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Sample records for firefighters

  1. Firefighter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

  2. INL@Work Firefighter

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  3. INL@Work Firefighter

    ScienceCinema

    Baron, Wendy

    2016-07-12

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  4. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  5. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  6. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  7. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  8. Cardiovascular disease among firefighters.

    PubMed

    Melius, J M

    1995-01-01

    The author reviews the literature of the past 20 years on heart disease among firefighters, covering the specific aspects of firefighting that may be related to potential cardiovascular disease. The author then outlines steps that can be taken to reduce the risks of developing cardiovascular disease.

  9. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  10. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  11. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  12. Firefighting module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-10-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  13. FIREGUIDE: Firefighter guide and tracker.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Ganz, Aura; Mullett, G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an indoor location tracking and navigation system (FIREGUIDE) using Bluetooth and RFID technology. FIREGUIDE assists the firefighters to find the nearest exit location and presents the Incident Commander the current firefighter's location superimposed on a map of the building floor. We envision that the FIREGUIDE system will save significant number of fire fighters and victims' lives. PMID:21096429

  14. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions. PMID:25816168

  15. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  16. 46 CFR 11.303 - Advanced firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advanced firefighting. 11.303 Section 11.303 Shipping... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS STCW Officer Endorsements § 11.303 Advanced firefighting. (a) Advanced firefighting...) Control firefighting operations aboard ships with the following knowledge, understanding,...

  17. Sizing Firefighters: Method and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Routley, J. Gordon; Wilbur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article reports new anthropometric information of U.S. firefighters for fire apparatus design applications (Study 1) and presents a data method to assist in firefighter anthropometric data usage for research-to-practice propositions (Study 2). Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. firefighter population is needed for updating ergonomic and safety specifications for fire apparatus. Method A stratified sampling plan of three-age by three-race/ethnicity combinations was used to collect anthropometric data of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. regions; 71 anthropometric dimensions were measured (Study 1). Differences among original, weighted, and normality transformed data from Study 1 were compared to allowable observer errors (Study 2). Results On average, male firefighters were 9.8 kg heavier and female firefighters were 29 mm taller than their counterparts in the general U.S. population. They also have larger upper-body builds than those of the general U.S. population. The data in weighted, unweighted, and normality transformed modes were compatible among each other with a few exceptions. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide the first available U.S. national firefighter anthropometric information for fire apparatus designs. The data represent the demographic characteristics of the current firefighter population and, except for a few dimensions, can be directly employed into fire apparatus design applications without major weighting or nonnormality concerns. Application The up-to-date firefighter anthropometric data and data method will benefit the design of future fire apparatus and protective equipment, such as seats, body restraints, cabs, gloves, and bunker gear. PMID:25141595

  18. [Cardiovascular risk among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Serra, A

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a high-hazard job for hearth disease, smoke exposure, physical exertion, psychological stressors and noise increase cardiovascular risk among fire fighters. In U.S.A. during the period 1984-2011 45% of on-duty fire fighter fatalities were due to sudden cardiac death. However numerous mortality studies have not shown consistent evidence of an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Italy fire fighters, burdened with elevated cardiovascular risk and psycho-physical demand, have entry-level and periodic medical evaluations. For these workers wellness/fitness programs, strategies aimed to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and fitness evaluations to ensure that are physically capable of performing the essential job tasks of their profession should be encouraged. PMID:23405620

  19. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  20. Effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshi, I.

    The results of studies to determine the amount of CO gas inhaled by firefighters during their firefighting with comparison between smokers and nonsmokers are discussed. It was found that the blood CO concentration after firefighting operations was considerably higher than in normal time, and that even normal time concentrations were higher in firefighters than in fire academy trainees. Smoking was found to be a major factor in increasing CO concentration.

  1. Physiological responses during shipboard firefighting.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B L; Hagan, R D; Banta, G; Williams, F

    1995-03-01

    This study determined the level of heat strain experienced by U.S. Navy personnel while combating fires aboard a damage control research ship. Male volunteers (n = 9), wearing the standard Navy firefighting ensemble, were recorded for core temperature (Tre), skin temperatures (weighted mean, Tmsk), and heart rate (HR) during three fire test days. During the tests, air temperatures in the compartment containing the fire to be extinguished averaged 470 +/- 170 degrees C, while air temperatures in the compartment from which the fire was fought ranged from 40 to 125 degrees C. Dressing in the ensemble and execution of preliminary firefighting activities led to a gradual increase in Tre, Tmsk, and HR; while during active firefighting, Tre, Tmsk, and HR increased rapidly. For all tests, the rate of Tmsk rise (8.73 degrees C.h-1) exceeded the rate of Tre rise (2.95 degrees C.h-1), leading to convergence of these values. Average peak values for all tests were: Tre, 39.2 +/- 1.0 degrees C; Tmsk, 39.5 +/- 0.9 degrees C; body heat storage (HS), 2.02 +/- 0.77 kcal.kg-1; rate of HS during firefighting, 170 +/- 92 kcal.m-2.h-1; HR, 186 +/- 13 bpm. Our findings quantify the limits of tolerance of heat strain encountered during shipboard firefighting.

  2. Evaluation of carotid wave intensity in firefighters following firefighting.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Fahs, Christopher A; Ranadive, Sushant; Rossow, Lindy M; Lane, Abbi D; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Echols, George; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Rowland, Thomas; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-07-01

    Sudden cardiac events are the leading cause of line-of-duty firefighter deaths, but little information exists elucidating the physiologic responses. Wave intensity (WI) is a new hemodynamic index that provides information about the dynamic behavior of the heart and the vascular system and their interaction. The larger first peak wave (W1) occurs during early systole and is associated with cardiac contractility. The second smaller peak (W2) follows a period of relatively little net wave (NA) production and may be caused by reflected waves from the brain. This study aimed at determining arterial WI changes in response to live firefighting activities. We examined the WI of 39 firefighters (2 females) with a mean age of 28 ± 1 years and BMI of 26.6 ± 0.7 kg m(-2) at rest, and immediately after 3 h of live firefighting drills. WI was assessed on the right common carotid artery using an Aloka high-resolution ultrasound. The magnitude of the W1 decreased significantly from 15,925 ± 1,341 to 11,540 ± 886 mmHg m s(-3), p < 0.05. The magnitude of W2 remained unchanged (W2: from 2,080 ± 200 to 2,144 ± 358 mmHg m s(-3)). Net NA decreased from 53 ± 5 to 40 ± 4 mmHg m s(-2). In conclusions, our data suggest that left ventricular function and arterial-ventricular coupling decreased following live firefighting, and this may be related to the documented increase in risk of clinical events during and after firefighting activities.

  3. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  4. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  5. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  6. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  7. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  8. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  9. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  10. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  11. Noise and hearing loss in firefighting.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R L

    1995-01-01

    Since the NIH received a request to investigate the high degree of hearing loss in a fire department in 1980, hearing loss among firefighters has become an area of increased investigation. The author identifies the sources of occupational noise in firefighting, looks at audiometric testing and recent research in firefighting noise, and presents guidelines for implementing hearing conservation programs.

  12. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  13. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  14. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  15. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  16. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  17. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  18. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  19. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  20. Firefighting acutely increases airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C B; Barnhart, S; Miller, M F; Segal, M R; Aitken, M; Schoene, R; Daniell, W; Rosenstock, L

    1989-07-01

    The acute effects of the products of combustion and pyrolysis on airway responsiveness among firefighters are poorly documented. To study this relationship, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing (MCT) were performed on 18 active Seattle firefighters before and 5 to 24 h after firefighting. Body plethysmography was used to measure changes in specific airway conductance (SGaw), and results of MCT were analyzed using PD35-SGaw, the cumulative dose causing a 35% decrease in SGaw. Subjects who did not react by the end of the protocol were assigned a value of 640 inhalational units, the largest cumulative dose. Fire exposure was defined as the total time (hours) spent without a self-contained breathing apparatus at the firesite and was categorized as mild (less than 1 h, n = 7), moderate (1 to 2 h, n = 5), or severe (greater than 2 h, n = 6). Mean age of the 18 firefighters was 36.7 +/- 6.7 yr (range, 25 to 51), with a mean of 9.1 +/- 7.9 active years in the trade (range, zero to 22). None was known to be asthmatic. After firefighting, FEV1 % predicted (%pred) and FEF25-75 %pred significantly decreased by means of 3.4 +/- 1.1% and 5.6 +/- 2.6%, respectively. The mean decline in PD35-SGaw after firefighting was 184.5 +/- 53.2 units (p = 0.003). This observed decline in PD35-SGaw could not be explained by decrements in prechallenge SGaw, FEV1, or FVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Fit-testing for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Brickman, C P

    1999-01-01

    When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect

  2. Acute effects of firefighting on cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Fernhall, Bo; Fahs, Christopher A; Horn, Gavin; Rowland, Thomas; Smith, Denise

    2012-02-01

    This study examined standard echocardiographic measures of cardiac size and performance in response to a 3-h firefighting training exercise. Forty experienced male personnel completed a standardized 3 h live firefighting exercise. Before and after the firefighting activities, participants were weighed, height, heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples were obtained, and echocardiographic measurements were made. Firefighting produced significant decreases in left ventricular diastolic dimension, stroke volume, fractional shortening, and mitral E velocity, tachycardia, a rise in core temperature, and a reduction in calculated plasma volume. On tissue Doppler imaging, there were no changes in systolic contractile function, but a decreased lateral wall diastolic velocity was observed. These findings show that 3 h of live firefighting produced cardiac changes consistent with cardiac fatigue, coupled with a decrease in systemic arterial compliance. These data show that live firefighting produces significant cardiovascular changes and future work is needed to evaluate if these changes are related to the increase in cardiovascular risk during live firefighting.

  3. Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

  4. Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

    This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

  5. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  6. Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

  7. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  8. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  9. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  12. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  14. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  15. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  16. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  3. Characterization of the physical demands of firefighting.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, N; Jamnik, V K

    1992-09-01

    To characterize the physical demands associated with on-the-job use of current firefighting equipment and the performance of essential firefighting operations, an initial task analysis of all firefighting operations was followed by an in-depth physical and physiological characterization of those tasks deemed to be physically demanding. The most commonly encountered applications of strength and endurance were lifting and carrying objects (up to 80 lbs), pulling objects (up to 135 lbs), and working with objects in front of the body (up to 125 lbs). The most demanding firefighting operations required a mean VO2 of 41.5 ml/kg.min-1 with peak lactate concentrations of 6 to 13.2 mM. Ninety percent of the demanding firefighting operations that were studied required a mean VO2 of 23 ml/kg.min-1. These aerobic energy requirements corresponded to 85 and 50% VO2max, respectively. Therefore a minimum VO2max standard for firefighter applicants of 45 ml/kg.min-1 is recommended.

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  6. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  7. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  8. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  9. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  11. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course... completion from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the...

  12. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  13. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  17. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  18. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  19. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  1. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  2. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  4. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  6. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  7. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  8. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course... completion from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the...

  9. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  10. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  11. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course... completion from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the...

  12. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  13. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  20. Physiological, psychophysical, and psychological responses of firefighters to firefighting training drills.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Kramer, J M; Misner, J E

    1996-11-01

    This study was designed to describe the physiological, psychophysical, and psychological responses of firefighters to firefighting drills in a training structure containing live fires. Fifteen male firefighters, wearing standard turnout gear which resulted in full encapsulation, performed two firefighting tasks (advancing fire hose, chopping wood) while inside the training structure. Measurements of heart rate, tympanic membrane temperature, blood lactate, perceptions of respiration, mood, perceived exertion, and thermal sensation were obtained after 8 min of advancing fire hose, and again after 8 min of chopping. Heart rate and temperature increased significantly from baseline and from advancing hose to wood chopping, whereas blood lactate increased initially after advancing the hose and remained elevated at the end of the chopping task. At the completion of the test (both tasks), mean heart rate (182.3 b.min-1), temperature (40.1 degrees C, [104.1 degrees F]), and blood lactate (3.8 mMol) suggested that the firefighting tasks used in this study impose considerable physiological strain on firefighters. Psychophysical and psychological data mirrored the greater physiological strain following firefighting tasks performed in a hot environment while wearing full turnout gear.

  1. A CB protective firefighter turnout suit.

    PubMed

    Barker, Roger; Deaton, Shawn; Liston, Gail; Thompson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that developed a prototype chemical and biological (CB) protective firefighter suit. It is presented as a case study demonstrating an integrated systems approach to designing, developing and evaluating a protective clothing ensemble based on end user requirements. It includes a discussion of the process that was used to gain an understanding of firefighter performance needs for a structural turnout suit that also incorporated chemical protection. It describes the design features of the turnout suit that were developed to meet these expectations as well as the program of testing and evaluation used to characterize garment performance. It discusses ensemble level performance evaluations in instrumented fire manikin tests and man-in-stimulant test procedures. It describes studies conducted to determine the impact of prototype garment design features on heat stress, wear comfort and ergonomic function in structural firefighting applications. PMID:20540836

  2. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. PMID:25563676

  3. Fitness for work evaluation of firefighters in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Movasatian, Farid; Momenzadeh, Akram Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely. PMID:23690108

  4. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  5. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study. PMID:27171467

  6. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  7. Fire Service Training. Firefighting Procedures. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers firefighting procedures and principles. Emphasis is placed on pre-fire planning, the techniques for applying a plan to a course of action, and the selection of proper fire fighting procedures to meet specific needs. Besides the methods of…

  8. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  9. Characterization of firefighter exposures during fire overhaul.

    PubMed

    Bolstad-Johnson, D M; Burgess, J L; Crutchfield, C D; Storment, S; Gerkin, R; Wilson, J R

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected for aldehydes; benzene; toluene; ethyl benzene; xylene; hydrochloric acid; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA); respirable dust; and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Gas analyzers were employed to continuously monitor carbon monoxide (CO), HCN, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Area samples were collected for asbestos, metals (Cd, Cr, Pb), and total dust. During overhaul the following exceeded published ceiling values: acrolein (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] 0.1 ppm) at 1 fire; CO (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] 200 ppm) at 5 fires; formaldehyde (NIOSH 0.1 ppm) at 22 fires; and glutaraldehyde (ACGIH 0.05 ppm) at 5 fires. In addition, the following exceeded published short-term exposure limit values: benzene (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, NO2 (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, and SO2 (ACGIH 5 ppm) at five fires. On an additive effects basis, PNA concentrations exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limits (0.1 mg/M3) for coal tar pitch volatiles at two fires. Maximum concentrations of other sampled substances were below their respective permissible exposure limits. Initial 10-min average CO concentrations did not predict concentrations of other products of combustion. The results indicate that firefighters should use respiratory protection during overhaul. In addition, these findings suggest that CO should not be used as an indicator gas for other contaminants found in this atmosphere.

  10. The thermal ergonomics of firefighting reviewed.

    PubMed

    Barr, David; Gregson, Warren; Reilly, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The occupation of firefighting is one that has repeatedly attracted the research interests of ergonomics. Among the activities encountered are attention to live fires, performing search and rescue of victims, and dealing with emergencies. The scientific literature is reviewed to highlight the investigative models used to contribute to the knowledge base about the ergonomics of firefighting, in particular to establish the multi-variate demands of the job and the attributes and capabilities of operators to cope with these demands. The job requires individuals to be competent in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, muscle strength, and have an appropriate body composition. It is still difficult to set down thresholds for values in all the areas in concert. Physiological demands are reflected in metabolic, circulatory, and thermoregulatory responses and hydration status, whilst psychological strain can be partially reflected in heart rate and endocrine measures. Research models have comprised of studying live fires, but more commonly in simulations in training facilities or treadmills and other ergometers. Wearing protective clothing adds to the physiological burden, raising oxygen consumption and body temperature, and reducing the time to fatigue. More sophisticated models of cognitive function compatible with decision-making in a fire-fighting context need to be developed. Recovery methods following a fire-fighting event have focused on accelerating the restoration towards homeostasis. The effectiveness of different recovery strategies is considered, ranging from passive cooling and wearing of cooling jackets to immersions in cold water and combinations of methods. Rehydration is also relevant in securing the safety of firefighters prior to returning for the next event in their work shift.

  11. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements. DATES: Comments... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative Agreements. OMB Number: 0596-NEW....

  12. Evaluation of circuit-training intensity for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Mortara, Anthony J; Pettitt, Robert W

    2011-10-01

    Firefighters are required to perform a variety of strenuous occupational tasks that require high levels of both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Thus, it is critical that firefighters train at an appropriate intensity to develop adequate levels of aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Circuit training is a unique training method that stresses both energy systems and therefore may be a viable training method to enhance firefighter preparedness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic intensities of a circuit-based workout to physiological data previously reported on firefighters performing fire suppression and rescue tasks. Twenty career firefighters performed a workout that included 2 rotations of 12 exercises that stressed all major muscle groups. Heart rate was recorded at the completion of each exercise. Blood lactate was measured before and approximately 5 minutes after the workout. The workout heart rate and post-workout blood lactate responses were statistically compared to data reported on firefighters performing fire suppression and rescue tasks. The mean circuit-training heart rate was similar to previously reported heart rate responses from firefighters performing simulated smoke-diving tasks (79 ± 5 vs. 79 ± 6% maximum heart rate [HRmax], p = 0.741), but lower than previously reported heart rate responses from firefighters performing fire suppression tasks (79 ± 5 vs. 88 ± 6% HRmax, p < 0.001). The workout produced a similar peak blood lactate compared to that when performing firefighting tasks (12 ± 3 vs. 13 ± 3 mmol·L(-1), p = 0.084). In general, the circuit-based workout produced a lower cardiovascular stress but a similar anaerobic stress as compared to performing firefighting tasks. Therefore, firefighters should supplement low-intensity circuit-training programs with high-intensity cardiovascular and resistance training (e.g., ≥85% 1-repetition maximum) exercises to adequately prepare for the variable physical

  13. Individual predictors of traumatic reactions in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Hill, J; Glancy, G D

    2000-06-01

    Increasingly, theorists and researchers in the area of trauma are pointing to the importance of individual differences in resilience and vulnerability as key determinants of the intensity and duration of trauma-related symptoms. Determining the relative influence of individual predictors is important for the further development of theoretical models for understanding trauma responses and for the subsequent development of intervention strategies that are sensitive to individual differences. This study explores the influence of individual factors and social support on traumatic reactions in firefighters exposed to tragic events in the line of duty. A total of 164 Australian firefighters completed questionnaires targeting locus of control, self-efficacy, patterns of interpersonal relating, social support and level of emotional distress. Results indicate that individuals with feelings of insecurity, lack of personal control, and alienation from others were more likely to experience higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms subsequent to exposure to traumatic events on the job.

  14. Individual predictors of traumatic reactions in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Hill, J; Glancy, G D

    2000-06-01

    Increasingly, theorists and researchers in the area of trauma are pointing to the importance of individual differences in resilience and vulnerability as key determinants of the intensity and duration of trauma-related symptoms. Determining the relative influence of individual predictors is important for the further development of theoretical models for understanding trauma responses and for the subsequent development of intervention strategies that are sensitive to individual differences. This study explores the influence of individual factors and social support on traumatic reactions in firefighters exposed to tragic events in the line of duty. A total of 164 Australian firefighters completed questionnaires targeting locus of control, self-efficacy, patterns of interpersonal relating, social support and level of emotional distress. Results indicate that individuals with feelings of insecurity, lack of personal control, and alienation from others were more likely to experience higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms subsequent to exposure to traumatic events on the job. PMID:10890341

  15. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  16. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or...

  19. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  20. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  1. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  2. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  3. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  4. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  5. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  6. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  7. Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

  8. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels.

  9. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  10. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

  11. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  12. Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional

  13. Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional

  14. Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gold, A; Burgess, W A; Clougherty, E V

    1978-07-01

    A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and pariculate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only eight samples but on two occasions exceeded 100 ppm. CO2 and NO2 levels and O2 depression do not appear to represent significant hazards. PMID:211840

  15. Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

  16. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-11-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  17. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  18. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  19. High exposure of California firefighters to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Park, June-Soo; Voss, Robert W; McNeel, Sandra; Wu, Nerissa; Guo, Tan; Wang, Yunzhu; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; Petreas, Myrto

    2015-03-01

    Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this work we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (Σ5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/(g of lipid); range = 18.8-714 ng/(g of lipid)) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to U.S. levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds. PMID:25643236

  20. Acute effects of firefighting on arterial stiffness and blood flow.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant; Rossow, Lindy M; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Echols, George; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Rowland, Thomas; Lane, Abbi; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac events are responsible for 40-50% of line-of-duty firefighter fatalities, yet the exact cause of these events is unknown. Likely, combinations of thermal, physical, and mental factors impair cardiovascular function and trigger such events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of firefighting activities on vascular function. Sixty-nine young (28 ± 1 years) male firefighters underwent 3 hours of firefighting activities. Carotid, aortic, and brachial blood pressures (BP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index (AIx), wave reflection timing (TR), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm reactive hyperemia (RH) were measured before and after firefighting activities. Paired samples t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) increases in aortic diastolic BP, HR, AIx, PWV, RH, and FBF, and significant decreases in brachial and aortic pulse pressure and TR following firefighting activities. In conclusion, these results suggest that 3 hours of firefighting activities increase both arterial stiffness and vasodilation.

  1. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Austin L.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Haddock, C. Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L.; Day, R. Sue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. Methods A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011–2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Results Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. PMID:26141913

  2. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  3. Plasma catecholamine levels and neurobehavioral problems in Indian firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manas R; Basu, Chandreyi; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Banik, Sampa; Lahiri, Twisha

    2006-05-01

    Firefighting is a stressful and hazardous job. Persons engaged in firefighting are highly exposed to work-related stress as well as to smoke containing a host of chemicals potentially harmful to human health. In order to elucidate whether firefighting affects neuroendocrine and behavioral responses of firefighters, plasma catecholamine (CA) levels and the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms in 62 firefighters (all males, mean age 43 yr) and 52 control subjects matched for age and sex were examined in this study. Self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and personal interview. Concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared with matched controls, the firefighters showed higher prevalence (p<0.05) of neurobehavioral symptoms such as burning sensation in the extremities, tingling and numbness, transient loss of memory, and depression, but no significant difference was recorded in the prevalences of anxiety, vertigo and dizziness. The firefighters demonstrated a more than two-fold (p<0.05) rise in plasma levels of E and NE, but the plasma DA level was relatively unchanged. Controlling age and smoking as possible confounders, firefighting was found to be associated with raised E (OR=2.15; 95% CI, 0.98-4.52), and NE levels (OR=2.24 95% CI, 1.22-3.61). In conclusion, the job of firefighting appears to be associated with stimulation of sympathetic activity and a rise in the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms. PMID:16788283

  4. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  5. Physical and thermal strain of firefighters according to the firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, J A; Villa, J G; López-Satue, J; Pernía, R; Carballo, B; García-López, J; Foster, C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the physiological strain of firefighters, using heart rate (HR) and core temperature, during real wildfire suppression according to the type of attack performed (direct, indirect or mixed). Three intensity zones were established according to the HR corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation threshold (RCT): zone 1, RCT. The exercise workload (training impulse (TRIMP)), the physiological strain index (PSI) and the cumulative heat strain index(CHSI) were calculated using the time spent in each zone, and the HR and core temperature, respectively. Significantly higher mean HR, time spent in Z2 and Z3 and TRIMP h(-1) were found in direct and mixed versus indirect attacks. The highest PSI and CHSI were observed in the direct attack. In conclusion, exercise strain and combined thermal strain, but not core temperature during wildfire suppression, are related to the type of attack performed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Our findings demonstrated that wildfire firefighting is associated with high physiological demands, which vary significantly depending on the tactics chosen for performing the task. These results should be kept in mind when planning programmes to improve wildland firefighters' physical fitness, which will allow improvement in their performance.

  6. Fat future for firefighters? Changes in prevalence of obesity in Scottish local authority firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ide, C W

    2012-11-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in adult obesity in the Scotland during the past two decades, but little research has been undertaken into populations defined specifically by occupation. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of obesity in a group of local authority firefighters arising early in their careers, between enlistment and initial examination for a large goods vehicle (LGV) licence. The body mass index (BMI) from initial LGV medical examinations of firefighters during a 30-month period up to the end of September 2005 was compared with that at enlistment. Enlistment and LGV BMI data were available for 114 firefighters, all men. Of 114, 77 (68%) of LGV examinations took place within five years of enlistment. None were obese (BMI ≥30) at enlistment, but by LGV medical the BMI of 88 (84%) had increased, and nine (8%) were obese. Assuming uniform accrual, BMI increased annually at rates varying between 0.06% and 2.25% (mean, 0.56; standard deviation [SD], 0.42). For the nine obese, this was 0.29-2.25% (mean, 1.06; SD, 0.61). In a population for which fitness is an essential selection criterion, the implied decline of fitness as measured by rising BMI in a short period should be cause for concern. PMID:23028175

  7. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  8. The Relationship between Chronotype and Sleep Quality in Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and assessed various factors that might be associated with sleep disturbance in Korean firefighters. Methods Self-administered questionnaires assessing chronotype, depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress response and sleep quality were examined in 515 firefighters. Results Evening type firefighters more reported depression, alcohol use, PTSD, stress response and sleep disturbance. Also evening chronotype was the most significant risk factor for poor sleep quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.812; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.448–9.459), even after controlling for all other variables (OR, 3.996; 95% CI, 1.806–8.841). Conclusion Chronotype was the factor most strongly associated with sleep disturbance, and therefore should be considered an important variable in sleep quality, particularly in occupations involving stressful activities, such as firefighting. PMID:26243849

  9. 127. Photocopied July 1978. EMERGENCY CREW (FIREFIGHTERS) READY TO DESCEND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. Photocopied July 1978. EMERGENCY CREW (FIRE-FIGHTERS) READY TO DESCEND IN MAN-CAR AT NO. 6 SHAFT. NOTE ROCK-SKIP SUSPENDED OUT OF THE WAY. JULY 1927. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  10. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  11. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  12. Silica Foams for Fire Prevention and Firefighting.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander V; Kuprin, D S; Abduragimov, I M; Kuprin, G N; Serebriyakov, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-13

    We report the new development of fire-extinguishing agents employing the latest technology of fighting and preventing fires. The in situ technology of fighting fires and explosions involves using large-scale ultrafast-gelated foams, which possess new properties and unique characteristics, in particular, exceptional thermal stability, mechanical durability, and full biocompatibility. We provide a detailed description of the physicochemical processes of silica foam formation at the molecular level and functional comparison with current fire-extinguishing and fire-fighting agents. The new method allows to produce controllable gelation silica hybrid foams in the range from 2 to 30 s up to 100 Pa·s viscosity. Chemical structure and hierarchical morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images develop thermal insulation capabilities of the foams, reaching a specific heat value of more than 2.5 kJ/(kg·°C). The produced foam consists of organized silica nanoparticles as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis with a narrow particle size distribution of ∼10-20 nm. As a result of fire-extinguishing tests, it is shown that the extinguishing efficiency exhibited by silica-based sol-gel foams is almost 50 times higher than that for ordinary water and 15 times better than that for state-of-the-art firefighting agent aqueous film forming foam. The biodegradation index determined by the time of the induction period was only 3 d, while even for conventional foaming agents this index is several times higher.

  13. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise.

  14. Pseudo-outbreak of antimony toxicity in firefighters - Florida, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Antimony oxides, in combination with halogens, have been used as flame retardants in textiles since the 1960s. Uniforms made from fabric containing antimony are common among the estimated 1.1 million firefighters in the United States. In October 2008, CDC received a report from the fire chief of a fire department in Florida (fire department A) regarding an outbreak of antimony toxicity among 30 firefighters who had elevated antimony levels detected in hair samples. This report summarizes the ensuing health hazard evaluation conducted by CDC to determine the source of antimony exposure. In February 2009, CDC administered questionnaires to and collected urine samples from two groups of firefighters: 20 firefighters from fire department A who did not wear pants made from antimony-containing fabric, and 42 firefighters from fire department B (also located in Florida) who did. All 20 firefighters from fire department A and 41 (98%) from fire department B had urine antimony concentrations below or within the laboratory reference range. CDC concluded that wearing pants made from antimony-containing fabric was not associated with elevated levels of urinary antimony. Only validated methods (e.g., urine testing) should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Accurate and timely risk communication during suspected workplace exposures should underscore the importance of using validated tests, thereby refuting an unproven hypothesis, allaying unsubstantiated concerns, and enhancing public trust.

  15. Pseudo-outbreak of antimony toxicity in firefighters - Florida, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Antimony oxides, in combination with halogens, have been used as flame retardants in textiles since the 1960s. Uniforms made from fabric containing antimony are common among the estimated 1.1 million firefighters in the United States. In October 2008, CDC received a report from the fire chief of a fire department in Florida (fire department A) regarding an outbreak of antimony toxicity among 30 firefighters who had elevated antimony levels detected in hair samples. This report summarizes the ensuing health hazard evaluation conducted by CDC to determine the source of antimony exposure. In February 2009, CDC administered questionnaires to and collected urine samples from two groups of firefighters: 20 firefighters from fire department A who did not wear pants made from antimony-containing fabric, and 42 firefighters from fire department B (also located in Florida) who did. All 20 firefighters from fire department A and 41 (98%) from fire department B had urine antimony concentrations below or within the laboratory reference range. CDC concluded that wearing pants made from antimony-containing fabric was not associated with elevated levels of urinary antimony. Only validated methods (e.g., urine testing) should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Accurate and timely risk communication during suspected workplace exposures should underscore the importance of using validated tests, thereby refuting an unproven hypothesis, allaying unsubstantiated concerns, and enhancing public trust. PMID:19940836

  16. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  17. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  18. Acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D; Distefano, S; Morse, L; Becker, C

    1986-01-01

    We undertook a study to determine the acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function and the relationship between these acute effects and nonspecific airway responsiveness. For 29 firefighters from a single fire station, we calculated the concentration of methacholine aerosol that caused a 100% increase in specific airway resistance (Pc100). Over an 8-week period we than measured FEV1 and FVC in each firefighter before and after each 24-hr workshift and after every fire. From 199 individual workshifts without fires, we calculated the mean +/- 2 SD across-workshift change in FEV1 and FVC for each firefighter. Eighteen of 76 measurements obtained within 2 hr after a fire (24%) showed a greater than 2 SD fall in FEV1 and/or FVC compared to two of 199 obtained after routine workshifts without fires (1%; p less than .001). On 13 of 18 occasions when spirometry decreased significantly, we obtained repeat spirometry (postshift) 3-18.5 hr after fires, and on four of these occasions FEV1 and/or FVC were still more than 2 SD below baseline. Decrements in spirometry occurred as often in firefighters with high Pc100s as in those with low Pc100s. In two firefighters in whom FEV1 and FVC fell by more than 10% after fires, we repeated measurements of methacholine sensitivity, and it was increased over the prestudy baseline. These findings suggest that routine firefighting is associated with a high incidence of acute decrements in lung function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  20. Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

    2010-10-01

    Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise.

  1. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  2. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  4. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  5. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  6. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  8. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  9. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  10. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific...

  11. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  12. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  13. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  14. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  15. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  16. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  20. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting... Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program...

  3. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  4. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  5. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  6. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  7. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  8. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  9. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  10. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.7, and it must be maintained in good working condition. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment... EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.404 Can I...

  11. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  12. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  13. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  15. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  16. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  17. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  18. A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E S

    1990-01-01

    This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

  19. Elite firefighter/first responder mindsets and outcome coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dowdall-Thomae, Cynthia; Gilkey, John; Larson, Wanda; Arend-Hicks, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined coping strategies used by firefighters, the relationship between appraisals and coping strategies used, and the relationship between transitional coping strategies used and outcome coping efficacy for mental preparedness. Firefighter coping strategies of problem focused coping and seeking social support were found to have positive significant relationships to outcome coping efficacy, after transitioning from one critical incident to a second. The coping strategies of blamed self wishful thinking, and avoidance appear to have a negative significant relationship to outcome coping efficacy. Additionally, the appraisals of challenge and positive reappraisal to meet the challenge appear to have a positive significant relationship to problem focused coping and seeking social support. These findings on outcome coping efficacy may be of help to firefighters for rehabilitative efforts after traumatic incidents when used in the Peer Support Review intervention model. PMID:23980491

  20. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What firefighting and fire..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting and fire...) or (d), § 149.419(a)(1), or § 149.420 of this part, all required firefighting and fire...

  1. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  2. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82) and bench press (rs = -0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83) and bench press (rs = -0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  3. Minimum protection factors for respiratory protective devices for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Burgess, W A; Sidor, R; Lynch, J J; Buchanan, P; Clougherty, E

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations were measured in seventy-two structural fires using a personal air sampler carried by working firefighters. In a total sampling time of 1329 minutes the carbon monoxide concentration exceeded 500 ppm approximately 29 percent of the time. The maximum carbon monoxide concentration was 27,000 ppm and in 10 percent of the fires, the maximum concentration exceeded 5500 ppm. Only six runs indicated oxygen concentrations less than 18 percent. On the basis of these exposure data, a minimum protection factor of 100 is proposed for breathing apparatus for structural firefighting. PMID:842565

  4. Exploring Physical Health in a Sample of Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Stacy; Gillespie, Gordon L; Christianson, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' work responsibilities involve strenuous physical activity and exposure to extremely stressful situations. The purpose of this research study was to describe the physical activity, stress, and culture promoting or inhibiting a healthy work environment. A descriptive qualitative study design was used with a convenience sample of firefighters from an urban Midwestern public fire service. Respondents participated in focus groups from which data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Themes derived from the data were Stressors Affecting Physical Health, Barriers to Physical Health, Facilitators of Physical Health, and Motivators for Physical Health. Future research is needed to test interventions based on the study findings.

  5. Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-10-01

    Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore

  6. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77 ± 8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2 = 0.09, F(1,21) = 2.05, p = 0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.215, p > 0.05) and Pearson (r = 0.31, p = 0.17) and Spearman (ρ = 0.28, p = 0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak

  7. Development of a walking aerobic capacity test for structural firefighters.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karlie J; Penry, Jason T; Gunter, Katherine B

    2014-08-01

    Firefighting requires high fitness to perform job tasks and minimize risk of job-related cardiac death. To reduce this risk, the International Association of Firefighters has recommended firefighters possess a VO2max ≥ 42 ml·kg-1·min-1. This recommendation is not universally applied because existing screening tests require costly equipment and do not accommodate firefighters unable to run. The purpose of this study was to develop a walking test to predict VO2max in firefighters using a standard treadmill. Thirty-eight male firefighters wore a vest weighing 20% of their body weight and performed a walking VO2max test on a standard treadmill. Walking speed was dependent on leg length and ranged from 3.6 to 4.3 mph. The test began with a 3-minute warm-up, after which the speed was increased to test speed. Every minute thereafter, the grade increased 1% until participants reached exhaustion. For cross-validation, 13 firefighters also performed a running VO2max test. The average test time was 16.95 ± 2.57 minutes (including warm-up) and ranged between 8 and 22 minutes. Average VO2max was 48.4 ± 6.5 ml·kg-1·min-1. Stepwise linear regression included time as the only significant independent variable explaining 76% of the variance in VO2max (p < 0.001). The standard error of the estimate was 3.2 ml·kg-1·min-1. The equation derived is: VO2max (ml·kg·min-1) = 11.373 + time (minute) × 2.184. On average, VO2max values measured while walking were 4.62 ± 5.86 ml·kg-1·min-1, lower than running values. This test has good potential for predicting VO2max among structural firefighters, and minimal equipment needs make it feasible for fire departments to administer. PMID:24552804

  8. Firefighting training for nuclear facility personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ken L.; Bates, E.F.

    1980-07-01

    As a result of the Browns Ferry incident of 1975, an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to fire protection at nuclear power plants in the United States. Regulatory Guide 1.120, NUREG-0050, and NRC Branch Technical Position 9.5-1 were developed to specifically address the nature of such programs, including fire suppression training for plant fire brigades. In early 1978, the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) and the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service developed a one-week course emphasizing hands-on exercises to meet the need for training nuclear power plant personnel in firefighting skills. During the past two years six NSC staff members have completed the program, and the result has been greatly increased confidence and improved ability to handle fire situations as well as other types of emergencies. As a result of this, we believe that this type of training is very valuable, if not essential for selected research reactor personnel from each facility. Proposed standard ANS 15.17 would require that 'active fire protection elements' such as brigade training of this nature be a part of each research reactor's fire protection program. This paper discusses a special course that is designed for non-utility nuclear personnel needing combined fire and radiological emergency training. Included in the curriculum are classroom lectures on theory and numerous field exercises covering the use of breathing apparatus under fire conditions, application techniques for handheld extinguishers, and flammable liquid fire control. Special sessions cover the control of radioactive contamination in fire emergencies, with live isotopes used to give the student realistic training in this area. (author)

  9. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  10. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  15. A Firefighting Training Unit for the Royal Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts to modernize the firefighting training facilities of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom through the use of computer-controlled simulations of ship fires. The structure of a prototype compartment and the control system that sets up various training scenarios and modulates the environment in response to actions by the trainees…

  16. Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

  17. 77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Management Agency (FEMA) published a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 37687 notifying the public of the application process for grants and the criteria for awarding grants in the fiscal year 2012... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY:...

  18. Tobacco Use Pattern Among a National Firefighter Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Walker SC; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To date, there have been no large-scale, national epidemiological studies of tobacco use patterns among firefighters, particularly with a focus on smokeless tobacco (SLT) and dual use with cigarettes. While rates of firefighters’ smoking are relatively low compared to the general population, SLT use typically is substantially higher than the populations they protect. In the current study, we systemically examine tobacco use, including SLT and dual use, and the health-related profiles of various tobacco use groups in a national sample of career firefighters. Methods: Data are from a national cohort study of career departments (N = 20) comprised of 947 male firefighters. Results: Among 947 participants, 197 (21%) were tobacco users, of which, 34.5% used cigarettes, 53.2% used SLT, and 12.2% used both cigarettes and SLT. Adjusted rates of smoking, SLT use, and dual use were 13.2%, 10.5%, and 12.2%, respectively. Tobacco users of all types were significantly younger and had served fewer years in fire service and were significantly more likely to engage in heavy and binge drinking, as well as more likely to show signs of depressive symptoms compared to nontobacco users. Conclusions: Detailed information on tobacco use pattern will aid in better understanding what factors are contributing to the high rates of SLT and dual use among firefighters in order to guide and develop an appropriate treatment program for the fire service. PMID:25145378

  19. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and

  20. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests.

  1. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests. PMID:25813673

  2. Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and related factors in Korean firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae-Won; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Byun, Junsu; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Kim, Youngki; Song, Han-Soo; Lee, Chul-Gab; Kwon, Young-Jun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeong, Kyoungsook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The job of firefighting can cause lumbar burden and low back pain. This study aimed to identify the association between age and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and whether the association differs between field and administrative (non-field) firefighters. Methods Subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Firefighters were stratified by geographic area, gender, age and type of job. First, 25 fire stations were randomly sampled considering regional distribution. Then firefighters were stratified by gender, age and their job and randomly selected among the strata. A questionnaire survey and MRI scans were performed, and then four radiologists used Pfirrmann classification methods to determine the grade of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Results Pfirrmann grade increased with lumbar intervertebral disc level. Analysis of covariance showed that age was significantly associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (p<0.05). The value of β (parameter estimate) was positive at all lumbar intervertebral disc levels and was higher in the field group than in the administrative group at each level. In logistic regression analysis, type of job was statistically significant only with regard to the L4–5 intervertebral disc (OR 3.498, 95% CI 1.241 to 9.860). Conclusions Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with age, and field work such as firefighting, emergency and rescue may accelerate degeneration in the L4–5 intervertebral disc. The effects of field work on lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration were not clear in discs other than at the level L4–5. PMID:27354080

  3. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke.

  4. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  5. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  6. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  7. Simulated Firefighting Task Performance and Physiology Under Very Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Williams-Bell, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of very hot (45°C) conditions on the performance of, and physiological responses to, a simulated firefighting manual-handling task compared to the same work in a temperate environment (18°C). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters performed a 3-h protocol in both 18°C (CON) and 45°C (VH). Participants intermittently performed 12 × 1-min bouts of raking, 6 × 8-min bouts of low-intensity stepping, and 6 × 20-min rest periods. The area cleared during the raking task determined work performance. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously. Participants also periodically rated their perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation. Firefighters consumed water ad libitum. Urine specific gravity (USG) and changes in body mass determined hydration status. Results: Firefighters raked 19% less debris during the VH condition. Core and skin temperature were 0.99 ± 0.20 and 5.45 ± 0.53°C higher, respectively, during the VH trial, and heart rate was 14–36 beats.min−1 higher in the VH trial. Firefighters consumed 2950 ± 1034 mL of water in the VH condition, compared to 1290 ± 525 in the CON trial. Sweat losses were higher in the VH (1886 ± 474 mL) compared to the CON trial (462 ± 392 mL), though both groups were hydrated upon protocol completion (USG < 1.020). Participants' average RPE was higher in the VH (15.6 ± 0.9) compared to the CON trial (12.6 ± 0.9). Similarly, the firefighers' thermal sensation scores were significantly higher in the VH (6.4 ± 0.5) compared to the CON trial (4.4 ± 0.4). Conclusions: Despite the decreased work output and aggressive fluid replacement observed in the VH trial, firefighters' experienced increases in thermal stress, and exertion. Fire agencies should prioritize the health and safety of fire personnel in very hot temperatures, and consider the impact of reduced productivity on fire suppression efforts. PMID:26617527

  8. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  9. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  10. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  11. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  12. Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders.

  13. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed

    Moen, B E; Ovrebø, S

    1997-06-01

    Firefighters may be exposed to carcinogenic agents in the smoke from fires, and there has been some concern regarding firefighters' risk of developing occupational-related cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in most fires, posing a cancer risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PAH exposure among firefighters. Students (n = 9) and teachers (n = 4) at a firefighter training school delivered urine samples before and 6 to 7 hours after extinguishing burning diesel fuel. The urine samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for 1-hydroxypyrene. A small but significant increase in 1-hydroxypyrene levels in the urine was found after the firefighting. This means that firefighting may cause exposure to PAHs. Although the exposure levels were low in this study, they may be different during other types of fires.

  14. [Preliminary analysis of smoking habit in firefighters of Wielkopolska region].

    PubMed

    Witt, Magdalena; Romańczukiewicz, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Professional performance of firefighters causes high level of stress. This results in certain activities meant to lower a stress level, some of which are harmful to individuals health per se--smoking is a classical example here. This work was aimed at assessment of prevalence and style of smoking in the group of 69 professional firefighters of Wielkopolska region. Parameters studied were: prevalence, awareness of health-hazard, extent of nicotin addiction, motivation to quit with habit. Motivation to start smoking and further development of smoking habit as well as influence of environment was also studied. Since smoking presents a medical and social problem in this group of professionals, educative measures aimed at reduction of stress level and bad habit fighting should be undertaken. PMID:17288226

  15. Doffing procedures for firefighters' contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

  16. Basis for criticality category B firefighting designation for K Basins. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.A.

    1995-03-23

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes.

  17. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles.

  18. Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemostatic Responses in Firefighters Aged 40 to 60 Years.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Woods, Jeffrey; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-07-15

    Sudden cardiovascular events account for approximately 45% to 50% of all duty-related deaths among firefighters and a disproportionate number of these fatalities occur after strenuous fire suppression activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic aspirin supplementation on hemostatic function before and after live firefighting activities in older firefighters. A double-blind, crossover design included 4 treatments: a 2-week aspirin/placebo treatment ("chronic") and a single prefirefighting aspirin/placebo treatment ("acute"). Hemostatic function was assessed in 24 male firefighters (mean age = 48.2 ± 5.9 years) immediately before and after 18 minutes of live-fire firefighting activity. An acute bout of firefighting activity significantly decreased platelet aggregation time and decreased activated partial thromboplastin time. Compared with placebo, acute aspirin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in epinephrine closure time, which was further augmented by chronic supplementation. Aspirin supplementation had no effect on coagulatory or fibrinolytic factors. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of firefighting leads to increased coagulatory potential in older firefighters. In conclusion, aspirin supplementation had an antiplatelet effect that decreased platelet aggregability at rest and after an acute bout of firefighting compared with placebo.

  19. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  20. Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities.

  1. Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities.

    PubMed Central

    Demers, P A; Heyer, N J; Rosenstock, L

    1992-01-01

    To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality of police officers from the same cities. Between 1945 and 1989, 1169 deaths occurred in the study population and 1162 death certificates (99%) were collected. Mortality due to all causes, ischaemic heart disease, and most other non-malignant diseases was less than expected based upon United States rates for white men. There was no excess risk of overall mortality from cancer but excesses of brain tumours (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-3.2) and lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers (SMR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8) were found. Younger firefighters (< 40 years of age) appeared to have an excess risk of cancer (SMR = 1.45, 95% CI 0.8-2.39), primarily due to brain cancer (SMR = 3.75, 95% CI 1.2-8.7). The risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was greatest for men with at least 30 years of exposed employment (SMR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.1-3.6), especially for leukaemia (SMR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.0-5.4). PMID:1390274

  2. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  3. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Ha; Kim, Yeong Kwang; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2016-10-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61-2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51-3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries. PMID:27550481

  4. Firefighter Down! How to Rapidly Remove Turnout Gear.

    PubMed

    ALexander, John G

    2016-04-01

    The rescue of an injured colleague--and probably a good friend--is an emotionally charged event. A common initial response could be to remove everything as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that we have accepted practices for the removal of motorcycle equipment and football gear. There are also procedures for removing a patient from a vehicle or swimming pool. These all exist to protect a patient from further injury. We now have established practices for removing a firefighter from a window, or down a ladder. Why then do the procedures stop? Once a firefighter is rescued from a hot zone, he deserves the same level of consideration a football player, motorcycle rider or any other patient receives. We should not be in such a hurry that we don't care how we remove a protective ensemble. The injured firefighter deserves a system, or a procedure, that may be practiced by others and reduce the chance of further injury during PMID:27215052

  5. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Ha; Kim, Yeong Kwang; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2016-10-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61-2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51-3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries.

  6. Accuracy of peak VO2 assessments in career firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of on-duty death in United States firefighters. Accurately assessing cardiopulmonary capacity is critical to preventing, or reducing, cardiovascular events in this population. Methods A total of 83 male firefighters performed Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) maximal exercise treadmill tests and direct peak VO2 assessments to volitional fatigue. Of the 83, 63 completed WFI sub-maximal exercise treadmill tests for comparison to directly measured peak VO2 and historical estimations. Results Maximal heart rates were overestimated by the traditional 220-age equation by about 5 beats per minute (p < .001). Peak VO2 was overestimated by the WFI maximal exercise treadmill and the historical WFI sub-maximal estimation by ~ 1MET and ~ 2 METs, respectively (p < 0.001). The revised 2008 WFI sub-maximal treadmill estimation was found to accurately estimate peak VO2 when compared to directly measured peak VO2. Conclusion Accurate assessment of cardiopulmonary capacity is critical in determining appropriate duty assignments, and identification of potential cardiovascular problems, for firefighters. Estimation of cardiopulmonary fitness improves using the revised 2008 WFI sub-maximal equation. PMID:21943154

  7. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61–2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51–3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries. PMID:27550481

  8. Impact of a design modification in modern firefighting uniforms on burn prevention outcomes in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Freeman, K; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschhorn, R; Brown, A

    2000-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of three different firefighting uniforms (traditional, modern, and modified modern) on the incidence and severity of thermal burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting firefighters. Injury data were collected prospectively for the entire New York City Fire Department (FDNY) firefighting force wearing FDNY's traditional uniform (protective over-coat) from May 1, 1993 to August 31, 1993; FDNY's modern uniform (protective over-coat and over-pant) from May 1, 1995 to August 31, 1995; and FDNY's modified modern uniform (short sleeved shirt and short pants, rather than long-sleeved shirt and long pants, worn under firefighter's protective over-clothes) from May 1, 1998 to August 31, 1998. Outcome measures were burn incidence and severity. Adverse outcomes were heat exhaustion and cardiac events. During this 12-month study, 29,094 structural fires occurred. The incidence rate for upper extremity burns was 2341 per 100,000 fires and for lower extremity burns, 2076 per 100,000 fires. With the change from the traditional to modern uniform, the distribution of burns per fire decreased significantly (P = 0.001) for upper extremity burns (86%) and lower extremity burns (93%). With the change from traditional to modern uniform, days lost to medical leave for upper or lower extremity burns decreased by 89%. The majority of burns occurred at the lower arm and mid-leg, and the change to the modern uniform decreased such burns by 87% and 92%. Burn incidence and severity were not significantly affected by the change to the modified modern uniform. The distribution of heat exhaustion or cardiac events per fire was not significantly affected by the change from the traditional to modern uniform, and heat exhaustion was decreased (P < 0.001) by the change to the modified modern uniform. In conclusion, the modern uniform dramatically reduced burn incidence and severity without adverse impact. The modified modern uniform significantly reduced

  9. Impact of a modern firefighting protective uniform on the incidence and severity of burn injuries in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschorn, R; Brown, A

    1999-06-01

    The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest fire department in the United States, with over 11,000 firefighters. In 1994, FDNY changed to a modern firefighting protective uniform. The major difference between traditional and modern uniforms is that modern uniforms include both protective over-coat and over-pant, whereas traditional uniforms include only the over-coat. Furthermore, modern uniforms are manufactured using improved thermal protective textiles that meet or exceed current National Fire Protection Association standards for structural firefighting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the modern uniform on the incidence and severity of FDNY burn injuries. We also evaluated the incidence and severity of other non-burn injuries to determine whether there was serious adverse impact. The number of lower-extremity burns decreased by 85% when 2 years' experience while wearing the modern uniform was compared with 2 years while wearing the traditional uniform. Upper-extremity burns and head burns decreased by 65% and 40%, respectively. Severity indicators (days lost to medical leave, hospital admissions, and skin grafts) for lower- and upper-extremity burn injuries were all substantially reduced. This occurred without significant change in the incidence or severity of trunk burns, heat exhaustion, inhalation injuries (actually decreased), or cardiac events. The reduction in the incidence and severity of burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting this workforce, has been so dramatic and without untoward effects that the introduction of the modern uniform must be characterized as a sentinel event in the history of firefighter health and safety.

  10. Impact of a design modification in modern firefighting uniforms on burn prevention outcomes in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Freeman, K; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschhorn, R; Brown, A

    2000-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of three different firefighting uniforms (traditional, modern, and modified modern) on the incidence and severity of thermal burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting firefighters. Injury data were collected prospectively for the entire New York City Fire Department (FDNY) firefighting force wearing FDNY's traditional uniform (protective over-coat) from May 1, 1993 to August 31, 1993; FDNY's modern uniform (protective over-coat and over-pant) from May 1, 1995 to August 31, 1995; and FDNY's modified modern uniform (short sleeved shirt and short pants, rather than long-sleeved shirt and long pants, worn under firefighter's protective over-clothes) from May 1, 1998 to August 31, 1998. Outcome measures were burn incidence and severity. Adverse outcomes were heat exhaustion and cardiac events. During this 12-month study, 29,094 structural fires occurred. The incidence rate for upper extremity burns was 2341 per 100,000 fires and for lower extremity burns, 2076 per 100,000 fires. With the change from the traditional to modern uniform, the distribution of burns per fire decreased significantly (P = 0.001) for upper extremity burns (86%) and lower extremity burns (93%). With the change from traditional to modern uniform, days lost to medical leave for upper or lower extremity burns decreased by 89%. The majority of burns occurred at the lower arm and mid-leg, and the change to the modern uniform decreased such burns by 87% and 92%. Burn incidence and severity were not significantly affected by the change to the modified modern uniform. The distribution of heat exhaustion or cardiac events per fire was not significantly affected by the change from the traditional to modern uniform, and heat exhaustion was decreased (P < 0.001) by the change to the modified modern uniform. In conclusion, the modern uniform dramatically reduced burn incidence and severity without adverse impact. The modified modern uniform significantly reduced

  11. Cardiac strain associated with high-rise firefighting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting, and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8th floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8th floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than for search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170 ± 14 vs. 155 ± 11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than did fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978 ± 366 vs. 1502 ± 190 beats; elevator: 1755 ± 514 vs. 856 ± 232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p≤0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155 ± 11 vs. 138 ± 19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p < 0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews

  12. Exposure of Firefighters to Particulates and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, C. Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D.; Knipp, Michael J.; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02–1 μm) and PM2.5 (2.5 μm diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous

  13. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic-, cardiopulmonary-, and psychogenic stress-related issues.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for firefighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function among firefighters has been extensively studied, with contradictory findings. Extreme exposures and long-term exposure in combination with cigarette smoking may be risk factors for respiratory disorders and accelerated decline in airflow. It appears likely that individual firefighters who show early signs of illness are often selectively transferred out of active firefighting positions. Despite exposure to substances such as carbon monoxide that may predispose to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, excesses are not consistently shown in mortality studies. Clinical studies of individual firefighters do suggest an elevated risk for myocardial ischemia. The ergonomic demands of firefighting are extreme at peak activity because of high energy costs for activities such as climbing aerial ladders, the positive heat balance from endogenous and absorbed environmental heat, and encumbrance by bulky but necessary protective equipment. The psychological stresses of firefighting include long periods of relative inactivity punctuated by highly stressful alarms and extremely stressful situations such as rescues, as reflected in physiological and biochemical indicators. Firefighters are at risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, although morale overall is generally much higher than in comparable occupations. Women firefighter candidates as a group perform less well on selection test simulating the demands of active firefighting, but some individual women perform very well.

  14. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  15. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  16. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  18. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  19. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  20. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  1. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  2. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  3. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  5. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  6. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  13. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment 2 6 12 (ii) Fire Suppression: (A) External firefighting teams 4 8 12 (B) External vessel... organization. You must ensure that all salvage and marine firefighting resource providers are integrated into the response organizations listed in your plans. The response organization must be consistent with...

  14. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting...

  15. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  16. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting...

  17. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS... firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive repairs or alterations, except in emergency, shall be made...

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  20. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS... firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive repairs or alterations, except in emergency, shall be made...

  1. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  2. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS... firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive repairs or alterations, except in emergency, shall be made...

  3. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific appendices....1035(e)(6)(ii), 155.1040(e)(5)(ii), and 155.5035(e)(6)(ii) must also be listed, in the geographical... firefighting systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required to have definite hours for a response...

  5. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific appendices....1035(e)(6)(ii) and 155.1040(e)(5)(ii), must also be listed, in the geographical-specific appendices of... firefighting systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required to have definite hours for a response...

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  11. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  12. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  13. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  14. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  15. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  16. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface..., evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  17. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 155 RIN 1625-AA19 Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel... December 31, 2008, the Coast Guard amended the vessel response plan salvage and marine firefighting.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 31, 2008, the Coast Guard published a final rule entitled ``Salvage...

  18. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds Off-gassing from Firefighters' Personal Protective Equipment Ensembles after Use.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E; Booher, Donald; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2015-01-01

    Firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles will become contaminated with various compounds during firefighting. Some of these compounds will off-gas following a response, which could result in inhalation exposure. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during controlled structure burns that subsequently off-gassed from the firefighters' PPE, and were systemically absorbed and exhaled in firefighters' breath. Three crews of five firefighters performed entry, suppression, and overhaul during a controlled burn. We used evacuated canisters to sample air inside the burn structure during active fire and overhaul. After each burn, we placed PPE from two firefighters inside clean enclosures and sampled the air using evacuated canisters over 15 min. Firefighters' exhaled breath was collected ∼1 hr before and 4-14 min after each burn. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the evacuated canister samples were analyzed for 64 VOCs and the exhaled breath samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). Fourteen of the same VOCs were detected off-gassing from PPE in 50% or more of the samples. Compared to background levels, we measured >5 fold increases in mean off-gas concentrations of styrene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, acetone, and cyclohexane. Several of the compounds detected off-gassing from PPE were also measured at concentrations above background during active fire and overhaul, including benzene, propene, and styrene. The overhaul and off-gas air concentrations were well below applicable short-term occupational exposure limits. Compared to pre-burn levels, we measured >2 fold increases in mean breath concentrations of benzene, toluene, and styrene after the burns. Air concentrations of BTEXS measured off-gassing from firefighters' used PPE and in firefighters' post-burn exhaled breath were significantly correlated. The firefighters

  20. The effects of hyperoxia on performance during simulated firefighting work.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S R; Dreger, R W; Williams, B E; McGarvey, W J

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of hyperoxia (inspired oxygen fraction = 40%) on performance during a simulated firefighting work circuit (SFWC) consisting of five events. On separate days, 17 subjects completed at least three orientation trials followed by two experimental trials while breathing either normoxic (NOX) and hyperoxic (HOX) gas mixtures that were randomly assigned in double-blind, cross-over design. Previously, ventilatory threshold (Tvent) and VO2max had been determined during graded exercise (GXT) on a cycle ergometer. Lactate concentration in venous blood was assessed at exactly 5 min after both the experimental trials and after the GXT. Total time to complete the SFWC was decreased by 4% (p < 0.05) with HOX. No differences were observed in individual event times early in the circuit, however HOX resulted in a 12% improvement (p < 0.05) on the final event. A significantly decreased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also recorded immediately prior to the final event. No differences were observed in mean heart rate or post-exercise blood lactate when comparing NOX to HOX. Heart rates during the SFWC (both conditions) were higher than HR at Tvent, but lower than HR at VO2max (p<0.05). Post-SFWC lactate values were higher (p<0.05) than post-VO2max. These results demonstrate that hyperoxia provided a small but significant increase in performance during short duration, high intensity simulated firefighting work.

  1. Risk assessment of soils identified on firefighter turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Easter, Elizabeth; Lander, Deborah; Huston, Tabitha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the composition of soils on firefighter turnout gear and to determine the dermal exposure risks associated with the soils. Nine used Nomex hoods from the Philadelphia fire department were analyzed for the presence of trace metals and seven sets of used turnout gear were analyzed for semi-volatile organics. Turnout gear samples were removed from areas of the gear known to have high levels of dermal absorption including the collar, armpit, wrist, and crotch areas, from either the outer shell or thermal liner layers. The following compounds were detected: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate plasticizers, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs). A screening risk assessment was conducted by converting the measured concentrations to an estimated dermally absorbed dose based on estimates for the permeation coefficient (Kp) and an assumed firefighting exposure scenario. Benzo(a) pyrene had the highest dermal exposure risk based on carcinogenic effects and PBDE-99 had the highest dermal exposure risk based on non-carcinogenic effects. For the metals, arsenic had the highest dermal exposure risk for the use hoods. PMID:27027971

  2. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  3. Risk assessment of soils identified on firefighter turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Easter, Elizabeth; Lander, Deborah; Huston, Tabitha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the composition of soils on firefighter turnout gear and to determine the dermal exposure risks associated with the soils. Nine used Nomex hoods from the Philadelphia fire department were analyzed for the presence of trace metals and seven sets of used turnout gear were analyzed for semi-volatile organics. Turnout gear samples were removed from areas of the gear known to have high levels of dermal absorption including the collar, armpit, wrist, and crotch areas, from either the outer shell or thermal liner layers. The following compounds were detected: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate plasticizers, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs). A screening risk assessment was conducted by converting the measured concentrations to an estimated dermally absorbed dose based on estimates for the permeation coefficient (Kp) and an assumed firefighting exposure scenario. Benzo(a) pyrene had the highest dermal exposure risk based on carcinogenic effects and PBDE-99 had the highest dermal exposure risk based on non-carcinogenic effects. For the metals, arsenic had the highest dermal exposure risk for the use hoods.

  4. Resilience as a mediator in emotional social support's relationship with occupational psychology health in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. PMID:25603928

  5. Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  6. Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

  7. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  8. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK AND PROPS AND RUDDER UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  9. Analysis of firetruck crashes and associated firefighter injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes.

  10. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ..., Forest Service, Fire and Aviation Management (F&AM), Attn: Melissa Frey, 1400 Independence Ave. SW... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements and Inventory AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  11. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency... technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  12. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency... technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  13. Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

  14. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  15. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  16. The physical and psychological stresses of women in firefighting.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Melissa P.

    2000-01-01

    This literature review investigates females in the male-dominated field of firefighting. Various psychological and physical stressors are identified which are unique to women in this occupation. Psychological stressors include: self-doubt, skepticism of their abilities by others, performance pressure, sexual harassment, and social ostracism. Physical stressors include: ineffective physical conditioning, improper training in the use of power tools, and ill-fitting personal protective equipment. Proactive solutions are suggested as methods to remediate these problems, such as: sensitivity and social skills training, education, stress management and assertiveness training, task specific physical conditioning, proper training in the use of power tools, and the availability of personal protective equipment in sizes to fit women. Occupational therapy practitioners are identified as professionals qualified to carry out much of this training.

  17. Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety.

    PubMed

    Withen, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The author examines how climate change is impacting wildland firefighters. Climate change has made wildland fires more frequent and more intense. The increase in frequency and intensity of fires has pushed the number of fatalities and injuries higher in recent decades. The most common hazards on fires follow the trend of fire in general in that these hazards become more frequent and intense. Burnovers, heat exhaustion, tree hazards, and many other common fire hazards are more likely. The fire suppression agencies are making every effort to improve health and safety on fires by improving communication, weather forecasting, mapping, fire shelters, decision making and more. Despite these efforts, wildfires are becoming ever more hazardous because of climate change and the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires. PMID:25816171

  18. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  19. Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987) standard configuration, and (b) a hip-boot configuration of the firefighting gear. Physiological and psychological measurements were recorded pre-activity and at the end of each trial. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a strong trend for performance time to be greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot gear. There was a significant Time x Gear interaction for tympanic membrane temperature, with temperature being greater in the 1500 gear. Perceptions of effort and thermal sensations were also greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot configuration of the gear. There was little difference in mean performance on cognitive function measures between the two gear configurations, but there was greater variability in performance in the 1500 gear. These data suggest that performing strenuous firefighting drills in the current NFPA 1500 standard configuration results in longer performance time, greater thermal strain, and greater perception of effort and thermal sensation.

  20. The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5 Watt kg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P < 0.001), skin temperature (P = 0.002), and heart rate (P < 0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P = 0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P = 0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance.

  1. Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

    1996-06-01

    A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

  2. Validity and relevance of the pack hike wildland firefighter work capacity test: a review.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Aaron; Payne, Warren; Phillips, Matthew; Netto, Kevin; Nichols, David; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-10-01

    Fighting wildland fire is a physically demanding occupation. Wildland firefighters need to be physically fit to work safely and productively. To determine whether personnel are fit for duty, many firefighting agencies employ physical competency tests, such as the pack hike test (PHT). The PHT involves a 4.83-km hike over level terrain carrying a 20.4-kg pack within a 45-min period. The PHT was devised to test the job readiness of US wildland firefighters but is also currently used by some fire agencies in Australia and Canada. This review discusses the history and development of the PHT with emphasis on the process of test validation. Research-based training advice for the PHT is given, as well as discussion of the risks associated with completing the PHT. Different versions and modifications to the PHT have emerged in recent years and these are discussed with regard to their validity. Finally, this review addresses the relevance and validity of the PHT for Australian and Canadian wildland firefighters. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews the history, development and validity of the PHT, an internationally recognised and utilised wildland firefighter work capacity test. It is concluded that while the PHT has general content validity for US wildland firefighters, verification of its reliability, criterion and construct validity is still needed. PMID:20865610

  3. Associations between firefighters' physical activity across multiple shifts of wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Grace E; Ridgers, Nicola D; Ferguson, Sally A; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between firefighters' physical activity levels across consecutive wildfire suppression shifts and to determine whether sleep duration moderated these associations. Forty volunteer firefighters (31 males, 9 females) wore an activity monitor to concurrently measure physical activity and sleep duration. Sedentary time and time spent in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) during each shift were determined using monitor-specific cut points. During any given shift, every additional 60 min spent in LPA was associated with 7.2 min more LPA and 27.6 min MPA the following shift. There were no other significant positive or negative associations. No significant moderating effect of total sleep time was observed. Firefighters are able to maintain and/or increase their physical activity intensity between consecutive shifts. Further research is needed to understand firefighters pacing and energy conservation strategies during emergency wildfire deployments. Practitioner Summary: To examine associations between firefighters' physical activity levels across consecutive shifts during a multi-day emergency wildfire and determine whether sleep duration moderated these associations. Firefighters are able to maintain and/or increase their physical activity intensity between consecutive shifts. No significant moderating effect of total sleep time was observed.

  4. Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  5. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  6. Physiologic responses of firefighter recruits during a supervised live-fire work performance test.

    PubMed

    Del Sal, Marta; Barbieri, Elena; Garbati, Paolo; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco B L; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this research was to determine physiologic responses to typical activities of military Italian firefighters. Heart rate (HR), metabolic equivalent units (MET), skin temperature ( T.Sk.), and galvanic skin response (GSR) were measured in 13 firefighters (age = 36.3 +/- 6.9 yr; period of military fire service = 16.8 +/- 7 yr) during the acclimation phase (5 min standing, still dressed in their protective clothing), the work phase (simulated firefighting situations), and the following 24 hours. Multivariate linear step-wise regression showed that body mass index was highly correlated with mean and minimal HR values during the acclimation phase (beta 0.59, p < 0.001; beta 1.90, p = 0.003) and with mean and maximum HR values during the work phase (beta 1.08, p = 0.05; beta 1.17, p = 0.04), increasing cardiovascular stress. Firefighting tasks were associated with high energy expenditure. The minimum and mean MET values, during the acclimation phase, were significantly correlated with age (beta 0.49, p = 0.008 and beta 0.46, p < 0.01). During the work phase, maximal MET values were also strongly correlated with weight (beta 0.51, p = 0.03). No correlations between predictor and dependent variables were found for GSR; however, the high GSR levels recorded during the work phase returned to normal values only 12 hours after completion of the work phase, indicating that high levels of psychological stress remain, even after physical recovery. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that the physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics of firefighters influence the performance of firefighting tasks. These results may be useful to set up specific training that meets the real needs of firefighters in terms of physical fitness.

  7. Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Swiston, J R; Davidson, W; Attridge, S; Li, G T; Brauer, M; van Eeden, S F

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n = 52) were recruited before and/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and measurement of carbon monoxide levels (used to estimate respirable particulate matter exposure). The pulmonary response was assessed by questionnaires, spirometry and sputum induction. Peripheral blood cell counts and inflammatory cytokines were measured to define the systemic response. Estimated respirable particulate matter exposure was high (peak levels >2 mg x m(-3)) during fire-fighting activities. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 65% of the firefighters. The percentage sputum granulocytes increased significantly from 6.5 to 10.9% following fire-fighting shifts, with concurrent increases in circulating white blood cells (5.55x10(9) to 7.06x10(9) cells x L(-1)) and band cells (0.11x10(9) to 0.16x10(9) cells x L(-1)). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels significantly increased following fire-fighting. There were no changes in band cells, IL-6, and IL-8 following strenuous physical exertion without fire-fighting. There was a significant association between changes in sputum macrophages containing phagocytosed particles and circulating band cells. In conclusion, acute exposure to air pollution from forest fire smoke elicits inflammation within the lungs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response.

  8. Metabolic syndrome is inversely related to cardiorespiratory fitness in male career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 45% of on-duty fatalities among firefighters, occurring primarily in firefighters with excess CVD risk factors in patterns resembling the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Additionally, firefighters have a high prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior suggesting that MetSyn is also common. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of MetSyn in firefighters and its association with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a cross-sectional study of 957 male career firefighters. The CRF was measured by maximal exercise tolerance testing (standard metabolic equivalent [METS]). The MetSyn was defined according to modified criteria from the Joint Scientific Statement. Group differences were compared using χ-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of MetSyn was 28.3%. Firefighters in the lowest fitness category (METS ≤ 10) had a nearly 10-fold higher prevalence of MetSyn (51.2%) compared with colleagues in the highest fitness category (METS > 14) (MetSyn prevalence 5.2%) (p value < 0.0001, adjusted for age). In multivariate regression models, every 1-unit increase in METS decreased the odds of having the MetSyn by 31% (odds ratio 0.69 [95% confidence interval 0.63-0.76] [age adjusted]), whereas age had no significant effect after adjusting for CRF. We found a high prevalence of the MetSyn in this group of career emergency responders expected to be more active, fit, and relatively younger than the general population. Moreover, there is a highly significant inverse, dose-response association with CRF. Firefighters should be given strong incentives to improve their fitness, which would decrease prevalent MetSyn, a likely precursor of on-duty CVD events and contributor to CVD burden in this population.

  9. Mitigation and prevention of exertional heat stress in firefighters: a review of cooling strategies for structural firefighting and hazardous materials responders.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2013-01-01

    Most duties performed by firefighters require the use of personal protective equipment, which inhibits normal thermoregulation during exertion, creating an uncompensable heat stress. Structured rest periods are required to correct the effects of uncompensable heat stress and ensure that firefighter safety is maintained and that operations can be continued until their conclusion. While considerable work has been done to optimize firefighter cooling during fireground operations, there is little consensus on when or how cooling should be deployed. A systematic review of cooling techniques and practices among firefighters and hazardous materials operators was conducted to describe the state of the science and provide recommendations for deploying resources for fireground rehab (i.e., structured rest periods during an incident). Five electronic databases were searched using a selected combination of key words. One hundred forty publications were found in the initial search, with 27 meeting all the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed a qualitative assessment of each article based on nine specific questions. From the selected literature, the efficacy of multiple cooling strategies was compared during exertion and immediately following exertion under varying environmental conditions. When considering the literature available for cooling firefighters and hazardous materials technicians during emergency incident rehabilitation, widespread use of cooling devices does not appear to be warranted if ambient temperature and humidity approximate room temperature and protective garments can be removed. When emergency incident rehabilitation must be conducted in hot or humid conditions, active cooling devices are needed. Hand/forearm immersion is likely the best modality for cooling during rehab under hot, humid conditions; however, this therapy has a number of limitations. Cooling during work thus far has been limited primarily to cooling vests and liquid- or

  10. Common Sleep Disorders Increase Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes and Adverse Health Outcomes in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Wang, Wei; O'Brien, Conor S.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Qadri, Salim; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Heart attacks and motor vehicle crashes are the leading causes of death in US firefighters. Given that sleep disorders are an independent risk factor for both of these, we examined the prevalence of common sleep disorders in a national sample of firefighters and their association with adverse health and safety outcomes. Methods: Firefighters (n = 6,933) from 66 US fire departments were assessed for common sleep disorders using validated screening tools, as available. Firefighters were also surveyed about health and safety, and documentation was collected for reported motor vehicle crashes. Results: A total of 37.2% of firefighters screened positive for any sleep disorder including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 28.4%; insomnia, 6.0%; shift work disorder, 9.1%; and restless legs syndrome, 3.4%. Compared with those who did not screen positive, firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report a motor vehicle crash (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.29–3.12, p = 0.0021) and were more likely to self-report falling asleep while driving (2.41, 2.06–2.82, p < 0.0001). Firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report having cardiovascular disease (2.37, 1.54–3.66, p < 0.0001), diabetes (1.91, 1.31–2.81, p = 0.0009), depression (3.10, 2.49–3.85, p < 0.0001), and anxiety (3.81, 2.87–5.05, p < 0.0001), and to report poorer health status (p < 0.0001) than those who did not screen positive. Adverse health and safety associations persisted when OSA and non-OSA sleep disorders were examined separately. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are prevalent in firefighters and are associated with increased risk of adverse health and safety outcomes. Future research is needed to assess the efficacy of occupational sleep disorders prevention, screening, and treatment programs in fire departments to reduce these safety and health risks. Citation: Barger LK, Rajaratnam SM, Wang W, O'Brien CS

  11. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others. PMID:26322733

  12. Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables.

    PubMed

    Perroni, F; Tessitore, A; Cibelli, G; Lupo, C; D'Artibale, E; Cortis, C; Cignitti, L; De Rosas, M; Capranica, L

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 +/- 1 years, VO(2peak): 43 +/- 5 ml/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 +/- 1 degrees C; relative humidity: 63 +/- 1%), individuals spent 63 +/- 28% of the time working at heart rate (HR) >85% of individual HR(max), [La] (peak) 9.2 +/- 2.9 mM and ratings of perceived exertion 16 +/- 2. At 30 min post-intervention significant (p < 0.001) increases in sA-A (174%) and sC (109%) were found with regard to values recorded before and after 90 min of the firefighting intervention. Since no differences emerged between pre-intervention and post intervention for STAI and POMS values, the hormonal changes were attributable to the intense physical stress of the simulated intervention. Further research is needed during real firefighting activities, where high emotional stress may also be present.

  13. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a firefighting response - Indiana and Michigan, June 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    On June 20, 2011, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security notified the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) of an Indiana fire station that reported gastrointestinal illness among a substantial percentage of their workers, causing missed workdays and one hospitalization as a result of cryptosporidiosis. All ill firefighters had responded to a barn fire in Michigan, 15 miles from the Michigan-Indiana border on June 6; responding firefighters from Michigan also had become ill. ISDH immediately contacted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) concerning this outbreak. The investigation was led by MDCH in partnership with ISDH and the Michigan local health department (LHD). Among 34 firefighters who responded to the fire, 33 were interviewed, and 20 (61%) reported gastrointestinal illness ≤12 days after the fire. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in human stool specimens, calf fecal samples, and a swimming pond. Based on these findings, the following public health recommendations were issued: 1) discontinue swimming in the pond, 2) practice thorough hygiene to reduce fecal contamination and fecal-oral exposures, and 3) decontaminate firefighting equipment properly. No additional primary or secondary cases associated with this exposure have been reported. The findings highlight a novel work-related disease exposure for firefighters and the need for public education regarding cryptosporidiosis prevention.

  14. Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

  15. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others.

  16. Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in firefighters: the role of stress appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kobylarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relation between resiliency and the level of positive changes, comprising posttraumatic growth in a group of firefighters experiencing job-related traumatic events and the mediating role of stress appraisal in this relation. The study was performed on a group of 100 firefighters from firefighting and rescue brigades, out of which 75 admitted to experiencing a traumatic event. Firefighters covered by the study were on average 31.51 years old (SD = 6.34). A Polish version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Resiliency Assessment Scale and Stress Appraisal Questionnaire were used in the study. The results have shown that 22.7% of firefighters displayed low, 58.6% average and 18.7% high intensity of positive changes resulting from a traumatic event. Resiliency poorly correlates with posttraumatic growth expressed in changes in self-perception, and strongly correlates with stress appraisal, negatively correlates with threat and harm/loss and positively correlates with challenge. Appraisal of stress as a threat and challenge appeared to be mediators of the relationship between resiliency and posttraumatic growth. PMID:26651530

  17. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures. PMID:26821331

  18. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations.

  19. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations. PMID:26225477

  20. Repeat work bouts increase thermal strain for Australian firefighters working in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony; Argus, Christos; Driller, Matthew; Rattray, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Background: Firefighters regularly re-enter fire scenes during long duration emergency events with limited rest between work bouts. It is unclear whether this practice is impacting on the safety of firefighters. Objectives:To evaluate the effects of multiple work bouts on firefighter physiology, strength, and cognitive performance when working in the heat. Methods: Seventy-seven urban firefighters completed two 20-minute simulated search and rescue tasks in a heat chamber (105 ± 5°C), separated by a 10-minute passive recovery. Core and skin temperature, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), grip strength, and cognitive changes between simulations were evaluated. Results: Significant increases in core temperature and perceptual responses along with declines in strength were observed following the second simulation. No differences for other measures were observed. Conclusions: A significant increase in thermal strain was observed when firefighters re-entered a hot working environment. We recommend that longer recovery periods or active cooling methods be employed prior to re-entry. PMID:25849044

  1. Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-01

    Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles will cover pressurized tree removal, well capping operations, techniques for killing wells after capping, snubbing operations, handling H{sub 2}S, shallow gas hazards, and project management. Because it is impossible to eliminate the potential for a blowout, the only logical and responsible position is to make plans to react before an accident occurs. Such a blowout contingency plan for operations should include information about the following: Immediate reaction plan (evacuations, internal and public notifications, and data collection); Blowout contingency plan (general logistic plans or site-specific plans with relief well details); Engineering modeling; Mobilization of resources to control the blowout (first wave of equipment and personnel); and Means for taking and verifying appropriate responses. The paper discusses immediate response plans, blowout contingency plans, regional and site specific plans, and recommends the absolute minimum requirements for a plan that should be created.

  2. Coarsening of firefighting foams containing fluorinated hydrocarbon surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Matthew J.; Dougherty, John A.; Otto, Nicholas; Conroy, Michael W.; Williams, Bradley A.; Ananth, Ramagopal; Fleming, James W.

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of gas between bubbles in foam causes growth of large bubbles at the expense of small bubbles and leads to increasing mean bubble size with time thereby affecting drainage. Experimental data shows that the effective diffusivity of nitrogen gas in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is widely used in firefighting against burning liquids, is several times smaller than in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) foam based on time-series photographs of bubble size and weighing scale recordings of liquid drainage. Differences in foam structure arising from foam production might contribute to the apparent difference in the rates of coarsening. AFFF solution produces wetter foam with initially smaller bubbles than SDS solution due in part to the lower gas-liquid surface tension provided by the fluorosurfactants present in AFFF. Present method of foam production generates microbubble foam by high-speed co-injection of surfactant solution and gas into a tube of 3-mm diameter. These results contribute to our growing understanding of the coupling between foam liquid fraction, bubble size, surfactant chemistry, and coarsening. NRC Resident Research Associate at NRL

  3. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  4. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance.

  5. Establishment of performance standards and a cut-score for the Canadian Forces firefighter physical fitness maintenance evaluation (FF PFME).

    PubMed

    Todd Rogers, W; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The bookmark method for setting cut-scores was used to re-set the cut-score for the Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME). The time required to complete 10 tasks that together simulate a first-response firefighting emergency was accepted as a measure of work capacity. A panel of 25 Canadian Forces firefighter supervisors set cut-scores in three rounds. Each round involved independent evaluation of nine video work samples, where the times systematically increased from 400 seconds to 560 seconds. Results for Round 1 were discussed before moving to Round 2 and results for Round 2 were discussed before moving to Round 3. Accounting for the variability among panel members at the end of Round 3, a cut-score of 481 seconds (mean Round 3 plus 2 SEM) was recommended. Firefighters who complete the FF PFME in 481 seconds or less have the physical capacity to complete first-response firefighting work.

  6. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  7. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Zimering, Rose; Daly, Erin; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2012-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic stressors, yet studies examining the impact of this exposure are equivocal. Although some studies suggest increased risk for mental health problems, others suggest unusual resilience. Type of assessment methodology may contribute to the lack of consistent findings. We assessed 142 trauma-exposed, professional firefighters utilizing a standardized clinical interview and self-report measures and found low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses (4.2%), and depressive, anxiety, and alcohol-abuse symptoms. Frequency of trauma exposure did not predict psychological symptoms. Perceived social support, occupational stress, coping, as well as the interaction between perceived social support and self-blame were significant predictors of symptoms. Firefighters reporting low-perceived social support and high self-blame demonstrated the highest levels of clinically significant symptoms. These findings may inform education, treatment, and resilience training for emergency personnel. PMID:22449083

  8. Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

  9. The firefighter coping self-efficacy scale: measure development and validation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jessica E; Benight, Charles C; Harrison, Erica; Cieslak, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters' perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis using a second sample. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent. Analysis of cross-sectional data indicated FFCSE was positively associated with measures of psychological well-being and social support, and negatively associated with work-related stress and psychological distress. FFCSE also uniquely contributed to the variance in psychological distress, over and above variables previously shown to be associated with distress among this population. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21476153

  10. Onset of recent exertional dyspnoea in a firefighter with left bundle-branch block

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Roberto; Ratti, Gennaro; Lamberti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of a left bundle-branch block (LBBB) among firefighters raises questions about stratifying risk of subsequent cardiovascular events as this conduction disorder may mask underlying coronary artery disease. This report describes the case of a firefighter with a history LBBB with exertional dyspnoea of recent onset after work activity. Case report A 39-year-old male firefighter with LBBB developed exertional dyspnoea after a prolonged session of work. ECG and treadmill test only showed a permanent LBBB; echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy did not add to this. However, multislice CT (MSCT) showed a significant stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD). Coronary angiography confirmed the stenosis with subsequent placement of a coronary stent. Conclusions An occupational physician should take into account that factors such as age and low cardiovascular risk do not always exclude heart disease, especially when there are conduction system abnormalities that can mask possible coronary artery disease. PMID:25352387

  11. Exposure to bushfire smoke during prescribed burns and wildfires: firefighters' exposure risks and options.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Fabienne; Hansen, Dane; Meyer, C P Mick

    2011-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to known health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts. This study monitored air toxics within the breathing zone of firefighters at prescribed burns and at wildfires in Australia. The results showed that exposure levels were highly variable, with higher exposures (sometimes exceeding occupational exposure standards) associated with particular work tasks (such as patrol and suppression) and with certain burn conditions. The majority of firefighter's exposures were at low and moderate levels (~60%), however considerable attention should be given to the high (~30%) and very high (6%) exposure risk situations for which acute and chronic health risks are very likely and for which control strategies should be developed and implemented to minimise health risks.

  12. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Zimering, Rose; Daly, Erin; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2012-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic stressors, yet studies examining the impact of this exposure are equivocal. Although some studies suggest increased risk for mental health problems, others suggest unusual resilience. Type of assessment methodology may contribute to the lack of consistent findings. We assessed 142 trauma-exposed, professional firefighters utilizing a standardized clinical interview and self-report measures and found low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses (4.2%), and depressive, anxiety, and alcohol-abuse symptoms. Frequency of trauma exposure did not predict psychological symptoms. Perceived social support, occupational stress, coping, as well as the interaction between perceived social support and self-blame were significant predictors of symptoms. Firefighters reporting low-perceived social support and high self-blame demonstrated the highest levels of clinically significant symptoms. These findings may inform education, treatment, and resilience training for emergency personnel.

  13. Dietary Preferences and Nutritional Information Needs Among Career Firefighters in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. Objective: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition. Methods: Cross-sectional, online survey distributed to members of the International Association of Fire Fighters. Results: Most firefighters do not currently follow any specific dietary plan (71%) and feel that they receive insufficient nutrition information (68%), but most are interested in learning more about healthy eating (75%). When presented with written descriptions of diets without names or labels and asked to rank them in order of preference, firefighters most often rated the Mediterranean diet as their favorite and gave it a more favorable distribution of relative rankings (P<.001) compared to the Paleo, Atkins, Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes, and Esselsteyn Engine 2 (low-fat, strictly plant-based) diets. Obese respondents reported more limited nutritional knowledge (P<.001) and were more likely to feel that they received insufficient nutritional information (P=.021) than participants with normal body weight. Conclusions: Most career firefighters are overweight or obese and do not practice a specific diet; however, 75% want to learn more about healthy eating. Among popular dietary choices, firefighters were most receptive to a Mediterranean diet and least receptive to a strictly plant-based diet. PMID:26331100

  14. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  15. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  16. Firefighting and fire prevention: Facilities instructions, standards and techniques. Volume 5-2

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, H.E.

    1992-02-01

    The operation and maintenance personnel around a powerplant, pumping plant, or other Reclamation establishment are not presumed to be firefighters, but occasionally their duties may make it necessary for them to fight fires. The purpose of this volume is to supply them with fundamental facts which may prove valuable in such an emergency and acquaint them with the use, care, and testing of firefighting equipment. It is assumed that operation and maintenance personnel are familiar with the common safety practices in connection with fire prevention and general safety around electrical equipment. This volume is designed to help improve the work along these lines.

  17. Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2014-08-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre

  18. The Prevalence of Clinical and Electrocardiographic Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Death among On-Duty Professional Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Carey, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Firefighters have twice as many cardiovascular deaths as police officers and four times as many as emergency medical responders. The etiology for this high prevalence remains unknown. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used tool to screen populations at risk, but yet there are no available on-duty, high-resolution electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings. Objective We sought to evaluate the prevalence of clinical and ECG risk factors among on-duty professional firefighters during 12-lead ECG holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. Methods Firefighters were recruited from Surveying and Assessing Firefighters Fitness and ECG (SAFFE) study. This descriptive study recruited firefighters from 7 firehouses across Western New York area, who all completed on-duty, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and a standard exercise stress test. All analyses were completed by a reviewer blinded to all clinical data. Results 112 firefighters (age 44±8 years, mostly white males) completed the study. Even though all firefighters were in normal sinus rhythm, over half of them had at least one high risk ECG risk factor present, including abnormal sympathetic tone (elevated heart rate, 54%), abnormal repolarization (wide QRS-T angle, 25%), myocardial scaring (fragmented QRS, 24%), and myocardial ischemia (ST depression, 24%). In addition, most firefighters tolerated the treadmill exercise stress test well (metabolic equivalent tasks 11.8+2.5), however, almost one third had abnormal stress tests that require further evaluation to rule out subclinical coronary artery disease. Conclusion Among on-duty professional firefighters, high risk ECG markers of fatal cardiac events and abnormal stress test results that warrant further evaluation are prevalent. Annual physical checkups with routine 12-lead ECG can identify those who might benefit from preventive cardiovascular services. PMID:24874885

  19. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  20. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....

  1. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....

  2. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....

  3. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  4. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....

  5. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  6. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  7. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  8. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....

  9. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed.

  10. The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

  11. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  12. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes of... technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government, a... medical technicians. 291.530 Section 291.530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to......

  13. STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  14. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

  15. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk.

  16. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  17. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation.

  18. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-01

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  19. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed. PMID:27078756

  20. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  1. Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

  2. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  3. Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

    A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to…

  4. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  5. 76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Victoria Henderson, Branch Director, Equipment and Chemicals, U.S. Forest Service, National Interagency... quantities of qualified fire chemical products available to accomplish fire management activities as safely... commercial wildland firefighting chemicals. The Agency may be required to submit the formulations to the...

  6. 76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... addressed to Victoria Henderson, Branch Director, Equipment and Chemicals, U.S. Forest Service, National... adequate types and quantities of qualified fire chemical products available to accomplish fire management...-approves commercial wildland firefighting chemicals. The Agency may be required to submit the...

  7. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law...

  8. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  9. Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations.

    PubMed

    Kunadharaju, Kumar; Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M

    2011-05-01

    More than 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty in the U.S. each year and over 80,000 are injured. This study examined all firefighter fatality investigations (N = 189) completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for fatalities occurring between 2004 and 2009. These investigations produced a total of 1167 recommendations for corrective actions. Thirty-five high frequency recommendations were derived from the total set: six related to medical fatalities and 29 to injury-related fatalities. These high frequency recommendations were mapped onto the major operational components of firefighting using a fishbone or cause-effect diagram. Over 70% of the 30 non-external recommendations were categorized within the personnel and incident command components of the fishbone diagram. Root cause techniques suggested four higher order causes: under-resourcing, inadequate preparation for/anticipation of adverse events during operations, incomplete adoption of incident command procedures, and sub-optimal personnel readiness. These findings are discussed with respect to the core culture of firefighting. PMID:21376916

  10. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) Operating on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) DEEPWATER HORIZON, in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, with loss of...

  11. Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

  12. A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

  13. The Strongest Correlates of PTSD for Firefighters: Number, Recency, Frequency, or Perceived Threat of Traumatic Events?

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ricardo J; Henriques, Sandra P; Jongenelen, Inês; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maia, Ângela C

    2015-10-01

    Firefighters experience a wide range of traumatic events while on duty and are at risk to develop psychopathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to cognitive models, the person's interpretation of the traumatic event is responsible for the development of PTSD rather than the traumatic event itself. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the contribution of perceived threat to explain PTSD symptoms in Portuguese firefighters, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A sample of 397 firefighters completed self-report measures of exposure to traumatic events, psychopathology, and PTSD. Perceived threat explained unique variance in PTSD symptoms, R(2) = .40, ΔR(2) = .02, F(10, 367) = 24.55, p < .001, Cohen's f(2) =.03, after adjusting for psychopathology, number, recency, and frequency of the events, and other potential confounding variables. The association between psychopathology and PTSD was also moderated by perceived threat, R(2) = .43, ΔR(2) = .03, F(11, 366) = 25.33, p < .001, Cohen's f(2) =.05. Firefighters may benefit from interventions that focus on perceived threat to prevent PTSD symptoms.

  14. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  15. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  16. 75 FR 55973 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Plans for Oil'' (73 FR 80618). The final rule amended the vessel response plan salvage and marine... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 155 RIN 1625-AA19 Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel...) approval of the information collection associated with the vessel response plan salvage and...

  17. Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations.

    PubMed

    Kunadharaju, Kumar; Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M

    2011-05-01

    More than 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty in the U.S. each year and over 80,000 are injured. This study examined all firefighter fatality investigations (N = 189) completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for fatalities occurring between 2004 and 2009. These investigations produced a total of 1167 recommendations for corrective actions. Thirty-five high frequency recommendations were derived from the total set: six related to medical fatalities and 29 to injury-related fatalities. These high frequency recommendations were mapped onto the major operational components of firefighting using a fishbone or cause-effect diagram. Over 70% of the 30 non-external recommendations were categorized within the personnel and incident command components of the fishbone diagram. Root cause techniques suggested four higher order causes: under-resourcing, inadequate preparation for/anticipation of adverse events during operations, incomplete adoption of incident command procedures, and sub-optimal personnel readiness. These findings are discussed with respect to the core culture of firefighting.

  18. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  19. Pack hike test finishing time for Australian firefighters: pass rates and correlates of performance.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Petersen, A; Abbiss, C R; Netto, K; Payne, W; Nichols, D; Aisbett, B

    2011-03-01

    The pack hike test (PHT, 4.83 km hike wearing a 20.4-kg load) was devised to determine the job readiness of USA wildland firefighters. This study measured PHT performance in a sample of Australian firefighters who currently perform the PHT (career land management firefighters, LMFF) and those who do not (suburban/regional volunteer firefighters, VFF). The study also investigated the relationships between firefighters' PHT performance and their performance across a range of fitness tests for both groups. Twenty LMFF and eighteen age-, body mass-, and height-matched VFF attempted the PHT, and a series of muscular endurance, power, strength and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. Bivariate correlations between the participants' PHT finishing time and their performance in a suite of different fitness tests were determined using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. The mean PHT finishing time for LMFF (42.2 ± 2.8 min) was 9 ± 14% faster (p = 0.001) than for VFF (46.1 ± 3.6 min). The pass rate (the percentage of participants who completed the PHT in under 45 min) for LMFF (90%) was greater than that of VFF (39%, p = 0.001). For LMFF, VO(2peak) in L min(-1)(r = -0.66, p = 0.001) and the duration they could sustain a grip 'force' of 25 kg (r = -0.69, p = 0.001) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. For VFF, VO(2peak) in mL kg(-1) min(-1)(r = -0.75, p = 0.002) and the duration they could hold a 1.2-m bar attached to 45.5 kg in a 'hose spray position' (r = -0.69, p = 0.004) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. This study shows that PHT fitness-screening could severely limit the number of VFF eligible for duty, compromising workforce numbers and highlights the need for specific and valid firefighter fitness standards. The results also demonstrate the strong relationships between PHT performance and firefighters' cardiorespiratory fitness and local muscular endurance. Those preparing for the PHT should focus their training on these fitness

  20. Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

    2014-01-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre

  1. Assessment of physical fitness aspects and their relationship to firefighters' job abilities.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Henry, Leah J; Thompson, Gerald B; Brown, Barry S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters and firefighting performance on an "Ability Test" (AT) that included a set of 6 simulated firefighting tasks. The relationships between each fitness parameter and each task of the AT were determined. Ninety firefighters participated in this study (age 33 ± 7 years). The AT completion time was associated with abdominal strength (r = -0.53, p < 0.01), relative power (r = -0.44, p < 0.01), upper-body muscular endurance (push-ups, r = -0.27, p < 0.05) (sit-ups, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), and upper-body strength (1 repetition maximum bench press, r = -0.41, p < 0.01). In addition, poor performance on the AT was associated with high resting heart rate (r = 0.36, p < 0.01), high body mass index (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), high body fat (BF)% (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), increasing age (r = 0.42, p < 0.01), and large waist size (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant (F[5, 53] = 14.02, p < 0.01) proportion (60%) of the variation observed in the AT was explained by the variation of the fitness parameters used in the model. This study demonstrated that fitness variables, such as abdominal strength, power (step test), push-ups, resting Hr, and BF%, contributed significantly to the predictive power of firefighters' AT performance. The findings of this study may be useful to fire department instructors and trainers in the design and implementation of training programs that are more specifically tailored to improving both individual firefighting skills and general fire suppression performance.

  2. Evaluation of a fitness intervention for new firefighters: injury reduction and economic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Stephanie C; Regan, Tracy L; Harber, Philip; Lutz, Eric A; Hu, Chengcheng; Peate, Wayne F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2016-01-01

    Background Firefighting is a hazardous profession and firefighters suffer workplace injury at a higher rate than most US workers. Decreased physical fitness is associated with injury in firefighters. A physical fitness intervention was implemented among Tucson Fire Department recruit firefighters with the goals of decreasing injury and compensation claims frequency and costs during the recruit academy, and over the subsequent probationary year. Methods Department injury records were analysed and described by body part, injury type and mechanism of injury. Injury and workers’ compensation claims outcomes from the recruit academy initiation through the 12-month probationary period for the intervention recruit class were compared with controls from three historical classes. Results The majority of injuries were sprains and strains (65.4%), the most common mechanism of injury was acute overexertion (67.9%) and the lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (61.7%). The intervention class experienced significantly fewer injuries overall and during the probationary year (p=0.009), filed fewer claims (p=0.028) and experienced claims cost savings of approximately US$33 000 (2013) from avoided injury and reduced claims costs. The estimated costs for programme implementation were $32 192 leading to a 1-year return on investment of 2.4%. Conclusions We observed reductions in injury occurrence and compensation costs among Probationary Firefighter Fitness (PFF-Fit) programme participants compared with historical controls. The initiation of the PFF-Fit programme has demonstrated promise in reducing injury and claims costs; however, continued research is needed to better understand the programme's potential effectiveness with additional recruit classes and carryover effects into the recruit's career injury potential. PMID:26559144

  3. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  4. Multivariate statistical assessment of predictors of firefighters' muscular and aerobic work capacity.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Antti, Henrik; Malm, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters' physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters' and on civilians'. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q2 = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for firefighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition. PMID:25775243

  5. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  6. Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

  7. Acute Psychophysiological Relationships Between Mood, Inflammatory and Cortisol Changes in Response to Simulated Physical Firefighting Work and Sleep Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined how changes in wildland firefighters' mood relate to cytokine and cortisol levels in response to simulated physical firefighting work and sleep restriction. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression work separated by an 8-h (control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep opportunity (sleep restriction condition; n = 17) each night. Firefighters' mood was assessed daily using the Mood Scale II and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale. Participants also provided samples for the determination of salivary cortisol and pro- (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels. An increase in the positive mood dimension Happiness was related to a rise in IL-8 and TNF-α in the sleep restriction condition. A rise in the positive mood dimension Activation among sleep restricted firefighters was also related to higher IL-6 levels. An increase in the negative mood dimension Fatigue in the sleep restriction condition was associated with increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and cortisol levels. In addition, an increase in Fear among sleep restricted firefighters was associated with a rise in TNF-α. Elevated positive mood and immune activation may reflect an appropriate response by the firefighters to these stressors. To further understand this relationship, subsequent firefighting-based research is needed that investigates whether immune changes are a function of affective arousal linked to the expression of positive moods. Positive associations between negative mood and inflammatory and cortisol levels to physical work and restricted sleep provide useful information to fire agencies about subjective fire-ground indicators of physiological changes.

  8. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A.; Vincent, Grace E.; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters’ acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Methods Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. Results The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Conclusion Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters’ IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters’ IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons. PMID:26378783

  9. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    PubMed Central

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, José Ramiro Martínez-de; Baturone, Aníbal Ollero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  10. Doffing procedures for firefighters` contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

  11. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    PubMed

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  12. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  13. Depressive Symptoms among Firefighters and Related Factors after the Response to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Richard; Bernard, Bruce; West, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an evaluation regarding physical and psychological health symptoms among New Orleans firefighters 13 weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005. This report examines associations between depressive symptoms and concurrent comorbidity. Depressive symptoms were twice as likely among those with either lower respiratory symptoms or skin rash. Firefighters housed with their families were less likely to report depressive symptoms compared to those not living with their families. Perceived low supervisor support was associated with depressive symptoms, whereas participating in group counseling was not. The results underscore the need for the incorporation of physical and psychological health follow-up of emergency responders after natural disasters to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions. PMID:17216569

  14. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a New York City firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    PubMed

    Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael; Garcia, Roberto; Yie, Ting An; Vathesatogkit, Pratan; Tse, Doris B; McGuinness, Georgeann; Roggli, Victor; Prezant, David

    2002-09-15

    We report a sentinel case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a firefighter exposed to high concentrations of World Trade Center dust during the rescue effort from September 11 to 24. The firefighter presented with a Pa(O2) of 53 mm Hg and responded to oxygen and corticosteroids. Computed tomography scan showed patchy ground glass density, thickened bronchial walls, and bilateral pleural effusions. Bronchoalveolar lavage recovered 70% eosinophils, with only 1% eosinophils in peripheral blood. Eosinophils were not degranulated and increased levels of interleukin-5 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Mineralogic analysis counted 305 commercial asbestos fibers/10(6) macrophages including those with high aspect ratios, and significant quantities of fly ash and degraded fibrous glass. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare consequence of acute high dust exposure. World Trade Center dust consists of large particle-size silicates, but fly ash and asbestos fibers may be found in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

  15. Impact of excess body weight on arterial structure, function, and blood pressure in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Rossow, Lindy M; Echols, George; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-11-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among firefighters. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of excess body weight on arterial structure and function and blood pressure (BP) in relatively young, apparently healthy, firefighters. The body mass index, brachial BP, carotid BP, aortic BP, radial augmentation index, central pulse wave velocity, forearm blood flow, forearm vasodilatory capacity, carotid arterial compliance, carotid intima-media thickness, and brachial flow-mediated dilation were assessed in 110 firefighters (aged 29.7 +/- 8.0 years). The group was divided into equal tertiles according to the body mass index (<25.9, 25.9 to 29.4, and >or=29.5 kg/m(2)). Group differences in hemodynamics, anthropometrics, microvascular function, and macrovascular structure and function were tested using multivariate analysis of variance. The obese group was older, heavier, and had a larger waist circumference compared to the lean and overweight groups (p <0.05). The overweight group was also older, heavier, and had a larger waist circumference than the lean group (p <0.05). Compared to the lean group, the overweight and obese groups had a greater systolic BP (p <0.05). The obese group also had a significantly greater mean arterial BP and carotid systolic BP than the lean group (p <0.05). The obese group had greater beta stiffness and elastic modulus compared to the lean and overweight groups (p <0.05), but no group differences were found in endothelial function. In conclusion, in a population of relatively young firefighters, an increased body mass index was associated with elevated peripheral BP and arterial stiffness, with no apparent decrements in endothelial function.

  16. Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y

    2014-08-01

    Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone.

  17. A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). Core body temperature remained consistently lower (0.49 +/- 0.02 degrees C; p < 0.01) throughout the second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures.

  18. The Association between Sleep Disturbances and Depression among Firefighters: Emotion Dysregulation as an Explanatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Melanie A.; Stanley, Ian H.; Rogers, Megan L.; Tzoneva, Mirela; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate emotion regulation difficulties in association with self-reported insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and depression symptoms in a sample of current and retired firefighters. Methods: A total of 880 current and retired United States firefighters completed a web-based survey of firefighter behavioral health. Self-report measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, PTSD Checklist, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results: A notable portion of participants reported clinically significant depression symptoms (39.6%) and insomnia symptoms (52.7%), as well as nightmare problems (19.2%), each of which demonstrated a strong association with emotion regulation difficulties (rs = 0.56–0.80). Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effects of overall emotion regulation difficulties were significant both for the relationship between insomnia and depression (95% CI: 0.385–0.566) and nightmares and depression (95% CI: 1.445–2.365). Limited access to emotion regulation strategies emerged as the strongest, significant indirect effect for both relationships (insomnia 95% CI: 0.136–0.335; nightmares 95% CI: 0.887–1.931). Conclusions: Findings extend previous affective neuroscience research by providing evidence that insomnia and nightmares may influence depression symptoms specifically through the pathway of explicit emotion regulation difficulties. Sleep disturbances may impair the ability to access and leverage emotion regulation strategies effectively, thus conferring risk for negative affect and depression. Citation: Hom MA, Stanley IH, Rogers ML, Tzoneva M, Bernert RA, Joiner TE. The association between sleep disturbances and depression among firefighters: emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):235–245. PMID:26350604

  19. Physical fitness improvements and occupational low-back loading - an exercise intervention study with firefighters.

    PubMed

    Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-01-01

    The impact of exercise on firefighter job performance and cardiorespiratory fitness has been studied extensively, but its effect on musculoskeletal loading remains unknown. The aim of this study was to contrast the physical fitness and low-back loading outcomes of two groups of firefighters who completed different exercise programmes. Before and after 12 weeks of exercise, subjects performed a physical fitness test battery, the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) and simulated job tasks during which peak L4/L5 joint compression and reaction shear forces were quantified using a dynamic biomechanical model. Subjects who exercised exhibited statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, power, endurance and flexibility, but FMS scores and occupational low-back loading measures were not consistently affected. Firefighters who are physically fit are better able to perform essential job duties and avoid cardiac events, but short-term improvements in physical fitness may not necessarily translate into reduced low-back injury risk. PMID:24689834

  20. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  1. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment.

  2. Air management and physiological responses during simulated firefighting tasks in a high-rise structure.

    PubMed

    Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

    2010-03-01

    Air consumption, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide output (VCO(2)) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER=VCO(2)/VO(2)) were measured directly from the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) as 36 professional firefighters (three women) completed scenarios of high-rise stair climbing and fifth floor search and rescue. During stair climbing VO(2) was 75+/-8% VO(2max) (mean+/-SD), RER=1.10+/-0.10, and heart rate=91+/-3% maximum (based on maximum treadmill data). Firefighters stopped climbing on consuming 55% of the air cylinder then descended. In the fifth floor search and rescue VO(2) was slightly lower than stair climbing but RER remained elevated (1.13+/-0.12) reflecting high anaerobic metabolism. The first low air alarm sounded, indicating 25% of the air remaining in a "30-min cylinder", during the stair climb at 8 min with 19 of 36 sounding before 12 min. Aggressive air management strategies are required for safety in high-rise firefighting.

  3. Stressors and coping strategies of U.K. firefighters during on-duty incidents.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Operational response by firefighters requires an abrupt change from rest to near-maximal physical effort and incorporates almost instant stress management that must be made during extreme heat, limited time and partial information, yet little is known about the coping strategies incorporated to manage the physiological and psychological demands associated with this environment. A sample of 22 UK firefighters took part in focus groups identifying frequently used coping techniques based upon problem-focused and emotion-focused coping methods. Findings suggest problem-orientated coping comprised half of the total coping strategies quoted by participants, with a third of responses being categorized as emotion-focused methods, and 17% were considered to be both problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques. Responses indicate problem-focused methods are often utilized en route to the incident, and at the early stages of operational tasks. Emotion-focused responses are more common during periods of fatigue and exhaustion and post-incident, and problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques were found post-incident, although there was often an overlap between methods and they perhaps should not be treated as three distinct stages. The importance of peer support and potential benefits to firefighter well-being and operational performance are discussed. PMID:25312623

  4. A modified SCBA facepiece for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Motl, Robert W; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Horn, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    To better assess the energy expenditure and exertion of firefighters during simulated firefighting activities, a commercial firefighter self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) facepiece was modified to interface with a portable metabolic monitoring device (Cosmed K4b(2)) while still functioning as a positive pressure SCBA air supply. To validate the device, standard National Fire Protection Association 1981 SCBA function tests were conducted and 14 subjects performed variable-workload assessments using all combinations of two test devices (Cosmed K4b(2) and metabolic cart) and two masks (modified SCBA facepiece and stock manufacturer-supplied breath collection). Metabolic data collected with the Cosmed K4b(2) via the modified facepiece were found to be accurate when compared to a ParvoMedics Truemax 2400 metabolic cart (average per cent difference: 4.6%). This modified facepiece design is suitable for use in metabolic studies requiring the utilisation of an SCBA system. Furthermore, the well-established overestimation of oxygen consumption from the Cosmed K4b(2) system was replicated. PMID:25323675

  5. Physiological parameters monitoring of fire-fighters by means of a wearable wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Chatzistamatis, Panagiotis; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Primentas, Antonios; Kogias, Dimitris; Michailidis, Emmanouel T.; Rangoussi, Maria; Kurşun Bahadir, Senem; Atalay, Özgür; Kalaoğlu, Fatma; Sağlam, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Physiological parameter monitoring may be useful in many different groups of the population, such as infants, elderly people, athletes, soldiers, drivers, fire-fighters, police etc. This can provide a variety of information ranging from health status to operational readiness. In this article, we focus on the case of first responders and specifically fire-fighters. Firefighters can benefit from a physiological monitoring system that is used to extract multiple indications such as the present position, the possible life risk level, the stress level etc. This work presents a wearable wireless sensor network node, based on low cost, commercial-off- the-self (COTS) electronic modules, which can be easily attached on a standard fire-fighters’ uniform. Due to the low frequency wired interface between the selected electronic components, the proposed solution can be used as a basis for a textile system where all wired connections will be implemented by means of conductive yarn routing in the textile structure, while some of the standard sensors can be replaced by textile ones. System architecture is described in detail, while indicative samples of acquired signals are also presented.

  6. Prospective study of hepatic, renal, and haematological surveillance in hazardous materials firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kales, S; Polyhronopoulos, G; Aldrich, J; Mendoza, P; Suh, J; Christiani, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate possible health effects related to work with hazardous materials as measured by end organ effect markers in a large cohort over about 2 years, and in a subcohort over 5 years.
METHODS—Hepatic, renal, and haematological variables were analysed from 1996-98 in hazardous materials firefighters including 288 hazardous materials technicians (81%) and 68 support workers (19%). The same end organ effect markers in a subcohort of the technicians were also analysed (n=35) from 1993-98. Support workers were considered as controls because they are also firefighters, but had a low potential exposure to hazardous materials.
RESULTS—During the study period, no serious injuries or exposures were reported. For the end organ effect markers studied, no significant differences were found between technicians and support workers at either year 1 or year 3. After adjustment for a change in laboratory, no significant longitudinal changes were found within groups for any of the markers except for creatinine which decreased for both technicians (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Health effects related to work are infrequent among hazardous materials technicians. Haematological, hepatic, and renal testing is not required on an annual basis and has limited use in detecting health effects in hazardous materials technicians.


Keywords: hazardous materials; firefighters; medical surveillance PMID:11160986

  7. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p < 0.05) post-exercise for nine of 12 ascent parameters and increased for two of eight descent parameters. Load carriage resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) clearance over three ascent parameters, and one increase during descent. Decreased clearances during ascent caused by fatigue or load carriage may result in an increased trip risk. Increased clearances during descent may suggest use of a compensation strategy to ensure stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent.

  8. The reciprocal relationship between work characteristics and employee burnout and engagement: a longitudinal study of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J

    2015-04-01

    The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed. PMID:24124018

  9. Incident-level risk factors for firefighter injuries at structural fires.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Anthony; Ta, Myduc; Strotmeyer, Stephen; Li, Wei; Schmidt, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Firefighting is a demanding occupation, laden with hazardous exposures which result in traumatic injuries. Little epidemiologic evidence exists quantifying these factors, however. We conducted an incident-level case-control study of National Fire Incident Reporting System data of the association between firefighter injury and incident characteristics. Risk factors included 5 or more alarms (OR = 3.85; 95% CI, 3.32-4.48), number of stories (> 3 vs. ground level OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.55), and at least one civilian injury (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 3.55-3.84). Risk of injury was reduced for fires originating 49 feet and higher (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.49-0.66). This analysis suggests that fireground-specific situations such as the number of stories or a civilian injury increase the risk of injury. Given the danger of firefighting, the identification of risk factors through epidemiologic methods is vital to developing safety measures. PMID:12448357

  10. The reciprocal relationship between work characteristics and employee burnout and engagement: a longitudinal study of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J

    2015-04-01

    The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed.

  11. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more » 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  12. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  13. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  14. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters.

  16. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  17. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  18. An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Long-term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Coping in Australian Volunteer Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Doley, Rebekah M; Bell, Ryan; Watt, Bruce D

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping style and long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms in an Australian sample of volunteer firefighters 84 months following a bushfire disaster. A total of 277 firefighters completed 4 questionnaires to assess patterns of psychiatric morbidity. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to investigate the effect of time and disorder on coping. Firefighters evidencing distress were more likely to use both problem- and emotion-focused methods of coping. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that problem-focused coping strategies would be used after 84 months. The use of both problem- and emotion-focused coping may be due to the length of time following this disaster or unique characteristics of firefighters. These data suggest that present coping theories are not sufficient to account for the onset and pattern of psychiatric morbidity within a firefighter sample. The authors declare no conflicts of interest including financial, consultant, institutional, and other relationships that might lead to bias. PMID:27367600

  19. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  20. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  1. Effect of Zolpidem on Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters; a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Naseri Esfahani, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Professional firefighting is among the most demanding jobs. Prior studies have showed the notable prevalence of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters that may result in catastrophes. The aim of this study was in field confirmation of zolpidem usage (10 mg/PO/bed time) for short term management of poor sleeps quality among professional firefighters. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial among professional firefighters, 27 poor sleepers were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Two 14 days experimental periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. Sleep quality was assessed using the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Six of the 27 enrolled voluntaries dropped out. Two rare side effects of zolpidem occurred in the study. A significant improvement of the PSQI score was detected in zolpidem period versus placebo in both groups (7.14 ± 3.02 vs 12.38 ± 2.51, P<0.001) although zolpidem had no significant effect on time of waking up (6.76 ± 1.21 vs.6.64 ± 1.27, P=0.89). Zolpidem significantly improved all components of PSQI (Subjective sleep quality, Sleep latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances and Daytime dysfunction) in the current study except the use of sleep medication. Sleep onset latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality among firefighters in a previous study. Interestingly, sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the most treatment effect of zolpidem in the current study. Zolpidem can be used asa part of treatment regimens in short time management of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters. PMID:26553086

  2. Inflammatory effects of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, SC.

    PubMed

    Hejl, Anna M; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Carter, Jacqueline D; Commodore, Adwoa A; Rathbun, Stephen L; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsmoke exposure on inflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Twelve U.S. Forest Service wildland firefighters at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, volunteered to give blood samples during four prescribed burns between February and March 2011. Twenty-four paired (pre- and post-work shift) blood samples were collected using dried blood spot method to facilitate repeated sample collection. Inflammatory biomarker concentrations in blood samples were measured using the Meso Scale Discovery multi-spot assay system. Concurrent personal PM₂.₅ and CO monitoring of firefighters was conducted. Linear mixed models were used to test whether cross-work shift differences occurred in the following inflammatory biomarkers: IL-1β, IL-8, CRP, SAA, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. IL-8 showed a significant cross-work shift difference as indicated by a post/pre-work shift ratio of 1.70 (95% CL: 1.35, 2.13; p = 0.0012). Concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and ICAM-1 increased in >50% of samples across work shift. Firefighters who lighted fires as opposed to other work tasks had the largest cross-work shift increase in IL-8. A significant cross-work shift increase in IL-8 in blood samples was observed in healthy wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns. Further research is needed to understand the physiological responses underlying the adverse effects of woodsmoke exposure, and the dose-response relationship between woodsmoke exposure and inflammatory responses.

  3. Heat stress while wearing long pants or shorts under firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    McLellan, T M; Selkirk, G A

    2004-01-15

    It was the purpose of this study to examine whether replacing long pants (P) with shorts (S) would reduce the heat stress of wearing firefighting protective clothing during exercise in a warm environment. Twenty-four Toronto Firefighters were allocated to one of four groups that performed heavy (H, 4.8 km x h(-1), 5% grade), moderate (M, 4.5 km x h(-1), 2.5% grade), light (L, 4.5 km x h(-1)) or very light (VL, 2.5 km x h(-1)) exercise while wearing their full protective ensemble and self-contained breathing apparatus. Participants performed a familiarization trial followed by two experimental trials at 35 degrees C and 50% relative humidity wearing either P or S under their protective overpants. Replacing P with S had no impact on the rectal temperature (Tre) or heart rate response during heavy or moderate exercise where exposure times were less than 1 h (40.8 +/- 5.8 and 53.5 +/- 9.2 min for H and M, respectively while wearing P, and 43.5 +/- 5.3 and 54.2 +/- 8.4 min, respectively while wearing S). In contrast, as exposure times were extended during lighter exercise Tre was reduced by as much as 0.4 degrees C after 80 min of exercise while wearing S. Exposure times were significantly increased from 65.8 +/- 9.6 and 83.5 +/- 11.6 min during L and VL, respectively while wearing P to 73.3 +/- 8.4 and 97.0 +/- 12.5 min, respectively while wearing S. It was concluded that replacing P with S under the firefighting protective clothing reduced the heat stress associated with wearing the protective ensemble and extended exposure times approximately 10 - 15% during light exercise. However, during heavier exercise where exposure times were less than 1 h replacing P with S was of little benefit.

  4. Respiratory protection for firefighters--evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leaton; Lutz, Eric A; Duncan, Michael; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 366,600 structural fires each year. After visible flames are extinguished, firefighters begin the overhaul stage of firefighting to smother remaining hot spots and initiate investigations. Typically during overhaul significant ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants remain. However, previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators (APR) fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational respiratory exposures. This pilot study used large-scale prescribed burns of representative structural materials to perform simultaneous, side-by-side, filtering and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters. Three types of CBRN canisters and one cartridge were challenged in repetitive post live-fire overhaul exposure tests using a sampling manifold apparatus. At a flow rate of 80 L/min, nine tests were conducted in the breathing zone for three different exposure durations (0-15 min, 0-30 min, and 0-60 min). Fifty different chemicals were identified for evaluation and results indicate that 21 of the 50 chemicals tested were in the air of the overhaul environment. Respirable particles and formaldehyde were consistently present above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) recommended exposure level (REL) and threshold limit ceiling value (TLVc), respectively. Each filter effectively reduced concentrations for respirable particulates below the maximum recommended level. Formaldehyde was reduced, but not consistently filtered below the TLVc. These results were consistent across all exposure durations. This study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters provide protection from the vast majority of particle and gas-phase contaminants. However, due to formaldehyde breakthrough, CBRN filters do not provide complete protection during firefighter overhaul. PMID:25738516

  5. Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

    2010-11-15

    Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (β-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

  6. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  7. Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

    2010-11-15

    Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (β-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems.

  8. High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F

    2013-04-01

    Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method).

  9. Physiological responses and air consumption during simulated firefighting tasks in a subway system.

    PubMed

    Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

    2010-10-01

    Professional firefighters (33 men, 3 women), ranging in age from 30 to 53 years, participated in a simulation of a subway system search and rescue while breathing from their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). We tested the hypothesis that during this task, established by expert firefighters to be of moderate intensity, the rate of air consumption would exceed the capacity of a nominal 30-min cylinder. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and air consumption were measured with a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis system, which was fully integrated with the expired port of the SCBA. The task involved descending a flight of stairs, walking, performing a search and rescue, retreat walking, then ascending a single flight of stairs to a safe exit. This scenario required between 9:56 and 13:24 min:s (mean, 12:10 ± 1:10 min:s) to complete, with an average oxygen uptake of 24.3 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 10 % peak oxygen uptake) and heart rate of 76% ± 7% of maximum. The highest energy requirement was during the final single-flight stair climb (30.4 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The average respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide output/oxygen uptake) throughout the scenario was 0.95 ± 0.08, indicating a high carbon dioxide output for a relatively moderate average energy requirement. Air consumption from the nominal "30-min" cylinder averaged 51% (range, 26%-68%); however, extrapolation of these rates of consumption suggested that the low-air alarm, signalling that only 25% of the air remains, would have occurred as early as 11 min for an individual with the highest rate of air consumption, and at 16 min for the group average. These data suggest that even the moderate physical demands of walking combined with search and rescue while wearing full protective gear and breathing through the SCBA impose considerable physiological strain on professional firefighters. As well, the rate of air consumption in these tasks classed as moderate, compared

  10. Work duration does not affect cortisol output in experienced firefighters performing live burn drills.

    PubMed

    Rosalky, Deena S; Hostler, David; Webb, Heather E

    2017-01-01

    Work duration may affect firefighters' stress responses. Forty-two firefighters (38 males) performed either 2 (SWD) or 3 (LWD) bouts of simulated fire suppression activity. Salivary cortisol, self-reported fear and anxiety, and perceptual thermal responses were measured. Cortisol was evaluated using area-under-the-curve calculations (Pruessner et al., 2003). Affective responses between the two conditions were compared using T-tests. Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the relationships between affect and change in thermal load perception. Cortisol decreased across the protocol in both groups, and no difference was found in cortisol or affect between the groups. Cortisol decreased (F4,36 = 3.43, p < 0.05) in the SWD group from a mean concentration of 40.93 ± 11.41 nmol/L to 25.07 ± 9.88 nmol/L at the end of the protocol. In the LWD group, the mean cortisol concentration decreased from 42.89 ± 11.83 to 25.07 ± 8.82 at the end of the protocol (F5,50 = 14.77, p < 0.01). Anxiety increased in the LWD (F4,72 = 5.11, p = 0.001) but not the SWD group. Fear increased in the SWD (F3,48 = 14.15, p < 0.001) and LWD group (F4,60 = 4.47, p < 0.01). The present findings suggests a moderate fear load with firefighting, which appears not to be associated with duration of work bout. Examination of more varied work bout lengths may reveal an association between anxiety and work duration. However, the work bout durations investigated in the current study comprise the range of what is practical from an occupational standpoint and the physiological capabilities of the firefighters.

  11. The evaluation of CBRN canisters for use by firefighters during overhaul.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jennifer; Caseman, Delayne; Anthony, T Renee

    2009-07-01

    Air-purifying respirators (APRs) have been proposed to provide an additional respiratory protection option for structural firefighters involved in overhaul operations and wildland firefighters, where particulate and aldehyde exposures have been documented. Previous studies (Anthony et al., 2007) developed test methods to evaluate APR cartridges and canisters for use in overhaul activities, where initial findings indicated that multi-gas cartridges may not be effective. This study evaluated the performance of three chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters (MSA, 3M, and Scott) and one multi-gas canister similar in appearance to CBRN canisters but without CBRN certification (3M FR-64040). Challenge concentrations typical of overhaul exposures were generated by combusting common household materials. Twelve tests were conducted, using random canister selection, where challenge air and air filtered by the canisters were tested. All tests examined penetration of CO; NO(2); SO(2); respirable dust; aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and glutaraldehyde; and hydrogen cyanide. Six of the tests also investigated naphthalene, benzene, and hydrogen chloride, but challenge concentrations from the simulated overhaul smoke were near the limit of detection (LOD) and were two orders of magnitude below short-term or ceiling concentrations of concern and were eliminated from further study with the combustion materials used in this study. In all tests, an irritant index was computed to evaluate the aggregate penetration of contaminants in the smoke mixture, using 15- and 30-min occupational exposure limits as well as assessing individual penetrations. In all cases, the challenge concentration irritant index exceeded unity, ranging from 2.3 to 21. For all 12 tests, the APR canister reduced the overall irritant index to levels below unity, indicating that these canisters would provide protection for firefighters working in overhaul environments. However

  12. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    Kleinberg, CR, Ryan, ED, Tweedell, AJ, Barnette, TJ, and Wagoner, CW. Influence of lower extremity muscle size and quality on stair-climb performance in career firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1613-1618, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  13. Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate

  14. Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 μm and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 μm. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are

  15. Effect of aspirin on acute changes in peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function following exertional heat stress in firefighters: The factorial group results of the Enhanced Firefighter Rehab Trial.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Hostler, David; Winger, Daniel G; Wang, Li; Reis, Steven E

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function, which are independent predictors of cardiac events, are abnormal in firefighters. We examined the effects of aspirin on peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function in firefighters. Fifty-two firefighters were randomized to receive daily 81 mg aspirin or placebo for 14 days before treadmill exercise in thermal protection clothing, and a single dose of 325 mg aspirin or placebo immediately following exertion. Peripheral arterial augmentation index adjusted for a heart rate of 75 (AI75) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) were determined immediately before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after exertion. Low-dose aspirin was associated with lower AI75 (-15.25±9.25 vs -8.08±10.70, p=0.014) but not RHI. On repeated measures analysis, treatment with low-dose aspirin before, but not single-dose aspirin after exertion, was associated with lower AI75 following exertional heat stress (p=0.018). Low-dose aspirin improved peripheral arterial stiffness and wave reflection but not endothelial function in firefighters.

  16. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  17. The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Tina A; Horn, Gavin; Smith, Denise L; Fahey, George; Goldstein, Eric; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200 μg g(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12 cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300 g with a total of 1.7 kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS).

  19. When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.

    PubMed

    Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

    2014-01-01

    Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters.

  20. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems.

  1. When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.

    PubMed

    Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

    2014-01-01

    Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters. PMID:24759534

  2. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  3. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed.

  4. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  5. Project CHOICE: #164. A Career Education Unit for Grades K-2. Firefighting. (Public Service Occupations Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit on firefighting is part of the Public Service Occupations Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second grade classroom…

  6. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? 149.417 Section 149.417 Navigation and... § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port must have the following: (a) A fire hydrant...

  7. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? 149.417 Section 149.417 Navigation and... § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port must have the following: (a) A fire hydrant...

  8. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? 149.417 Section 149.417 Navigation and... § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port must have the following: (a) A fire hydrant...

  9. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? 149.417 Section 149.417 Navigation and... § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port must have the following: (a) A fire hydrant...

  10. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? 149.417 Section 149.417 Navigation and... § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port must have the following: (a) A fire hydrant...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  13. High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

  14. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. PMID:25476961

  15. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall be..., an extinguisher of the above type shall be provided in each boiler room. On every steam propelled... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall be..., an extinguisher of the above type shall be provided in each boiler room. On every steam propelled... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall be..., an extinguisher of the above type shall be provided in each boiler room. On every steam propelled... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

  19. A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ≥3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ≥40 (men) or ≥35 inches (women), BP≥135 (systole) or ≥85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ≥100mg/dl, triglycerides ≥150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

  20. Relationships between inflammatory cytokine and cortisol responses in firefighters exposed to simulated wildfire suppression work and sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between inflammatory and cortisol responses modulates an appropriate response to a stressor. Exposure to severe stressors, however, may alter the actions and relationships of these responses and contribute to negative health outcomes. Physical work and sleep restriction are two stressors faced by wildland firefighters, yet their influence on the relationship between inflammatory and cortisol responses is unknown. The aim of the present study was to quantify the relationship between the cytokine and cortisol responses to sleep restriction while performing simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) opportunity on each of the two nights. Salivary cortisol and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10) were measured throughout each day. An increase in morning IL-6 was related to a rise (6.2%, P = 0.043) in evening cortisol among firefighters in the sleep restriction condition. Higher morning IL-6 levels were related to increased (5.3%, P = 0.048) daily cortisol levels, but this relationship was not different between conditions. Less pronounced relationships were demonstrated between TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4, and cortisol independent of the sleep opportunity, but relationships did not persist after adjusting for demographic factors and other cytokines. These findings quantify the relationship between cytokine and cortisol responses among wildland firefighters exposed to simulated occupational stressors. Potential disturbances to the IL-6 and cortisol relationship among sleep-restricted firefighters’ supports further investigations into the negative health effects related to possible imbalances between these systems. PMID:26603450

  1. [Accidents and their health effects in firemen of rescue and firefighting teams].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Sobala, W

    2000-01-01

    Accidents, traumas and poisoning are the most frequent causes of health impairments among firemen, determined by the nature of their occupation. Their work is directly related with the exposure to various harmful chemical and physical factors, involving at the same time mental stress during rescue and firefighting actions. The aim of the analysis performed was to determine the accident rate, range and causes of accident-related absenteeism among firemen of the rescue and firefighting brigades, as well as to indicate major traumas resulting from accidents at work. The study was carried out in a group of 1503 firemen (7% of the total number of firemen in Poland) employed in the rescue and firefighting brigades, selected at random throughout the country. Workers' personal data, as well as the data on the number of accidents and the number of days of work disability during the years 1994-97 were analysed. Accidents and accident-related absenteeism by age, certified causes and sites (body parts) of traumas were also analysed using the following parameters: the accident rate (the number of accidents per 1000 workers), accident severity rate (the number of work disability days per one accident), and absenteeism rate (the number of accident-related work disability days per 100 employed). In the period under study (1994-97) 352 accidents, involving 301 persons were registered. Thus, the accident rate was 70.3. These accidents were responsible for the period of work disability three times higher (293.5 days/100 workers) than that observed in the male population employed in the national economy, and eight times higher (770.2 days/100 workers) in the 50-59 age group. Dislocations and distortions were the most frequent causes of accident-related absenteeism--48, whereas fractures occupied the second place--25%. Burns were classified among the most severe injuries, resulting in more than 90 days of absenteeism annually, but they made only 7% of absenteeism with frequency rate of

  2. Firefighters muscular recovery after a heavy work bout in the heat.

    PubMed

    Oksa, Juha; Rintamäki, Hannu; Takatalo, Kaisa; Mäkinen, Tero; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2013-03-01

    Occasionally firefighters need to perform very heavy bouts of work, such as smoke diving or clearing an accident site, which induce significant muscle fatigue. The time span for muscular recovery from such heavy work is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate firefighters' force-, neural-, metabolic-, and structural-related recovery after task-specific heavy work in the heat. Fifteen healthy firefighters (14 males and 1 female) performed a 20-min heavy work bout that simulated smoke diving and the clearance of an accident site at 35 °C. After the work, muscular recovery was evaluated by wrist flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), average electromyography during MVC and during 10%MVC, rate of force production, motor response and stretch reflex responses, muscle oxygen consumption and oxygenation level, and wrist flexor muscle pennation angle. Recovery was followed for 4 h. Each of the 12 measured parameters changed significantly (p < 0.05) from those at baseline during the follow-up. Muscle oxygen consumption and the wrist flexor pennation angle remained elevated throughout the follow-up (oxygen consumption baseline, 12.9 ± 1.7 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); 4-h value, 17.5 ± 1.6 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); p < 0.05 and pennation angle baseline, 15.7 ± 0.8°; 4-h value, 17.8 ± 0.8°; p < 0.05). Muscle reoxygenation rate was elevated for up to 2 h (baseline, 2.3 ± 0.4 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1); 2-h value, 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.05). The other 9 parameters recovered (were no longer significantly different from baseline) after 20 to 60 min. We concluded that the recovery order in main components of muscle function from fastest to slowest was force, neural, metabolic, and structural.

  3. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy on Thermoregulation in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Serina J.; Reis, Steven E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Hostler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart attack is the most common cause of line-of-duty death in the fire service. Daily aspirin therapy is a preventative measure used to reduce the morbidity of heart attacks but may decrease the ability to dissipate heat by reducing skin blood flow. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, firefighters were randomized to receive 14 days of therapy (81-mg aspirin or placebo) before performing treadmill exercise in thermal-protective clothing in a hot room [38.8 ± 2.1°C, 24.9 ± 9.1% relative humidity (RH)]. Three weeks without therapy was provided before crossing to the other arm. Firefighters completed a baseline skin blood-flow assessment via laser Doppler flowmetry; skin was heated to 44°C to achieve maximal cutaneous vasodilation. Skin blood flow was measured before and after exercise in a hot room, and at 0 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes of recovery under temperature conditions (25.3 ± 1.2°C, 40.3 ± 13.7% RH). Platelet clotting time was assessed before drug administration, and before and after exercise. Results Fifteen firefighters completed the study. Aspirin increased clotting time before and after exercise compared with placebo (p = 0.003). There were no differences in absolute skin blood flow between groups (p = 0.35). Following exercise, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was 85 ± 42% of maximum in the aspirin and 76 ± 37% in the placebo groups. The percentage of maximal CVC did not differ by treatment before or after recovery. Neither maximal core body temperature nor heart rate responses to exercise differed between trials. Conclusion There were no differences in skin blood flow during uncompensable heat stress following exercise after aspirin or placebo therapy. PMID:26929836

  4. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  5. Impact of fire-fighters training on a female with smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Boullosa, D A; Leicht, A S; Tuimil, J L

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a fire-fighting training regime on the cardiac autonomic control of a middle-aged female diagnosed with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). Cardiac autonomic control was monitored by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the patient during the last six-week period of a one and half year training period. Compared with healthy, physically active age-matched females, the patient demonstrated similar HRV parameters. Furthermore, the patient experienced a positive evolution of the SMM during this training period. These findings indicate: 1) the beneficial effects of high intensity physical training on cardiac autonomic function in a SMM patient; 2) the potential value of HRV monitoring in cancer patients undertaking regular physical activity. PMID:20842094

  6. Greater physical fitness is associated with better air ventilation efficiency in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gendron, P; Freiberger, E; Laurencelle, L; Trudeau, F; Lajoie, C

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting is a hazardous task associated with a heavy workload where task duration may be limited by air cylinder capacity. Increased fitness may lead to better air ventilation efficiency and task duration at a given heavy work intensity. This study compared performance, air ventilation and skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during a maximal graded walking test (GWT), a 10 METS (metabolic equivalent) treadmill test (T10) and a simulated work circuit (SWC). Participants (n = 13) who performed the SWC in a shorter time had significantly lower air cylinder ventilation values on the T10 (r = -0.495), better peak oxygen consumption (r = -0.924) during the GWT and significantly greater skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during the SWC (HbDiff, r = 0.768). These results demonstrate that the fastest participants on the SWC had better air ventilation efficiency that could prolong interventions in difficult situations requiring air cylinder use. PMID:25479992

  7. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  8. Comparison of two cool vests on heat-strain reduction while wearing a firefighting ensemble.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B L; Hagan, R D; Huey, K A; Minson, C; Cain, D

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a six-pack versus a four-pack cool vest in reducing heat strain in men dressed in firefighting ensemble, while resting and exercising in a warm/humid environment [34.4 degrees C (day bulb), 28.9 degrees C (wet bulb)]. Male volunteers (n = 12) were monitored for rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate, and energy expenditure during three test trials: control (no cool vest), four-pack vest, and six-pack vest. The cool vests were worn under the firefighting ensemble and over Navy dungarees. The protocol consisted of two cycles of 30 min seated rest and 30 min walking on a motorized treadmill (1.12 m.s-1, 0% grade). Tolerance time for the control trial (93 min) was significantly less than both vest trials (120 min). Throughout heat exposure, energy expenditure varied during rest and exercise, but no differences existed among all trials (P > 0.05). During the first 60 min of heat exposure, physiological responses were similar for the four-pack and six-pack vests. However, during the second 60 min of heat exposure the six-pack vest had a greater impact on reducing heat strain than the four-pack vest. Peak Tre and Tsk at the end of heat exposure for 6-pack vest [mean (SD) 38.0(0.3) degrees C and 36.8(0.7) degrees C] were significantly lower compared to four-pack [38.6(0.4) degrees C and 38.1(0.5) degrees C] and controls [38.9(0.5) degrees C and 38.4(0.5) degrees C].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kim, Taegyou

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30 degrees C, 50%RH). Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years (SD 3.2). Each subject participated in four 50-min exposures: control (CON), ICE, PCM of 5 degrees C [PCM(5)] and 20 degrees C [PCM(20)]. Each subject rested in a pre-test room for 10 min before entering the test-room where they rested for another 10 min, followed by 30 min-exercise and a 10 min-recovery period. The exercise intensity was set at 55%VO(2max). Cooling effects were evaluated by measuring rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), body weight loss and subjective responses. An increase in Tre for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was less than that for CON and ICE was observed. The increases in Tsk were depressed using cooling devices, but the cooling effects of PCMs were greater than ICE. The subjects with CON felt hotter and wetter than those in the other conditions. The larger surface cooling area, higher melting temperature and softer material of PCMs which reduces absorption capacity caused a decrease in Tre and Tsk for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was more than that for CON and ICE. Furthermore, PCM(20) does not require refrigeration. These results suggest that PCM(20) is more effective than other cooling devices in reducing the physiological load while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

  10. A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution

    PubMed Central

    Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (≈22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min−1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

  11. A technique to re-assess epidemiologic evidence in light of the healthy worker effect: the case of firefighting and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, B C

    2000-10-01

    The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a bias that is believed to have strongly affected the validity of previous cohort mortality studies on the relationship between firefighting and heart disease. There is a strong healthy hired effect (a component of the HWE) among firefighters, owing particularly to the recruitment of nondiabetic candidates. This is shown in previous studies in which the reported standardized mortality ratios for diabetes are much less than unity, generally around 0.3 to 0.5. Because diabetes is known to increase the risk of heart disease, a deficit of diabetes among firefighters is expected to lead to a deficit of heart injury and disease. This would make the cohort mortality studies incapable of detecting any increase in risk of heart injury and disease among firefighters. There is also a strong healthy worker survivor effect (another component of the HWE) among firefighters. In addition, heart disease is a classic example of the HWE because heart disease is chronic and its risk factors can be identified in the selection process. It is believed that (1) a major problem of previous studies on firefighting and heart disease is their failure to recognize the importance of the HWE when interpreting their results, and (2) a technique to re-assess results in light of the HWE is urgently needed. This article addresses the generally accepted principles relating to the HWE, including its definition and sources, and proposes a technique for re-assessing the literature in light of the HWE. The technique was applied to carefully re-assess 23 studies that provided direct evidence for the relationship between firefighting and heart disease. Before the re-assessment, 7 of the 23 studies showed positive evidence and 16 showed no evidence. After the re-assessment, 11 studies showed positive evidence and 12 showed no evidence. Based on the results of the re-assessment of the 23 studies, we concluded that (1) there is strong evidence of an increased risk of death

  12. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  13. Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Robert D; Kubale, Travis L; Yiin, James H; Dahm, Matthew M; Hales, Thomas R; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia H; Beaumont, James J; Waters, Kathleen M; Pinkerton, Lynne E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine mortality patterns and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of 29 993 US career firefighters employed since 1950 and followed through 2009. Methods Mortality and cancer incidence were evaluated by life table methods with the US population referent. Standardised mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios were determined for 92 causes of death and 41 cancer incidence groupings. Analyses focused on 15 outcomes of a priori interest. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the potential for significant bias. Results Person-years at risk totalled 858 938 and 403 152 for mortality and incidence analyses, respectively. All-cause mortality was at expectation (SMR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.01, n=12 028). There was excess cancer mortality (SMR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.18, n=3285) and incidence (SIR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, n=4461) comprised mainly of digestive (SMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34, n=928; SIR=1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.25, n=930) and respiratory (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17, n=1096; SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24, n=813) cancers. Consistent with previous reports, modest elevations were observed in several solid cancers; however, evidence of excess lymphatic or haematopoietic cancers was lacking. This study is the first to report excess malignant mesothelioma (SMR=2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49, n=12; SIR=2.29, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.19, n=35) among US firefighters. Results appeared robust under differing assumptions and analytic techniques. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of a relation between firefighting and cancer. The new finding of excess malignant mesothelioma is noteworthy, given that asbestos exposure is a known hazard of firefighting. PMID:24142974

  14. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Design Cross-sectional. Setting 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Participants Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). Interventions All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. Results The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. Conclusions The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. PMID:27363817

  15. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure. PMID:25625543

  16. The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Irzmańska, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components.

  17. Evidence of remediation-induced alteration of subsurface poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance distribution at a former firefighter training area.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Meghan E; Schaefer, Charles; Richards, Trenton; Backe, Will J; Field, Jennifer A; Houtz, Erika; Sedlak, David L; Guelfo, Jennifer L; Wunsch, Assaf; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-06-17

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorinated chemicals that are utilized in firefighting and have been reported in groundwater and soil at several firefighter training areas. In this study, soil and groundwater samples were collected from across a former firefighter training area to examine the extent to which remedial activities have altered the composition and spatial distribution of PFASs in the subsurface. Log Koc values for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), estimated from analysis of paired samples of groundwater and aquifer solids, indicated that solid/water partitioning was not entirely consistent with predictions based on laboratory studies. Differential PFAA transport was not strongly evident in the subsurface, likely due to remediation-induced conditions. When compared to the surface soil spatial distributions, the relative concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFAA precursors in groundwater strongly suggest that remedial activities altered the subsurface PFAS distribution, presumably through significant pumping of groundwater and transformation of precursors to PFAAs. Additional evidence for transformation of PFAA precursors during remediation included elevated ratios of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) to PFOS in groundwater near oxygen sparging wells.

  18. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  19. Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Vitari, Flávia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality.

  20. Factor structure and external correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among African American firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Arbona, Consuelo; Fan, Weihua; Noor, Nausheen

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the relative goodness of fit of three well-established factorial models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 477 African American male firefighters in a large city in the US. The compared models were the two four-factor emotional numbing and dysphoria models and a five-factor dysphoric arousal model. The study also examined the convergent and discriminant validity of PTSD symptom clusters in relation to depression and alcohol dependence symptoms. Both the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal PTSD models provided a superior fit to the data compared to the dysphoria model. Findings also indicated a good fit for factor models that included PTSD, depression, and alcohol dependence latent factors, which provides support for the specificity of PTSD symptom clusters. Depression symptoms were more strongly correlated with PTSD symptom clusters than alcohol dependence. In the dysphoric arousal model, depression and alcohol dependence were equally related to the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal clusters; however, both depression and alcohol dependence were more highly correlated with dysphoric arousal than with anxious arousal. Even though the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal models demonstrated a superior fit to the data, the four-factor dysphoria model may provide a more parsimonious representation of PTSD’s latent structure than the five-factor dysphoric arousal model. In conclusion, this study extends support for the well-established PTSD symptom factor models among African Americans, a population with whom these models had not been examined earlier. PMID:27563263