipment. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local health and safety laws, regulations, and codes throughout all Project phases is required and assured. The Plan requires that each major Project phase be thoroughly reviewed and analyzed to determine that those provisions required to assure the safety and health of all employees and the public, and to prevent property and equipment losses, have been provided. The Plan requires followup on those items or situations where corrective action needs were identified to assure that the action was taken and is effective. Emphasis is placed on loss prevention. Exhibit 1 provides a breakdown of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.'s (ASFI's) Loss Prevention Program. The Plan recognizes that the varied nature of the work is such as to require the services of skilled, trained, and responsible personnel who are aware of the hazards and know that the work can be done safely, if done correctly. Good operating practice is likewise safe operating practice. Training is provided to familiarize personnel with good operational practice, the general sequence of activities, reporting requirements, and above all, the concept that each step in the operating procedures must be successfully concluded before the following step can be safely initiated. The Plan provides for periodic review and evaluation of all safety and loss prevention activities at the plant and departmental levels.

  7. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 1: Hazards. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 817

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Ignition temperatures of n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, JP-6 jet fuel, and aircraft engine oil MIL-7-7808 (0-60-18) were determined in air using heated Pyrex cylinders and Nichrome wires, rods, or tubes. Ignition temperature varied little with fuel-air ratio, but increased as the size of the heat source was decreased. Expressions are given which define the variation of the hot surface ignition temperatures of these combustibles with the radius and the surface area of the heat source. The expressions are applicable to stagnant or low velocity flow conditions (less than 0.2 in./sec.). In addition, the hot gas ignition temperatures of the combustible vapor-air mixtures were determined with jets of hot air. These ignition temperatures also varied little with fuel-air ratio and increased as the diameter of the heat sources was decreased.

  8. Games that ''Work'': Using Computer Games to Teach Alcohol-Affected Children about Fire and Street Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Strickland, Dorothy C.; Padgett, Lynne; Bellmoff, Lynnae

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death and disability for children. Those with developmental disabilities, including children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, are at highest risk for injuries. Although teaching safety skills is recommended to prevent injury, cognitive limitations and behavioral problems characteristic of…

  9. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  10. Impact of children with special needs on differences in fire-safety education priorities, preferred method of education, and parent actions.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; Janes, Erika G; Rengers, Sharon; Graviss, Jackie; Scrivener, Drane; Knabel, Tom; Myers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Children with special needs are at a higher risk for the devastating effects caused by a burn injury (eg, pain, appearance, and mobility changes); however, little is known about their burn prevention (BP) needs. The purpose of this project was to determine the BP needs, preferred method of parent education, and the actions of parents and professionals caring for children with and without disabilities. A novel instrument measuring fire-safety education needs, priorities, preferred method of education, and BP actions was administered to a total of 150 parents and professionals caring for children with physical limitations (n = 41), vision impairment (n = 80), and controls (n = 29). Differences in each outcome variable among the groups were tested using χ tests for categorical variables. There was no difference in ranking between parents and professionals or among groups (disability, vision impaired, and control) in preferred BP safety areas (P > .05); however, there was a difference in their preferred method for education (P < .001) among the groups (disability, vision impaired, and control). In addition, there were differences in preferences of methods of education for classroom, DVD, and home inspection between parents and professionals (P < .05). Our results suggest that type of education method preferred may need to be tailored differently by group. These findings are preliminary and further research in this area is indicated. Information from this project will be used to develop and test a community-based intervention within a large metropolitan area in north central Kentucky.

  11. Advanced Ultra-Violet (UV) Aircraft Fire Detection System. Volume 2. System Hardware Design, Software Design, and Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    be clear. This is termed 5th fire level. The program treats the 6 gates W or ZX,Y, and W’,XI and Y’ as a window, thus if say W,Y and X’ were...con now treat th, two options together, with the adjacencies for 1, 2, 3 and 4 repeated for 5, 6, 7 and 8. H LIMITED 2 ENGLAND TECHNICAL REPORT SHT I...SKIP, RETURN, DISABLE, POP, PUSH, SAVE, GOSTAT., CALL, and EXIT. EXIT is treated like a first class instruction and CALL is treated like a macro call in

  12. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  13. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  14. Supplemental Driver Safety Program Development Volume II--Pilot and Field Test Module Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Kenard; Weidman, James R.

    This volume contains materials to supplement existing driver education programming offered by high schools to youthful (16- to 18-year old) drivers. Section I contains three drinking/driving modules: an information-only module, a self-image module, and a three-unit peer intervention module. An instructor's guide provided for each module includes…

  15. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

  16. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  17. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4202 Fire hydrants. If fire hydrants are part of the mine's firefighting...

  12. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire safety and awareness, and we pay... our loved ones from the hazards of fire. Smoke alarms are vital detection devices, and...

  13. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  14. Liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors: Preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning LMFBR design characteristics; uranium-plutonium/uranium recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; thorium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle homogeneous core; safety consideration for the LMFBR; and environmental considerations.

  15. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Final Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU FSAR): Volume 3, Nuclear Risk Analysis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Volume 2, Accident Model Document (AMD) describes potential accident scenarios during the Galileo mission and evaluates the response of the LWRHUs to the associated accident environments. Any resulting source terms, consisting of PuO2 (with Pu-238 the dominant radionuclide), are then described in terms of curies released, particle size distribution, release location, and probabilities. This volume (LWRHU-FSAR, Volume 3, Nuclear Risk Analysis Document (NRAD)) contains the radiological analyses which estimate the consequences of the accident scenarios described in the AMD. It also contains the quantification of mission risks resulting from the LWRHUs based on consideration of all accident scenarios and their probabilities. Estimates of source terms and their characteristics derived in the AMD are used as inputs to the analyses in the NRAD. The Failure Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) presented in the AMD define events for which source terms occur and quantify them. Based on this information, three types of source term cases (most probable, maximum, and expectation) for each mission phase were developed for use in evaluating the radiological consequences and mission risks. 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuels consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  19. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  20. Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel Biennial Report, Fiscal Years 1993--1994. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    In Fiscal Year 1993, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (``the Panel``) handled 30 proceedings. In Fiscal Year 1994, the Panel handled 36 proceedings. The cases addressed issues in the construction, operation, and maintenance of commercial nuclear power reactors and other activities requiring a license form the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report sets out the Panel`s caseload during the year and summarizes, highlight, and analyzes how the wide- ranging issues raised in those proceedings were addressed by the Panel`s judges and licensing boards.

  1. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

  2. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  3. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  4. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) will be used as the prime source of electric power for the spacecraft on the Galileo mission. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel and by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The purpose of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is to present the analyses and results of the latest evaluation of the nuclear safety potential of the GPHS-RTG as employed in the Galileo mission. This evaluation is an extension of earlier work that addressed the planned 1986 launch using the Space Shuttle Vehicle with the Centaur as the upper stage. This extended evaluation represents the launch by the Space Shuttle/IUS vehicle. The IUS stage has been selected as the vehicle to be used to boost the Galileo spacecraft into the Earth escape trajectory after the parking orbit is attained.

  5. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: Safety analysis: Volume 2, Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Hamrick, T.P.

    1987-06-29

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) was constructed in the mid 1950s. Since it is an older facility, the issue of life-limiting conditions or material deterioration resulting from prolonged exposure to the normal operating environment is an item that should be addressed in the safety analysis for the ORR. Life-limiting conditions were considered in the original design of ORR; but due to the limited data that were available at that time on material performance in research reactors, various studies were completed during the first 10 years of operation at ORR to verify the applicable life-limiting parameters. Based on today's knowledge of life limiting conditions and the previous 30 years of operating experience at the ORR facility, the three specific areas of concern are addressed in this supplement: (1) embrittlement of the structures due to radiation damage, which is described in Section 2; (2) fatigue due to the effects of both thermal cycling and vibration, which is addressed in Section 3; and (3) the effects of corrosion on the integrity of the primary system, which is described in Section 4. The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the applicable safety studies which have been performed, and to state the status of the ORR with regard to embrittlement, fatigue (due to thermal cycling and vibration), and corrosion.

  6. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps...

  7. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps...

  8. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps...

  9. Safety of large-volume leukapheresis for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reik, R A; Noto, T A; Fernandez, H F

    1997-01-01

    Large volume leukapheresis (LVL) reduces the number of procedures required to obtain adequate peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) for autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. LVL involves the processing of > 15 L or 5 patient blood volumes using high flow rates. We report our experience with LVL evaluating its efficiency and adverse effects in 71 adult patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies. All were mobilized with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). All collections used a double lumen apheresis catheter. Mean values per LVL were as follows: blood processed, 24.6 L; patient blood volumes processed, 5.9; ACD-A used, 1,048 ml; heparin used, 6,148 units; collect time, 290 min; blood flow rate, 89 ml/min. Eighty percent of the collections were completed in one or two procedures to obtain > or = 6.0 x 10(8) MNCs/kg body weight. The most frequent side effect (39%) was parasthesia due to citrate-related hypocalcemia. This was managed with oral calcium supplements and/or slower flow rates. Post-LVL electrolyte changes were generally asymptomatic. Prophylactic oral potassium supplements were administered in 57% of cases. Other reactions included hypotension (4%), prolonged parasthesia (1.4%), and headache (1.4%). Catheter problems in 9 (13%) of the procedures were attributed to clot formation (37%) or positional effects (63%). No bleeding occurred. Post-LVL decreases in hematocrit and platelet count averaged 3.5% and 46%, respectively. Six (4%) of the procedures required red blood cell transfusions. Platelet transfusions were given in 19 (13%) of the procedures. We conclude that adverse reactions with LVL are similar to those reported for conventional PBPC collections, making it safe and efficacious as an outpatient procedure.

  10. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  11. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A. J.

    1988-02-01

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately.

  12. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall...

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. NRC safety research in support of regulation - FY 1994. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, the tenth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1994. The goal of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is to ensure the availability of sound technical bases for timely rulemaking and related decisions in support of NRC regulatory/licensing/inspection activities. RES also has responsibilities related to the resolution of generic safety issues and to the review of licensee submittals regarding individual plant examinations. It is the responsibility of RES to conduct the NRC`s rulemaking process, including the issuance of regulatory guides and rules that govern NRC licensed activities.

  15. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  16. Study of safety implications for shuttle launched spacecraft using fluorinated oxidizers. Volume 1: Complete text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The safety implications of space shuttle launched spacecraft using liquid flourine as the oxidizer for spacecraft propulsion were investigated. Feasibility of safe operation was investigated and the equipment and procedures necessary to maximize the chance of success determined. Hazards to the shuttle were found to be similar in kind if not degree to those encountered in use of nitrogen tetroxide (also toxic oxidizer). It was concluded that residual risks from spacecraft using fluorine and nitrogen tetroxide during ground and flight handling may be reduced by isolation of the oxidizer to only its tank. Operation of planetary spacecraft propulsion in the vicinity of the shuttle in earth orbit is not required. The primary hazard to personnel was identified as propellant loading operations, which should be accomplished in an area reasonably remote from personnel and facilities concentrations. Clearing the pad during spacecraft mating with the shuttle orbiter is recommended.

  17. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  18. 10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to safety so that the capability to shut down the plant safely is ensured. (3) The licensee shall... Branch Technical Position (BTP) APCSB 9.5-1 reflected in NRC fire protection safety evaluation reports... the NRC staff in comprehensive fire protection safety evaluation reports issued before Appendix A...

  19. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride. Volume 9. Wind tunnel modeling of fire monitors for HF vapor cloud mitigation, volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Heskestad, G.; Parce, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    The hazards of hydrogen fluoride (HF) have long been recognized. Standard operating practices have been aimed at on minimizing the possibility of a release and mitigating the effects if a release should occur. These practices are continually monitored and improved to maximize safety protection based on the available technical data. The recent program targeted further improvements based on new technical data. The volume presents the results of wind tunnel simulations of water monitors and a surrogate gas for HF to quantify the effect of water spray/HF release configuration variables on the performance of multiple water monitors.

  20. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  1. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  2. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-05-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  3. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  4. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.

  5. A fire safety engineering perspective on crowd evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The review presented by Bellomo et al. [1] addresses the modelling approaches employed to represent human behaviour in evacuation in a comprehensive manner. The authors discuss crowd evacuation modelling in light of crisis management, a relevant and current topic given the recent escalation of terrorist threats all over the world. The need for designing buildings for rapid evacuation using crowd evacuation models has been recently raised in important forums [2]. This research area is strictly linked to the field of Fire Safety Engineering.

  6. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains the field data and laboratory analysis of each individual run. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  7. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  9. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Safety margin of minimized contrast volume during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Nobuhiko; Ikari, Yuji; Nanasato, Mamoru; Okutsu, Masaaki; Kametani, Ryosuke; Abe, Mitsuru; Uehara, Yoshiki; Sumitsuji, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Maximum allowable contrast dose (MACD) calculated as body weight × 5/serum creatinine has been a standard contrast dye volume (CV) used to decrease contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Recent advances in intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can dramatically minimize CV. The safe threshold when using an extremely low-dose CV is unknown. This study was designed as a multicenter, retrospective study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) undergoing elective PCI. We divided the patients into three groups according to following criteria: (1) low dose, CV/eGFR ratio <1.0; (2) medium dose, CV/eGFR ratio ≥1 and

  11. Combustion and fires in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Fire safety always receives priority attention in NASA mission designs and operations, with emphasis on fire prevention and material acceptance standards. Recently, interest in spacecraft fire-safety research and development has increased because improved understanding of the significant differences between low-gravity and normal-gravity combustion suggests that present fire-safety techniques may be inadequate or, at best, non-optimal; and the complex and permanent orbital operations in Space Station Freedom demand a higher level of safety standards and practices. This presentation outlines current practices and problems in fire prevention and detection for spacecraft, specifically the Space Station Freedom's fire protection. Also addressed are current practices and problems in fire extinguishment for spacecraft.

  12. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Jenkins, B.M.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.; Bryers, R.W.; Oden, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  13. Sustainability of an in-home fire prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Duchossois, Gina P; Nance, Michael L; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Flores, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Residential fires remain a challenge in many parts of the United States. This project assessed the sustainability of a community-based fire prevention intervention on household fire safety knowledge and practices. The design was a prospective, cohort study including preintervention and postintervention surveys, which assessed participants' fire safety knowledge and behavior. The implementation of an in-home visit to educate parents of third- and fourth-grade students on escape planning coupled with the installation of smoke alarms can be successful in increasing basic fire safety knowledge and household fire safety practices.

  14. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    PubMed

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  15. Fire-related medical science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety may be improved by the use of a fire-retardant atmosphere in occupied spaces. Low concentrations of oxygen can protect humans from fire damage by reducing the rate and spread of combustion, but care must be taken to avoid the hypoxic effects of oxygen-lean atmospheres. Crews can live and work in 11 percent oxygen if barometric pressure were adjusted to maintain the partial pressure of oxygen above 16 kPa. Eleven percent oxygen should prevent most types of fires, since 15 percent oxygen retards the combustion of paper and 13 percent oxygen extinguishes pentane flames. Test results indicate that seated humans can perform mental tasks in atmospheres containing 11.5 percent oxygen. Although this strategy of fire safety is under consideration for submarines, it could be adapted to spacecraft once operational procedures define a maximum hyperbaric pressure and fire research defines the effects of reduced oxygen concentrations on combustion in low gravity environments.

  16. Manual for Public School Facilities: Fire Prevention and Fire Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Educational Management Services.

    This manual is designed for use by New York public school administrators and facility inspectors, providing instruction for completing the state's Fire Safety Report. It provides background information and details about the State Fire Prevention and Building Code and regulations, and explains the inspection and enforcement processes. One-third of…

  17. 30 CFR 75.1107-16 - Inspection of fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire... Systems” (NFPA No. 11A—1970). National Fire Code No. 13A “Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems” (NFPA No. 13A—1971). National Fire Code No. 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” (NFPA No....

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-16 - Inspection of fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire... Systems” (NFPA No. 11A—1970). National Fire Code No. 13A “Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems” (NFPA No. 13A—1971). National Fire Code No. 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” (NFPA No....

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-16 - Inspection of fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire... Systems” (NFPA No. 11A—1970). National Fire Code No. 13A “Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems” (NFPA No. 13A—1971). National Fire Code No. 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” (NFPA No....

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-16 - Inspection of fire suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire... Systems” (NFPA No. 11A—1970). National Fire Code No. 13A “Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems” (NFPA No. 13A—1971). National Fire Code No. 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” (NFPA No....

  1. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  2. Comparative CFD simulations of a hydrogen fire scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen leakage and fire ignition and propagation are safety concerns in several industrial plants. In a nuclear fusion power plants the separation of hydrogen and tritium takes place in different steps, among which one or more electrolyzers are foreseen. A fire scenario could take place in case of leakage of hydrogen. In such cases, it is important to prevent the spreading of the fire to adjacent rooms and, at the same time, to withstand the pressure load on walls, to avoid radioactivity release in the surrounding environment. A preliminary study has been carried out with the aim of comparing CFD tools for fire scenario simulations involving hydrogen release. Results have been obtained comparing two codes: ANSYS Fluent© and FDS. The two codes have been compared both for hydrogen dispersion and hydrogen fire in a confined environment. The first scenario is aimed to obtaining of volume fraction 3D maps for the evaluation of the different diffusion/transport models. In the second scenario, characterized by a double-ended guillotine break, the fire is supposed to be ignited at the same time of the impact. Simulations have been carried out for the first 60 seconds. Hydrogen concentration, temperature and pressure fields are compared and discussed.

  3. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  4. 36 CFR 1234.32 - What does an agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fire suppression system to limit the maximum anticipated loss in any single fire event involving a single ignition and no more than 8 fluid ounces of petroleum-type hydrocarbon accelerant (such as, for... report need not predict a maximum single event loss at any specific number, but rather should...

  5. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  6. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

  7. Fire Service Training. Introduction to Fire Fighting. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    First in a series of fourteen instructional outlines, this document provides an overview of a fire service training program designed for use by recently formed fire departments in which firemen have had no previous formal training. (Each of the other volumes in the set contains a more complete instructional outline of one portion of the program.)…

  8. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  11. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire test. 183.590 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  13. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire test. 183.590 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... hull section. (b) Each fire test is conducted with free burning heptane and the component must...

  14. Is Your School Truly Fire-Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Carol Silverman

    1995-01-01

    Though most people assume that their schools are protected by smoke alarms and sprinkler systems, many are not. Older schools can fall through fire-code loopholes. Some schools have insufficient fire detection systems. Sprinkler systems can be too expensive for schools. Parents should educate themselves and insist on fire safety. (SM)

  15. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.352 Section 1926.352 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.352 Fire prevention. (a... prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire...

  16. Directory of workers in the fire field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Mcleod, S. B.; Katz, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A directory was compiled to provide a list of workers engaged in fire research, their addresses and affiliations, and their principal fields of activity. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the directory are recent contributions to fire literature, teaching of subjects relevant to fire science, or participation in or support of fire research programs. With some exceptions, fire service personnel and fire protection engineers were excluded because directories already exist for these professionals. Also excluded are investigators engaged principally in studies of propulsion, combustion, and explosion phenomena, because these areas of study are somewhat aside from the main focus of fire research. For purposes of the directory, fire science is taken to be the body of knowledge, art, and skill related to the investigation, analysis, and interpretation of the phenomena of unwanted fires and the evaluation of materials methods, systems, and equipment related to fire safety, prevention, detection, and suppression.

  17. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  18. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  19. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  20. Fire Prevention and Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from knocking things onto the burner. Caution: Carbon Monoxide Kills ❏ Install carbon monoxide alarms in central locations on every level ... your home and outside sleeping areas. ❏ If the carbon monoxide alarm sounds, move quickly to a fresh ...