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Sample records for fired clay bricks

  1. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  2. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  3. Physical and mechanical properties by utilizing empty fruit bunch into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Mokhtar, Siti Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil plantation has become one of the country's success stories in agricultural development which also generates the highest number of waste among the agricultural waste. In this study, the investigation on the possibility to utilize the empty fruit bunch (EFB) waste into the fired clay brick was carried out. The main purpose of this study is to determine the physical and mechanical properties of bricks incorporated with different percentages of EFB. In this study, bricks with four different percentages of EFB (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) were manufactured. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1050 °C with heating rate of 1 °C/min. Physical and mechanical properties including shrinkage, density, Initial Rate of Suction (IRS) and compressive strength were reported and discussed. Since shrinkage for each mixing is below than 8 %, then a good brick was manufactured. Bricks become more porous due to the organic content of EFB are burnt away and voids are formed in the specimen, giving it a lighter appearance and were produced lightweight brick which is suitable for non-loading purposes. As a conclusion, the incorporation of EFB into fired clay brick gives some advantages to the brick properties and also provides an alternative solution to disposed EFB waste.

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of quarry dust waste incorporated into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Sarani, N. A.; Rahim, A. S. Abdul; Ismail, N.

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of quarry dust waste is dispose into landfills every year. This waste was obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. The increasing value of waste will have significant impact towards health and environment. Recycling such wastes by incorporating them into building materials is a practical solution for pollution problem. Therefore, this research was to examine the possibility of quarry dust to be incorporated in fired clay bricks. In this research, the composition and concentration of heavy metals were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The research also consists of physical and mechanical properties of the fired clay bricks by utilizing quarry dust waste. Brick was manufactured by incorporating different percentages of quarry dust waste which are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. All bricks sample was tested with physical and mechanical properties which were density, shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS) and compressive strength of the fired bricks. Furthermore, the density and shrinkage were also in standard range. All physical and mechanical results were complied with the BS 3921:1985 standard. The comprehensive experimental work described in this research investigated the possibility of incorporating quarry dust into fired clay bricks. These materials could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide a new disposal method for the waste.

  5. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  6. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  7. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  8. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  9. Feasibility study on utilization of palm fibre waste into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Zaman, N. N.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Malaysia is the second largest of palm oil producer after Indonesia, which contribute to 50 % of palm oil production. With this demand, the increasing of palm oil plantation over the years has led to the large production of agricultural waste, for example palm fibre waste. This study investigates different percentages of palm fibre (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) to be incorporated into fired clay brick. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1 °C/min heating rate up to 1050 °C. The effects of manufacture bricks on the physical and mechanical properties of manufactured brick were also determined. All brick samples were tested due to the physical and mechanical properties which include dry density, firing shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS), water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. Findings show that increasing palm fibre waste affected the properties of brick, which decreased their density, besides increased firing shrinkage, IRS, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. However, all the manufactured brick still followed the requirement.

  10. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  11. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of eco-friendly porous fired clay bricks using pore-forming agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Bories, Cecile; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Vedrenne, Emeline; Vilarem, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Today, clay bricks are facing technological challenges and are uncompetitive compared to materials such as concrete. Their performance must be improved if they are to stand up to the competition. Increasing environmental concerns over the accumulation of unmanaged wastes from agricultural or industrial productions have made these good candidates for incorporation into building materials to improve their performance. This process leads to the formation of pores in the bricks, producing lightweight and sustainable building materials. This paper reviews the different pore-forming agents from renewable or mineral resources as described in the literature. It also presents the impact of pore-forming agents on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of clay bricks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valorisation of wastewater from two-phase olive oil extraction in fired clay brick production.

    PubMed

    de la Casa, José A; Lorite, Miguel; Jiménez, Juan; Castro, Eulogio

    2009-09-30

    Wastewater issued from oil-washing stage (OWW) in the two-phase olive oil extraction method was used to replace fresh water in clay brick manufacture. The extrusion trials were performed with one of the ceramic bodies currently being used in a local brick factory for red facing bricks (RB) production. Fresh water or OWW was added to a final consistency of 2.4 kg/cm(2), the same value as used at industrial scale for this kind of clay mixture. Comparative results of technological properties of facing bricks are presented. Results show that the products obtained with olive oil wastewater are comparable to traditional ones in terms of extrusion performance and technological properties of end products. Even dry-bending strength of the body formed by wastewater improves by 33% compared to fresh water body. In addition, heating requirements can be reduced in the range 2.4-7.3% depending on the final product. This application can alleviate environmental impacts from the olive oil extraction industry and, at the same time, result in economic savings for the brick manufacturing industry.

  15. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  16. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  17. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  18. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  19. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  20. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  1. Improving the thermal and physical properties of fire clay refractory bricks by added magnesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sarmad I.; Ali, Nahedh M.; Abood, Tamara W.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the Local natural Iraqi rocks kaolin with the addition of different proportions of MgO along with its effects on the physical and thermal properties of the prepared refractories were investigated. kaolin/MgO mixture was milled and classified into various size fractions, the kaolin (less than 105 µm) and MgO (less than 50µm). The specimens were mixed from kaolin and MgO in range M1 (95+5)%, M2 (90+10) %, M3(85+15)% and M4(80+20)% respectively. The green specimens were shaped by the semi-dry method using a hydraulic press and a molding pressure of (5)Ton with addition of (9-12) %wt. of pva solution ratio. After molding and drying, the specimens were fired at (1100, 1200 and 1300)°C. Physical properties (density, porosity, Water Absorption) and thermal properties (thermal conductivity) were measured for all the prepared samples. The results showed that the porosity was increased and the density was decreased, such increase &decrease affected on to the thermal properties for refractory.

  2. Thermal Transmittance of Porous Hollow Clay Brick by Guarded Hot Box Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsoo

    2018-03-01

    The thermal property of a porous hollow clay brick was determined by measuring the thermal transmittance of the wall made of porous hollow clay bricks. Prior to the production of porous hollow clay bricks, nonporous and porous tiny clay bricks were prepared to determine the physico-mechanical properties by modifying the amount of wood flour and firing temperature. The bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and then fired in an electric furnace. Their physico-mechanical properties were measured by water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, and compressive strength. The porous tiny clay bricks were produced with three types of wood flour: coarse wood flour (1-0.36 mm), medium-sized wood flour (0.36-0.15 mm), and fine wood flour (< 0.08 mm). The thermal transmittance of porous hollow clay bricks was determined through the guarded hot box method, which measures the wall made of porous hollow clay bricks and nonporous cement bricks. The two walls had a thermal transmittance of 1.42 and 2.72 W\\cdot m^{-2}\\cdot K^{-1}, respectively. The difference in thermal transmittance was due to the pores created with fine wood flour (< 0.08 mm) as a pore-forming agent.

  3. Management of spent shea waste: An instrumental characterization and valorization in clay bricks construction.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-06-01

    This work studies the reuse of spent shea waste as an economic construction material in improving fired clay bricks manufacture aside providing a novel approach to ecofriendly managing its excessive generated from the shea agroindustry. For this purpose, the influence of spent shea waste addition on the chemical, mineralogical, molecular bonding and technological properties (i.e. compressive strength and water absorption) of the fired clay bricks were extensively investigated. The results indicated that the chemical, mineralogical, phase transformations, molecular bonding and thermal behavior of the produced bricks were practically unaffected by the addition of spent shea waste. However, spent shea waste addition increased the compressive strengths and water absorptions of the brick products. Potential performance benefits of reusing spent shea waste was improved fluxing agents, energy-contribution reaction, excellent porosifying effect, reduced thermal conductivity and enhanced compressive strengths of the brick products. This research has therefore provided compelling evidence that could create newfound route for the synergistic ecofriendly reuse of spent shea waste to enhance clay brick construction aside being a potential mainstream disposal option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of low thermal conductivity brick using rice husk, corn cob and waste tea in clay brick manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saman, Nor Sarwani Mat; Deraman, Rafikullah; Hamzah, Mohamad Hazmi

    2017-12-01

    The consumption of energy for cooling the indoor environment of buildings in Malaysia is high and mostly related to poor thermal performance of the building envelope. It is evident that reducing energy consumption of buildings has become vital, taking into considerations the limitation of conventional energy resources and the adverse effects associated with the use of such type of energy on the environment. Therefore, selecting the proper thermal properties of a building envelope play a major role in determining the energy consumption patterns and comfort conditions in enclosed spaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of rice husk (RH), corn cob (CC) and waste tea (WT) as an additive agent in a fired clay brick manufacturing to produce an improved thermal conductivity of final brick product. In the execution of this study, these agricultural wastes were mixed together with clay soil in different percentages, ranging from 0 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % by weight. Physical and mechanical properties including soil physical properties, density, shrinkage, water absorption, compressive strength as well as thermal conductivity were measured, reported and discussed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990, BS 3921: 1985, MS 76: 1972: Part 2 and ASTM C 518. The results show that RH at 7.5 % is the most effective combination to achieve low thermal conductivity of fired clay brick. This finding suggests that RH waste is a potentially good additive material to be used for thermal properties enhancement of the building envelope.

  5. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties in Clay Brick Masonry by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Clay Brick Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumavat, Hemraj Ramdas

    2016-09-01

    The compressive stress-strain behavior and mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its constituents clay bricks and mortar, have been studied by several laboratory tests. Using linear regression analysis, a analytical model has been proposed for obtaining the stress-strain curves for masonry that can be used in the analysis and design procedures. The model requires only the compressive strengths of bricks and mortar as input data, which can be easily obtained experimentally. Development of analytical model from the obtained experimental results of Young's modulus and compressive strength. Simple relationships have been identified for obtaining the modulus of elasticity of bricks, mortar, and masonry from their corresponding compressive strengths. It was observed that the proposed analytical model clearly demonstrates a reasonably good prediction of the stress-strain curves when compared with the experimental curves.

  7. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  8. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Radon exhalation study of manganese clay residue and usability in brick production.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tibor; Shahrokhi, Amin; Sas, Zoltán; Vigh, Tamás; Somlai, János

    2017-03-01

    The reuse of by-products and residue streams is an important topic due to environmental and financial aspects. Manganese clay is a residue of manganese ore processing and is generated in huge amounts. This residue may contain some radionuclides with elevated concentrations. In this study, the radon emanation features and the massic exhalation rate of the heat-treated manganese clay were determined with regard to brick production. From the manganese mud depository, 20 samples were collected and after homogenization radon exhalation characteristics were determined as a function of firing temperatures from 100 to 750 °C. The major naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th concentrations were 607 ± 34, 52 ± 6 and 40 ± 5 Bq kg -1 , respectively, comparable with normal clay samples. Similar to our previous studies a strong correlation was found between the internal structure and the radon emanation. The radon emanation coefficient decreased by ∼96% from 0.23 at 100 °C to 0.01 at 750 °C. The massic radon exhalation rate of samples fired at 750 °C reduced by 3% compared to samples fired at 100 °C. In light of the results, reusing of manganese clay as a brick additive is possible without any constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    2016-11-10

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m 3 ) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m 3 ) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more available after firing for all the investigated materials and that further optimisation is therefore necessary prior to incorporation in bricks.

  11. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO 2 (52.97 wt%) and Al 2 O 3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    PubMed

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brick and Structural Clay Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for brick and structural clay products by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  14. Making fired bricks with spent equilibrium catalyst-a technical feasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, M.-L.; Chen, L.-M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chou, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking in an oil refinery uses a catalyst, such as an alumino-silicate zeolite, in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. A small fraction of the catalyst is continually replaced with fresh catalyst to maintain activity. In North America, more than 400 tons of spent alumino-silicate equilibrium catalyst (spent e-cat), and worldwide, more than 1,100 tons, are generated daily, most of which is disposed of in landfills (municipal and on-site facilities). In this study, three spent e-cat samples were tested in a value-added application that would utilize this waste in the manufacturing of fired bricks. The results of this study indicate that spent e-cat is a technically feasible raw material substitute for the clay and shale commonly used in fired brick production. Fired bricks produced with up to 30 wt% of spent e-cat showed good physical appearance and their water absorption properties met the ASTM C 62 specifications for building bricks of either the moderate-or severe-weathering grade.

  15. Leaching and geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing coal wastes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Yassine; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Edahbi, Mohamed; Mansori, Mohammed; Hakkou, Rachid

    2018-03-01

    High amounts of mine wastes are continuously produced by the mining industry all over the world. Recycling possibility of some wastes in fired brick making has been investigated and showed promising results. However, little attention is given to the leaching behavior of mine wastes based fired bricks. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing different types of coal wastes. The leachates were analyzed for their concentration of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn and sulfates using different leaching tests; namely Tank Leaching tests (NEN 7375), Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and pH dependence test (EPA, 1313). The results showed that the release of constituents of potential interest was highly reduced after thermal treatment and were immobilized within the glassy matrix of the fired bricks. Moreover, it was also highlighted that the final pH of all fired samples changed and stabilized around 8-8.5 when the initial pH of leaching solution was in the range 2.5-11.5. The release of heavy metals and metalloids (As) tended to decrease with the increase of pH from acidic to alkaline solutions while Mo displayed a different trend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the effectiveness of using agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane baggasse (SB) to produce low thermal conductivity clay bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, Mohamad Hazmi; Deraman, Rafikullah; Saman, Nor Sarwani Mat

    2017-12-01

    In Malaysia, 45% of the average household electricity was consumed by air conditioners to create an acceptable indoor environment. This high energy consumption was mostly related to poor thermal performance of the building envelope. Therefore, selecting a low thermal conductivity of brick wall was of considerable importance in creating energy efficient buildings. Previously, numerous researchers reported the potential used of agricultural waste as an additive in building materials to enhance their thermal properties. The aim of this study is to examine how agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) can act as additive agents in a fired clay brick manufacturing process to produce a low thermal conductivity clay brick. In this study, these agricultural wastes were individually mixed with clay soil in different proportions ranging from 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight. Physical and mechanical properties including soil physical properties, as well as thermal conductivity were performed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990, BS 3921: 1985 and ASTM C518. The results reveal that incorporating 5% of EFB as an additive component into the brick making process significantly enhances the production of a low thermal conductivity clay brick as compared to other waste alternatives tested. This finding suggests that EFB waste was a potential additive material to be used for the thermal property enhancement of the building envelope.

  17. Final Regulations to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions from Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing and Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a February 2003 and September 2015 fact sheet with information regarding the final rules to the NESHAP for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing and the NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing

  18. Quantification of atmospheric emissions and energy metrics from simulated clamp kiln technology in the clay brick industry.

    PubMed

    Akinshipe, Oladapo; Kornelius, Gerrit

    2018-05-01

    The quantification of atmospheric emissions from clamp kilns in the clay brick industry has met with limited success globally. The complex configuration of clamp kilns using coal or other carbonaceous fuels and uncertainties regarding kiln combustion conditions, has proven to be a hurdle in measurement of emissions and standardization of process and energy metrics. To enable quantification of these metrics, a model kiln was designed to simulate operating conditions and configuration similar to transverse slice of a typical full-scale clamp kiln, but with lower capacity (20,000 to 35,000 bricks per cycle). Hourly measurements of flue gas at extraction duct were recorded for thirteen firing cycles obtained from various source factories, each lasting 8-14 days, for SO 2 , NO 2 , NO, PM, CO and CO 2 emissions in the extraction stack. A statistical mean efficiency for model kiln emissions capturing and channelling capacity was calculated from sulfur mass balance results of batches that lie within 95% confidence interval of assumed true mean (100%) to give 84.2%. Final emission factors (mean ± standard deviation) were quantified as 22.5 ± 18.8 g/brick for CO, 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO, 0.0 g/brick for NO 2 , 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO x , 1.07 ± 0.7 g/brick for SO 2 , 378 ± 223 g/brick for CO 2 ; 0.96 ± 0.5 g/brick for PM 10 ; as well as 1.53 g/brick for hydrocarbons. Energy analysis indicate that a significant reduction of 0.9 MJ/kg (36%) in energy use could be achieved by clamp kiln operators, thereby reducing input costs, and significantly reducing atmospheric emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupled Effect of Elevated Temperature and Cooling Conditions on the Properties of Ground Clay Brick Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Abd El Aziz, Magdy; Abdelaleem, Salh; Heikal, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    When a concrete structure is exposed to fire and cooling, some deterioration in its chemical resistivity and mechanical properties takes place. This deterioration can reach a level at which the structure may have to be thoroughly renovated or completely replaced. In this investigation, four types of cement mortars, ground clay bricks (GCB)/sand namely 0/3, 1/2, 2/1 and 3/0, were used. Three different cement contents were used: 350, 400 and 450 kg/m3. All the mortars were prepared and cured in tap water for 3 months and then kept in laboratory atmospheric conditions up to 6 months. The specimens were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 700°C for 3h and then cooled by three different conditions: water, furnace, and air cooling. The results show that all the mortars subjected to fire, irrespective of cooling mode, suffered a significant reduction in compressive strength. However, the mortars cooled in air exhibited a relativity higher reduction in compressive strength rather than those water or furnace cooled. The mortars containing GCB/sand (3/0) and GCB/sand (1/2) exhibited a relatively higher thermal stability than the others.

  20. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical and toxicological characterization of the bricks produced from clay/sewage sludge mixture.

    PubMed

    Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize chemical properties of clay bricks containing 20 % of sewage sludge. After detection of potentially hazardous metals, we simulated precipitation exposure of such material to determine the amount of heavy metals that could leach out of the bricks. Metals, such as copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, etc., were detected in leachate in low concentrations. Moreover, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to brick leachate for 24 h in order to evaluate its possible negative impact on human cells and genome in vitro. Cytotoxicity tests showed no effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes viability after exposure to brick's leachate. On the contrary, the alkaline comet assay showed slight but significant increase in DNA damage with all three parameters tested. As we might predict, interactions of several heavy metals in low concentrations could be responsible for DNA damaging effect. In that manner, our findings suggest that leachates from sewage sludge-produced bricks may lead to adverse effects on the exposed human population, and that more stabile bricks should be developed to minimize leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Bricks with lower percentage of the sludge may be one of the solutions to reduce the toxic effect of the final product.

  2. Tunable Gas Permeability of Polymer-Clay Nano Brick Wall Thin Film Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite (MMT) clay and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient. After 40 polymer-clay layers have been deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below 0.35 cm^3/m^2 . day when the pH of PEI solution is 10. This low permeability is due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall creates an extremely tortuous path at thicknesses below 250 nm and clay concentration above 80 wt%. A 70-bilayer PEI-MMT assembly has an undetectable OTR (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day), which equates to a permeability below SiOx when multiplied by its film thickness of 231 nm. With optical transparency greater than 86% and the ability to be microwaved, these thin film composites are good candidates for flexible electronics packaging and foil replacement for food.

  3. Thermophysical and mechanical characterization of clay bricks reinforced by alfa or straw fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhamdouni, Y.; Khabbazi, A.; Benayad, C.; Mounir, S.; Dadi, A.

    2017-03-01

    This work is part of the valuation of local materials such as clay (earth), alfa fiber and straw fiber. The goal is to use these materials as bricks in rural construction. These materials are abundant, natural, and renewable. The objective of this work is to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of a new material by mixing clay (chosen as the binder) with different mass percentages of alfa fiber (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%), and to compare these results with those of materials often used in the construction of individual houses in rural Morocco (clay + straw). The results obtained prove to us that using straw fibers can reduce the thermal conductivity compared to alfa fiber, which allows to have energy savings of 2% to 7%. By against, alfa fibers can improve the mechanical behavior of clay-based materials when compared to the clay + straw material (an increase of 8% to 17% in the tractive resistance by bending and 6% to 18% for compression resistance). These results also specify the optimal usage conditions of these fibers (alfa and straw) in the clay bricks.

  4. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  5. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP).

    PubMed

    Grande, Ernesto; Imbimbo, Maura; Sacco, Elio

    2011-03-21

    In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP) materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out.

  6. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP)

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Ernesto; Imbimbo, Maura; Sacco, Elio

    2011-01-01

    In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP) materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out. PMID:28880008

  7. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick weremore » shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.« less

  8. Stabilization of arsenic and fluoride bearing spent adsorbent in clay bricks: Preparation, characterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Vineet Kumar; Mondal, Prasenjit

    2017-09-15

    The presence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater has been observed throughout the world. Many technologies have been developed by various research groups in order to tackle this problem. Adsorption has emerged as one of the best possible technique for the removal of arsenic, fluoride and many other pollutants from drinking water. Although a considerable amount of work has been published on the adsorptive removal of arsenic and fluoride, the area related to the management of spent adsorbent is not well explored. Present paper deals with the adsorptive removal of arsenic and fluoride from aqueous solution by three different types of adsorbents, namely, thermally treated laterite (TTL), acid-base treated laterite (ABTL) and aluminum oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles (AHNP). Under the experimental conditions in batch operation, the adsorption capacities of TTL, ABLT and AHNP for arsenic are found to be 6.43 μg/g, 9.25 μg/g and 48.5 μg/g respectively, whereas for fluoride, these values are found as 0.21 mg/g, 0.85 mg/g and 4.65 mg/g respectively. After adsorption, the spent adsorbents have been stabilized in the form of clay bricks. The effects of spent adsorbent concentration on the properties of bricks and their leaching properties are investigated. The bricks have been tested for various properties like density, percentage water absorption, shrinkage, compressive strength and efflorescence. The maximum values of density and shrinkage of the bricks formed are found as 2.3 g/cm 3 and 10.2%, whereas the percentage water absorption and compressive strength of the bricks are found between 11 and 14% and 35 to 150 kgf/cm 2 respectively. All the test results are in accordance with the criteria set by Indian Standards. The leaching test of arsenic and fluoride from the bricks reveals that their maximum values in leachate are 510 μg/L and 2.1 mg/L respectively, which are below the permissible limits of USEPA standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures. PMID:28773420

  11. Investigation into the effect of some additives on the mechanical strength, quality and thermal conductivity of clay bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Qandil, A.; Qattous, M. A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It was repeatedly reported that the clay bricks industry in Jordan is facing both weak mechanical strength and poor quality which caused marketing problems where it is expected to serve the increasing demand of housing in the country especially after the political crises in the neighboring countries Iraq and Syria. It is therefore anticipated that improvement of the mechanical strength and quality of the produced clay evaluation of the brick industry in Jordan is worth investigating. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigation obtained from field visits to the factories producing clay bricks were carried out. Furthermore, the effect of using some additives from locally available materials namely: Battn El-Ghoul Clay, Suweileh sand and Olive extracts on the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and surface quality of the produced bricks is investigated and discussed. The experimental results indicated that thermal conductivity, color and durability were all enhanced and the ultimate compressive strength was reduced but remained higher than the acceptable value for brickwork.

  12. Large-scale, thick, self-assembled, nacre-mimetic brick-walls as fire barrier coatings on textiles

    PubMed Central

    Das, Paramita; Thomas, Helga; Moeller, Martin; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highly loaded polymer/clay nanocomposites with layered structures are emerging as robust fire retardant surface coatings. However, time-intensive sequential deposition processes, e.g. layer-by-layer strategies, hinders obtaining large coating thicknesses and complicates an implementation into existing technologies. Here, we demonstrate a single-step, water-borne approach to prepare thick, self-assembling, hybrid fire barrier coatings of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/montmorillonite (MTM) with well-defined, bioinspired brick-wall nanostructure, and showcase their application on textile. The coating thickness on the textile is tailored using different concentrations of CMC/MTM (1–5 wt%) in the coating bath. While lower concentrations impart conformal coatings of fibers, thicker continuous coatings are obtained on the textile surface from highest concentration. Comprehensive fire barrier and fire retardancy tests elucidate the increasing fire barrier and retardancy properties with increasing coating thickness. The materials are free of halogen and heavy metal atoms, and are sourced from sustainable and partly even renewable building blocks. We further introduce an amphiphobic surface modification on the coating to impart oil and water repellency, as well as self-cleaning features. Hence, our study presents a generic, environmentally friendly, scalable, and one-pot coating approach that can be introduced into existing technologies to prepare bioinspired, thick, fire barrier nanocomposite coatings on diverse surfaces. PMID:28054589

  13. Large-scale, thick, self-assembled, nacre-mimetic brick-walls as fire barrier coatings on textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Paramita; Thomas, Helga; Moeller, Martin; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highly loaded polymer/clay nanocomposites with layered structures are emerging as robust fire retardant surface coatings. However, time-intensive sequential deposition processes, e.g. layer-by-layer strategies, hinders obtaining large coating thicknesses and complicates an implementation into existing technologies. Here, we demonstrate a single-step, water-borne approach to prepare thick, self-assembling, hybrid fire barrier coatings of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/montmorillonite (MTM) with well-defined, bioinspired brick-wall nanostructure, and showcase their application on textile. The coating thickness on the textile is tailored using different concentrations of CMC/MTM (1-5 wt%) in the coating bath. While lower concentrations impart conformal coatings of fibers, thicker continuous coatings are obtained on the textile surface from highest concentration. Comprehensive fire barrier and fire retardancy tests elucidate the increasing fire barrier and retardancy properties with increasing coating thickness. The materials are free of halogen and heavy metal atoms, and are sourced from sustainable and partly even renewable building blocks. We further introduce an amphiphobic surface modification on the coating to impart oil and water repellency, as well as self-cleaning features. Hence, our study presents a generic, environmentally friendly, scalable, and one-pot coating approach that can be introduced into existing technologies to prepare bioinspired, thick, fire barrier nanocomposite coatings on diverse surfaces.

  14. The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiping; Deng, Qiufeng; Li, Chao; Xie, Yue; Dong, Zeqin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-30

    Novel lightweight bricks have been produced by sintering mixes of zinc smelting slag and clay. A two-stage sintered process has been proposed to recovery of Zn and Pb and reutilization of the zinc smelting slag. In the first stage of the process, called reduction and volatilization procedure, zinc and lead were reduced by the carbon contained in the zinc smelting slag and volatilized into the dust, and the dust can be used as a secondary zinc resource. In the second stage of the process, called oxidation sintering procedure, a lightweight brick was produced. Samples containing up to 60 wt.% zinc smelting slag and 40 wt.% kaolin clay were reduced at 1050°C for 6h, and then sintered at 1050°C for 4h. The recoveries of Zn and Pb from the brick are 94.5 ± 0.6% and 97.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. Low bulk density (1.42 g cm(-3)) and relatively high compressive strength (2 2MPa) sintered bricks were produced, and the leaching toxicity of the sintered bricks was below the regulatory thresholds of Chinese National Standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Compressive behavior of energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kai; Wu, Cai

    2018-03-01

    The energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has a broad development prospects due to its merits of thermal insulation, energy conservation, beautiful, and natural. The construction and characteristics of this wall are introduced and analyzed in this paper. Experimental studies of samples are also conducted to investigate its compressive performance. The results show that the energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has high compressive capacity. It has considerable application prospect, the study in this paper provides foundation to further studies.

  16. Contribution to the study of thermal properties of clay bricks reinforced by date palm fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhermeche, A.; Kriker, A.; Dahmani, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Saharan regions of Algeria are characterized by a hot and dry climate. The most used cement materials such as theconcrete or the mortar blocks have bad thermal characteristic. However, these regions have several local materials: clay, dune sand and some natural fibers, which are formerly proved their thermal efficiency. The price of construction material used therefore depends on the international market constantly destabilized by theeconomic crisis coupled with the energy crisis in recent times. To produce a framework of life at a lower cost, it is important, therefore, to circumvent the influence of the cost of energy by upgrading the local materials of construction. In order to improve thermal performances in Saharan building materials this study was lanced. The aim of this research isthen to fabricate some bricks using three local materials: namely the clay, sand dune and the fibers of date palm. The percentage of sand and fibers varies from 0% to 40% and 0% to 3% by mass respectively. A sand dune of Ain El Beida of Ouargla of Algeria was used. Clay was extracted from Beldet Amer of Touggourt Ouargla Algérie. The fibers used in this study were vegetable fibers from date palm of Ouargla Algeria. The results showed that increasing in the mass fraction of sand and of fiber were beneficial for improving thermal properties. As function of increasing the percentage of sand dune and fibers there were: A decrease in: thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity and there were an increase in the thermal resistance.

  17. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete with demolished waste concrete aggregate and clay brick aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chaocan; Lou, Cong; Du, Geng; Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhiwu; Li, Liqin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of the replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) with either recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) or recycled clay brick aggregate (RBA) on the compressive strengths of the hardened concrete. Two grades (C25 and C50) of concrete were investigated, which were achieved by using different water-to-cement ratios. In each grade concrete five different replacement rates, 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were considered. In order to improve the performance of the recycled aggregates in the concrete mixes, the RCA and RBA were carefully sieved by using the optimal degradation. In this way the largest reduction in the 28-day compressive strength was found to be only 7.2% and 9.6% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RCA, and 11% and 13% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RBA. In general, the concrete with RCA has better performance than the concrete with RBA. The comparison of the present experimental results with those reported in literature for hardened concrete with either RCA or RBA demonstrates the effectiveness in improving the compressive strength by using the optimal gradation of recycled aggregates.

  18. Distribution and removal of organochlorine pesticides in waste clay bricks from an abandoned manufacturing plant using low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Li, Fasheng; Kelly, Ryan M; Xue, Nandong

    2018-04-01

    The distribution of pollutants in waste clay bricks from an organochlorine pesticide-contaminated site was investigated, and removal of the pollutants using a thermal desorption technology was studied. The results showed that the contents of HCHs in both the surface and the inner layer of the bricks were slightly higher than those of DDTs. The total pore volume of the bricks was 37.7 to 41.6% with an increase from external to internal surfaces. The removal efficiency by thermal treatment was within 62 to 83% for HCHs and DDTs in bricks when the temperature was raised from 200 to 250 °C after 1 h. HCHs were more easily removed than DDTs with a higher temperature. Either intraparticle or surface diffusion controls the desorption processes of pollutants in bricks. It was feasible to use the polluted bricks after removal of the pollutants by low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

  19. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  20. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  1. Effect of flood conditions on the deterioration of porous clay-based brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, L.; Tomor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Man-made materials represent an increasingly large proportion of geomaterials that are used to build up a rapidly expanding urbanised landscape. The deterioration of such materials is of increasing concern, in particular in light of the projected increase in storm and flood events and their associated high water levels. The effect of prolonged saturation in porous materials, man-made as well as natural, can lead to accelerated deterioration. This can be of particular concern for load-bearing structural materials, for example bridges. In this study, the effect of moisture movement has been investigated for brick masonry, as one of the most commonly used porous building materials. Saturation of brick masonry can be of particular concern for historical masonry, such as masonry arch bridges in conjunction with under increasing levels of long-term traffic loading. While flooding can lead to scour and sudden collapse of bridges, saturation can also lead to accelerated medium and long-term deterioration. A series of small-scale laboratory tests have been carried out on brick masonry to identify the effects of saturation on the material properties and changes in the rate of deterioration. Brick masonry prisms have been loaded to failure under quasi-static and long-term cyclic compression and monitored with the help of acoustic emission technique, accelerometers, linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), permeametry and brick surface hardness measurements. Under quasi-static loading saturated samples showed significant reduction in the load capacity and increased fracture development. Under fatigue loading the number of cycles to failure reduced significantly for saturated specimens and characteristic changes in material parameters have been related to stages of fatigue deterioration. Test results indicated that increasing flood events can accelerate moisture-related deterioration in porous brick masonry.

  2. Testing the Multispecimen Absolute Paleointensity Method with Archaeological Baked Clays and Bricks: New Data for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    The domain-state corrected multiple-specimen paleointensity determination technique (MSP-DSC, Fabian & Leonhardt, EPSL 297, 84, 2010) has been tested for archaeological baked clays and bricks. The following procedure was applied: (1) Exclusion of secondary overprints using alternating field (AF) or thermal demagnetization and assignment of characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction. (2) Determination of magneto mineralogical alteration using anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) or temperature dependence of susceptibility. (3) Measurement of ARM anisotropy tensor, calculation of the ancient magnetic field direction. (4) Sister specimens were subjected to the MSP-DSC technique aligned (anti-)parallel to the ancient magnetic field direction. (5) Several checks were applied in order to exclude data points from further evaluation: (a) The accuracy of orientation (< 10°), (b) absence of secondary components (< 10°), (c) use of a considerable NRM fraction (20 to 80%), (d) weak alteration (smaller than for domain state change) and finally (e) domain state correction was applied. Bricks and baked clays from archaeological sites with ages between 645 BC and 2003 AD have been subjected to MSP-DSC absolute paleointensity (PI) determination. Aims of study are to check precision and reliability of the method. The obtained PI values are compared with direct field observation, the IGRF, the GUFM1 or Thellier results. The Thellier experiments often show curved lines and pTRM checks fail for higher temperatures. Nevertheless in the low temperature range straight lines have been obtained but they provide scattered paleointensity values. Mean paleointensites have relative errors often exceeding 10%, which are not considered as high quality PI estimates. MSP-DSC experiments for the structures older than 300 years are still under progress. The paleointensities obtained from the MSP-DSC experiments for the young materials (after 1700 AD) have small relative errors of a

  3. Analysis of aluminum base-reaction effect in density, porosity, and thermal insulation of porous fire bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismogroho, Agus Sukarto; Firmansyah, Trisna Bagus; Meidianto, Alwi; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Amal, Muhamad Ikhlasul

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of aluminium corrosion reaction on the density, porosity, and thermal insulation capability of porous fire bricks. The reaction between aluminium and alkaline solution produces hydrogen and other sediment products. The test specimens of fire bricks were made from the mixture of castable cement, aluminium powder of 325 mesh in size (0, 0.1, 1, and 2 wt% with respect to castable cement), and 0.185 M KOH solution. The structural examination of the specimens shows the increase of porosity to 22.7 - 30.6% and the decrease of density in the range of 1.135-1.503 g/mL. In addition, the samples possess average pore size of 0.001-0.003 cm3 with the thermal insulation in the range of 47-78%.

  4. Effects of using arsenic-iron sludge wastes in brick making.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Khondoker Mahbub; Fukushi, Kensuke; Turikuzzaman, Kazi; Moniruzzaman, S M

    2014-06-01

    The arsenic-iron sludge generated in most of the treatment systems around the world is discharged into the nearest watercourse, which leads to accumulative rise of arsenic and iron concentrations in water. In this study, attempts were made to use the arsenic-iron sludge in making bricks and to analyze the corresponding effects on brick properties. The water treatment plant sludge is extremely close to brick clay in chemical composition. So, the sludge could be a potential substitute for brick clay. This study involved the addition of sludge with ratios 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of the total weight of sludge-clay mixture. The physical and chemical properties of the produced bricks were then determined and evaluated and compared to control brick made entirely from clay. Results of different tests indicated that the sludge proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors in determining the quality of bricks. The compressive strength of 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% sludge containing brick samples were found to be 14.1 MPa, 15.1 MPa, 9.4 MPa and 7.1 MPa, respectively. These results indicate that the compressive strength of prepared bricks initially increased and then decreased with the increase of sludge proportion. Leaching characteristics of burnt bricks were determined with the variation of pH at a constant temperature. The optimum amount of sludge that could be mixed with clay to produce good bonding of clay-sludge bricks was found to be 6% (safely maximum) by weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Simone P S; Estevão, Luciana R M; Nascimento, Regina S V

    2008-01-01

    Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials. PMID:27877975

  7. Sustainable use of tannery sludge in brick manufacturing in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Juel, Md Ariful Islam; Mizan, Al; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2017-02-01

    Chromium-rich tannery sludge generated from tanneries has the potential to become a serious environmental burden in Bangladesh and a promising avenue for disposal of this sludge is by stabilizing it in clay brick products. But for sustainable industrial application of such technique it needs to be ensured first that the engineering properties of bricks as a building material are not diminished by addition of sludge, the process becomes energy efficient compared to alternatives and the use of such bricks do not pose any harmful environmental effects in the long run. In this study, clay bricks were prepared with different proportions of sludge (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by dry weight) in both laboratory-controlled and field conditions and their suitability as a construction material was assessed based on their strength, water absorption, shrinkage, weight-loss on ignition and bulk density. For the sludge incorporated bricks, the compressive strength ranged from 10.98MPa to 29.61MPa and water absorption ranged from 7.2% to 20.9%, which in most cases met both the Bangladesh and ASTM criteria for bricks as a construction material. Volumetric shrinkage, weight loss and efflorescence properties of sludge-amended bricks were found to be favorable and it was estimated that an energy saving of 15-47% could potentially be achieved during firing with 10-40% tannery sludge-amended bricks. The quality of sludge-amended bricks made in the brick kiln was relatively inferior compared to bricks produced in the laboratory due to operating in a less-controlled environment with respect to maintaining adequate compaction and optimum moisture content. The leaching behavior of several heavy metals (Cr, As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn) from sludge-amended bricks has been found to be insignificant and far below the Dutch regulations and USEPA regulatory limits. Results from this study indicate that tannery sludge can be sustainably stabilized in clay bricks and large-scale application of this

  8. Fire retardancy assessment of polypropylene composite filed with nano clay prepared from Iraqi bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem Salih, Watheq

    2018-05-01

    Fire retardants have an extraordinary importance because of their role in saving the people, property and reducing the damages and minimizing the dangers resulting from fires and burning of polymeric composites which are used in different civil and industrial fields. The work in this paper can be divided into two main stages. In first one nano-clay was manufactured from Iraqi bentonite and it was characterized using AFM, XRD, XRF, SEM, and BET. The AFM test showed the particle size of prepared nano clay was about 99.25 nm. In the second stage, polypropylene/nano clay composites at three low loading percents (0%,2%,4%,6%) were formulated via twin screw extruder. The fire retardancy tests included burning rate according to ASTM:D-635 and maximum flame height of flame according to ASTM:D-3014. Besides, the mechanical tests and thermal behavior of prepared samples were investigated. The results showed that (4%) of nano-clay had the maximum fire retardancy and while at (2%) loading, the maximum value of tensile strength and Yong modulus were obtained. The maximum heat of fusion was recorded for 6% nano clay sample. The final results assessment confirmed on the possibility of using low loadings of prepared nano clay to improve the fire retardancy, mechanical and thermal properties successfully.

  9. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2015-01-25

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Training Guidelines: Bricks Operatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual offers guidelines for training of personnel involved in the manufacture of bricks, including employment practices; handling and preparation of raw materials; making, drying, firing, sorting, packing, and loading of bricks. A major emphasis is placed on industrial safety. (MF)

  11. Bricks in historical buildings of Toledo City: characterisation and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Gracia, Mercedes

    2003-01-15

    Two different types of ancient bricks (12th to 14th centuries) collected from historical buildings of Toledo (Spain) were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. Physical properties such as water absorption and suction, porosity, density and compression strength were also determined. Several minerals found in the brick matrix, such as garnet, let us infer raw material sources; calcite, dolomite, illite and neoformed gehlenite and diopside phases, on temperature reached in firing; secondary calcite, on first cooling scenarios; and manganese micronodules, on latemore » pollution environments. XRD and DTA of original and refired samples supply information about firing temperatures. Additional data on firing conditions and type of the original clay are provided by the Moessbauer study. Physical properties of both types of bricks were compared and correlated with raw materials and fabric and firing technology employed. The physicochemical characterisation of these bricks provides valuable data for restoration purposes to formulate new specific bricks using neighbouring raw materials.« less

  12. Fire performance of fiber board coated with nano kaolin-clay film

    Treesearch

    Zhijia Liu; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Fiberboard is a common interior material used both in China and the United States of America. The increase in demand for interior materials has raised concerns regarding combustibility of the materials. The pyrolysis characteristics of fiber, phenolic resin (PF), and nano kaolin-clay (NK) were investigated using thermogravimetry. The fire performances of samples coated...

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  14. Experimental study on compressive strength of sediment brick masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woen, Ean Lee; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Chao-Wei, Tang; Tamunif, Muhammad Thaqif

    2018-02-01

    The effects of pre-wetted unit bricks, mortar type and slenderness ratio of prisms on the compressive strength and failure mode of newly developed sediment brick have been evaluated and compared to clay brick and cement-sand bricks. The results show that pre-wetted sediment brick masonry exhibits higher compressive strength of up to 20% compared to the dry sediment masonry. Using cement-lime mortar leads to lower compressive strength compared to cement mortar. However, the sediment brick masonry with the cement lime mortar exhibit higher compressive strength in comparison with cement mortar masonry. More of diagonal shear cracks have been observed in the failure mode of the sediment bricks masonry compared to clay and cement-sand bricks masonry that show mostly vertical cracks and crushing. The sediment unit bricks display compressive strength in between clay and cement-sand bricks.

  15. Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M.

    The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

  16. Rapid growing clay coatings to reduce the fire threat of furniture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Li, Yu-Chin; Pitts, William M; Werrel, Martin; Davis, Rick D

    2014-02-12

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly coatings reduce the flammability of textiles and polyurethane foam but require extensive repetitive processing steps to produce the desired coating thickness and nanoparticle fire retardant content that translates into a fire retardant coating. Reported here is a new hybrid bi-layer (BL) approach to fabricate fire retardant coatings on polyurethane foam. Utilizing hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction along with the pH adjustment, a fast growing coating with significant fire retardant clay content was achieved. This hybrid BL coating exhibits significant fire performance improvement in both bench scale and real scale tests. Cone calorimetry bench scale tests show a 42% and 71% reduction in peak and average heat release rates, respectively. Real scale furniture mockups constructed using the hybrid LbL coating reduced the peak and average heat release rates by 53% and 63%, respectively. This is the first time that the fire safety in a real scale test has been reported for any LbL technology. This hybrid LbL coating is the fastest approach to develop an effective fire retardant coating for polyurethane foam.

  17. Fire Events and Soil Thermometry: The Applications of Clay Chemistry for Tracing Temperature Changes in Soils and Sediments Below Surface Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E.; Werts, S. P.; Gelabert, M.

    2016-12-01

    Fires in the natural environment affect the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils. However, fires may also alter the mineralogy of the geologic material in which it comes in contact. Previous experiments on high temperature alteration of clays indicate that dehydration, oxidation, and hydroxylation in clay minerals can occur progressively in that order at increasing temperatures up to 500°C. It is also well known that wildfire events can heat soils to these temperature ranges several centimeters deep. In this experiment, alterations in clay chemistry were used as a tool to investigate fire intensity along with the changing morphology of clay minerals. For data collection, small camp fires were set in York County, SC and temperatures were recorded using a datalogger system to 5 cm deep during the fire event. Control samples were taken adjacent to the fires to compare the changing morphology of the minerals when heated. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the clay mineralogy. The clay from soil samples was identified as hydrous kaolinite, anhydrous kaolinite, and varying types of goethite. To observe the dehydration, oxidation, and hydroxylation of clay minerals, scanning electron microscopy with emission dispersive spectroscopy was used to identify the O/cation ratios present, which would indicate changes in the oxidation state of the clay minerals. By mapping the changes in O/cation ratios with temperature in silicates, we are able to trace the temperature of the sediments during fire events. This research suggests it may be possible to utilize these geochemical trends to aid in soil and sediment temperature investigations in both archeological and modern soil and surface process investigations.

  18. Clays, specialty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the specialty clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. The specialty clays mined in the U.S. are ball clay, fuller's earth, bentonite, fire clay, and kaolin. Sales of specialty clays in the U.S. were around 17 Mt in 1997. Approximately 53 kt of specialty clays were imported.

  19. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  20. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  1. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  2. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  3. Heat and Moisture Transport and Storage Parameters of Bricks Affected by the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočí, Václav; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Jerman, Miloš; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The effect of external environment on heat and moisture transport and storage properties of the traditional fired clay brick, sand-lime brick and highly perforated ceramic block commonly used in the Czech Republic and on their hygrothermal performance in building envelopes is analyzed by a combination of experimental and computational techniques. The experimental measurements of thermal, hygric and basic physical parameters are carried out in the reference state and after a 3-year exposure of the bricks to real climatic conditions of the city of Prague. The obtained results showed that after 3 years of weathering the porosity of the analyzed bricks increased up to five percentage points which led to an increase in liquid and gaseous moisture transport parameters and a decrease in thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the studied bricks was done using both reference and weather-affected data. The simulated results indicated an improvement in the annual energy balances and a decrease in the time-of-wetness functions as a result of the use of data obtained after the 3-year exposure to the environment. The effects of weathering on both heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of the analyzed bricks and on their hygrothermal performance were found significant despite the occurrence of warm winters in the time period of 2012-2015 when the brick specimens were exposed to the environment.

  4. Characterization of refractory brick based on local raw material from Lampung Province - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad; Suryana, Yayat I.; Isnugroho, Kusno; Aji, Bramantyo B.; Birawidha, David C.; Hendronursito, Yusup

    2018-04-01

    Refractories are non-metallic inorganic materials that are difficult to melt at high temperatures and used in high-temperature casting industries. Refractories are classified into their constituent mineral feed stocks, refractories having typical plot properties commonly called fire bricks. In the manufacture of refractory bricks that exist in the market during the use of mangrove materials derived from abroad that is from China. In this research the refractory brick materials used are quartz sand, feldspart, kaolin, bentonite, and ball clay. All materials come from local Lampung Province - Indonesia. The experiment, there are 7 kinds of experimental composition, made of plot shape with size 230 mm, 65 mm in thickness, 114 mm height mould using manual press machine with 10 tons power and burning at 1400°C for 5 hours. Refractory brick product is done by physical test in the form of porosity, specific gravity, compressive strength and XRF and SEM characteristics. The result of XRF characteristic of refractory brick composition of 1 to 5 compared to the refractory brick type SK 34 in the market and the result of composition 1 is a composition close to refractory brick composition type SK 34 namely SiO2 is 54.21 %, Al2O3 is 25.38 % and test Physical of Bulk density is 2.25 g/cm3, porosity is 18.98 % and compressive strength is 325 kg/cm2.

  5. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  6. Clay deposits of the Tierra Colorado district, southern Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

    1953-01-01

    The clay of this district is being mined for fire brick by the Vitrofrax Corporation. Much of the clay contains 35 percent or more of alumina and between 1 and 2 percent of iron oxide. Production is largely from an underground mine as the best clay deposit known in the district occurs on the side of a steep hill with more than 100 feet of sandstone overlying most of it. The good clay deposits occur at the base of an Eocene sandstone formation, and overlie mottled clays with a high iron content that are residual deposits formed on an old weathered surface. Mapping indicates that the clay deposits are very lenticular, though all occur at the same stratigraphic position, and they grade laterally into sandy clay and quartz sand. Topographic relief and the dip of the strata preclude finding large areas where the clay strata have relatively little overburden.

  7. Clay for Little Fingers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Joan Bouza

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the renewed interest in clay as a modeling compound in early childhood programs; describes the nature of clay and presents a working vocabulary. Suggests methods of working with clay, including introducing clay to children, discovering its uses, clean up, firing clay, and finishing baked clay. Includes activity suggestions and…

  8. Preliminary study on immobilization of buffing dust by solidification method in ceramic brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliansyah, Ahmad Tawfiequrrahman; Prasetya, Agus; Putra, Arif Eka; Satriawan, Humam Budi

    2017-11-01

    Leather-based industries generate a substantial amount of hazardous solid and liquid wastes in their process. One of the solid wastes is buffing dust, which is fine particulates containing fat, tanning, dyes and chromium. From 1 ton of leather processed, approximately 2-6 kg of buffing dust is generated. Chromium in the buffing dust is carcinogenic, so a proper handling is highly required. Solidification is a method commonly used to immobilize toxic material. Hence, the material is trapped in a matrix made of binding agents to minimize its mobility. However, a very small amount of the materials is sometimes released to the environment during storage. This study investigates leaching process of chromium from immobilized buffing dust in ceramic brick. Buffing dust, which contains chromium, is solidified by mixing it with clay at certain compositions and fired in a muffle furnace to produce a ceramic brick. Performance of the solidification process is evaluated by measuring the leaching of chromium in the leaching test. The results show that the solidification has significantly reduced the potential release of chromium to the environment. Higher of the firing temperature, less chromium is leached from ceramic brick. The chromium concentration of leachate water from 800°C brick is 0.376 ppm, while those from 850 and 900°C brick are 0.212 and 0.179 ppm respectively.

  9. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse

  10. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, thhat constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y + ??REE): total Y + ??REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y + ??REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic

  11. Rare earth minerals in a “no tonstein” section of the Dean (Fire Clay) coal, Knox County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, James C.; Berti, Debora; Hochella, Michael F.

    The Dean (Fire Clay) coal in Knox County, Kentucky, does not contain the megascopically-visible ash-fall tonstein present in most other sections of the coal bed. Like the Fire Clay tonstein, a low-ash portion of the coal is enriched in rare earth elements (>2400 ppm, on ash basis). In addition to kaolinite produced in the diagenesis of volcanic glass, transmission electron microscopy studies indicate the coal contains primary kaolinite, LaCeNdTh monazite, barium niobate, native gold, and FeNiCr spinels. The mineral assemblages, particularly the kaolinite-monazite association and its similarity to the tonsteins in coal to the east, demonstrate the coal was subjectmore » to the REE-enriched volcanic ash fall, apparently just at a more dilute level than at locations where the tonstein is present.« less

  12. Rare earth minerals in a “no tonstein” section of the Dean (Fire Clay) coal, Knox County, Kentucky

    DOE PAGES

    Hower, James C.; Berti, Debora; Hochella, Michael F.; ...

    2018-05-03

    The Dean (Fire Clay) coal in Knox County, Kentucky, does not contain the megascopically-visible ash-fall tonstein present in most other sections of the coal bed. Like the Fire Clay tonstein, a low-ash portion of the coal is enriched in rare earth elements (>2400 ppm, on ash basis). In addition to kaolinite produced in the diagenesis of volcanic glass, transmission electron microscopy studies indicate the coal contains primary kaolinite, LaCeNdTh monazite, barium niobate, native gold, and FeNiCr spinels. The mineral assemblages, particularly the kaolinite-monazite association and its similarity to the tonsteins in coal to the east, demonstrate the coal was subjectmore » to the REE-enriched volcanic ash fall, apparently just at a more dilute level than at locations where the tonstein is present.« less

  13. Vitrinite reflectance of sinkhole coals, east central Missouri fire clay district

    SciTech Connect

    Laudon, R.C.

    1993-03-01

    East central Missouri contains numerous sinkholes many of which are filled with commercial quantities of fire clay and some contain small amounts of coal. Vitrinite reflectance averages from 513 samples taken from eleven of these coals ranged from 0.71 to 0.78. Data were remarkably consistent and no local trends were observed. Using Barker and Goldstein (1990) and Barker and Pawlewicz (1986) temperature correlations, these measurements suggest that the coals have been heated to temperatures on the order of 108 C to 128 C (average = 116). These temperatures are considered anomalously high when compared against known geothermal gradients and burialmore » depths for these rocks. The temperatures suggest that the sinkhole coals have been heated by some thermal event, possibly associated with Mississippi Valley type mineralization. These temperatures are consistent with regional trends in the state. This data, when combined with other vitrinite reflectance and fluid inclusion data (right), suggest that southwest Missouri (Tristate) and southeast Missouri (Viburnum Trend) were hot spots, and that temperatures decrease regionally away from these two areas.« less

  14. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys, Old Hickory Clay Co. and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in five U.S. states in 2012. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 900 kt (992,000 st), with an estimated value of $42.3 million. This was a slight increase in tonnage from 886 kt (977,000 st), with a value of $40.9 million in 2011. Tennessee was the leading ball clay producing state, with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky and Indiana. Reported ball clay production from Indiana probably was fire clay rather than ball clay. About 69 percent of total ball clay production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  15. The Brick Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  17. Quality assessment for brick making of the bleached topsoil of Vertic Planosols in the south-western Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Vandemeulebroeke, Laure; Van Daele, Kim; Regassa Tolossa, Alemayehu; Proost, Vicky; Van Ranst, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Planosols are a very common soil type in Ethiopia. The Vertic Planosols of the south-western Highlands are typical examples of duplex soils, characterized by a bleached, silty top horizon abruptly overlying a heavy clay subsoil. The bleached topsoil material is of local economic importance as it is extensively used for brick making. The aim of this research was to assess the quality of locally produced bricks following Ethiopian and European quality standards, and formulating recommendations to improve the quality of the bricks. After a reconnaissance field survey three brick production sites, Bore, Serbo and Marawaa, were selected. At each site the bleached topsoil was sampled for physico-chemical analyses and locally produced bricks were collected for further testing. The production process, documented by interviewing locals, consists of excavating the bleached topsoil, manual mixing with water, shaping using an ash-covered wooden mould, trimming using an iron wire, and drying in open air. About 30,000 dried bricks are then piled up to form a rectangular field-oven and fired for about two and a half days. It was observed and admitted by the locals that about 10% of the produced bricks are lost due to severe cracking and/or melting on the inside of the field oven. On the other hand, some of the bricks on the outside of the field oven were not sufficiently fired. Physico-chemical (texture, total elemental chemical composition, carbonate content, total carbon content, sulphur content, cation exchange capacity, total specific surface) and mineralogical (XRD, DSC, thermogravimetry, dilatometry, optical microscopy) analyses were carried out. Additionally, the locally produced bricks were physically characterised by their dimensions, initial rate of water absorption (IRWA), water absorption after 24h and compressive strength. Based on the observed properties for the soil material and the locally produced bricks, mixtures of soil samples and a sand additive were made in

  18. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  19. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  20. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  1. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  2. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  3. Firing up White Clay: Immersion School Students Encouraged to Return, Give Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbhau, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Fort Belknap College President Carole Falcon-Chandler does not fluently speak the "A'ani" (White Clay) language, but her granddaughter does. The girl, one of the 12 students in the White Clay Language Immersion School located on the college campus in Harlem, Montana, is part of the next generation of fluent A'ani speakers. The language…

  4. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    contribute to satellite observations of high levels of HCN in the lower stratosphere above the Asian monsoon. HCN was also emitted in significant quantities by several non-biomass burning sources. BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) were major emissions from both dung- (˜ 4.5 g kg-1) and wood-fuel (˜ 1.5 g kg-1) cooking fires, and a simple method to estimate indoor exposure to the many measured important air toxics is described. Biogas emerged as the cleanest cooking technology of approximately a dozen stove-fuel combinations measured. Crop residue burning produced relatively high emissions of oxygenated organic compounds (˜ 12 g kg-1) and SO2 (2.54 ± 1.09 g kg-1). Two brick kilns co-firing different amounts of biomass with coal as the primary fuel produced contrasting results. A zigzag kiln burning mostly coal at high efficiency produced larger amounts of BC, HF, HCl, and NOx, with the halogenated emissions likely coming from the clay. The clamp kiln (with relatively more biomass fuel) produced much greater quantities of most individual organic gases, about twice as much BrC, and significantly more known and likely organic aerosol precursors. Both kilns were significant SO2 sources with their emission factors averaging 12.8 ± 0.2 g kg-1. Mixed-garbage burning produced significantly more BC (3.3 ± 3.88 g kg-1) and BTEX (˜ 4.5 g kg-1) emissions than in previous measurements. For all fossil fuel sources, diesel burned more efficiently than gasoline but produced larger NOx and aerosol emission factors. Among the least efficient sources sampled were gasoline-fueled motorcycles during start-up and idling for which the CO EF was on the order of ˜ 700 g kg-1 - or about 10 times that of a typical biomass fire. Minor motorcycle servicing led to minimal if any reduction in gaseous pollutants but reduced particulate emissions, as detailed in a companion paper (Jayarathne et al., 2016). A small gasoline-powered generator and an "insect repellent fire" were

  5. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan, E-mail: hasanboke@iyte.edu.tr

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars aremore » stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.« less

  6. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  7. The Alberhill and other clay deposits of Temescal Canyon, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

    1953-01-01

    Clay is mined in open pits by several companies in the Alberhill district, and the refractory clays of relatively high alumina sediment are used largely for fire brick. The Alberhill Coal and Clay Company is the largest operator and has produced a little over 2,000,000 tons of clay, of which nearly half was the refractory type. The clay occurs at the contact of the lower Tertiary and the Mesozoic basement complex. The weathered surface of basement rocks includes much clay of high iron and low alumina content, and the better clay occurs in the basal Tertiary sediments. The clay deposits vary rather abruptly in thickness and quality, and only local lenses contain workable deposits. Structural deformation makes dips of 10 to 20 degrees common and the clay strata therefore pitch under excessive overburden in short distances. Extensive deposits of thick alluvial fan deposits cover the clay-bearing strata over most of the area, and add to the overburden problems. The apparent lack of clay deposits of good quality that would total several million tons of ore, and the geological conditions that would make exploration and mining difficult and expensive make this district unpromising.

  8. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  10. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  11. Properties of Clay for Ceramics with Rock Waste for Production Structural Block by Pressing and Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, N. A.; Choe, D.; Alexandre, J.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Xavier, C. G.; Souza, V. B.

    Building work requires optimization of materials and labor, so that the execution of its subsystems contribute to the quality, reduce costs, decrease waste in buildings, productivity, practicality and especially agility. Thus, the fitting blocks can contribute in this direction. This work therefore consists of physical characterization (determination of fitness levels, grain size and bulk density), chemical (EDX) and thermal (DTA and TGA) sample clay Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ and waste rock ornamental Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES, to verify potential for producing red ceramic blocks, pressed and burned, male and female type. The output of block will be with different pe rcentages of incorporation of residues of ornamental rocks (0%, 5% and 10%). With the results obtained, it was found that the raw materials under consideration has the potential for application in the production of ceramic articles.

  12. A non-invasive spectroscopic study to evaluate both technological features and conservation state of two types of ancient Roman coloured bricks.

    PubMed

    Scatigno, C; Prieto-Taboada, N; Preite Martinez, M; Conte, A M; Madariaga, J M

    2018-06-07

    The study of both original and decaying compounds is relevant in understanding the chemistry behind the deterioration processes, above all in open museum contexts where environmental stressors affect the artefacts. In this sense, a combination of non-invasive spectroscopy techniques (Raman spectroscopy, μ-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) was applied on an ancient Roman building (130 CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum at Ostia Antica archaeological site. The aim is to study the raw materials, manufacturing and decaying products of the two observed types of Roman fired bricks (red and yellow) that compose the building. The present study estimates an illite raw material of carbonate-bearing marine clay likely referring to the common deposits of central/southern Italy, which contain calcite as accessory phase and a-plastic fraction constituted by quartz, feldspar and opaques. This clay material was added with volcanic temper characterised by abundant clinopyroxene and analcime (from analcimization of leucite) that are typical of the Roman Province volcanism. The firing would be probably the result of oxidizing conditions, as proved by the hematite presence. Thanks to the existence of specific neoformed mineral phases during firing it was possible to assess different temperatures ranges. In detail, the red/orange bricks, for the existence of gehlenite (formed from calcite and its reaction with silicates), were fired at 800-900 °C range; whereas, the yellow ones are characterised by the lack of gehlenite and the disappearance of illite/muscovite, which indicates firing temperature at over 900 °C. Regarding the decaying products, the gypsum covers most of the surface of most bricks, both red and the yellow ones, but these latter are more susceptible to environmental stressors (sulphates and carbonates). Therefore, this work points out how by integrated non-invasive approaches it is possible trace back to original firing temperature, technology of

  13. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  14. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  15. Comparative Study on the Cost of Building Public House Construction Using Red Brick and Interlock Brick Building Material in the City of Banda Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahayati, Nurul; Hayati, Yulia; Nursaniah, Cut; Firsa, T.; Fachrurrazi; Munandar, Aris

    2018-05-01

    Red brick and interlocking brick are the building materials that are often used for wall installation work on houses construction. In the development of building materials technology and cost savings, interlocking brick can be alternative to replace red bricks. In Aceh Province, the use of interlocking bricks is less popular compared to other big cities in Indonesia. Interlocking brick is made from a mixture of clay, concrete sand and compacted cement and one of the environmentally friendly materials because it does not burn the process like red brick material. It is named interlocking brick because the installation method is locked together and it serves as a structural and partition wall of residential buildings. The aims of this study are to compare the cost of building a house in Banda Aceh City using red brick and interlock brick building materials. The data were obtained from interviews and questionnaires distributed to respondents who had built houses in Banda Aceh City. The results concluded that the house construction cost using interlock brick offer lower construction cost at comparable quality rather than using red brick.

  16. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion X-ray spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction, and NMR characterization of iron-rich fired clays.

    PubMed

    Presciutti, Federica; Capitani, Donatella; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Costantino, Ferdinando; Viel, Stéphane; Segre, Annalaura

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the structure of an iron-rich clay and the structural changes involved in the firing process as a preliminary step to get information on ancient ceramic technology. To this purpose, illite-rich clay samples fired at different temperatures were characterized using a multitechnique approach, i.e., by electron paramagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersion X-ray spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction, magic angle spinning and multiple quantum magic angle spinning NMR. During firing, four main reaction processes occur: dehydration, dehydroxylation, structural breakdown, and recrystallization. When the results are combined from all characterization methods, the following conclusions could be obtained. Interlayer H2O is located close to aluminum in octahedral sites and is driven off at temperatures lower than 600 degrees C. Between 600 and 700 degrees C dehydroxylation occurs whereas, between 800 and 900 degrees C, the aluminum in octahedral sites disappears, due to the breakdown of the illite structure, and all iron present is oxidized to Fe3+. In samples fired at 1000 and 1100 degrees C iron clustering was observed as well as large single crystals of iron with the occurrence of ferro- or ferrimagnetic effects. Below 900 degrees C the aluminum in octahedral sites presents a continuous distribution of chemical shift, suggesting the presence of slightly distorted sites. Finally, over the whole temperature range, the presence of at least two tetrahedral aluminum sites was revealed, characterized by different values of the quadrupolar coupling constant.

  18. Arsenic-bearing pyrite and marcasite in the Fire Clay coal bed, Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations determined on 11 lithotype samples from the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group Fire Clay coal bed, Leslie County, KY, range from 1 to 418 ppm (whole coal basis). The 11 lithotype samples, which vary in thickness from 4 to 18 cm, were sampled from a continuous 1.38 m channel sample, and were selected based on megascopic appearance (vitrain-rich versus attrital-rich). A lithotype that contains 418 ppm As is located near the top of the coal bed and is composed of 10.5 cm of bright clarain bands containing fusain that, within short distances, grade laterally into Fe sulfide bands. To determine the mode of occurrence of As in this lithotype, the coal was examined with scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Massive, framboidal, cell filling, cell-wall replacement, and radiating forms of Fe sulfide were observed in the high As lithotype; many of the radiating Fe sulfide forms, and one of the cell-wall replacements contained As. Examination of the grains with optical light microscopy shows that the majority of radiating morphologies are pyrite, the remainder are marcasite. Selected Fe sulfide grains were also analyzed by electron microprobe microscopy. Arsenic concentrations within individual grains range from 0.0 wt.% to approximately 3.5 wt.%. On the basis of morphology, these Fe sulfides are presumed to be of syngenetic origin and would probably be removed from the coal during physical coal cleaning, thus eliminating a potential source of As from the coal combustion process. However, because the grains are radiating and have high surface area, dissolution and release of As could occur if the pyrite is oxidized in refuse ponds.

  19. Fabricaton of brick without burning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zultiniar; Fadli, A.; Yenti, S. R.; Drastinawati; Thariq, M. R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Brick is a material with many applications on building materials. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of fly ash addition and hardening time on mechanical properties of brick produced. Brick was formed by mixing cement, clay, water and fly ash with addition point was 0;0,3;0,6;0,9;1,2 kg weight. Brick was dried at room temperature for 7, 14 and 21 days. The result showed that compressive strength with addition 0,6 kg fly ash for 21 days was the the strongest where that’s value was 9,375 N/mm2. The highest porosity was get in on 21,34 % with 1,2 fly ash addition. The result of TCLP showed that for Pb, Cu, Cr content was still below the quality standards based on PP No.85 TH 1999 and still considered harmless. Leachate value for Pb of 3,10 mg/L, 1,213 mg/L for Cr and 4,374 mg/L for Cu.

  20. Relevance of magnetic properties for the characterisation of burnt clays and archaeological tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatrice, C.; Coïsson, M.; Ferrara, E.; Olivetti, E. S.

    The archaeomagnetism of pottery, bricks and tiles is typically employed for dating inferences, yet the magnetic properties of ancient ceramics can also be convenient for their characterisation, to evaluate the technological conditions applied for their production (temperature, atmosphere, and duration of firing), as well as to distinguish groups of sherds having different provenance. In this work, the measurement of hysteresis loops has been applied and combined with colour survey to characterise the magnetic properties of burnt clays and archaeological tiles. Four calcareous and non-calcareous clays, along with seventeen tile fragments excavated from the sites of the ancient Roman towns of Pompeii and Gravina di Puglia, in Southern Italy, are examined. The ferrimagnetic character of the clays, in general, enhances with increasing firing temperatures until vitrification processes occur (900-1000 °C) dissolving iron oxides and dispersing the colour and magnetic properties they provide. High values of saturation magnetization are observed in clays with relevant calcareous content after firing above 900 °C, which results in the formation of Ca-silicates able to delay the onset of the vitrification processes. Magnetic properties of the tiles have been evaluated in terms of the high coercivity (i.e. mainly ferrimagnetic) or low coercivity behaviour (i.e. including relevant paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions). Enhanced ferrimagnetic character, mostly depending on the growth in number and volume of iron oxide particles, is associated with the development of an intense reddish hue.

  1. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2014-05-21

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200°C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400cm(-1) region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115cm(-1) in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095cm(-1) in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563cm(-1) and 795cm(-1) can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200 °C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115 cm-1 in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095 cm-1 in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

  3. 1. PRIVY (small brick building) The brick building in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PRIVY (small brick building) The brick building in the background is the Charles Fraser Carriage House and Slave Quarters, HABS No. SC-147 A. - Charles Fraser House, Privy, 55 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  4. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  5. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  6. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  7. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  8. Complex DNA Brick Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ong, Luvena L; Ke, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    DNA nanostructures are a useful technology for precisely organizing and manipulating nanomaterials. The DNA bricks method is a modular and versatile platform for applications requiring discrete or periodic structures with complex three-dimensional features. Here, we describe how structures are designed from the fundamental strand architecture through assembly and characterization of the formed structures.

  9. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of ball clay in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. Several companies mined ball call in the country including Old Hickey Clay Co., Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co., and H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Information on the decline in ball clay imports and exports is also presented.

  10. Fire

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    In some areas, many aspen stands are all the same age, dating from a single great fire or a year of widespread fires (fig. 1). The 1879 fire in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming (Loope and Gruell 1973) and the 1904 fires in Arizona's White Mountains (Kallander 1969) are examples. Choate (1966) found that almost all aspen stands in New Mexico were even-aged, many...

  11. Feasibility of Using Dredged Mud for Prepared the Permeable Brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiaosu; Zeng, Lingke; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Through experimental analysis found that the chemical composition of the dredged mud is similar to clay and the dredged mud does not leach heavy metals. Using the dredged mud in the preparation of permeable bricks reduced the quantity of incineration dredged mud buried in landfills, and the exploitation and consumption of natural sandstone. The dredged mud needs to be checked by the validation criteria when the second use, so we used the TCLP test to identify hazardous materials. Its leaching of heavy metals was in line with industry standard. And the basic formula of permeable brick were prepared, its performance was in line with national standards. The use of dredged mud preparing eco-friendly permeable bricks, not only solves the problem of environmental pollution, but also gets some economic and social profit.

  12. Smart bricks for strain sensing and crack detection in masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes the novel concept of smart bricks as a durable sensing solution for structural health monitoring of masonry structures. The term smart bricks denotes piezoresistive clay bricks with suitable electronics capable of outputting measurable changes in their electrical properties under changes in their state of strain. This feature can be exploited to evaluate stress at critical locations inside a masonry wall and to detect changes in loading paths associated with structural damage, for instance following an earthquake. Results from an experimental campaign show that normal clay bricks, fabricated in the laboratory with embedded electrodes made of a special steel for resisting the high baking temperature, exhibit a quite linear and repeatable piezoresistive behavior. That is a change in electrical resistance proportional to a change in axial strain. In order to be able to exploit this feature for strain sensing, high-resolution electronics are used with a biphasic DC measurement approach to eliminate any resistance drift due to material polarization. Then, an enhanced nanocomposite smart brick is proposed, where titania is mixed with clay before baking, in order to enhance the brick’s mechanical properties, improve its noise rejection, and increase its electrical conductivity. Titania was selected among other possible conductive nanofillers due to its resistance to high temperatures and its ability to improve the durability of construction materials while maintaining the aesthetic appearance of clay bricks. An application of smart bricks for crack detection in masonry walls is demonstrated by laboratory testing of a small-scale wall specimen under different loading conditions and controlled damage. Overall, it is demonstrated that a few strategically placed smart bricks enable monitoring of the state of strain within the wall and provide information that is capable of crack detection.

  13. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE MANUFACTURED BY THE AMERICAN CLAY MACHINERY CO. OF BUCYRUS, OHIO. IT WAS PURCHASED IN 1903. AND USED AT THE FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS BEFORE BEING MOVED TO ITS PRESENT LOCATION IN 1912. IT IS USED TO SCREEN STONES FROM RAW CLAY AND INCORPORATE WATER TO A PROPER WORKING CONSISTENCY. IT IS NOW POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC MOTOR INSTALLED IN 1990. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. Manufacture of reconstruction-bricks in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Valencia, Ma. Neftalí; Penagos, Armando Aguilar; Rojas, Denise Y. Fernández; López, Alberto López; Gálves, David Morillón

    2017-12-01

    In Mexico, around 33.600 tons of construction wastes are generated every day, Mexico City contributing for around tons/day, with fewer than 1.000 tons/day being sent to be recycled. For that reason the purpose of this study was to manufacture sustainable bricks, based on three types of wastes generated in the building industry: wood cutting residues, wastes from the excavation process (From Coapa and Cuautlancingo, Puebla, Mexico) and recycled aggregates. Water was added as kneading material, and Opuntia ficus-indica (mucilage) was supplemented as natural additive to improve the workability of the mixtures. Conventional firing process was substituted by drying in a solar drying chamber. Nine mixtures were prepared using 62% excavation wastes, 4% wood cutting residues and 11%, 17% and 34% recycled aggregates. These mixtures were classified in two groups depending on their granulometry: the first one denominated cementitious recycled aggregates only having granulometry from 25.4 mm, 9.52 mm to 6.35 mm to fines and the second group denominated all in one recycled aggregates having granulometry of 6.35 mm to fines. The quality of the sustainable bricks was evaluated according to compressive strength and water absorption parameters. The results of nine mixtures showed that the reconstruction-bricks manufactured with the mixture seven consisting of 9.52 mm and 6.35 mm construction residues (all in one) fines presented the highest strength values, lowest maximum initial absorption (4 g/min) compared to the norm NMX-C-037-ONNCCE-2013 which establishes that the maximum limit for walls exposed to the outside is 5 g/min. Using a solar desiccator made from construction residues, the bricks were dried in 11 days, the maximum temperature was 76 °C and the maximum solar radiation captured was 733.4 W/m2.

  16. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  17. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  18. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST FACADE. THE BRICK MASONRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST FACADE. THE BRICK MASONRY WALLS ARE LAID IN COMMON BOND WITH A BRICK DETAIL SURROUNDING THE FLAT ARCHED WOODEN DOORS. THE SYMMETRICAL PLACEMENT OF DOORS HAS BEEN VISUALLY AFFECTED BY THE ADDITION OF A WOOD FIRE STAIR. A BEAM USED TO LOAD HAY INTO THE UPPER LOFT AREA PROTRUDES THROUGH THE MASONRY WALL JUST BELOW THE ROOF LINE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick pilasters with molded wood caps, splayed arch and arched window lintels of north elevation of west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers information on ball clay. Among the companies that mine ball clay in the U.S. are H.C. Spinks Clay, Kentucky-Tennessee Clay and Old Hickory Clay. In 2006, an estimated 1.2 million tons of the mineral was sold or used domestically and exported. Forty-percent of the total sales is accounted for ceramic floor and wall tile followed by sanitaryware and miscellaneous ceramics. Its average value was $ 45 per ton in 2006.

  1. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  2. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  3. More than Bricks and Mortar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  4. Radiometric ages of the Fire Clay tonstein [Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous), Westphalian, Duckmantian]: A comparison of U-Pb zircon single-crystal ages and 40Ar/39Ar sanidine single-crystal plateau ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Krogh, T.E.; Kwok, Y.Y.; Davis, D.W.; Outerbridge, W.F.; Evans, H.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Clay tonstein [Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous), Westphalian Series, Duckmantian Stage]-a kaolinized, volcanic-ash deposit occurring in Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Virginia-is the most widespread bed in the Middle Pennsylvanian of the central Appalachian basin, USA. A concordant single-crystal U-Pb zircon datum for this tonstein gives a 206Pb/238U age of 314.6 ?? 0.9 Ma (2??). This age is in approximate agreement with a mean sanidine plateau age of 311.5 ?? 1.3 Ma (1??, n = 11) for the Fire Clay tonstein. The difference between the two ages may be due to bias between the 40K and 238U decay constants and other factors. The age of the Fire Clay tonstein has important implications for Duckmantian Stage (Westphalian Series) sedimentation rates, correlations with the Westphalian Series of Europe, Middle Pennsylvanian volcanic events, and the late Paleozoic time scale. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MALL with WordBricks--Building Correct Sentences Brick by Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purgina, Marina; Mozgovoy, Maxim; Ward, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) use is increasing and it is good to be able to provide language learners with new resources to enhance their language learning experience. One such resource is WordBricks, a non-commercial, educational app that facilitates the learning and reinforcement of grammar rules. It uses bricks and connectors of…

  6. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  7. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  8. The effect of sintering time on recycled magnesia brick from kiln of the cement plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, B. B.; Rosalina, D.; Azhar; Amin, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research aim was to investigate the effect of sintering time on reuse waste of magnesia brick from the rotary kiln of the cement plant. Reuse of the magnesia brick was carried out by mixed the kaolin as the binder. Spent refractory was used as aggregate with the composition of 85% spent refractory and 15% kaolin clay, respectively. The reuse brick then was molded with the size of 5x5x5 cm using hydraulic press under a load of 10 tons in order to forms green body. Green body then dried and sintered at 1200 °C with time variation of 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Thus, for comparison reuse brick was tested to its apparent porosity, the bulk density, and Cold Crushing Strength (CCS). The effect of kaolin addition as binder was also discussed.

  9. Experimental study on the influence of the opening in brick-masonry wall to seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidiawati, Tanjung, Jafril; Medriosa, Hamdeni

    2017-10-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures with brick-masonry infills are commonly used in developing countries and high-risk seismic area, such as Indonesia. Significant researches have been carried out for studying the seismic performance of RC frame structures with brick-masonry infills. Only few of them focused on effects of the opening in the brick-masonry infill to the seismic performance of the RC frame structures. The presence of opening in brick-masonry infill is often used for placing doors and windows as well, however, it may reduce the seismic performance of the RC frame structure. In the current study, they influence of the opening in brick-masonry infills to the seismic performance RC frame structure will experimentally evaluated. Five of 1/4-scaled single story and single bay RC frame specimens were prepared, i.e. an RC bare frame, a clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame and three of clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame with openings in the brick-masonry infills. The last three specimens were clay brick infilled RC frame with a center opening, clay brick infilled RC frame with two openings used for placing the windows and clay brick infilled RC frame with opening for placing the door. The specimens pushed over by applying the static monotonic lateral load to the upper beam of the RC frame structures. The incremental of the lateral load and the lateral displacement of RC frame's column was recorded during test. The crack propagation and the major cracks were also observed to identify the mechanism failure of specimens. As the results, the opening in the brick-masonry wall controls the failure mechanism, the lateral strength and the stiffness of the overall of infilled RC frame structure. The diagonal shear crack pattern was found on brick-masonry wall without opening, on other hand the different crack patterns were observed on brick-masonry wall with openings. Although the opening in the brick masonry infill reduced the lateral strength and stiffness of

  10. Fire

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsClimate forecasts indicate that the South’s spring and fall wildfire seasons will be extended.Prescribed fires, currently conducted on roughly a 3 to 5 year rotation across much of the South, would need to become more frequent if conditions become drier.Major wildfire events, such as the 2007...

  11. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The state of the ball clay industry in 1999 is presented. Record highs in the sales and use of ball clay were attained in 1999 due to the continued strength of the U.S. economy. U.S. production was estimated at 1.25 million st for the year, with more than half of that amount mined in Tennessee. Details of the consumption, price, imports, and exports of ball clay in 1999 and the outlook for ball clay over the next few years are provided.

  12. The rehydroxylation dating of archeological baked-clay artifacts for determination paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Georgii; Gareev, Bulat; Nourgaliev, Danis; Fedorchenko, Diana

    2016-04-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement for archeological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clay artifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered from old buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeological issues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecular variations. We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A variety of archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement versus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagnetic investigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecular variations (PSV) for Volga region.

  13. Chemical and mineralogical characterisation of weathered historical bricks from the Venice lagoonal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Nick; Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Baudo, Fulvio

    2008-12-01

    Surficial and bulk samples of historical bricks of different age (from XII to XVIII centuries) recovered from a campaign of archaeological excavations recently carried out at the site of a medieval monastery in the S. Giacomo in Paludo Island in theVenice Lagoon have been characterised by FT-IR, TGA-DTG and DTA, XRD, SEM + EDS. The samples belong to a particular brick type commonly used in the Venice region: the " altinella brick". The bulk relative abundance of primary (i.e. calcite and dolomite) and secondary firing minerals (i.e. diopside and wollastonite) in the bricks coupled with their relative geometrical dimensions allows placing the samples in a chronological sequence according to known historical changes in brickmaking firing temperatures and practices. Most of the bricks were used as paving material and have been exposed to the action of seawater salts (chlorides and sulphates) due to periodical submersion following high tide episodes. Salt-laden (gypsum, halite, mirabilite) surficial patinas are indeed present but salt weathering does not appear to have affected the overall structural soundness of the bricks in this now abandoned island as it is the case with brickwork located in other more populated (and polluted) areas in Venice and its lagoon.

  14. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  15. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: brick, block, and stonemasonry I and II. The six units in brick, block, and stonemasonry I are as follows: orientation and leadership activities; safety; basic tools and equipment; masonry units; mortar; and wall layout. Brick, block,…

  17. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    The final brick was installed on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  18. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Construction workers sign the final bricks after they were installed on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  19. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    A construction worker installs one of the final bricks on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  20. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    A view of the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The final brick was installed in the flame trench, completing about a year's worth of work to upgrade the walls to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  1. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Preparations are underway to install the final brick on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  2. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    A construction worker installs the final brick on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  3. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Construction workers install the final bricks on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  4. Secondary Fire Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of wood frame and brick veneer, slab on grade construction), killed 33, injured more than 1,000, derailed a train, destroyed 4,000 cars, uprooted most... of a nuclear detonation) in or near structures, with emphasis on critical facil- ities and industries. Assessment of the potential for secondary fires...and/or 517 East Dayshore, Redwood City, CA 94063 DistI pial (DETACHABLE SUMMARY) SECONDARY FIRE ANALYSIS This report presents the results of a

  5. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  6. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studiesmore » of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.« less

  7. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys Group, Old Hickory Clay Co., and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in four states in 2011. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 940 kt (1.04 million st) with an estimated value of $44.2 million. This is a 3-percent increase in tonnage from 912 kt (1.01 million st) with a value of $41.3 million that was produced in 2010. Tennessee was the leading producing state with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi and Kentucky. About 69 percent of production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  8. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... foundry sand). (vii) Clay, gypsum, or pottery cull. (viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement. (ix) Furnace slag. (x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick). (xi) Plastics (e.g...

  9. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... foundry sand). (vii) Clay, gypsum, or pottery cull. (viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement. (ix) Furnace slag. (x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick). (xi) Plastics (e.g...

  10. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... foundry sand). (vii) Clay, gypsum, or pottery cull. (viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement. (ix) Furnace slag. (x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick). (xi) Plastics (e.g...

  11. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Singh, I B; Chaturvedi, K; Morchhale, R K; Yegneswaran, A H

    2007-03-06

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 degrees C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 degrees C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 degrees C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  12. Sediment management and renewability of floodplain clay for structural ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meulen, M. J.; Wiersma, A. P.; Middelkoop, H.; van der Perk, M.; Bakker, M.; Maljers, D.; Hobo, N.; Makaske, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Netherlands have vast resources of clay that are exploited for the fabrication of structural ceramic products such as bricks and roof tiles. The extraction of clay creates land surface lowerings of about 1.5 m, of which the majority are located in the embanked floodplains of the rivers Rhine and Meuse. At these surface lowerings, clay is replenished within several decades. This study explores to which extent the clay can be regarded as a renewable resource, with potential for sustainable use. For this purpose, first the current and past clay consumption is calculated. Subsequently, clay deposition in the floodplains is estimated from literature data on clay accumulation using sediment traps, heavy metal and radionuclide distribution in soil profiles, and from morphological modelling studies. These estimates of clay-deposition and consumption are then compared following three approaches that consider various temporal and spatial scales of clay deposition. This allows us to establish the extent to which man determines sedimentary processes in the Dutch floodplains. Consequently, using the sediment response to the land surface lowering resulting from clay extraction, we explore sediment management options for the Dutch Rhine and Meuse. Altogether we argue that clay has been, probably is, and certainly can be managed as a renewable mineral resource.

  13. Chromia refractory brick with carbon treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    The disclosure provides a refractory brick system comprising a chromia refractory brick for operation in the slagging environment of an air-cooled gasifier. The chromia refractory brick comprises a ceramically-bonded porous chromia refractory having a porosity greater than 9% and having carbon deposits residing within the pores. The brick may be further comprised of Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The air-cooled gasifier generates a liquefied slag in contact with the refractory brick and generally operates at temperatures between 1250.degree. C. and 1575.degree. C. and pressures between 300 psi to 1000 psi, with oxygen partial pressures generally between 10.sup.-4 and 10.sup.-10 atm. The refractory brick performsmore » without substantial chromium carbide or chromium metal formation in the low oxygen partial pressure environment. The inclusion of carbon without chromium carbide formation provides for significant mitigation of slag penetration and significantly reduced refractory wear.« less

  14. 28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, a brick cornice, and an interrupted brick frieze. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. Mössbauer Spectra of Clays and Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.

    2004-06-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical aspects of the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in studies of clay-based ceramics are described. Mössbauer spectra of pottery clays fired under oxidising, reducing and changing conditions are explained, and the possibilities of using Mössbauer spectra to derive information on the firing temperatures and the kiln atmosphere during firing in antiquity are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  16. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  17. The Rehydroxylation Dating of Archeological Baked-Clay Artifacts for Determination Paleomagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, G. A.; Gareev, B. I.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement forarcheological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clayartifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered fromold buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeologicalissues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecularvariations.We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupledwith mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A varietyof archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic ofTatarstan, Russia.Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurementversus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagneticinvestigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecularvariations (PSV) for Volga region.

  18. Mechanical properties on geopolymer brick: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraman, L. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ming, L. Y.; Ibrahim, W. M. W.; Tahir, M. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    Bricks has stand for many years as durable construction substantial, especially in the area of civil engineering to construct buildings. Brick commonly used in the structure of buildings as a construction wall, cladding, facing perimeter, paving, garden wall and flooring. The contribution of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cement bricks production worldwide to greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this issue, some researchers have done their study with other materials to produce bricks, especially as a by-product material. Researchers take effort in this regard to synthesizing from by-product materials such as fly ash, bottom ash and kaolin that are rich in silicon and aluminium in the development of inorganic alumina-silicate polymer, called geopolymer Geopolymer is a polymerization reaction between various aluminosilicate oxides with silicates solution or alkali hydroxide solution forming polymerized Si-O-Al-O bonds. This paper summarized some research finding of mechanical properties of geopolymer brick using by-product materials.

  19. The effects of bauxite, metakaolin, and porosity on the thermal properties of prepared Iraqi clays refractory mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidan, Shihab A.; Omar, Mustafa H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most important requirements for the manufacture of refractory mortars, especially those used in the construction of thermal systems (building or plastering), is the balance between thermal insulation properties and porosity. Where, increasing porosity of mortar to a large amount may be always undesirable, because the absorption of liquid and gases emitted from industrial system is decline the bonded with bricks and structural properties of mortars. Refractory mortars prepared from either fired bauxite or metakaolin clays with different percentages of kaolin (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt%). Bauxite rocks were fired at 1200 °C and metakaolin was obtained by firing kaolin up to 700 °C then crushed and grinded. Grog was added to mixture to reduce the shrinkage. Cylindrical specimens are prepared and then sintered at 1200 °C. All mixtures maintained a low thermal conductivity within the limits of thermal insulation material (less than 0.5 W/m K); it was done by controlling the porosity which reached a maximum value approximately 25%. The volumetric heat capacity and thermal diffusivity was ranged between (1-10 MJ/m3 K), (0.06-0.2 mm2/s), respectively.

  20. Utilization of Yatagan Power Plant Fly Ash in Production of Building Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önel, Öznur; Tanriverdi, Mehmet; Cicek, Tayfun

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion, which accumulates in large quantities near the coal-fired power plants as waste material. Fly ash causes serious operational and environmental problems. In this study, fly ash from Yatağgan thermal power plant was used to produce light-weight building bricks. The study aimed to reduce the problems related to fly ash by creating a new area for their use. The optimum process parameters were determined for the production of real size bricks to be used in construction industry. The commercial size bricks (200 × 200 × 90-110 mm) were manufactured using pilot size equipment. Mechanical properties, thermal conductivity coefficients, freezing and thawing strengths, water absorption rates, and unit volume weights of the bricks were determined. Etringite (Ca6Al2 (SO4)3 (OH)12 25(H2O)) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (2CaO.SiO2.4H2O) were identified as the binding phases in the real size brick samples after 2 days of pre-curing and 28 days curing at 50° C and 95% relative moisture. The water absorption rate was found to be 27.7 % in terms of mass. The mechanical and bending strength of the brick samples with unit volume weight of 1.29 g.cm-3 were determined as 6.75 MPa and 1,56 MPa respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fly ash bricks was measured in average as 0,340 W m-1 K-1. The fly ash sample produced was subjected to toxic leaching tests (Toxic Property Leaching Procedure (EPA-TCLP 1311), Single-step BATCH Test and Method-A Disintegration Procedure (ASTM)). The results of these tests suggested that the materials could be classified as non-hazardous wastes / materials.

  1. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis of Clay of Western Rajasthan (india)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, M. S.

    The paper presents the study of thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis of blended clay. Western part of Rajasthan (India) is rich resource of Ball clays and it is mainly used by porcelain, sanitary ware, and tile industry. The quality and grade of clay available in the region vary from one deposit to other. To upgrade the fired colour and strength properties, different variety of clays may be blended together. The paper compares the results of thermal analysis one of blended clay B2 with reference clay of Ukraine which is imported by industries owners. The result revealed that the blended clay is having mineral kaolinite while the Ukrainian clay is Halloysite.

  2. Influence of Clay Platelet Spacing on Oxygen Permeability of Thin Film Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolo, Morgan; Gamboa, Daniel; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite clay and various polyelectrolytes have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient in an effort to show the influence of clay platelet spacing on thin film permeability. After polymer-clay layers have been sequentially deposited, the resulting transparent films exhibit a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall forms an extremely tortuous path for a molecule to traverse, creating channels perpendicular to the concentration gradient that increase the molecule's diffusion length and delay its transmission. To a first approximation, greater clay spacing (i.e., reduced clay concentration) produces greater oxygen barrier. Oxygen transmission rates below 0.005 cm^3/m^2.day have been achieved for films with only eight clay layers (total thickness of only 200 nm). With optical transparencies greater than 86% and the ability to be microwaved, these thin film composites are good candidates for flexible electronics packaging and foil replacement for food.

  3. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  4. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  5. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  6. Clay: The Forgotten Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doris Marie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the tactile and kinesthetic areas of learning children experience when using clay. Includes practical tips for using and storing clay for preschool use and notes the differences between potters' clay and play dough. (HTH)

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjjjj of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay... per hour, no. of bricks per kiln car, weight of a typical fired brick) You must measure and record the...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjjjj of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay... per hour, no. of bricks per kiln car, weight of a typical fired brick) You must measure and record the...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjjjj of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay... per hour, no. of bricks per kiln car, weight of a typical fired brick) You must measure and record the...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjjjj of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay... per hour, no. of bricks per kiln car, weight of a typical fired brick) You must measure and record the...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjjjj of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay... per hour, no. of bricks per kiln car, weight of a typical fired brick) You must measure and record the...

  12. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  13. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  14. XAL Application Framework and Bricks GUI Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The XAL [1] Application Framework is a framework for rapidly developing document based Java applications with a common look and feel along with many built-in user interface behaviors. The Bricks GUI builder consists of a modern application and framework for rapidly building user interfaces in support of true Model-View-Controller (MVC) compliant Java applications. Bricks and the XAL Application Framework allow developers to rapidly create quality applications.

  15. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  16. The environmental geochemistry of trace elements and naturally radionuclides in a coal gangue brick-making plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul K S

    2014-08-28

    An investigation focused on the transformation and distribution behaviors of trace elements and natural radionuclides around a coal gangue brick plant was conducted. Simultaneous sampling of coal gangue, brick, fly ash and flue gas were implemented. Soil, soybean and earthworm samples around the brick plant were also collected for comprehensive ecological assessment. During the firing process, trace elements were released and redistributed in the brick, fly ash and the flue gas. Elements can be divided into two groups according to their releasing characteristics, high volatile elements (release ratio higher than 30%) are represented by Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Sn, which emitted mainly in flue gas that would travel and deposit at the northeast and southwest direction around the brick plant. Cadmium, Ni and Pb are bio-accumulated in the soybean grown on the study area, which indicates potential health impacts in case of human consumption. The high activity of natural radionuclides in the atmosphere around the plant as well as in the made-up bricks will increase the health risk of respiratory system.

  17. The Environmental Geochemistry of Trace Elements and Naturally Radionuclides in a Coal Gangue Brick-Making Plant

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul K. S.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation focused on the transformation and distribution behaviors of trace elements and natural radionuclides around a coal gangue brick plant was conducted. Simultaneous sampling of coal gangue, brick, fly ash and flue gas were implemented. Soil, soybean and earthworm samples around the brick plant were also collected for comprehensive ecological assessment. During the firing process, trace elements were released and redistributed in the brick, fly ash and the flue gas. Elements can be divided into two groups according to their releasing characteristics, high volatile elements (release ratio higher than 30%) are represented by Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Sn, which emitted mainly in flue gas that would travel and deposit at the northeast and southwest direction around the brick plant. Cadmium, Ni and Pb are bio-accumulated in the soybean grown on the study area, which indicates potential health impacts in case of human consumption. The high activity of natural radionuclides in the atmosphere around the plant as well as in the made-up bricks will increase the health risk of respiratory system. PMID:25164252

  18. 26 CFR 1.9004 - Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., That (a) Election for past years. In the case of brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale used by the mineowner or operator in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale which he mined and used in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The election must...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale which he mined and used in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The...

  1. 26 CFR 1.9004 - Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., That (a) Election for past years. In the case of brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale used by the mineowner or operator in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9004 - Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., That (a) Election for past years. In the case of brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale used by the mineowner or operator in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respect to brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale which he mined and used in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The...

  4. 26 CFR 1.9004 - Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., That (a) Election for past years. In the case of brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale used by the mineowner or operator in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe...

  5. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respect to brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale which he mined and used in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respect to brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale which he mined and used in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9004 - Statutory provisions; the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-312, 75 Stat. 674).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., That (a) Election for past years. In the case of brick and tile clay, fire clay, or shale used by the mineowner or operator in the manufacture of building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe...

  8. Lego Bricks and the Octet Rule: Molecular Models for Biochemical Pathways with Plastic, Interlocking Toy Bricks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Henry J.; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J.; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D.

    2018-01-01

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids,…

  9. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  10. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    A view looking up from the north side of the flame trench beneath the pad at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  11. Optimization of thermal conductivity lightweight brick type AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) effect of Si & Ca composition by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli; Wiryawan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Lightweight brick is the most important component of building construction, therefore it is necessary to have lightweight thermal, mechanical and aqustic thermal properties that meet the standard, in this paper which is discussed is the domain of light brick thermal conductivity properties. The advantage of lightweight brick has a low density (500-650 kg/m3), more economical, can reduce the load 30-40% compared to conventional brick (clay brick). In this research, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the thermal conductivity of lightweight brick type Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC). Based on the training and evaluation that have been done on 10 model of ANN with number of hidden node 1 to 10, obtained that ANN with 3 hidden node have the best performance. It is known from the mean value of MSE (Mean Square Error) validation for three training times of 0.003269. This ANN was further used to predict the thermal conductivity of four light brick samples. The predicted results for each of the AAC1, AAC2, AAC3 and AAC4 light brick samples were 0.243 W/m.K, respectively; 0.29 W/m.K; 0.32 W/m.K; and 0.32 W/m.K. Furthermore, ANN is used to determine the effect of silicon composition (Si), Calcium (Ca), to light brick thermal conductivity. ANN simulation results show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing Si composition. Si content is allowed maximum of 26.57%, while the Ca content in the range 20.32% - 30.35%.

  12. Characterisation of the wall-slip during extrusion of heavy-clay products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocserha, I.; Gömze, A. L.; Kulkov, S.; Kalatur, E.; Buyakova, S. P.; Géber, R.; Buzimov, A. Y.

    2017-01-01

    During extrusion through the extrusion die, heavy-clay compounds are usually show plug flow with extensive slip at the wall of the die. In this study, the viscosity and the thickness of the slip layer were investigated. For the examination a brick-clay from Malyi (Hungary) deposit was applied as a raw material. The clay was characterised by XRPD, BET, SEM and granulometry. As the slip layer consists of suspension of the fine clay fraction so the clay minerals content of the clay (d<2µm) was separated by the help of sedimentation. The viscosity of suspension with different water content was measured by means of rotational viscosimeter. The thickness of the slip layer was calculated from the measured viscosity and other data obtained from an earlier study with capillary rheometer. The calculated thickness value showed a tendency to reach a limit value by increasing the extrusion speed.

  13. Dose Deposition Profiles in Untreated Brick Material

    DOE PAGES

    O'Mara, Ryan; Hayes, Robert

    2018-04-01

    In nuclear forensics or accident dosimetry, building materials such as bricks can be used to retrospectively determine radiation fields using thermoluminescence and/or optically stimu-lated luminescence. A major problem with brick material is that significant chemical processing is generally necessary to isolate the quartz from the brick. In this study, a simplified treatment process has been tested in an effort to lessen the processing burden for retrospective dosimetry studies. It was found that by using thermoluminescence responses, the dose deposition profile of a brick sample could be reconstructed without any chemical treat-ment. This method was tested by estimating the gamma-ray ener-giesmore » of an 241Am source from the dose deposition in a brick. The results demonstrated the ability to retrospectively measure the source energy with an overall energy resolution of approximately 6 keV. This technique has the potential to greatly expedite dose re-constructions in the wake of nuclear accidents or for any related application where doses of interest are large compared to overall process system noise.« less

  14. Dose Deposition Profiles in Untreated Brick Material

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mara, Ryan; Hayes, Robert

    In nuclear forensics or accident dosimetry, building materials such as bricks can be used to retrospectively determine radiation fields using thermoluminescence and/or optically stimu-lated luminescence. A major problem with brick material is that significant chemical processing is generally necessary to isolate the quartz from the brick. In this study, a simplified treatment process has been tested in an effort to lessen the processing burden for retrospective dosimetry studies. It was found that by using thermoluminescence responses, the dose deposition profile of a brick sample could be reconstructed without any chemical treat-ment. This method was tested by estimating the gamma-ray ener-giesmore » of an 241Am source from the dose deposition in a brick. The results demonstrated the ability to retrospectively measure the source energy with an overall energy resolution of approximately 6 keV. This technique has the potential to greatly expedite dose re-constructions in the wake of nuclear accidents or for any related application where doses of interest are large compared to overall process system noise.« less

  15. Detail of bricked up storage vault opening Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of bricked up storage vault opening - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. View SE of threestory steel and brick building. Part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View SE of three-story steel and brick building. Part of large complex of buildings along Milwaukee Ave. (1920, 1950, & 1960 Milwaukee Ave. E) that is attached to the back of 1891 Trombly Ave. Openings on first floor are bricked up; second floor rectangular widows on the street facade are framed by an arched brick pattern. One brick course protrudes to form a cornice line between the second and third floors - 1900 East Milwaukee (Industrial Building), Detroit, Wayne County, MI

  17. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cull. (viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement. (ix) Furnace slag. (x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick). (xi) Plastics (e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene...

  18. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for...

  19. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for...

  20. Design, the "Straw" Missing from the "Bricks" of IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Leslie J.

    2011-01-01

    As punishment in the biblical story of Moses the slaves were told they had to make bricks without straw. This was impossible because bricks made without straw had the appearance of strength and function but could not withstand the proof of actual use. The slaves' punishment was therefore not only to make bricks, but also to find the straw on their…

  1. View looking SW at brick retaining wall running parallel to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking SW at brick retaining wall running parallel to Jones Street showing bricked up storage vaults - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. 78 FR 44433 - Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... recurring fireworks event held in the Metedeconk River in Brick Township, NJ. The fireworks display is... for the Metedeconk River, Brick Township, NJ Safety Zone will be added from 6:30 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  3. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  4. Mechanical properties of geopolymer lightweight brick with styrofoam pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Hussin, Kamarudin; Samson, W. Saiful Iskandar W.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of fly ash in brick as partial replacement of cement is gaining immense importance today, mainly on account of the improvement in the long-term durability of brick combined with ecological benefits. In this research, the lightweight brick was produced by using fly ash (class F) as a main material to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in the composition of brick. Class F Fly Ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and styrofoam pellet was added to the geopolymer mixture to produce lightweight brick. The brick was prepared in two methods that is wet method and dry method due to different brick composition which is dry method for composition with sand and wet method for composition without sand. The bricks were cured in room temperature at 7 aging days. After 7 days, the compressive strength, water absorption, and density of the brick were investigated, where the optimum ratio for the best bricks has been determined from the lightweight density and has compressive strength more than minimum standard requirement. The best bricks are further produce for curing at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days. Those bricks also were characterized using optical microscope to measure the distribution of styrofoam in brick structure. From the result obtained, the brick that cured at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days has high strength compare to brick that cured in room temperature and at 7 day cured. The water absorption is decreasing as the curing temperature and aging days increased whereas density is increasing.

  5. Phosphates in some Missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Foord, Eugene E.; Keller, David J.; Keller, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    host. The wavellite and variscite-strengite veinlets are secondary, precipitated from ion complexes in ground water percolating along cracks in the flint clay. The flint clay host of the variscite-strengite veinlet contains strontian crandallite. All of the phosphates contain significant amounts of strontium. The source of P, Ca and Sr was the marine carbonates. Dissolution of these carbonates produced the argillic residue that became the primordial Cheltenham paludal mud, which ultimately altered to fireclay.Preliminary firing tests show that the presence of phosphates lowers fusion temperature. However, it is not clear whether poor refractoriness is due to the presence of phosphates, per se, or to Ca, Sr and other alkaline elements present in the phosphates.

  6. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of about 88 °F and subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culutre. One or more... “brick cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...

  7. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of about 88 °F and subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culutre. One or more... “brick cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...

  8. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of about 88 °F and subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culutre. One or more... “brick cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...

  9. Not "Just Another Brick in the Wall"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolkower, Betina A.; Rubel, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    "Low threshold, high ceiling" tasks are accessible to diverse learners; invite a wide range of approaches; and hold the potential to further challenge, strengthen, and extend everyone's mathematical reasoning. In this article, the authors present a family of Brick Pyramid problems as examples of "low threshold, high ceiling"…

  10. Wastewater Sludge Used as Material for Bricks Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianu, N. R.; Moga, I. C.; Pricop, F.; Chivoiu, A.

    2018-06-01

    Current world trends related to wastewater sludges are: reuse in agriculture, utilization as retaining material for petroleum products or utilization in construction. Bricks from sand-cement or autoclaved cellular concrete are commonly used in construction. The authors propose innovative receipts for bricks and plasters based on textile wastewaters sludge. Centrifuged sludge is mixed with cement to obtain bricks and plaster. For bricks, the mixture is represented by 45% cement and 55% sludge. The paper presents the obtained results and the new materials used for bricks fabrication.

  11. Interface bonding of shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. W.; Kahn, L. F.

    1982-09-01

    Nine 9 sq ft. shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages and one 9 sq ft brick masonry control specimen were tested under a single reversed cycle diagonal compression load similar to the ASTM E519-74 testing procedures. The interface surface conditions, between the brick and shotcrete were varied. The surfaces of the single sythe of old brick were either dry, wet, or epoxy coated before application of the 3-inch reinforced shotcrete layer. Ultimate load capacities of the specimens were similar, however, specimens with epoxy-enhanced interfaces were the most ductile; the dry brick specimens showed interface bond failure immediately after the ultimate inplane load was attained.

  12. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  13. Clays in prebiological chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Oro, J.; Odom, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The ways in which clays have been utilized in studies of prebiological chemistry are reviewed, and an assessment is given of the possible role of clays in prebiological systems. The adsorption of organic molecules on clays has been demonstrated, as has the synthesis of bioorganic monomers in the presence of clays. For instance, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines have been obtained from carbon monoxide and nitric acid in the presence of clays at relatively high temperatures (250-325 C). The oligomerization of biochemical monomers, mediated by clays, has also been shown to result in the formation of polymer molecules basic to life. Clays have also been found to affect the condensation of mononucleotides to oligonucleotides.

  14. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Construction workers with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, cut new heat-resistant bricks to size for the concrete walls of the flame trench at Launch Pad 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. New heat-resistant bricks are being attached with epoxy mortar to the flame trench walls. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep space missions, and NASA's Journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  15. DNA Brick Crystals with Prescribed Depth

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Sun, Wei; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general framework for constructing two-dimensional crystals with prescribed depth and sophisticated three-dimensional features. These crystals may serve as scaffolds for the precise spatial arrangements of functional materials for diverse applications. The crystals are self-assembled from single-stranded DNA components called DNA bricks. We demonstrate the experimental construction of DNA brick crystals that can grow to micron-size in the lateral dimensions with precisely controlled depth up to 80 nanometers. They can be designed to display user-specified sophisticated three-dimensional nanoscale features, such as continuous or discontinuous cavities and channels, and to pack DNA helices at parallel and perpendicular angles relative to the plane of the crystals. PMID:25343605

  16. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Progress on the new brick walls of the north side of the flame trench at Launch Pad 39B is seen in a view from the top of the pad at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, continue to install new heat-resistant bricks on the concrete walls. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep-space missions, and the journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  17. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  19. 6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick detailing. The Roman bricks in the first story were installed in the 1950s. The heavy wood mullions are original and support a wood beam that carries the second-story brick facade. Remnants of the 1950s facade still remain above the parapet. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. View from intersection. Ninestory reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from intersection. Nine-story reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. The street facades on beaubien and east grand are faced with stone accents and elaborate brick work. Brick pilasters run the entire height of the building. Steel tiebacks are apparent running up the height of the building on the east side. The large tower appears at the northeast and southeast corners - Detroit Storage Company, 2937 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  1. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  2. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  3. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  4. 15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at the west end, with scale. (Note initials and date carved into the bricks and how the coursing does not line up. The end bricks could be an early repair to the masonry or be the result of replacing wood walls with brick and what is evident is how the new walls were keyed into the gable walls. In either scenario, the mortar has been poorly repointed and is a later change.) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  5. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  6. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of polymer/clay nanocomposites has been invented in an attempt to develop transparent, lightweight, durable materials for a variety of aerospace applications. As their name suggests, polymer/ clay nanocomposites comprise organic/ inorganic hybrid polymer matrices containing platelet-shaped clay particles that have sizes of the order of a few nanometers thick and several hundred nanometers long. Partly because of their high aspect ratios and high surface areas, the clay particles, if properly dispersed in the polymer matrix at a loading level of 1 to 5 weight percent, impart unique combinations of physical and chemical properties that make these nanocomposites attractive for making films and coatings for a variety of industrial applications. Relative to the unmodified polymer, the polymer/ clay nanocomposites may exhibit improvements in strength, modulus, and toughness; tear, radiation, and fire resistance; and lower thermal expansion and permeability to gases while retaining a high degree of optical transparency.

  7. Super Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolytes and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolo, Morgan; Gamboa, Daniel; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin composite films of branched polyethylenimine (PEI), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. Film thickness, mass deposited per layer, and barrier were shown to increase exponentially with the number of deposition cycles. After 32 layers (i.e., eight PEI/PAA/PEI/MMT quadlayers) are deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day). This level of oxygen barrier is believed to be due to a nano-brick wall microstructure comprised of exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar, where the enhanced spacing between MMT layers, provided by PEI and PAA, creates channels perpendicular concentration gradient that delay the permeating molecule. These films are good candidates for flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceutical packaging due to their transparency, super gas barrier (that rivals SiOx) and lack of metal.

  8. Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick arch lintel and brick infilled window with brick sill; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Clay Portrait Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  10. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  11. The Science of Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students' natural curiosity provides a rich opportunity for teachers to make meaningful scientific connections between art and ceramics that will enhance the understanding of both natural forces and scientific aspects at work in the creation of clay artworks. This article discusses the scientific areas of study related to clay, which include…

  12. The influence of clay fineness upon sludge recycling in a ceramic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőke, A. M.; Muntean, M.; Sándor, M.; Brotea, L.

    2016-04-01

    The feasibility of sludge recycling in the ceramic manufacture was evaluated through laboratory testing. Such residues have similar chemical and mineralogical composition with the raw mixture of the green ceramic body used in construction. Several ceramic masses with clay and various proportion of sludge have been synthesized and then characterized by their physical-mechanical properties. The fineness of the clay, the main component of the green ceramic body, has been considered for every raw mixture. The proportion of the sludge waste addition depends on the clay fineness and the sintering capacity also, increases with the clay fineness. The ceramic properties, particularly, the open porosity, and mechanical properties, in presence of small sludge proportion (7, 20%) shows small modification. The introduction of such waste into building ceramic matrix (bricks, tiles, and plates) has a very good perspective.

  13. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  14. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Progress continues on the new flame trench at Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, attach new heat-resistant bricks on the north side of the flame trench. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep space missions, and NASA's Journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  15. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    A construction worker with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, checks to make sure new heat-resistant bricks attached to the north side of the flame trench are level at Launch Pad 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep space missions, and NASA's Journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  16. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  17. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Progress continues on the new flame trench at Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, prepare new heat-resistant bricks for installation on the north side of the flame trench. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep space missions, and NASA's Journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  18. Aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

  19. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by…

  20. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  1. 5. VIEW OF THE LAMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. DECORATIVE BRICK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE LAMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. DECORATIVE BRICK CORBELING AND PILASTERS DIVIDE THE BAYS. BRICK CORBELING ACCENTS THE EAVES. CONCRETE LINTELS ABOVE THE WINDOW OPENINGS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL DETAILING. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  2. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. KILNS 1A, 2A, 3A, AND 4A IN FOREGROUND. GAS VALVE AND METERING HOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE. - Jenkins Brick Company, Plant No. 2, Furnace Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  4. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  5. Three-Dimensional Structures Self-Assembled from DNA Bricks

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple and robust method to construct complex three-dimensional (3D) structures using short synthetic DNA strands that we call “DNA bricks”. In one-step annealing reactions, bricks with hundreds of distinct sequences self-assemble into prescribed 3D shapes. Each 32-nucleotide brick is a modular component; it binds to four local neighbors and can be removed or added independently. Each 8-base-pair interaction between bricks defines a voxel with dimensions 2.5 nanometers by 2.5 nanometers by 2.7 nanometers, and a master brick collection defines a “molecular canvas” with dimensions of 10 by 10 by 10 voxels. By selecting subsets of bricks from this canvas, we constructed a panel of 102 distinct shapes exhibiting sophisticated surface features as well as intricate interior cavities and tunnels. PMID:23197527

  6. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  8. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. For the brick and related clay products industry, only the calcining and drying of raw materials prior to firing of the brick are covered. (b) An affected facility that is subject to the provisions of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility. For the brick and related clay products industry, only the calcining and drying of raw materials prior to firing of the brick are covered. (b) An affected facility that is subject to the provisions of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility. For the brick and related clay products industry, only the calcining and drying of raw materials prior to firing of the brick are covered. (b) An affected facility that is subject to the provisions of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility. For the brick and related clay products industry, only the calcining and drying of raw materials prior to firing of the brick are covered. (b) An affected facility that is subject to the provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility. For the brick and related clay products industry, only the calcining and drying of raw materials prior to firing of the brick are covered. (b) An affected facility that is subject to the provisions of...

  13. Archaeomagnetic investigation of bricks from the VIIIth VIIth century BC Greek indigenous site of Incoronata (Metaponto, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi J.; Lanos, Philippe; Denti, Mario; Dufresne, Philippe

    An archaeomagnetic investigation of two sets of brick fragments (in total 39) along with a radiocarbon date from one of the most important Greco-indigenous archaeological sites in the Central Mediterranean, the VIIIth-VIIth Century BC site of Incoronata (Metaponto, Italy) has been carried out in order to aid archaeological understanding of the site as well as to produce high quality archaeomagnetic data. A full suite of rock magnetic experiments have been carried out in addition to the classical Thellier method experiments with correction for anisotropy of TRM and cooling rate. The results indicate that the two sets of bricks are magnetically identical and have the same heating history and thus it is inferred the same origin. It seems that the bricks had been reused in two different contexts: (1) mixed with stone and ceramics in deposit pits and (2) used to consolidate an artificial plateau. The brick samples all contain a single component of remanence and thus, importantly, this study has shown that the hypothesis of destruction by fire is no longer tenable to explain the deposit pits previously interpreted as being storage houses or dwellings ( oikoi), but is consistent with the suggestion that the pits are ritual deposits. Whilst it did not prove possible to obtain an estimate of the inclination of the geomagnetic field (since the bricks did not gain their remanence whilst on one of their flat surfaces), the archaeointensity experiments (with anisotropy of TRM and cooling rate correction) give a mean intensity of 85 ± 5 μT for the field at Incoronata during the VIIIth-VIIth century BC. This is almost twice the present day field strength and thus provides further evidence that the field was strong over at least a 30° longitude area of the globe during this time.

  14. 42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. THE MOLD, WHICH HAS A RAISED DESIGN, LEAVES AND OUTLINE IN THE SLAB, THE PIECES THUS DEFINED, ARE THEN CUT APART TO BE FIRED SEPARATELY AND REASSEMBLED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. Lego bricks and the octet rule: Molecular models for biochemical pathways with plastic, interlocking toy bricks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Henry J; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and various intermediate metabolites. Model building with these familiar toys can be a helpful, hands-on exercise for learning-or re-learning-biochemical pathways. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):54-57, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. 77 FR 61397 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: 2010 Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: 2010 Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... countervailing duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks (MCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC... the order includes certain magnesia carbon bricks. Certain magnesia carbon bricks that are the subject...

  18. To overcome the appearance of the efflorescences by magnesium carbonate addition in a mass for manufacture of bricks of construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemani, H.

    2011-01-01

    Following the tendency of some European countries the briquetiers develop further the aesthetic aspect of their products and, the supply of colors and, aspects of surface will be further extended. The recovery of the sustainability of facades in bricks apparent, the quality of raw materials, and their determination remain a major problem. The presence of soluble salts in the field is fairly harmful for the product terracotta because they are the cause of apparitions of efflorescences. To defeat this type of default our study is on an addition of MgCO3 a mixture of two kinds of clay. The doses MgCO3 were between (0,25-0,5-0,75-1-1,5%) of the dry mass to treat. With rates of clay yellow and, gray which are respectively (40-60%). In comparison with a previous study where the addition was BaCO3. Finished products obtained with 1% MgCO3 exhibited a better aesthetic aspect, of the qualities insulating, and a mechanical resistance significantly higher than the bricks ceramics ordinary marketed at the present time.

  19. Pad 39B Flame Trench Brick Work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Progress continues on the new flame trench at Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers with J.P. Donovan of Rockledge, Florida, are on an elevated work stand to install new heat-resistant bricks on the north side of the flame trench. The Pad B flame trench is being refurbished to support the launch of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy is helping transform the space center into a multi-user spaceport and prepare for Exploration Mission 1, deep space missions, and NASA's Journey to Mars. For more information about GSDO, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/groundsystems.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces ofmore » stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.« less

  1. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  2. Behavior of sandwich panels in a fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelekova, Eugenia

    2018-03-01

    For the last decades there emerged a vast number of buildings and structures erected with the use of sandwich panels. The field of application for this construction material is manifold, especially in the construction of fire and explosion hazardous buildings. In advanced evacu-ation time calculation methods the coefficient of heat losses is defined with dire regard to fire load features, but without account to thermal and physical characteristics of building envelopes, or, to be exact, it is defined for brick and concrete walls with gross heat capacity. That is why the application of the heat loss coefficient expression obtained for buildings of sandwich panels is impossible because of different heat capacity of these panels from the heat capacities of brick and concrete building envelopes. The article conducts an analysis and calculation of the heal loss coefficient for buildings and structures of three layer sandwich panels as building envelopes.

  3. Study of Usage Areas of Clay Samples of Asphaltite Quarries in Sirnak, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Oyku

    2017-12-01

    The asphaltite of Sirnak, Turkey are in the form of 12 veins and their total reserves are anticipated to be approximately 200 million tons in a field of 25.000 hectares. The asphaltites at the Sirnak region are in the form of fault and crack fillings and take place together with clay minerals at their side rock. The main raw materials used in the production of cement are limestone, clay and marn known as sedimentary rocks. Limestone for CaO and clay minerals for SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, which are the main compounds of clinker production, are the main raw materials. Other materials containing these four oxides like marn are also used as cement raw material. Conformity levels of the raw materials to be used in cement production vary according to their chemical compounds. The rocks to be used as clay mineral are evaluated by taking the rate of silicate and alumina into consideration. The soils suitable for brick-tile productions are named as sandy clay. Their difference from the ceramic clays is that they are richer in terms of iron, silica and carbonate. These soils are also known under the names such as clay, arid, alluvium, silt, loam and argil. Inside these soils, minerals such as quartz, montmorillonite, kaolinite, calcite, limonite, hidromika, sericite, illite, and chlorite are available. Some parts of the soils consist of clays in amorphous structure. Limestone parts, gypsums, organic substances and bulky rock residuals spoil the quality. The soils suitable for brick production may not be suitable for tile production. In this case, their sandy soils should be mixed up with the clays with fine granule structure which is high in plasticity. During asphaltite mining in Sirnak region, clays forming side rock are gathered at dump sites. In this study; SQX analyses of the clay samples taken from Avgamasya, Seridahli and Segürük asphaltite veins run in Sirnak region are carried out and their usage areas are searched.

  4. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  5. 12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. 20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick lining of exterior wall; view to south, 135mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 18. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 87.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 19. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 87.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  10. View of original brick wall on the western face of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of original brick wall on the western face of the boiler house (center right) and electrical department (far right). - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Electrical Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. VIEW OF STABLE, SLAUGHTERHOUSE, AND STORE (THE TWOSTORY BRICK BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STABLE, SLAUGHTERHOUSE, AND STORE (THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING BEYOND THE STABLE), LOOKING NORTH (See also WINDBER, TOWN OF, HAER No. PA-322) - Town of Eureka No. 42, Northeast of Windber, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  13. 2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  14. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  15. View east of brick railroad viaduct central of Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east of brick railroad viaduct - central of Georgia - spannin canal prism (now used as pedestrian walk) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF BRICK WALKWAY ON SOUTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BRICK WALKWAY ON SOUTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NAMES OF DONORS TO RECENT RENOVATION - Free Library of Philadelphia, Falls of Schuylkill Branch, 3501 Midvale Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) and warehouse (two story) sections of 1900-1904 construction; at left is 1885 mill. - Empire Mills Company, Front Avenue between Eighth & Tenth Streets, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  20. IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ion chamber beneath reactor on dolly. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 11, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4039 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 4. VIEW OF CASTIRON WALL PLATE PROTECTING BRICK DOORWAY, MARKED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CAST-IRON WALL PLATE PROTECTING BRICK DOORWAY, MARKED '1880 B & O.' - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Locust Point Tobacco Warehouse, Northeast side of Fort Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. VisBricks: multiform visualization of large, inhomogeneous data.

    PubMed

    Lex, Alexander; Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Streit, Marc; Partl, Christian; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of real-world data often exhibit inhomogeneities: vertically in the form of correlated or independent dimensions and horizontally in the form of clustered or scattered data items. In essence, these inhomogeneities form the patterns in the data that researchers are trying to find and understand. Sophisticated statistical methods are available to reveal these patterns, however, the visualization of their outcomes is mostly still performed in a one-view-fits-all manner. In contrast, our novel visualization approach, VisBricks, acknowledges the inhomogeneity of the data and the need for different visualizations that suit the individual characteristics of the different data subsets. The overall visualization of the entire data set is patched together from smaller visualizations, there is one VisBrick for each cluster in each group of interdependent dimensions. Whereas the total impression of all VisBricks together gives a comprehensive high-level overview of the different groups of data, each VisBrick independently shows the details of the group of data it represents. State-of-the-art brushing and visual linking between all VisBricks furthermore allows the comparison of the groupings and the distribution of data items among them. In this paper, we introduce the VisBricks visualization concept, discuss its design rationale and implementation, and demonstrate its usefulness by applying it to a use case from the field of biomedicine. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Environmental footprints of brick kiln bottom ashes: Geostatistical approach for assessment of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ananya; Das, Subhasish; Sah, Rajesh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2017-12-31

    Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs. FTIR analysis revealed greater predominance of organic matter in ABKBAs than WBKBAs. Occurrence of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu) was higher in ABKBAs than in WBKBAs; while organic and residual fractions of metals were highly predominant in most of the BKBAs. Principal component analysis showed that metal contents and pH were the major distinguishing characteristics of the BKBAs generated in the two different environmental locations. Human health risk associated with BKBAs generated in Assam is of significant concern. Finally, geo-statistical tools enabled to predict the spatial distribution patterns of toxic metals contributed by the BKBAs in Assam and West Bengal respectively. Assessment of contamination index, geo-accumulation index, and ecological risk index revealed some BKBAs to be more toxic than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  5. Moving Along: Sporting Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Presents a junior high school student art project where three-dimensional art sculptures of surfing, snow boarding, or dirt biking were created. Discusses how the students created their three-dimensional works of art using a clay-slab technique. (CMK)

  6. Modeling in Ceramic Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louis J.

    1976-01-01

    Modeling is an additive process of building up a sculpture with some plastic material like clay. It affords the student an opportunity to work in three dimensions, a creative relief from the general two-dimensional drawing and design activities that occupy a large segment of time in the art curriculum. (Author/RK)

  7. Rattles of Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Using the rattles of Native American cultures as inspiration, students used pinching, coiling, and slab and molding techniques to form the bodies of rattles and clay pellets for sound. Surface decoration included glazed and unglazed areas as well as added handles, feathers, and leather. (IS)

  8. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  9. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  10. Peculiarities of non-autoclaved lime wall materials production using clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodchenko, A. A.; Lesovik, V. S.; Cherepanova, I. A.; Volodchenko, A. N.; Zagorodnjuk, L. H.; Elistratkin, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    At present, the development and implementation of energy saving technologies for building materials production, which correspond to modern trends of «green» technologies, become ever more popular. One of the most widely spread wall materials today is a lime brick and stones. The primary raw goods used in production of such materials are quarziferous rocks. However, they have some disadvantages, including low strength index at the intermediate phase of their production, especially in case with a raw brick, which is an issue in the production of high-hollow goods due to low strength index of raw materials and the nonoptimal matrix structure. The conducted experiments confirmed the possibility to control structurization of building composites due to application of nonconventional argillous raw materials. Besides, the material and mineral composition of nonconventional clay rocks ensures the optimal microstructure thus providing for the production of efficient wall building materials via energy saving technology.

  11. Analysis of the Large Urban Fire Environment. Part 1. Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    the fire. It is the buoyancy-generated pressure forces, and not diffusive entrainment, that control the low-level induction of ambient air into the...18-- IV. RESULTS FLAMBEAU FIRES The multiple-fuel-bed Flambeau fires (Countryman, 1969; Palmer, 1981] were large, controlled burns conducted to...Station Northern Forest Fire Laboratory Alexandria, VA 22314 (12) Missoula, MT 59801 (1) Department of Defense 2. Mr. Clay F. Butler Command and Control

  12. Clays of Ladon Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    Ladon Basin was a large impact structure that was filled in by the deposits from Ladon Valles, a major ancient river on Mars as seen in this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These wet sediments were altered into minerals such as various clay minerals. Clays imply chemistry that may have been favorable for life on ancient Mars, if anything lived there, so this could be a good spot for future exploration by rovers and perhaps return of samples to Earth. The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 52.1 centimeters (20.5 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 156 centimeters (61.4 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22183

  13. Global fire at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbach, Wendy S.; Gilmour, Iain; Anders, Edward; Orth, Charles J.; Brooks, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays rich in iridium from five sites in Europe and New Zealand were investigated. The clays are found to be 100-10,000-fold-enriched in elemental carbon (mainly soot), which is isotopically uniform and apparently comes from a single global fire. The soot layer coincides with the iridium layer, suggesting that the fire was triggered by meteorite impact and began before the ejecta had settled.

  14. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across.

    CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE.

    In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image.

    The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image

  15. Cyclic Behavior of Mortarless Brick Joints with Different Interlocking Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Peng; Lin, Kun; Zhao, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The framed structure infilled with a mortarless brick (MB) panel exhibits considerable in-plane energy dissipation because of the relative sliding between bricks and good out-of-plane stability resulting from the use of interlocking mechanisms. The cyclic behaviors of MB are investigated experimentally in this study. Two different types of bricks, namely non-interlocking mortarless brick (N-IMB) and interlocking mortarless brick (IMB), are examined experimentally. The cyclic behavior of all of the joints (N-IMB and IMB) are investigated in consideration of the effects of interlocking shapes, loading compression stress levels and loading cycles. The hysteretic loops of N-IMB and IMB joints are obtained, according to which a mechanical model is developed. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is employed to describe the shear failure modes of all of the investigated joints. A typical frictional behavior is observed for the N-IMB joints, and a significant stiffening effect is observed for the IMB joints during their sliding stage. The friction coefficients of all of the researched joints increase with the augmentation of the compression stress level and improvement of the smoothness of the interlocking surfaces. An increase in the loading cycle results in a decrease in the friction coefficients of all of the joints. The degradation rate (DR) of the friction coefficients increases with the reduction in the smoothness of the interlocking surface. PMID:28773291

  16. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Roslan; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  17. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Fire ants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a fire ant delivers a harmful substance, called venom, into your skin. This article is for information ... in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called piperidine. Where Found Fire ...

  19. Forensic investigation of brick paver crosswalks at Court Square in Charlottesville, Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the findings of a forensic investigation to determine the causes of premature failures noted in brick paver crosswalks in the Court Square area in Charlottesville, Virginia. Brick paver crosswalks were installed in late November...

  20. Oxidation Character of Carbon Composite Bricks Used in Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Jiao, Kexin; Zhao, Yongan

    The carbon composite brick is a new refractory used in blast furnace hearth and bottom. It caused wide attention due to its high thermal conductivity and low erosion by molten iron. In this paper, chemical constituents, SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction were carried out in order to understand reaction mechanisms. A series of experiments of oxidation resistance characteristics were made. The oxidation mechanisms of carbon composite bricks in the presence of air were analyzed. According to the analysis on many experimental results, the oxidation process of carbon composite bricks under different temperatures were controlled by different mechanisms. In the condition of high temperature, SiO2 as oxidation product hindered the diffusion of O2, and reduced the oxidation loss of graphite in the internal.

  1. Fight Fire Without Fire Fighters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    There is a role for the classroom teacher in teaching fire safety. Discusses the inadequacies of present fire prevention programs and provides ten specific steps teachers can take to avoid suffering and death from fire. (Author/RK)

  2. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Brittany L; Kellis, Donald L; Davis, Paul H; Lee, Jeunghoon; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B

    2015-03-18

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems.

  3. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  4. A brick-architecture-based mobile under-vehicle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Page, David; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a mobile scanning system for real-time under-vehicle inspection is presented, which is founded on a "Brick" architecture. In this "Brick" architecture, the inspection system is basically decomposed into bricks of three kinds: sensing, mobility, and computing. These bricks are physically and logically independent and communicate with each other by wireless communication. Each brick is mainly composed by five modules: data acquisition, data processing, data transmission, power, and self-management. These five modules can be further decomposed into submodules where the function and the interface are well-defined. Based on this architecture, the system is built by four bricks: two sensing bricks consisting of a range scanner and a line CCD, one mobility brick, and one computing brick. The sensing bricks capture geometric data and texture data of the under-vehicle scene, while the mobility brick provides positioning data along the motion path. Data of these three modalities are transmitted to the computing brick where they are fused and reconstruct a 3D under-vehicle model for visualization and danger inspection. This system has been successfully used in several military applications and proved to be an effective safer method for national security.

  5. 75 FR 28237 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico, Investigation Nos. 701-TA-468 and 731-TA-1166-1167 (Preliminary... threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China and Mexico of certain magnesia carbon bricks... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Affirmative Determination of Critical...

  6. 78 FR 75543 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Bricks From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Enforcement and... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico for the... antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico with respect to RHI-Refmex S.A. de C.V...

  7. 76 FR 78885 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Bricks From Mexico: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from... antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico with respect to RHI-Refmex S.A. de C.V...

  8. 75 FR 57442 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration...), the Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks (MCBs) from... and Mexico. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from China and Mexico (Investigation Nos. 701- TA-468...

  9. 75 FR 21346 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...)] Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10, 6902.10.50, 6815.91.00, and 6815.99.00 of...), magnesia carbon bricks with a magnesia component of at least 70 percent magnesia (``MgO'') by weight...

  10. Interior building details of Building B, Room B004: south brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building B, Room B-004: south brick wall partial painted brick plaster with stair scar trace, historic brick infilled arch entry way to Room C-001; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  11. 78 FR 21106 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-988] Silica Bricks and Shapes... of initiation of an antidumping duty investigation of silica bricks and shapes from the People's... than April 24, 2013. \\1\\ See Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

  12. 78 FR 34036 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... bricks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period September 1, 2011, through... magnesia carbon bricks from the PRC.\\2\\ Fengchi Imp. & Exp. Co., Ltd. of Haicheng City (``Fengchi'') and...

  13. 75 FR 56556 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...)] Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... from China and Mexico of certain magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10, 6902... carbon bricks from China and determine that an industry in the United States is not materially injured or...

  14. 78 FR 7752 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2011... bricks (MCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period January 1, 2011, through... Bricks from China, Case No. C-570-955: Request for Countervailing Duty Administrative Review,'' dated...

  15. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  16. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOEpatents

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  17. 28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE BACK OF THE NICHE IS CEMENT FINISHED. THE BOTTOM HAS A 1 INCH THICK ASBESTOS SHELF. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN AT THE 3RD FLOOR. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  19. Processes of Fatigue Destruction in Nanopolymer-Hydrophobised Ceramic Bricks

    PubMed Central

    Fic, Stanisław; Szewczak, Andrzej; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1–5) and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6–10). Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication. The effect of the addition of nano silica and sonication on changes in the rheological parameters, i.e., viscosity and surface tension, was determined. Material fatigue was induced by cyclic immersion of the samples in water and drying at a temperature of 100 °C, which caused rapid and relatively dynamic movement of water. The moisture and temperature effect was determined by measurement of changes in surface hardness performed with the Vickers method and assessment of sample absorbability. The results provided an approximate picture of fatigue destruction of brick and hydrophobic coatings in relation to changes in their temporal stability. Additionally, SEM images of hydrophobic coatings in are shown. PMID:28772404

  20. 2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys flanking structure at southwest and southeast corners. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick walls along the boundary of the cemetery; interior view taken from midway down the paved west road with the camera facing west to capture the morning light on the west wall. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  3. Segment of brick perimeter wall extending around the naval asylum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Segment of brick perimeter wall extending around the naval asylum grounds at twenty-fourth street with Gray's Ferry Avenue branching to the left and Bainbridge Street to the right, looking southwest. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining being laid in Test Stand 'A' flame pit to protect concrete from heat of rocket engine flames. (JPL negative no. 383-764, 8 March 1945) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE WOOD TRUSSES AND FLUTED COLUMNS (CAST IRON WITH EGYPTIAN REVIVAL CAPITAL). THIS SECTION OF THE MILL WAS PROBABLY PART OF THE WEAVE ROOM ADDITIONS DURING THE 1860s. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  6. 11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEELSKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEEL-SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER (FOREGROUND), AND MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE AND DRYERS (BACKGROUND). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  7. Processes of Fatigue Destruction in Nanopolymer-Hydrophobised Ceramic Bricks.

    PubMed

    Fic, Stanisław; Szewczak, Andrzej; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-06

    The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1-5) and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6-10). Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication. The effect of the addition of nano silica and sonication on changes in the rheological parameters, i.e., viscosity and surface tension, was determined. Material fatigue was induced by cyclic immersion of the samples in water and drying at a temperature of 100 °C, which caused rapid and relatively dynamic movement of water. The moisture and temperature effect was determined by measurement of changes in surface hardness performed with the Vickers method and assessment of sample absorbability. The results provided an approximate picture of fatigue destruction of brick and hydrophobic coatings in relation to changes in their temporal stability. Additionally, SEM images of hydrophobic coatings in are shown.

  8. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  9. Interior of during demolition; the brick structure in the middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of during demolition; the brick structure in the middle housed the electric motors that ran the rolling mill (the motor house and rolling mills date from the early twentieth century) - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Rolling Mill, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  10. Identification of indigenous science in the brick-making process through ethnoscience study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuroso, H.; Supriyadi; Sudarmin, S.; Sarwi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find indigenous science in making bricks. In the brick-making process there are concepts of science used for generations obtained through local wisdom. This research method is descriptive qualitative by collecting data through interviews on brick-making home industries in Penggaron village of Semarang city and in Welahan village of Jepara. The result of the research indicates that the indigenous science is in the process of making bricks which includes materials composing, printing, drying, burning and brick quality testing. These findings can be integrated in the course of environmental physics.

  11. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Pressed Straw Concrete Brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarni, S.; Wijanarko, W.

    2018-03-01

    Rice straws have been widely used as wall filler material in China, Australia, and United States, by spinning them into hays with an approximate dimension of 40 cm of height, 40cm of thickness and 60 cm of width, using a machine. Then, the hays are placed into a wall frame until they fill it completely. After that, the wall frame is covered with wire mesh and plastered. In this research, rice straws are to be used as concrete brick fillers, by pressing the straws into hays and then putting them into the concrete brick mold along with mortar. The objective of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete brick, namely: compressive strength, specific gravity, and water absorption power. This research used experimental research method. It was conducted by using concrete bricks which had 400 cm of width, 200 cm of height, and 100 cm of thickness, made from rice straws, cement, sand, and water as the test sample. The straws were each made different by their volume. The mortars used in this research were made from cement, sand, and water, with the ratio of 1:7:0.5. The concrete bricks were made by pressing straws mixed with glue into hays, and then cut by determined variations of volume. The variations of hays volume were 0 m3, 0.000625 m3, 0.00075 m3, 0.000875 m3, 0.00125 m3, 0.0015 m3, 0.00175 m3, 0.001875 m3, 0.00225 m3, and 0.002625 m3. There were 3 samples for each volumes of hays. The result shows that the straw concrete bricks reached the maximum compressive strength of 1.92 MPa, specific gravity of 1,702 kg/m3, and water absorption level of 3.9 %. Based on the provided measurements of products in the Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian product standardization), the concrete bricks produced attained the prescribed standard quality.

  12. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  13. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  14. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  15. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    PubMed

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database.

  16. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  17. Clay energetics in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Clays have been implicated in the origin of terrestrial life since the 1950's. Originally they were considered agents which aid in selecting, concentrating and promoting oligomerization of the organic monomeric substituents of cellular life forms. However, more recently, it has been suggested that minerals, with particular emphasis on clays, may have played a yet more fundamental role. It has been suggested that clays are prototypic life forms in themselves and that they served as a template which directed the self-assembly of cellular life. If the clay-life theory is to have other than conceptual credibility, clays must be shown by experiment to execute the operations of cellular life, not only individually, but also in a sufficiently concerted manner as to produce some semblance of the functional attributes of living cells. Current studies are focussed on the ability of clays to absorb, store and transfer energy under plausible prebiotic conditions and to use this energy to drive chemistry of prebiotic relevance. Conclusions of the work are applicable to the role of clays either as substrates for organic chemistry, or in fueling their own life-mimetic processes.

  18. Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of clays and clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Hughes, R.E.

    1971-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) proves to be ideally suited for studying the configuration, texture, and fabric of clay samples. Growth mechanics of crystalline units—interpenetration and interlocking of crystallites, crystal habits, twinning, helical growth, and topotaxis—also are uniquely revealed by the SEM.Authigenic kaolins make up the bulk of the examples because their larger crystallite size, better crystallinity, and open texture make them more suited to examination by the SEM than most other clay mineral types.

  20. Comprehensive review of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, M. Uma; Muthukumar, M.

    2017-11-01

    Human activity inevitably produces waste materials that must be managed. Some waste can be reused. However many wastes that cannot be used beneficially must be disposed of ensuring environmental safety. One of the common methods of disposal is landfilling. The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Liner in a landfill is an important component which prevent leachate migration and prevent groundwater contamination. Earthen liners have been widely used to contain waste materials in landfill. Liners and covers for municipal and hazardous waste containment facilities are often constructed with the use of fine-grained, low plasticity soils. Because of low permeability geosynthetic clay liners and compacted clay liners are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. This paper summaries the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings. This paper also compares geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on certain criteria such as thickness, availability of materials, vulnerability to damage etc.

  1. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in processed ball clay from the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian; Schaum, John

    2007-04-01

    Processed ball clays commonly used by the ceramic art industry in the United States were collected from retail suppliers and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The average PCDD toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of these processed ball clays was approximately 800 pg/g (TEQ-WHO) with characteristic congener profiles and isomer distributions similar to patterns of previously analyzed raw and processed ball clays. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. Correlation analyses reveal no significant relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and either individual, homologues, and total tetra-through octa-chlorinated PCDD congeners, or TEQ concentrations of the processed ball clays. The results are consistent with earlier studies on levels of PCDDs in ball clays. Data from earlier studies indicated that dioxins may be released to the environment during the processing of raw clay or the firing process used in commercial ceramic facilities. The presence of dioxin in the clays also raises concerns about potential occupational exposure for individuals involved in the mining/processing of ball clay, ceramics manufacturing and ceramic artwork.

  2. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  3. Case Report: Human Exposure to Dioxins from Clay

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Alfred; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Chen, Qixuan; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Adriaens, Peter; Demond, Avery; Garabrant, David; Gillespie, Brenda; Hong, Biling; Jolliet, Olivier; Lepkowski, James; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Wenger, Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Context For the general population, the dominant source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds is food. As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study (UMDES), we measured selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum of 946 subjects who were a representative sample of the general population in five Michigan counties. Case presentation The total toxic equivalency (TEQ; based on 2005 World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors) of serum from the index case was 211 ppt on a lipid-adjusted basis, which was the highest value observed in the UMDES study population. This subject had no apparent opportunity for exposure to dioxins, except that she had lived on property with soil contaminated with dioxins for almost 30 years, and had been a ceramics hobbyist for > 30 years. Soil from her property and clay that she used for ceramics were both contaminated with dioxins, but the congener patterns differed. Discussion The congener patterns in this subject’s serum, soil, and ceramic clay suggest strongly that the dioxin contamination in clay and not soil was the dominant source of dioxin contamination in her serum. Relevance to public health practice: It appears that ceramic clay, in particular the process of firing clay with unvented kilns, can be a significant nonfood and nonindustrial source of human exposure to dioxins among ceramics hobbyists. The extent of human exposure from ceramic clay is unclear, but it may be widespread. Further work is needed to more precisely characterize the routes of exposure. PMID:18288324

  4. Geopolymer lightweight bricks manufactured from fly ash and foaming agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Wan Mastura Wan; Hussin, Kamarudin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the development of lightweight geopolymer bricks by using foaming agent and fly ash. The mix parameters analysed through a laboratory experiment with fix ratio of sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide solution mass ratio 2.5, fly ash/alkaline activator solution mass ratio 2.0, foaming agent/paste mass ratio 1:2 and molarity of sodium hydroxide solution used was 12M. Different curing temperature (Room Temperature, 60, 80) and foaming agent/water mass ratio (1:10 and 1:20) were studied. Compressive strength, density analysis, and water absorption has been investigated. The results show that the foamed geopolymer bricks with a lower foam/water mass ratio (1:10)and high curing temperature (80°C) leading to a better properties. Mixtures with a low density of around 1420 kg/m3 and a compressive strength of around 10 MPa were achieved.

  5. Growing and testing mycelium bricks as building insulation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yangang; Brewer, Matthew; El-Gharabawy, Hoda; Griffith, Gareth; Jones, Phil

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve energy performance of buildings, insulation materials (such as mineral glass and rock wools, or fossil fuel-based plastic foams) are being used in increasing quantities, which may lead to potential problem with materials depletions and landfill disposal. One sustainable solution suggested is the use of bio-based, biodegradable materials. A number of attempts have been made to develop biomaterials, such as sheep wood, hemcrete or recycled papers. In this paper, a novel type of bio insulation materials - mycelium is examined. The aim is to produce mycelium materials that could be used as insulations. The bio-based material was required to have properties that matched existing alternatives, such as expanded polystyrene, in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics but with an enhanced level of biodegradability. The testing data showed mycelium bricks exhibited good thermal performance. Future work is planned to improve growing process and thermal performance of the mycelium bricks.

  6. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  7. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  8. Hazardous child labor in Nepal: The case of brick kilns.

    PubMed

    Larmar, Stephen; O'Leary, Patrick; Chui, Cheryl; Benfer, Katherine; Zug, Sebastian; Jordan, Lucy P

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous child labor in Nepal is a serious concern, particularly in the brick kiln industry. Although a range of interventions have been implemented in Nepal to address hazardous child labor, there is a lack of research to both measure success and shape further development in interventions that integrate sound child protection practices to ensure the wellbeing of all children. This paper provides a review of the literature outlining interventions for children working in brick kilns in Nepal, and presents preliminary case study findings of one current intervention in the Kathmandu Valley. The paper highlights the strength of applying foundational child protection principles and advocates for the development and implementation of future programs underpinned by broad civil society principles within a child rights and protection framework. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  10. Wave Manipulation in Metamaterials: A LEGO® Bricks Enabled Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    In this work, we show how simple, reconfigurable arrangements of LEGO® bricks can be turned into the building blocks of an experimental platform for the investigation of wave phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach involves the assembly of reconfigurable specimens consisting of patterns of bricks on a baseplate and the use of a 3D laser vibrometer to reconstruct global and local wave features. The ability to seamlessly transition between different topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental verification and proof of concept in the arena of mechanical metamaterials engineering. The intuitive nature of the brick-and-baseplate assembly paradigm can also be leveraged to implement families of intuitive lab demonstrations with significant didactic and scientific outreach potential. The versatility of the platform is tested through a series of experiments that illustrate a variety of wave manipulation effects, such as waveguiding and seismic isolation, both in periodic and disordered topologies. We acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (Grant CMMI-1266089).

  11. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  12. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  13. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  14. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  15. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  16. Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, Jeremy P., E-mail: inghamjp@halcrow.com

    The number of building fires has doubled over the last 50 years. There has never been a greater need for structures to be assessed for fire damage to ensure safety and enable appropriate repairs to be planned. Fortunately, even after a severe fire, concrete and masonry structures are generally capable of being repaired rather than demolished. By allowing direct examination of microcracking and mineralogical changes, petrographic examination has become widely used to determine the depth of fire damage for reinforced concrete elements. Petrographic examination can also be applied to fire-damaged masonry structures built of materials such as stone, brick andmore » mortar. Petrography can ensure accurate detection of damaged geomaterials, which provides cost savings during building repair and increased safety reassurance. This paper comprises a review of the role of petrography in fire damage assessments, drawing on a range of actual fire damage investigations.« less

  17. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuyns, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.cappuyns@kuleuven.be; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with themore » development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.« less

  18. Scaling of strength and ductility in bioinspired brick and mortar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbrink, David V.; Utz, Marcel; Ritchie, Robert O.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2010-11-01

    This paper provides scaling relationships between constituent properties and the uniaxial tensile response of synthetic "brick and mortar" composite materials inspired by nacre. The macroscopic strength and ductility (work of fracture) are predicted in terms of the brick properties (size, strength, and layout) and interface cohesive properties (e.g., maximum shear and normal stresses and separations). The results illustrate the trade-off between increasing strength and decreasing ductility with the increasing aspect ratio of the bricks. The models can be used to identify optimum mortar properties that maximize toughness for a given brick strength.

  19. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  20. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Treesearch

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  1. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-09-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  2. Study on fluoride emission from soils at high temperature related to brick-making process.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Wu, W H; Xu, J M

    2003-02-01

    Characteristics of fluoride emission from 12 soils at temperatures of 400-1,100 degrees C related to the brick-making process were studied. The results obtained in this study indicate that fluoride emission as gaseous HF and SiF4 was related to the firing temperature, soil total fluoride content, soil composition and calcium compounds added to soils. Soils began to release fluoride at temperatures between 500 and 700 degrees C. Marked increases of the average fluoride mission rate from 57.2% to 85.4% of soil total fluoride were noticed as the heating temperature was increased from 700 to 1,100 degrees C. It was found that the major proportion (over 50%) of the soil total fluoride was emitted from soils at approximate 800 degrees C. The amount of fluoride released into the atmosphere when heated depended on the total fluoride contents in the soils. Correlation analysis showed that the soil composition, such as cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and CaCO3, had some influence on fluoride emission below 900 degrees C, but had no influence at temperatures above 900 degrees C. Addition of four calcium compounds (CaO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, and CaSO4) at 1.5% by weight raised the temperature at which fluoride began to be released to 700 degrees C. The greatest decrease in fluoride emission among the four calcium compound treatments was found with CaCO3.

  3. Controlling effective aspect ratio and packing of clay with pH for improved gas barrier in nanobrick wall thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-12-24

    Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders.

  4. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  5. Automation of TL brick dating by ADAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechák, T.; Gerndt, J.; Hiršl, P.; Jiroušek, P.; Kanaval, J.; Kubelík, M.; Musílek, L.

    2001-06-01

    A specially adapted machine ADAM-1 for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating of bricks was constructed in an interdisciplinary research project, undertaken by a team recruited from three faculties of the Czech Technical University in Prague. This TL-reader is able to measure and evaluate automatically numerous samples. The sample holder has 60 sample positions, which allow the irradiation and evaluation of samples taken from two locations. All procedures of alpha and beta irradiation by varying doses and the TL-signal measurement as also the age evaluation and error assessment are programmable and fully automated.

  6. Age and growth of the brick soldierfish, Myripristis amaena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dee, Anderson J.; Radtke, Richard L.

    1989-09-01

    Otoliths (sagittae) of the coral reef fish, Myripristis amaena, the brick solderfish were examined internally by Scanning Electron Microscope methods to observe microincrements. The daily nature of increment deposition was validated through tetracycline and acetazolamide marking experiments. Utilization of multivariant mathematical models relating age to otolith size and fish size demonstrated that age could be reliably determined from body measurements and otolith weight measurements. Consequently, M. amaena grows slowly, maturing at about 6 years of age, lives at least 14 years and reaches at least 215 mm SL.

  7. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Image This image and accompanying animation from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra ... and is currently the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being ...

  8. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  9. Fire Whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  10. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  11. Corrosion mechanism of carbon brick in the blast furnace hearth by potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Zhuang-zhuang; Deng, Yong; Fan, Xiaoyue

    2017-11-01

    Alkali plays a significant role in the formation of brittle layer of carbon brick in the blast furnace hearth. The brittle layer in a commercial blast furnace hearth was investigated. Large amounts of potassium compounds were found in the brittle layer. Subsequently, the carbon bricks which reacted with potassium in the simulation of blast furnace hearth under different contents of potassium in the brick (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt.%) during various reaction times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h) were experimentally studied. Finally, the formation mechanism of the brittle layer in carbon brick was clarified. The investigation results show that a large number of cracks are present in the brittle layer. The average potassium content in the brittle layer is 1 wt.%. According to the experimental results, cracks in the carbon brick can be formed by the attack of potassium. The reason for the formation of the brittle layer in the carbon brick is that the liquid potassium permeates into the carbon brick through the pores and cracks, and then reacts with SiO2 and Al2O3 in CO atmosphere. The generated potassium compounds nepheline and leucite lead to the volume expansion and the damage of the carbon brick.

  12. Using "click-e-bricks" to make 3D elastomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Morin, Stephen A; Shevchenko, Yanina; Lessing, Joshua; Kwok, Sen Wai; Shepherd, Robert F; Stokes, Adam A; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-10

    Soft, 3D elastomeric structures and composite structures are easy to fabricate using click-e-bricks, and the internal architecture of these structures together with the capabilities built into the bricks themselves provide mechanical, optical, electrical, and fluidic functions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 77 FR 70185 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1205 (Preliminary)] Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and Scheduling of a Preliminary Phase... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of silica bricks and...

  14. The utilization of brick walls for resisting earthquake in building technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J.; Benedicta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Many structures in Indonesia use reinforced concrete frames with brick walls as their infill. Commonly, the engineers consider brick walls as the partitions and count them as the non-structural elements in the structure design. However, brick walls are capable of resisting earthquake by yielding high stiffness to the structure in case the brick walls are integrated well with the frames. It will reduce the non-structural destructions that happen to structures which is one of the most frequently impacts in the earthquake. This paper will take the effects of applying brick walls as the structural elements up by comparing it with the structure using brick walls as the partitions. The modeling of the brick walls uses the equivalent spectrum method meanwhile the seismic analysis uses the respon spectrum method. The utilization of brick walls can cause the decrement of the natural period to 42%. It also reduce the structure displacements to 53% in X-direction and 67% in Y-direction and the story drifts to 57% in X-direction and 71% in Y-direction. Otherwise, it causes the increment of the base shear only up to 3% in X-direction and 7% in Y-direction.

  15. Forest-fire models

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  16. GPU-based simulations of fracture in idealized brick and mortar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William Pro, J.; Kwei Lim, Rone; Petzold, Linda R.; Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.

    2015-07-01

    Stiff ceramic platelets (or bricks) that are aligned and bonded to a second ductile phase with low volume fraction (mortar) are a promising pathway to produce stiff, high-toughness composites. For certain ranges of constituent properties, including those of some synthetic analogs to nacre, one can demonstrate that the deformation is dominated by relative brick motions. This paper describes simulations of fracture that explicitly track the motions of individual rigid bricks in an idealized microstructure; cohesive tractions acting between the bricks introduce elastic, plastic and rupture behaviors. Results are presented for the stresses and damage near macroscopic cracks with different brick orientations relative to the loading orientation. The anisotropic macroscopic initiation toughness is computed for small-scale yielding conditions and is shown to be independent of specimen geometry and loading configuration. The results are shown to be in agreement with previously published experiments on synthetic nacre.

  17. Decay patterns of brick wall in atmospheric environment: a possible analogue to rock weathering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přikrylová, Jiřina; Jablonský, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    This study is focused on the decay of bricks exposed in enclosing wall of the Regional maternal hospital in Prague city centre (Czech Republic). The hospital, listed as a Czech architectural monument, has been constructed from locally produced bricks in neo-Gothic style in the period of 1867-1875. The bricks of the enclosing wall show sequence of decay patterns that resemble weathering forms observable on monuments built of natural stone. This study aims to study the observed decay patterns by means of in situ mapping and by analyses of decayed material (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction, Hg-porosimetry, water soluble salts analysis) and to interpret them based on the phase composition and other properties of bricks. Finally, the decay patterns of studied brick wall are compared to known weathering sequences on porous rocks (both on natural outcrops and on artistic monuments).

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  19. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  20. Picasso Masks: Cubism in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project developed by the author which provides a way to further the children's understanding of Picasso's Cubism style in 3-D. Through this project, upper-elementary students learn a bit about the life and art of Picasso as they gain a firm understanding of the style of art known as Cubism, and apply clay techniques…

  1. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  2. The Fame of Sharkey Clay

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot

    1962-01-01

    Sharkey clay is now important to the Southern forest industry because it supports so much of the hardwood resource-more than any other soil within the Mississippi Delta-and its extent will continue to make it important to Delta forestry.

  3. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Mössbauer Study of Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sicán pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  4. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of... opportunity to request an administrative review on the antidumping order on certain magnesia carbon bricks... initiated an antidumping duty administrative review on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the PRC, covering...

  5. 78 FR 22230 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping... duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We... Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77...

  6. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units--which we call metamaterial bricks--each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  7. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces.

    PubMed

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-27

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units-which we call metamaterial bricks-each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  8. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Highly Transparent and Self-Extinguishing Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Monolayer Clay Nanoplatelet Hybrid Films.

    PubMed

    Ming, Siyi; Chen, Gang; He, Jiahao; Kuang, Yudi; Liu, Yu; Tao, Ruiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Zhu, Penghui; Liu, Yingyao; Fang, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-29

    A viable solution toward "green" optoelectronics is rooted in our ability to fabricate optoelectronics on transparent nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) film substrates. However, the flammability of transparent NFC film poses a severe fire hazard in optoelectronic devices. Despite many efforts toward enhancing the fire-retardant features of transparent NFC film, making NFC film fire-retardant while maintaining its high transparency (≥90%) remains an ambitious objective. Herein, we combine NFC with NFC-dispersed monolayer clay nanoplatelets as a fire retardant to prepare highly transparent NFC-monolayer clay nanoplatelet hybrid films with a superb self-extinguishing behavior. Homogeneous and stable monolayer clay nanoplatelet dispersion was initially obtained by using NFC as a green dispersing agent with the assistance of ultrasonication and then used to blend with NFC to prepare highly transparent and self-extinguishing hybrid films by a water evaporation-induced self-assembly process. As the content of monolayer clay nanoplatelets increased from 5 wt % to 50 wt %, the obtained hybrid films presented enhanced self-extinguishing behavior (limiting oxygen index sharply increased from 21% to 96.5%) while retaining a ∼90% transparency at 600 nm. More significantly, the underlying mechanisms for the high transparency and excellent self-extinguishing behavior of these hybrid films with a clay nanoplatelet content of over 30 wt % were unveiled by a series of characterizations such as SEM, XRD, TGA, and limiting oxygen index tester. This work offers an alternative environmentally friendly, self-extinguishing, and highly transparent substrate to next-generation optoelectronics, and is aimed at providing a viable solution to environmental concerns that are caused by ever-increasing electronic waste.

  10. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  11. Advanced applications of numerical modelling techniques for clay extruder design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Saravanakumar

    Ceramic materials play a vital role in our day to day life. Recent advances in research, manufacture and processing techniques and production methodologies have broadened the scope of ceramic products such as bricks, pipes and tiles, especially in the construction industry. These are mainly manufactured using an extrusion process in auger extruders. During their long history of application in the ceramic industry, most of the design developments of extruder systems have resulted from expensive laboratory-based experimental work and field-based trial and error runs. In spite of these design developments, the auger extruders continue to be energy intensive devices with high operating costs. Limited understanding of the physical process involved in the process and the cost and time requirements of lab-based experiments were found to be the major obstacles in the further development of auger extruders.An attempt has been made herein to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based numerical modelling techniques to reduce the costs and time associated with research into design improvement by experimental trials. These two techniques, although used widely in other engineering applications, have rarely been applied for auger extruder development. This had been due to a number of reasons including technical limitations of CFD tools previously available. Modern CFD and FEA software packages have much enhanced capabilities and allow the modelling of the flow of complex fluids such as clay.This research work presents a methodology in using Herschel-Bulkley's fluid flow based CFD model to simulate and assess the flow of clay-water mixture through the extruder and the die of a vacuum de-airing type clay extrusion unit used in ceramic extrusion. The extruder design and the operating parameters were varied to study their influence on the power consumption and the extrusion pressure. The model results were then validated using results from

  12. Mineralogy and thermal properties of clay from Slatina (Ub, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Logar, Mihovil; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Jelic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    The "Slatina" deposit, Ub, Serbia was opened in 1965 and represents one of few deposits exploited by "Kopovi" a.d., Ub, company. Deposit is composed of clay layers belonging to Neogene sediments that are widespread transgressive over granitoid rocks of Cer mountain and Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Clay is mostly of illite-montmorillonite-kaolinite type and they are generally used as ceramic materials while some of the layers are used as fire-resistant materials. In this study we present mineralogical and thermal characterization of two samples to determine their application as industrial materials. Chemical and mineral composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) on powder and oriented samples, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and granulometry. Cationic exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) was determined using spectrophotometry and methylene blue (MB). Thermal properties where determined by gravimetry (120, 350, 600 and 1000 oC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Quantitative mineral composition obtained by Rietveld refinement of combined chemical and XRD data shows that the sample 1(SC) is mainly smectite-illite (45%) and kaolinite (14%) clay with 19% of quartz, 10% feldspars and 7% of limonite, while sample 2(SV) is smectite-illite (43%) and kaolinite (11%) clay with 10% of quartz, 15% feldspars and 7% of limonite. Both samples have low content of impurities (carbonate minerals). Medium grain size (μm) goes from 1.02 (SSA = 104 m2/g) for sample 1(SC) to 0.71 (SSA = 117 m2/g) for sample 2(SV) while their CEC is 12.7 and 14.9 mmol/100g for 1(SC) and 2(SV) respectively. IR spectra of the samples shows larger amount of smectite clays with quartz and carbonate minerals for both samples which is in accordance with XRD data. DTA data shows couple of events that are endothermic. First one (100-200 oC) is associated with loss of moisture and constitutive water, second

  13. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image The Hayman fire, situated about 65 kilometers southwest of Denver, ... these visualizations were generated as part of operational processing at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA Langley Research ...

  14. Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... mode Turn off more accessible mode Skip Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn ... able to reliably rescue themselves. Know What to Do in a Fire Test any closed doors with ...

  15. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  16. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image Lightning strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument's nadir ...

  17. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  18. Performance and durability of concrete made with demolition waste and artificial fly ash-clay aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, M.; Cabrera, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Demolition aggregates and artificial aggregates made with waste materials are two alternatives being studied for replacement of natural aggregates in the production of concrete. Natural aggregate sources in Europe are increasingly scarce and subject to restrictions based on environmental regulations. In many areas of the developing world sources of good quality aggregates are very limited or practically not available and therefore it has become necessary to study alternative materials. This paper presents a laboratory study on the use of demolition bricks and artificial aggregates made from fly ash-clay as coarse aggregates to make concrete. The concretes made either with demolitionmore » bricks or artificial aggregates are compared with a control mix made with natural gravel aggregates. The strength and durability characteristics of these concretes are evaluated using as a criteria compressive strength and transport properties, such as gas and water permeability. The results show clearly that concretes of good performance and durability can be produced using aggregates from demolition rubble or using artificial aggregates made with wastes such as fly ash.« less

  19. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  20. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  1. Testing 1-2-3: The Way to Firing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Why do glaze tests? For a number of reasons. With so many glazes and underglazes being manufactured by different companies that label and number them differently, it can be confusing. Though some of the properties are similar, many are different. Glazes can be influenced by the cone or temperature they are fired to, the clay body they are placed…

  2. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  3. 75 FR 4528 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... determination. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Negative... circumstances included the Department's partial or full closure during the five-day period after the CVD...

  4. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  5. Strength and durability studies on concrete with partial replacement over burnt brick bat waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchidurai, S.; Bharani, G.; Saravana Raja Mohan, K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the partial and complete replacement of over burnt brick bat (OBB) 20-30mm as coarse aggregate in the concrete. OBB are formed at extreme heating to a temperature not less than 1600 degree Celsius. The burnt bricks change from red to blue-black ceramics color. The series of tests are conducted to study the effect of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacement of coarse aggregate with over burnt bricks. Totally 36numbers of 150mm concrete cube with 5 different percentage replacement mix are cast and tested and three numbers of the flexural beam. In durability aspects, water absorption and sorptivity were tested. Experimental results found 25-50% of overburnt brick bat wastes can be replaced with the normal and mass concrete without quality compromisation.

  6. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  7. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  8. 78 FR 64533 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1205 (Final)] Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: October 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cynthia...

  9. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds.

    PubMed

    David Walter, W; Walsh, Daniel P; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Winkelman, Dana L; Miller, Michael W

    2011-02-15

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings.

  10. Using Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Initial tests with enameled metal straps cracked all the test cylinders and straps would not pull out BUILDING STRONG® New Strong Durable Ties...BUILDING STRONG® Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures Principal Investigator: Steven C...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry

  11. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks shield the fission product detection system (FPDS). The system detected fission products in pressure loop from in-pile tube. shielding was to prevent other radiation in cubicle from interfering. Assembly of bricks in foreground will slide back to enclose and shield equipment in the three chambers. Date: 1982. INEEL negative no. 82-6376 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Burnt clay magnetic properties and palaeointensity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova, Mariya; Lesigyarski, Deyan

    2014-05-01

    Burnt clay structures found in situ are the most valuable materials for archaeomagnetic studies. From these materials the full geomagnetic field vector described by inclination, declination and intensity can be retrieved. The reliability of the obtained directional results is related to the precision of samples orientation and the accuracy of characteristic remanence determination. Palaeointensity evaluations depend on much more complex factors - stability of carried remanent magnetization, grain-size distribution of magnetic particles and mineralogical transformations during heating. In the last decades many efforts have been made to shed light over the reasons for the bad success rate of palaeointensity experiments. Nevertheless, sometimes the explanation of the bad archaeointensity results with the magnetic properties of the studied materials is quite unsatisfactory. In order to show how difficult is to apply a priory strict criteria for the suitability of a given collection of archaeomagnetic materials, artificial samples formed from four different baked clays are examined. Two of the examined clay types were taken from clay deposits from different parts of Bulgaria and two clays were taken from ancient archaeological baked clay structures from the Central part of Bulgaria and the Black sea coast, respectively. The samples formed from these clays were repeatedly heated in known magnetic field to 700oC. Different analyses were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the samples. The obtained results point that all clays reached stable magnetic mineralogy after the repeated heating to 700oC, the main magnetic mineral is of titano/magnetite type and the magnetic particles are predominantly with pseudo single domain grain sizes. In spite that, the magnetic properies of the studied clays seem to be very similar, reliable palaeointensity results were obtained only from the clays coming from clay deposits. The

  13. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  14. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  15. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  16. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  17. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  18. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  19. Fire in the Shop!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.; Buchanan, Joseph P.

    1977-01-01

    Fire emergency preparedness measures to take to prevent school fires and to protect against injury and minimize damage when fire does occur are presented. Includes fire safety practices, extinguishers for different classes of fires and their use, and the need for fire safety training in schools. (MF)

  20. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  1. Clay Mineral Structure Similar to Clays Observed in Mudstone on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    This schematic shows the atomic structure of the smallest units that make up the layers and interlayer region of clay minerals. This structure is similar to the clay mineral in drilled rock powder collected by NASA Curiosity Mars rover.

  2. Micromechanical models to guide the development of synthetic ‘brick and mortar’ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Philips, Noah R.; Compton, Brett G.; Wilbrink, David V.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Utz, Marcel

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a micromechanical analysis of the uniaxial response of composites comprising elastic platelets (bricks) bonded together with thin elastic perfectly plastic layers (mortar). The model yields closed-form results for the spatial variation of displacements in the bricks as a function of constituent properties, which can be used to calculate the effective properties of the composite, including elastic modulus, strength and work-to-failure. Regime maps are presented which indicate critical stresses for failure of the bricks and mortar as a function of constituent properties and brick architecture. The solution illustrates trade-offs between elastic modulus, strength and dissipated work that are a result of transitions between various failure mechanisms associated with brick rupture and rupture of the interfaces. Detailed scaling relationships are presented with the goal of providing material developers with a straightforward means to identify synthesis targets that balance competing mechanical behaviors and optimize material response. Ashby maps are presented to compare potential brick and mortar composites with existing materials, and identify future directions for material development.

  3. HodDB: Design and Analysis of a Query Processor for Brick.

    SciTech Connect

    Fierro, Gabriel; Culler, David

    Brick is a recently proposed metadata schema and ontology for describing building components and the relationships between them. It represents buildings as directed labeled graphs using the RDF data model. Using the SPARQL query language, building-agnostic applications query a Brick graph to discover the set of resources and relationships they require to operate. Latency-sensitive applications, such as user interfaces, demand response and modelpredictive control, require fast queries — conventionally less than 100ms. We benchmark a set of popular open-source and commercial SPARQL databases against three real Brick models using seven application queries and find that none of them meet thismore » performance target. This lack of performance can be attributed to design decisions that optimize for queries over large graphs consisting of billions of triples, but give poor spatial locality and join performance on the small dense graphs typical of Brick. We present the design and evaluation of HodDB, a RDF/SPARQL database for Brick built over a node-based index structure. HodDB performs Brick queries 3-700x faster than leading SPARQL databases and consistently meets the 100ms threshold, enabling the portability of important latency-sensitive building applications.« less

  4. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    PubMed

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance.

  5. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  6. Quality Characterization of Silicon Bricks using Photoluminescence Imaging and Photoconductive Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Zaunbrecher, K.

    2012-06-01

    Imaging techniques can be applied to multicrystalline silicon solar cells throughout the production process, which includes as early as when the bricks are cut from the cast ingot. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging of the band-to-band radiative recombination is used to characterize silicon quality and defects regions within the brick. PL images of the brick surfaces are compared to minority-carrier lifetimes measured by resonant-coupled photoconductive decay (RCPCD). Photoluminescence images on silicon bricks can be correlated to lifetime measured by photoconductive decay and could be used for high-resolution characterization of material before wafers are cut. The RCPCD technique has shown the longest lifetimesmore » of any of the lifetime measurement techniques we have applied to the bricks. RCPCD benefits from the low-frequency and long-excitation wavelengths used. In addition, RCPCD is a transient technique that directly monitors the decay rate of photoconductivity and does not rely on models or calculations for lifetime. The measured lifetimes over brick surfaces have shown strong correlations to the PL image intensities; therefore, this correlation could then be used to transform the PL image into a high-resolution lifetime map.« less

  7. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Siberian Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... not be retrieved are shown as dark gray. Fire is an important ecological factor in the taiga forests, but in this region a ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  9. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  10. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Ana winds began blowing through the Los Angeles and San Diego areas on Sunday October 21, 2007. Wind speeds ranging from 30 to 50 mph ... resulted in a number of fires in the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, causing the evacuation of more than 250,000 people. These two ...

  11. Intercalated layered clay composites and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phukan, Anjali

    Supported inorganic reagents are rapidly emerging as new and environmentally acceptable reagents and catalysts. The smectite group of layered clay minerals, such as, Montmorillonite, provides promising character for adsorption, catalytic activity, supports etc. for their large surface area, swelling behavior and ion exchange properties. Aromatic compounds intercalated in layered clays are useful in optical molecular devices. Clay is a unique material for adsorption of heavy metals and various toxic substances. Clay surfaces are known to be catalytically active due to their surface acidity. Acid activated clays possess much improved surface areas and acidities and have higher pore volumes so that can absorb large molecules in the pores. The exchangeable cations in clay minerals play a key role in controlling surface acidity and catalytic activity. Recently, optically active metal-complex-Montmorillonite composites are reported to be active in antiracemization purposes. In view of the above, a research work, relating to the preparation of different modified clay composites and their catalytic applications were carried out. The different aspects and results of the present work have been reported in four major chapters. Chapter I: This is an introductory chapter, which contains a review of the literature regarding clay-based materials. Clay minerals are phyllosilicates with layer structure. Montmorillonite, a member of smectite group of clay, is 2:1 phyllosilicate, where a layer is composed of an octahedral sheet sandwiched by two tetrahedral sheets. Such clay shows cation exchange capacity (CEC) and is expressed in milli-equivalents per 100 gm of dry clay. Clays can be modified by interaction with metal ion, metal complexes, metal cluster and organic cations for various applications. Clays are also modified by treating with acid followed by impregnation with metal salts or ions. Montmorillonite can intercalate suitable metal complexes in excess of CEC to form double

  12. Fire Detection Organizing Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

  13. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iranmore » is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.« less

  14. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units—which we call metamaterial bricks—each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators. PMID:28240283

  15. Use Dose Bricks Concept to Implement Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Tsan-Jung; Yeh, Shyh-An; Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Chih-Jou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. A “dose bricks” concept has been used to implement nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment plan; this method specializes particularly in the case with bell shape nasopharyngeal carcinoma case. Materials and Methods. Five noncoplanar fields were used to accomplish the dose bricks technique treatment plan. These five fields include (a) right superior anterior oblique (RSAO), (b) left superior anterior oblique (LSAO), (c) right anterior oblique (RAO), (d) left anterior oblique (LAO), and (e) superior inferior vertex (SIV). Nondivergence collimator central axis planes were used to create different abutting field edge while normal organs were blocked by multileaf collimators in this technique. Results. The resulting 92% isodose curves encompassed the CTV, while maximum dose was about 115%. Approximately 50% volume of parotid glands obtained 10–15% of total dose and 50% volume of brain obtained less than 20% of total dose. Spinal cord receives only 5% from the scatter dose. Conclusions. Compared with IMRT, the expenditure of planning time and costing, “dose bricks” may after all be accepted as an optional implementation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma conformal treatment plan; furthermore, this method also fits the need of other nonhead and neck lesions if organ sparing and noncoplanar technique can be executed. PMID:24967395

  16. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material. Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide. Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures. In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  17. Bricks-and-mortar and patient safety culture.

    PubMed

    Brandis, Susan; Schleimer, Stephanie; Rice, John

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Building a new hospital requires a major investment in capital infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of bricks-and-mortar on patient safety culture before and two years after the move of a large tertiary hospital to a greenfield site. The difference in patient safety perceptions between clinical and non-clinical staff is also explored. Design/methodology/approach This research uses data collected from the same workforce across two time periods (2013 and 2015) in a large Australian healthcare service. Validated surveys of patient safety culture ( n=306 and 246) were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings Using two-way analysis of variance, the authors found that perceived patient safety culture remains unchanged for staff despite a major relocation and upgrade of services and different perceptions of patient safety culture between staff groups remains the same throughout change. Practical implications A dramatic change in physical context, such as moving an entire hospital, made no measurable impact on perceived patient safety culture by major groups of staff. Improving patient safety culture requires more than investment in buildings and infrastructure. Understanding differences in professional perspectives of patient safety culture may inform organisational management approaches, and enhance the targeting of specific strategies. Originality/value The authors believe this to be the first empirically based paper that investigates the impact of a large investment into hospital capital and a subsequent relocation of services on clinical and non-clinical staff perceptions of patient safety culture.

  18. Sundance Fire: an analysis of fire phenomena

    Treesearch

    Hal E. Anderson

    1968-01-01

    The Sundance Fire on September 1, 1967, made a spectacular run of 16 miles in 9 hours and destroyed more than 50,000 acres. This run became the subject of a detailed research analysis of the environmental, topographic, and vegetation variables aimed at reconstructing and describing fire phenomena. This report details the fire's progress; discusses the fire's...

  19. Radiological characterization of clay mixed red mud in particular as regards its leaching features.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Sas, Zoltán; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Szántó, Tamás; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products such as red mud is of great importance. In the case of the building material industry the reuse of red mud requires a cautious attitude, since the enhanced radionuclide content of red mud can have an effect on human health. The natural radionuclide content of red mud from the Ajka red mud reservoir and the clay sample from a Hungarian brick factory were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was found that maximum 27.8% red mud content can be added to fulfil the conditions of the EU-BSS. The effect of heat treatment was investigated on a red mud-clay mixture and it was found that in the case of radon and thoron exhalation the applied heat reduced remarkably the exhalation capacities. The leaching features of red mud and different mixtures were studied according to the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the British CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method. The Tessier method and the MSZ-21470-50 standard are suitable for the characterization of materials; however, they do not provide enough information for waste deposition purposes. To this end, we propose using the CEN/TS 14429 method, because it is easy to use, and gives detailed information about the material's behaviour under different pH conditions, however, further measurements are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The colloidal chemistry of ceramic clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The colloidal chemistry and mineralogy of two argil minerals were studied. Deposits of kaolin and of ceramic clays in the United States and England are discussed for the probable mechanism of formation. The structural modifications of the bed, original material associated with the clays and the proper use of flocculants are discussed.

  1. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  2. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic...

  6. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  7. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  9. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  10. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  11. Clays and other minerals in prebiotic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Clays and other minerals have been investigated in context with prebiotic processes, mainly in polymerization of amino acids. It was found that peptides adsorbed on the clay, prior to polymerization, influence the reaction. The ratio between the amount of the peptides adsorbed and that of the clay is important for the yield as well as for the degrees of polymerization obtained. Adsorption prior to reaction produces a certain order in the aggregates of the clay particles which might induce better reaction results. Excess of added peptides disturbs this order and causes lesser degrees of polymerization. In addition to adsorption, clays are also able to occlude between their layers substances out of the environment, up to very high concentrations.

  12. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Amarasinghe, Saman

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for differentmore » convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.« less

  13. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF 25-75% ) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  14. SciTech Connect

    Viani, Alberto, E-mail: viani@itam.cas.cz; Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Len, Adél

    Full characterization of fired-clay bricks is crucial for the improvement of process variables in manufacturing and, in case of old bricks, for restoration/replacement purposes. To this aim, five bricks produced in a plant in Czech Republic in the past have been investigated with a combination of analytical techniques in order to derive information on the firing process. An additional old brick from another brickyard was also used to study the influence of different raw materials on sample microstructure. The potential of X-ray diffraction with the Rietveld method and small angle neutron scattering technique has been exploited to describe the phasemore » transformations taking place during firing and characterize the brick microstructure. Unit-cell parameter of spinel and amount of hematite are proposed as indicators of the maximum firing temperature, although for the latter, limited to bricks produced from the same raw material. The fractal quality of the surface area of pores obtained from small angle neutron scattering is also suggested as a method to distinguish between bricks produced from different raw clays. - Highlights: • Rietveld method helps in describing microstructure and physical properties of bricks. • XRPD derived cell parameter of spinel is proposed as an indicator of firing temperature. • SANS effectively describes brick micro and nanostructure, including closed porosity. • Fractal quality of pore surface is proposed as ‘fingerprint’ of brick manufacturing.« less

  15. Influence of sintering temperature on the characteristics of shale brick containing oil well-derived drilling waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Lv, Yang; Ma, Bao-Guo; Jian, Shou-Wei; Tan, Hong-Bo

    2011-11-01

    The influence of sintering temperature on the physico-mechanical characteristics (such as water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, weight loss on ignition, firing shrinkage, and compressive strength), leachability, and microstructure of shale brick containing oil well-derived drilling waste (DW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at a temperature ranging from 950°C to 1,050°C with 30% DW addition. The results indicate that increasing the sintering temperature decreases the water absorption and apparent porosity and increases the shrinkage, density, and compressive strength of sintered specimens. Moreover, the physico-mechanical properties of samples sintered at 1,050°C meet the requirements of the MU20 according to GB/T 5101-2003 (in China). The heavy metal concentrations of the leachate are much lower than the current regulatory limits according to GB16889-2008. The results from XRD and SEM show that increasing sintering temperature results in an increase of the high temperature liquid phase, which may have a significant effect on the densification process of the samples.

  16. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  17. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  18. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...) A fire hose on a vessel less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length must be at least 5/8 inch (16...

  19. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  20. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  1. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  2. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  3. Brick tunnel randomization and the momentum of the probability mass.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M

    2015-12-30

    The allocation space of an unequal-allocation permuted block randomization can be quite wide. The development of unequal-allocation procedures with a narrower allocation space, however, is complicated by the need to preserve the unconditional allocation ratio at every step (the allocation ratio preserving (ARP) property). When the allocation paths are depicted on the K-dimensional unitary grid, where allocation to the l-th treatment is represented by a step along the l-th axis, l = 1 to K, the ARP property can be expressed in terms of the center of the probability mass after i allocations. Specifically, for an ARP allocation procedure that randomizes subjects to K treatment groups in w1 :⋯:wK ratio, w1 +⋯+wK =1, the coordinates of the center of the mass are (w1 i,…,wK i). In this paper, the momentum with respect to the center of the probability mass (expected imbalance in treatment assignments) is used to compare ARP procedures in how closely they approximate the target allocation ratio. It is shown that the two-arm and three-arm brick tunnel randomizations (BTR) are the ARP allocation procedures with the tightest allocation space among all allocation procedures with the same allocation ratio; the two-arm BTR is the minimum-momentum two-arm ARP allocation procedure. Resident probabilities of two-arm and three-arm BTR are analytically derived from the coordinates of the center of the probability mass; the existence of the respective transition probabilities is proven. Probability of deterministic assignments with BTR is found generally acceptable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Physico-mechanical properties of a brick based with sand of dunes stabilized by hydraulic lime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouhri, Mohamed; Bentebba, Mohamed Taher

    2017-02-01

    Brick establishment is an essential and elementary cell in any construction. In this study, bricks in mortar with sand of dunes (BRSD) were made and submitted to the various trials of characterization. The addition of hydraulic lime according to progressive rates allowed following the influence of the dosage of the latter on the physical characteristics and on the mechanical performances of bricks according to several formulations. The experimental method of formulation is mainly based on the optimization of materials constituting the hydraulic lime and the sand dunes, with the aim of reaching a new composition to enjoy physico-mechanical characteristics wishes. The various realized tries showed that the addition of lime, in a certain interval, possesses an important influence on the physic-mechanical performances of bricks in particular the mechanical resistance and the heat insulation, for a dosage of 30 % of hydraulic lime, the compression resistance of the brick is 8 MPa with a thermal conductivity of 1.7 W/m°C.

  5. Research on the performance of sand-based environmental-friendly water permeable bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Runze; Mandula; Chai, Jinyi

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of the amount of admixture, the water cement ratio, the aggregate grading, and the cement aggregate ratio on the mechanical service properties and of porous concrete pavement bricks including strength, water permeability, frost resistance, and wear resistance. The admixture can enhance the performance of water permeable brick, and optimize the design mix. Experiments are conducted to determine the optimal mixing ratios which are given as; (1) the admixture (self-developed) within the content of 5% of the cement quality; (2) water-cement ratio equal to 0.34; (3) cement-aggregate ratio equal to 0.25; (4) fine aggregate of 70% (particle size 0.6-2.36mm); and coarse aggregate of 30% (particle size: 2.36-4.75mm). The experimental results that the sand-based permeable concrete pavement brick has a strength of 35.6MPa and that the water permeability coefficient is equal to 3.5×10-2cm/s. In addition, it was found that the concrete water permeable brick has good frost resistance and surface wear resistance, and that the its production costs are much lower than the similar sand-based water permeable bricks in China.

  6. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  7. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-06-01

    The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i) to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii) to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%), hands (93%), knees (86%), wrists (85%), shoulders (76%) and neck (65%). Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%), carrying bricks (95%) and molding (87%). The results showed a significantly lower p value < 0.001 in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR in brick field workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  8. Compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lat, D. C.; Ali, N.; Jais, I. B. M.; Baharom, B.; Yunus, N. Z. M.; Salleh, S. M.; Azmi, N. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field.

  9. Fire weather and fire behavior in the 1966 loop fire

    Treesearch

    C.M. Countryman; M.A. Fosberg; R.C. Rothermel; M.J. Schroeder

    1968-01-01

    Southern California regularly experiences a wind condition known as the Santa Ana winds. This paper describes the phenomenon and the effects it had on fire behavior during the 1966 Loop Fire in the Angeles National Forest, which claimed the lives of 12 fire fighters.

  10. Deformation and Fabric in Compacted Clay Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensrich, C. M.; Pineda, J.; Luzin, V.; Suwal, L.; Kisi, E. H.; Allameh-Haery, H.

    2018-05-01

    Hydromechanical anisotropy of clay soils in response to deformation or deposition history is related to the micromechanics of platelike clay particles and their orientations. In this article, we examine the relationship between microstructure, deformation, and moisture content in kaolin clay using a technique based on neutron scattering. This technique allows for the direct characterization of microstructure within representative samples using traditional measures such as orientation density and soil fabric tensor. From this information, evidence for a simple relationship between components of the deviatoric strain tensor and the deviatoric fabric tensor emerge. This relationship may provide a physical basis for future anisotropic constitutive models based on the micromechanics of these materials.

  11. Fire Control Agent Effectiveness for Hazardous Chemical Fires: Carbon Disulfide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Fires..................................... 46 12. AFFF Fire Control Data for Carbon Disulfide Fires............................. 47 13. Extinguishment...Disulfide and Hexane Fires ....... 67 22. Comparison of AFFF Fire Control Times for Carbon Disulfide and Hexane Fires ................... 68 23. Comparison of...Data .............. 27 2. Summary of Fluoroprotein Foam Fire Test Data ....... 28 3. Summary of AFFF Fire Test Data ..................... 29 4. Summary

  12. Fire safety at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  13. Fire Ant Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  14. Monthly fire behavior patterns

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Schroeder; Craig C. Chandler

    1966-01-01

    From tabulated frequency distributions of fire danger indexes for a nationwide network of 89 stations, the probabilities of four types of fire behavior ranging from 'fire out' to 'critical' were calculated for each month and are shown in map form.

  15. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  16. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  17. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  18. Interface bonding of shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. W.; Kahn, L. F.

    1982-09-01

    The first of four appendices contains interviews with local masonry experts. It is reported that when stucco is applied to masonry walls, an increased resistance to lateral and implane forces results. The dangers of a solfate attack on brick masonry are examined, and it is pointed out that exposure to sulfate attack for 50 to 100 years can destroy the physical strength of a cement product. Distinctions are drawn between large core, small core, and double row core brick, and it is noted that the predominate brick used is the large core. The other appendices contain design, construction, and material properties for 46 specimens, a generalized finite element analysis, and plots for four specimens.

  19. Rationally Designed 2D Covalent Organic Framework with a Brick-Wall Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Song-Liang; Zhang, Kai; Tan, Jing-Bo

    In this paper, we report the design and synthesis of an imine-based two-dimensional covalent organic framework (2D COF) with a novel brick-wall topology by judiciously choosing a tritopic T-shaped building block and a ditopic linear linker. Unlike the main body of COF frameworks reported to-date, which consists of higher-symmetry 2D topologies, the unconventional layered brick-wall topology have only been proposed but never been realized experimentally. The brick-wall structure was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, FT-IR, solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, nitrogen, and carbon oxide adsorption-desorption measurements as well as theoretical simulations. Lastly, our present work opens the door tomore » the design of novel 2D COFs and will broaden the scope of emerging COF materials.« less

  20. Comparative Numerical Analysis of Different Strengthening Systems of Historical Brick Arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, M.

    2017-05-01

    The article presents a comparative numerical analysis of various ways to strengthen historical brick arches. Five ways of strengthening brick arches with steel tie-rods have been proposed. Two of these involve the use of braces wrapped around pillars supporting the arch connected with a tie-rod; the other two ways involve the use of the tie-rods with welded metal sheets of different sizes; the latter involves the use of a tie-rod glued with the use of an epoxy adhesive. The collected data were compared with the reference model of the arch left without any interference. The results make it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods by comparing displacements in the vertical and horizontal direction and stresses. The article indicates the direction of proper planning and design of the arch strengthening in brick structures in historical buildings.