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Sample records for firm social performance

  1. High Performance Work Practices and Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Office of the American Workplace.

    A literature survey established that a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between productivity and the following specific high performance work practices: employee involvement in decision making, compensation linked to firm or worker performance, and training. According to these studies, high performance work…

  2. Shared vision promotes family firm performance

    PubMed Central

    Neff, John E.

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance. PMID:26042075

  3. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    PubMed

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  4. High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A review of 17 studies of high-performance work systems concludes that benefits of employee involvement, skill training, and other high-performance work practices tend to be greater when new methods are adopted as part of a consistent whole. (Author)

  5. Social firms: sustainable employment for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Social firms or enterprises aim to offer sustainable employment in supportive workplaces for people who are disadvantaged in the labour market. Therefore, this study sought to explore employees' views in one social firm about the features of their workplace that they found supportive. Seven employees were recruited, all of whom experienced persistent mental illness, and had worked in this social firm for between eleven months and six years. A semi-structured interview, the Work Environment Impact Scale (version 2.0), was used to explore participants' views of their workplace and to rate how its physical and social characteristics impacted them. Participants also rated their job satisfaction with a modified Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale. Features of the social firm workplace identified by these employees as contributing to their sustained employment and satisfaction were the rewards, task demands, work schedule, and workplace interactions with supervisors and other co-workers. From their views, guiding principles for the development of supportive workplaces and evaluation of their capacity to afford sustainable employment were derived. This study adds to current knowledge about workplace supports from an employee perspective, and is of relevance for informing future social firm development, workplace design and evaluation.

  6. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  7. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  8. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  9. Core Knowledge Employee Creativity and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Riskiness Orientation, Firm Size, and Realized Absorptive Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Yaping; Zhou, Jing; Chang, Song

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine when creativity is positively or negatively related to firm performance. Building on the creation-implementation tension theorized in the literature and the attention capacity perspective, we argue that the relationship between creativity and firm performance is contingent on riskiness orientation, firm size, and realized…

  10. Core Knowledge Employee Creativity and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Riskiness Orientation, Firm Size, and Realized Absorptive Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Yaping; Zhou, Jing; Chang, Song

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine when creativity is positively or negatively related to firm performance. Building on the creation-implementation tension theorized in the literature and the attention capacity perspective, we argue that the relationship between creativity and firm performance is contingent on riskiness orientation, firm size, and realized…

  11. Improving productivity and firm performance with enterprise resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Hooshang M.; Beheshti, Cyrus M.

    2010-11-01

    Productivity is generally considered to be the efficient utilisation of organisational resources and is measured in terms of the efficiency of a worker, company or nation. Focusing on efficiency alone, however, can be harmful to the organisation's long-term success and competitiveness. The full benefits of productivity improvement measures are realised when productivity is examined from two perspectives: operational efficiency (output/input) of an individual worker or a business unit as well as performance (effectiveness) with regard to end user or customer satisfaction. Over the years, corporations have adopted new technology to integrate business activities in order to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency in their operations. In recent years, many firms have invested in enterprise resource planning (ERP) in order to integrate all business activities into a uniform system. The implementation of ERP enables the firm to reduce the transaction costs of the business and improve its productivity, customer satisfaction and profitability.

  12. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented, followed by…

  13. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented, followed by…

  14. Social firms as a means of vocational recovery for people with mental illness: a UK survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced by people with mental illness. Social Firms offer paid employment to people with mental illness but are under-investigated in the UK. The aims of this phase of the Social Firms A Route to Recovery (SoFARR) project were to describe the availability and spread of Social Firms across the UK, to outline the range of opportunities Social Firms offer people with severe mental illness and to understand the extent to which they are employed within these firms. Method A UK national survey of Social Firms, other social enterprises and supported businesses was completed to understand the extent to which they provide paid employment for the mentally ill. A study-specific questionnaire was developed. It covered two broad areas asking employers about the nature of the Social Firm itself and about the employees with mental illness working there. Results We obtained returns from 76 Social Firms and social enterprises / supported businesses employing 692 people with mental illness. Forty per cent of Social Firms were in the south of England, 24% in the North and the Midlands, 18% in Scotland and 18% in Wales. Other social enterprises/supported businesses were similarly distributed. Trading activities were confined mainly to manufacturing, service industry, recycling, horticulture and catering. The number of employees with mental illness working in Social Firms and other social enterprises/supported businesses was small (median of 3 and 6.5 respectively). Over 50% employed people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, though the greatest proportion of employees with mental illness had depression or anxiety. Over two thirds of Social Firms liaised with mental health services and over a quarter received funding from the NHS or a mental health

  15. What results when firms implement practices: the differential relationship between specific practices, firm financial performance, customer service, and quality.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cristina B; Porath, Christine L; Benson, George S; Lawler, Edward E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research on organizational practices is replete with contradictory evidence regarding their effects. Here, the authors argue that these contradictory findings may have occurred because researchers have often examined complex practice combinations and have failed to investigate a broad variety of firm-level outcomes. Thus, past research may obscure important differential effects of specific practices on specific firm-level outcomes. Extending this research, the authors develop hypotheses about the effects of practices that (a) enable information sharing, (b) set boundaries, and (c) enable teams on 3 different firm-level outcomes: financial performance, customer service, and quality. Relationships are tested in a sample of observations from over 200 Fortune 1000 firms. Results indicate that information-sharing practices were positively related to financial performance 1 year following implementation of the practices, boundary-setting practices were positively related to firm-level customer service, and team-enabling practices were related to firm-level quality. No single set of practices predicted all 3 firm-level outcomes, indicating practice-specific effects. These findings help resolve the theoretical tension in the literature regarding the effects of organizational practices and offer guidance as to how to best target practices to increase specific work-related outcomes. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  16. A model of hysteresis arising from social interaction within a firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Luis A.; Rachinskii, Dmitrii; Cross, Rod

    2017-02-01

    This paper subscribes to the view that a key distinguishing feature of a firm is its social nature. We present a model in which hysteresis arises from the social interactions between employees. Employees have a simple response to incentives in the form of the pay available outside the firm relative to that available within the firm. Allowing for social interaction, whereby employees are influenced by the effort levels of fellow employees, leads to the distinctive effects, such as lazy relay responses to incentives, associated with hysteresis.

  17. The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables.

    PubMed

    López-Gamero, María D; Molina-Azorín, José F; Claver-Cortés, Enrique

    2009-07-01

    The examination of the possible direct link between environmental protection and firm performance in the literature has generally produced mixed results. The present paper contributes to the literature by using the resource-based view as a mediating process in this relationship. The study specifically tests whether or not the resource-based view of the firm mediates the positive relationships of proactive environmental management and improved environmental performance with competitive advantage, which also has consequences for financial performance. We also check the possible link between the adoption of a pioneering approach and good environmental management practices. Our findings support that early investment timing and intensity in environmental issues impact on the adoption of a proactive environmental management, which in turn helps to improve environmental performance. The findings also show that a firm's resources and competitive advantage act as mediator variables for a positive relationship between environmental protection and financial performance. This contribution is original because the present paper develops a comprehensive whole picture of this path process, which has previously only been partially discussed in the literature. In addition, this study clarifies a relevant point in the literature, namely that the effect of environmental protection on firm performance is not direct and can vary depending on the sector considered. Whereas competitive advantage in relation to costs influences financial performance in the IPPC law sector, the relevant influence in the hotel sector comes from competitive advantage through differentiation.

  18. Information Systems, Competitive Dynamics, and Firm Performance: An Interpretive and Centering Resonance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoy, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines, from a managerial interpretive perspective, how information systems contribute to firms' specific competitive actions and responses, and the resultant impacts upon firm performance. The findings from this research suggest that the answer may well lie within the role of information systems in firms' competitive dynamics…

  19. Information Systems, Competitive Dynamics, and Firm Performance: An Interpretive and Centering Resonance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoy, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines, from a managerial interpretive perspective, how information systems contribute to firms' specific competitive actions and responses, and the resultant impacts upon firm performance. The findings from this research suggest that the answer may well lie within the role of information systems in firms' competitive dynamics…

  20. The clinical profile of employees with mental health problems working in social firms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven

    2015-08-01

    UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.

  1. ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing

    2011-12-01

    Using China firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT capital deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human capital, innovation and organization change).

  2. Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management Practices and Firm's Performance: An Empirical Study of a Heavy Engineering Firm in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Ajay K.; Moreno, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at investigating the impact of organizational learning (OL) on the firm's performance and knowledge management (KM) practices in a heavy engineering organization in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data were collected from 205 middle and senior executives working in the project engineering management division of a…

  3. Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management Practices and Firm's Performance: An Empirical Study of a Heavy Engineering Firm in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Ajay K.; Moreno, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at investigating the impact of organizational learning (OL) on the firm's performance and knowledge management (KM) practices in a heavy engineering organization in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data were collected from 205 middle and senior executives working in the project engineering management division of a…

  4. How do social firms contribute to recovery from mental illness? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Gumley, Andrew; Wilson, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    A definition of recovery drawn from qualitative literature and the 'consumer/survivor' movement suggests that recovery should be seen as a way of developing satisfaction and purpose in life, whether or not symptoms of mental illness are present. A qualitative review suggested that meaningful activity may facilitate recovery by providing a sense of purpose in life. Social firms may be well placed to offer this activity due to their ethos of empowerment, their community integration and their similarity to 'recovery-oriented services'. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of recovery from mental illness in the context of two emerging social firms. A social constructionist version of grounded theory was used to develop a model of recovery through participation in the emerging social firms. Multiple coding, triangulation and respondent validation were used to increase the rigour of study findings. A model of recovery in the context of the emerging social firms was constructed. This was influenced by characteristics such as a flexible structure, a meaningful and diverse activity, an accepting social group and an inclusive leadership. Social firms may provide an important model for 'recovery-oriented services'. Clinical, research and policy implications of findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, P R

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms. Tests using both accounting- and stock-market-based measures of performance revealed that information asymmetry improved performance more than economies of scope. As hypothesized, the benefits of information asymmetry were greater for firms offering services whose quality cannot be determined until after their purchase (experience services), and the benefits of economies of scope were greater for firms offering services whose quality can be determined prior to purchase (search services). However, without considering the interactive effects of service characteristics, economies of scope were negatively associated with performance for diversified service firms overall.

  6. Social Pedagogy in the UK: Gaining a Firm Foothold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The paper asks why, unlike much of Europe, the UK has until recently taken very little interest in social pedagogy. It looks at the meanings of social pedagogy, including the importance of both "social" and "pedagogy" in understanding the term and argues that social pedagogy policy, practice, and theory are interlinked and…

  7. An update on affirmative businesses or social firms for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard; Mandiberg, James

    2006-10-01

    Social firms, or "affirmative businesses" as they are known in North America, are businesses created to employ people with disabilities and to provide a needed product or service. This Open Forum offers an overview of the development and status of social firms. The model was developed in Italy in the 1970s for people with psychiatric disabilities and has gained prominence in Europe. Principles include that over a third of employees are people with a disability or labor market disadvantage, every worker is paid a fair-market wage, and the business operates without subsidy. Independent of European influence, affirmative businesses also have developed in Canada, the United States, Japan, and elsewhere. The success of individual social firms is enhanced by locating the right market niche, selecting labor-intensive products, having a public orientation for the business, and having links with treatment services. The growth of the social firm movement is aided by legislation that supports the businesses, policies that favor employment of people with disabilities, and support entities that facilitate technology transfer. Social firms can empower individual employees, foster a sense of community in the workplace, and enhance worker commitment through the organization's social mission.

  8. Does Organizational Learning Lead to Higher Firm Performance? An Investigation of Chinese Listing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wencang; Hu, Huajing; Shi, Xuli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for studying organizational learning, firm innovation and firm financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the effects of organizational learning on innovation and performance among 287 listed Chinese companies. Findings: The results indicate a positive…

  9. Does Organizational Learning Lead to Higher Firm Performance? An Investigation of Chinese Listing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wencang; Hu, Huajing; Shi, Xuli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for studying organizational learning, firm innovation and firm financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the effects of organizational learning on innovation and performance among 287 listed Chinese companies. Findings: The results indicate a positive…

  10. Environmental performance and spillover effects on productivity: evidence from horticultural firms.

    PubMed

    Galdeano-Gómez, Emilio; Céspedes-Lorente, José; Martínez-Del-Río, Javier

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of environmental investment and related spillover effects on productivity in the agricultural sector by using a panel data of horticultural firms in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The results indicate a positive relationship between firm investment in environmental practices and productivity improvement, also showing the presence of positive environmental spillovers. In a second-stage of analysis, the incidence of environmental factors in firm specific individual technical efficiency is estimated. This analysis also shows the link between environmental knowledge diffusion and horticultural firms' performance.

  11. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-04-09

    As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. We conducted a small-scale, exploratory study combining (i) an in-depth review of publicly available data on pharmaceutical firms' CSR with (ii) interviews of representatives from 6 firms, purposively selected, from the highest earning pharmaceutical firms worldwide. Corporate social responsibility differed for each firm particularly with respect to how CSR is defined, organizational structures for managing CSR, current CSR activities, and motivations for CSR. Across the firms studied, the common CSR activities were: differential pharmaceutical pricing, strengthening developing country drug distribution infrastructure, mHealth initiatives, and targeted research and development. Primary factors that motivated CSR engagement were: reputational benefits, recruitment and employee satisfaction, better rankings in sustainability indices, entrance into new markets, long-term economic returns, and improved population health. In terms of CSR strategy, firms were at different points on a spectrum ranging from philanthropic donations to integrated systemic shared value business models. CSR is of increasing importance for multinational pharmaceutical firms yet understanding of the array of CSR strategies employed and their effects is nascent. Our study points to the need to (i) develop clearer and more standardized definitions of CSR in global health (2) strengthen indices to track CSR strategies and their public health effects in developing countries and (iii) undertake more country level studies that investigate how CSR engages with

  12. A face only an investor could love: CEOs' facial structure predicts their firms' financial performance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Elaine M; Ormiston, Margaret E; Haselhuhn, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have theorized that innate personal traits are related to leadership success. Although links between psychological characteristics and leadership success have been well established, research has yet to identify any objective physical traits of leaders that predict organizational performance. In the research reported here, we identified leaders' facial structure as a specific physical trait that correlates with organizational performance. Specifically, we found that firms whose male CEOs have wider faces (relative to facial height) achieve superior financial performance. Decision-making dynamics within a firm's leadership team moderate this effect, such that the relationship between a given CEO's facial measurements and his firm's financial performance is stronger in firms with cognitively simple leadership teams.

  13. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  14. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. 48 CFR 36.208 - Concurrent performance of firm-fixed-price and other types of construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 36.208 Concurrent performance of firm... adjustment features shall not be permitted concurrently, at the same work site, with firm-fixed-price,...

  16. 48 CFR 36.208 - Concurrent performance of firm-fixed-price and other types of construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 36.208 Concurrent performance of firm... adjustment features shall not be permitted concurrently, at the same work site, with firm-fixed-price,...

  17. 48 CFR 36.208 - Concurrent performance of firm-fixed-price and other types of construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 36.208 Concurrent performance of firm... adjustment features shall not be permitted concurrently, at the same work site, with firm-fixed-price,...

  18. 48 CFR 36.208 - Concurrent performance of firm-fixed-price and other types of construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 36.208 Concurrent performance of firm... adjustment features shall not be permitted concurrently, at the same work site, with firm-fixed-price,...

  19. Strategies for improving safety performance in construction firms.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Luis Fernando; Acuña, Diego; Diethelm, Sven; Pellicer, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    Over the years many prevention management practices have been implemented to prevent and mitigate accidents at the construction site. However, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of individual or combined practices used by companies to manage occupational health and safety issues. The authors selected a sample of 1180 construction firms and 221 individual practices applied in these companies to analyze their effectiveness reducing injury rates over a period of four years in Chile. Different methods were used to study this massive database including: visual analyses of graphical information, statistical analyses and classification techniques. Results showed that practices related to safety incentives and rewards are the most effective from the accident rate viewpoint, even though they are seldom used by companies; on the other hand, practices related to accidents and incidents investigation had a slight negative impact on the accident rate because they are frequently used as a reactive measure. In general, the higher the percentage of prevention practices implemented in a strategy, the lower the accident rate. However, the analysis of the combined effect of prevention practices indicated that the choice of the right combination of practices was more important than just the number of practices implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the scope of multibusiness health care firms: implications for strategy and financial performance.

    PubMed

    Noorein Inamdar, S

    2007-08-01

    of services and investing in a variety of new noncore business opportunities including many for-profit ventures). Significant differences in financial performance among the strategies were found when controlling for payer reimbursement conditions. Specifically, in an unfavorable condition with high Medicaid and low commercial insurance, the Mission Based strategy performs significantly worse while the Entrepreneur strategy performs surprisingly well, in comparison with the other strategies. Findings suggest: (a) scope can be used to classify a large number of multibusiness health care firms into a taxonomy representing a small group of distinct corporate strategies, which are recognizable by senior management in the health care industry, (b) no single strategy dominates in performance across different payer profiles, instead there appears to be complementarities or fit between strategy and payer profiles that determines which firms perform well and which do not under different conditions, and (c) senior management of nonprofit health care firms are cross-subsidizing unprofitable patient care through ownership of nonpatient care businesses including for-profit ventures.

  1. Examining the Scope of Multibusiness Health Care Firms: Implications for Strategy and Financial Performance

    PubMed Central

    Noorein Inamdar, S

    2007-01-01

    ), and (5) Entrepreneur (55 firms with the largest scope offering both a core set of services and investing in a variety of new noncore business opportunities including many for-profit ventures). Significant differences in financial performance among the strategies were found when controlling for payer reimbursement conditions. Specifically, in an unfavorable condition with high Medicaid and low commercial insurance, the Mission Based strategy performs significantly worse while the Entrepreneur strategy performs surprisingly well, in comparison with the other strategies. Conclusions Findings suggest: (a) scope can be used to classify a large number of multibusiness health care firms into a taxonomy representing a small group of distinct corporate strategies, which are recognizable by senior management in the health care industry, (b) no single strategy dominates in performance across different payer profiles, instead there appears to be complementarities or fit between strategy and payer profiles that determines which firms perform well and which do not under different conditions, and (c) senior management of nonprofit health care firms are cross-subsidizing unprofitable patient care through ownership of nonpatient care businesses including for-profit ventures. PMID:17610444

  2. CEO Business Education and Firm Financial Performance: A Case for Humility Rather than Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret; Jonson, Elizabeth Prior

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between CEO business education and firm financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of the relationship between three-year and five-year shareholder return as measured by dividend and change in share price and CEO educational qualification was performed.…

  3. CEO Business Education and Firm Financial Performance: A Case for Humility Rather than Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret; Jonson, Elizabeth Prior

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between CEO business education and firm financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of the relationship between three-year and five-year shareholder return as measured by dividend and change in share price and CEO educational qualification was performed.…

  4. The Construct Validation of Learning Organization and Its Influence upon Firm Performance in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mingfei; Lu, Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of the learning organization concept and its influence upon firm performance in mainland China. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Watkins and Marsick, four dimensions of the learning organization instead of seven dimensions were identified. A balanced scorecard-based performance evaluation…

  5. The Impacts of Different Expansion Modes on Performance of Small Solar Energy Firms: Perspectives of Absorptive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-long; Ma, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance. PMID:24453837

  6. The impacts of different expansion modes on performance of small solar energy firms: perspectives of absorptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-Long; Ma, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance.

  7. Social firms: building cross-sectoral partnerships to create employment opportunity and supportive workplaces for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Tamar; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A major barrier to employment for people with mental illness is limited access to supportive and non-discriminatory workplaces. Social firms are businesses committed to employing up to 50% of people with a disability or other disadvantage and to providing supportive work environments that benefit workers. Little research has been conducted to understand the features and social processes that support the vocational experiences of employees with mental health issues in social firms. This ethnographic study sought to explore the experiences of nine employees at one Australian social firm. Nine employees of a social firm, with and without mental illness. Study methods used included participant observation, interviewing and document analysis. The study highlights the complexity of running a socially-invested business, and the importance of cross-sectoral partnerships to support their operational success. Natural workplace supports, adequate training and support infrastructure and enabling participation in the business, were identified as important to creating a supportive workplace. Partnerships within the workplace and in support of the workplace are discussed. Future growth and development of partnerships are recommended to support the establishment of social firms.

  8. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  9. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  10. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  11. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  12. Perception-Induced Effects of Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR) for Stereotypical and Admired Firms

    PubMed Central

    Voliotis, Seraphim; Vlachos, Pavlos A.; Epitropaki, Olga

    2016-01-01

    How do stakeholders react to Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR)? What are the emotional mechanisms and behavioral outcomes following CSiR perception? The psychology of CSR literature has yet to address these important questions and has largely considered CSR and CSiR as the opposite poles of the same continuum. In contrast, we view CSR and CSiR as distinct constructs and theorize about the cognitive (perceptual), emotional, and behavioral effects of CSiR activity on observers (i.e., primary and secondary stakeholders) building on theories of intergroup perception. Specifically, building on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske et al., 2002) and the BIAS map (i.e., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes; Cuddy et al., 2007)—which extends the SCM by predicting behavioral responses—we make predictions on potential stakeholder reactions to CSiR focusing on two practice-relevant cases: (a) a typical for-profit firm that engages in a CSiR activity, (b) an atypical admired firm that engages in CSiR activity. PMID:27445931

  13. Perception-Induced Effects of Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR) for Stereotypical and Admired Firms.

    PubMed

    Voliotis, Seraphim; Vlachos, Pavlos A; Epitropaki, Olga

    2016-01-01

    How do stakeholders react to Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR)? What are the emotional mechanisms and behavioral outcomes following CSiR perception? The psychology of CSR literature has yet to address these important questions and has largely considered CSR and CSiR as the opposite poles of the same continuum. In contrast, we view CSR and CSiR as distinct constructs and theorize about the cognitive (perceptual), emotional, and behavioral effects of CSiR activity on observers (i.e., primary and secondary stakeholders) building on theories of intergroup perception. Specifically, building on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske et al., 2002) and the BIAS map (i.e., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes; Cuddy et al., 2007)-which extends the SCM by predicting behavioral responses-we make predictions on potential stakeholder reactions to CSiR focusing on two practice-relevant cases: (a) a typical for-profit firm that engages in a CSiR activity, (b) an atypical admired firm that engages in CSiR activity.

  14. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance - A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations. PMID:26086454

  15. Taking it to another level: do personality-based human capital resources matter to firm performance?

    PubMed

    Oh, In-Sue; Kim, Seongsu; Van Iddekinge, Chad H

    2015-05-01

    Drawing on the attraction-selection-attrition perspective, strategic human resource management (SHRM) scholarship, and recent human capital research, this study explores organization-level emergence of personality (i.e., personality-based human capital resources) and its direct, interactive, and (conditional) indirect effects on organization-level outcomes based on data from 6,709 managers across 71 firms. Results indicate that organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are positively related to organization-level managerial job satisfaction and labor productivity but not to financial performance. Furthermore, organization-level mean and variance in emotional stability interact to predict all three organization-level outcomes, and organization-level mean and variance in extraversion interact to predict firm financial performance. Specifically, the positive effects of organization-level mean emotional stability and extraversion are stronger when organization-level variance in these traits is lower. Finally, organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are all positively related to firm financial performance indirectly via labor productivity, and the indirect effects are more positive when organization-level variance in those personality traits is lower. Overall, the findings suggest that personality-based human capital resources demonstrate tangible effects on organization-level outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Performance of the internal audit department under ERP systems: empirical evidence from Taiwanese firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chiao; Chang, Jui-Chu; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Purbokusumo, Yuyun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the performance of the internal audit department (IAD) and its contribution to a company under enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems was examined. It is anticipated that this will provide insight into the factors perceived to be crucial to a company's effectiveness. A theoretical framework was developed and tested using the sample of Taiwanese companies. Using mail survey procedures, we elicited perceptions from key internal auditors about the ERP system and auditing software, as well as their opinions concerning the IAD's effectiveness and its contribution within a company. Data were analysed using the partial least square (PLS) regression to test the hypotheses. Drawing upon a sample of Taiwanese firms, the study suggests that a firm can improve the performance of the IAD through an enterprise-wide integrated, effective ERP system and appropriate auditing software. At the same time, the performance of the IAD can also contribute significantly to the company. The results also show that investments in computer-assisted auditing techniques (CAATs) are crucial due to their tremendous effectiveness in regard to the performance of the IAD and for the contributions CAATs can make to a company.

  17. Impact of green supply chain management practices on firms' performance: an empirical study from the perspective of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-07-01

    This article investigates the impact of five determinants of the green supply chain practices on organizational performance in the context of Pakistan manufacturing firms. A sample of 218 firms was collected from the manufacturing industry. The green supply chain practices were measured through five independent variables including green manufacturing, green purchasing, green information systems, cooperation with customers, and eco-design. By using exploratory factor and simultaneous regression analysis, the results indicate that except green purchasing, rests of the four independent variables have been found statistically significant to predict organizational performance. However, the eco-design of green practices followed by green information systems has revealed the greatest impact on organizational performance. Therefore, the managers of the manufacturing firms should not only implement eco-design in their supply chain but also concentrate on proper monitoring and implementation of green information systems to increase their firms' performance. A main contribution of this research from theoretical side is that it is possible to notice a negative effect of "green purchasing" towards organizational performance particularly in the scenario of Pakistan manufacturing industry. Another valuable result is that green purchasing is an important antecedent of firms economic performance in the US manufacturing firms (Green et al. 2012), although not significantly related to organizational performance in our study. In addition, we also discussed research limitations, areas for future research, and implications for practitioners.

  18. Strategic Management Training and Commitment to Planning: Critical Partners in Stimulating Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Moore, Susan; Bracker, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 157 small financial firms found a significant relationship between strategic management training for senior managers and the firm's level of commitment to planning, resulting in a return on investment for stockholders. (SK)

  19. Matching People and Organizations: Selection and Socialization in Public Accounting Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Jennifer A.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the establishment and maintenance of employee-organization fit, a recent study tracked the early careers of 171 entry-level auditors in 8 large U.S. public accounting firms and assessed the congruence of their values with organizational values. Recruits whose values match the firm's adjust more quickly and experience greater job…

  20. The moderating role of absorptive capacity and the differential effects of acquisitions and alliances on Big Pharma firms' innovation performance.

    PubMed

    Fernald, K D S; Pennings, H P G; van den Bosch, J F; Commandeur, H R; Claassen, E

    2017-01-01

    In the context of increased pharmaceutical innovation deficits and Big Pharma blockbusters' patent expirations, this paper examines the moderating role of firms' absorptive capacity in external innovation activities of Big Pharma firms. The study indicates a rising interest of Big Pharma in acquisitions of and alliances with biotechnology companies. Unfortunately, this increased interest is not reflected in the number of new drugs generated by Big Pharma. We find that acquisitions of biotech companies have negatively affected Big Pharma firms' innovation performance on average but these acquisitions might have a positive effect at higher levels of acquiring firms' absorptive capacity. Moreover, also acquisitions of pharma companies and alliances with biotech companies only have a positive effect on innovation performance at sufficiently high levels of absorptive capacity. The moderating role of absorptive capacity implicates that a tight integration of internal R&D efforts and (unrelated) external knowledge is crucial for harnessing complementarity effects.

  1. Use of performance standards in behavioral health carve-out contracts among Fortune 500 firms.

    PubMed

    Merrick, E L; Garnick, D W; Horgan, C M; Goldin, D; Hodgkin, D; Sciegaj, M

    1999-06-25

    To determine the prevalence and nature of performance standards in specialty managed behavioral healthcare contracts among Fortune 500 companies. This was a cross-sectional survey of all companies listed on the Fortune 500 during 1994, 1995, or both. From April 1997 to May 1998 we conducted a mailed survey with phone follow-up. Of the 68% of firms that responded, over one third reported carve-out contracts. The survey focused on whether companies had behavioral health carve-out contracts with specialty vendors and characteristics of these contracts, including the use of performance standards. More than three quarters of the Fortune 500 companies reporting specialty behavioral healthcare contracts used at least one performance standard. Most common were administrative standards (70.2%) and customer service standards (69.4%). About half of the companies used quality standards, whereas only a third used provider-related standards. Most (58.8%) companies using performance standards also specified financial consequences. Larger Fortune 500 firms were significantly more likely to use performance standards. Risk contracts and contracts that included all covered employees were also more likely to include some categories of standards. Administrative and customer service standards may be most common because companies find it easier to specify those standards, especially compared with clinical quality measures. To the extent that employers want to obtain the most value from their behavioral healthcare purchasing, we expect that more will begin to adopt quality standards in their contracts, especially as performance measures become more refined. Reliance on accreditation, however, is an alternative approach for employers.

  2. Firms, crowds, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of "firms, crowds, and innovation" and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices-for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production-relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on "sociality" in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.

  3. Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance.

    PubMed

    Crook, T Russell; Todd, Samuel Y; Combs, James G; Woehr, David J; Ketchen, David J

    2011-05-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we meta-analyzed effects drawn from 66 studies of the human capital-firm performance relationship and investigated 3 moderators suggested by resource-based theory. We found that human capital relates strongly to performance, especially when the human capital in question is not readily tradable in labor markets and when researchers use operational performance measures that are not subject to profit appropriation. Our results suggest that managers should invest in programs that increase and retain firm-specific human capital.

  4. Environmental strategy and performance in small firms: a resource-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Correa, J Alberto; Hurtado-Torres, Nuria; Sharma, Sanjay; García-Morales, Víctor J

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread recognition of the important roles that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play in most economies, limited research has focused on their impacts on the natural environment and the strategies such enterprises adopt to reduce these impacts. It is usually assumed that SMEs lack the resources to implement proactive environmental strategies that go beyond minimum regulatory compliance. In this study of 108 SMEs in the automotive repair sector in Southern Spain, we found that SMEs undertake a range of environmental strategies from reactive regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and environmental leadership. These strategies are associated with three organizational capabilities: shared vision, stakeholder management, and strategic proactivity, hypothesized based on the unique strategic characteristics of SMEs--shorter lines of communication and closer interaction within the SMEs, the presence of a founder's vision, flexibility in managing external relationships, and an entrepreneurial orientation. We also found that firms with the most proactive practices exhibited a significantly positive financial performance.

  5. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  6. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  7. Improving Performance in Very Small Firms through Effective Assessment and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzet, Steven J.; Cook, Ronald G.; Ozeki, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve assessment and feedback processes in the training practices of very small firms, thereby improving the firms' human capital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews research and practice on effective assessment and feedback. Findings: Based on this paper, human resources are increasingly seen…

  8. Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…

  9. Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…

  10. The impact of the dimensions of environmental performance on firm performance in travel and tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siow-Hooi; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Tan, Siow-Kian; Choon, Shay-Wei

    2017-03-09

    This study investigates the impact of the aggregate and individual dimensions of environmental performance (EP) on financial performance (FP), based on a dataset covering the travel and tourism industry (airlines, casinos, hotels, and restaurants) across different economic regions over the period 2003-2014. The results reveal that EP positively affects the FP in the hotel industry when aggregate EP is used. When individual dimensions of EP are considered, resource reduction is found to positively (negatively) affect the performance in the hotel (airline) industry, while product innovation positively affects the performance in the restaurant industry. Hence, the trade-off effect seems to be dominant in the airline industry, and the 'heterogeneous resources and reputation-building' hypothesis is evident in both the hotel and restaurant industries. In addition, in general, the findings support the positive moderating effect of slack resources on the relationship between the individual dimensions of EP and FP in the travel and tourism industry, and, hence, are supportive of the slack resources hypothesis. These effects, however, vary depending on the travel and tourism industry under investigation.

  11. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  12. Social learning of migratory performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B; Converse, Sarah J; Urbanek, Richard P; Fagan, William F

    2013-08-30

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  13. Social learning of migratory performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B.; Converse, Sarah J.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Fagan, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  14. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance--A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations.

  15. Firms, crowds, and innovation

    PubMed Central

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of “firms, crowds, and innovation” and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices—for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production—relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on “sociality” in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays. PMID:28690428

  16. The moderating role of absorptive capacity and the differential effects of acquisitions and alliances on Big Pharma firms' innovation performance

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, K. D. S.; Pennings, H. P. G.; van den Bosch, J. F.; Commandeur, H. R.; Claassen, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of increased pharmaceutical innovation deficits and Big Pharma blockbusters’ patent expirations, this paper examines the moderating role of firms’ absorptive capacity in external innovation activities of Big Pharma firms. The study indicates a rising interest of Big Pharma in acquisitions of and alliances with biotechnology companies. Unfortunately, this increased interest is not reflected in the number of new drugs generated by Big Pharma. We find that acquisitions of biotech companies have negatively affected Big Pharma firms’ innovation performance on average but these acquisitions might have a positive effect at higher levels of acquiring firms’ absorptive capacity. Moreover, also acquisitions of pharma companies and alliances with biotech companies only have a positive effect on innovation performance at sufficiently high levels of absorptive capacity. The moderating role of absorptive capacity implicates that a tight integration of internal R&D efforts and (unrelated) external knowledge is crucial for harnessing complementarity effects. PMID:28231332

  17. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  18. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  19. Performance Sampling in Social Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, James C.; March, James G.

    1978-01-01

    The attempt is both to illuminate how a particular system of careers (of superintendents in this case) might arise from a series of elementary decisions with respect to job exits and to connect a theory of organizational careers more explicitly with theories of other social pairings. (Author/IRT)

  20. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi; Aarabi, Sied Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2013-08-02

    Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006-2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy.

  1. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial

  2. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  4. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  5. Innovation Value of Information Technology: Impact of Information Technology--Intensity on Innovation Capability and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…

  6. Innovation Value of Information Technology: Impact of Information Technology--Intensity on Innovation Capability and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…

  7. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reimburse the firm for the excess amount. (2) After EPA receives a firm's application, EPA will take one of... of the firm, its principals, or its key employees does not show an unwillingness or inability to... perform renovations covered by this section in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a...

  8. The Effects of Parental Firm Control: A Reinterpretation of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine C.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence that parental firm control promotes effective socialization of children (i.e., promotes self-control, social responsibility) is examined, and a reinterpretation of existing measures of firm control that is consistent with attribution theory is offered. It is concluded that the notion that parental firm control promotes effective…

  9. Social Support and Performance in Complex Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-30

    study the behavior of people differing in social support in interpersonal situations. If lack of social skills is important in social support...assessed social support scored higher than those 1ow in social support on several measures of social skills - for example, raters described high SSQ scorers...problem situations. These results indicate that individuials’ perceptions of their own social skills are consistent with the opinions of others concerning

  10. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  11. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  12. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  13. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  14. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  15. Social Capital and Education: Implications for Student and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly work on student and school performance poses a variety of explanations for observed variations. One explanation receiving too little attention is social capital, an intangible resource argued to grow out of social relations and social structure. The seedbed of social capital is argued to reside with John Dewey, who in 1900 used the term…

  16. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  17. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  18. Effect of Foreign Presence on Domestic Performance: The Cases of Education in the US and Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Melaku

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of foreign presence on the performance of domestic institutions and economic agents. We identify three types of foreign presence: international students, inward foreign investment, and exporting activities. The first chapter investigates the impacts of international students on the graduation performance of…

  19. Effect of Foreign Presence on Domestic Performance: The Cases of Education in the US and Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Melaku

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of foreign presence on the performance of domestic institutions and economic agents. We identify three types of foreign presence: international students, inward foreign investment, and exporting activities. The first chapter investigates the impacts of international students on the graduation performance of…

  20. Teaching Social Studies through the Performing Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Binta M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been growing efforts to improve and enhance the delivery of social studies content in the classroom through arts integration. Some educators have used music as a method for teaching social studies and found that interdisciplinary work increases students' understanding of history and different cultures. This article…

  1. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT AND PERFORMANCE IN PROGRAMED LEARNING IN ITALY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LEARNING, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), (*SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , LEARNING), ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, REASONING, INTELLIGENCE TESTS, PERSONALITY ...ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTIVATION, FEEDBACK, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, STUDENTS, ITALY, UNITED STATES

  3. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  4. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of “reverse internationalization” by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations. PMID:27631368

  5. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-Huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations.

  6. The Perception of Social Context in Request Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Montserrat

    In studying the role of context in speech act performance, the tradition has been to use controlled elicitation instruments that allow for manipulation of social dimensions. The assumption is that by controlling social context, all respondents will assess social relations very similarly, although little research has dealt with the validity of this…

  7. The Influence of Social Networks on High School Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam

    2015-01-01

    Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…

  8. The Influence of Social Networks on High School Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam

    2015-01-01

    Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…

  9. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  10. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  11. Social Responsibility as an Ethical Imperative in Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between social responsibility, ethics, and performance improvement has not been seriously or rigorously addressed in related literature or in professional dialogue. Examining the issue of social responsibility as an ethical imperative within performance improvement as a profession demands an understanding and rigorous examination…

  12. Which Social Skills Predict Academic Performance of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji Y.; Chang, Mido

    2010-01-01

    The study explored various aspects of students' social skills in an attempt to identify specific aspect that has significance in predicting their academic performance and examined the longitudinal relationship of these social skills with academic performance. The study used two models that applied advanced statistical tools to a nationally…

  13. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  14. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  15. Social-Emotional Assessment, Performance, and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2017-01-01

    In the push to boost young people's social and emotional learning (SEL), assessment has lagged behind policy and practice. We have few usable, feasible, and scalable tools to assess children's SEL. And without good assessments, teachers, administrators, parents, and policymakers can't get the data they need to make informed decisions about SEL.…

  16. Autism, Social Competence, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriber Orloff, Susan N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a reader is asking for advice regarding her 10-year-old daughter who is having difficulty with her reading and focusing skills and social skills. The author recommends that her daughter should have a full evaluation of her academic skills and potentials inclusive of psychology, speech, and occupational therapy. The author also…

  17. Insurance within the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiso, Luigi; Pistaferri, Luigi; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the allocation of risk between firms and their workers using matched employer-employee panel data. Unlike previous contributions, this paper focuses on idiosyncratic shocks to the firm, which are the correct empirical counterpart of the theoretical notion of diversifiable risk. We allow for both temporary and permanent shocks to output…

  18. Insurance within the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiso, Luigi; Pistaferri, Luigi; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the allocation of risk between firms and their workers using matched employer-employee panel data. Unlike previous contributions, this paper focuses on idiosyncratic shocks to the firm, which are the correct empirical counterpart of the theoretical notion of diversifiable risk. We allow for both temporary and permanent shocks to output…

  19. Learning Styles Inequity for Small to Micro Firms (SMFs): Social Exclusion through Work-Based E-Learning Practice in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Dockery, Richard; Sabki, Aishah

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The elearn2work study of learning styles in the context of small to micro firms' (SMFs) and their perceived satisfaction has identified some important finding specific to e-learning content design, delivery and international standards development. Design/methodology/approach: The method of research adopts a deductive rather than an…

  20. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  1. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Marisol J; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor social performance in social anxiety: increased self-focused attention and negative beliefs. State social anxiety was experimentally manipulated in high and low-blushing-fearful individuals by letting half of the participants believe that they blushed intensely during a 5 min getting-acquainted interaction with two confederates. Participants rated their state social anxiety, self-focused attention, and level of negative beliefs. Two confederates and two video-observers rated subsequently likeability (i.e., social rejection) and social performance of the participants. In both groups, the social anxiety-social rejection relationship was present. Although state social anxiety was related to heightened self-focused attention and negative beliefs, only negative beliefs were associated with relatively poor social performance. In contrast to current SAD models, self-focused attention did not play a key-role in poor social performance but seemed to function as a by-product of state social anxiety. Beliefs of being negatively evaluated seem to elicit changes in behavioral repertoire resulting in a poor social performance and subsequent rejection.

  2. What determines observer-rated social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stephan; Hofmann, Mareike; Kiko, Sonja; Mall, Anna Katharina; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin; Hermann, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    Clark and Wells (1995) proposed that cognitive variables and safety behaviors are related to social performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Here, we tested this relationship by concurrent assessment of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological variables and social performance in a prototypical social interaction situation. 103 participants with SAD and 23 healthy controls interacted with a confederate. Anxiety, self-focused attention, cognitions, and safety behaviors were assessed by self-report and by confederate ratings. Social performance was evaluated by independent observers using a behavioral coding system. Social performance was predicted using two regression models for self-report and confederate ratings. Between-group differences in social performance disappeared when talking time was taken into account. Talking time emerged as the most powerful predictor of social performance (54% and 58% accounted variance). Positive cognitions, self-focused attention and safety behaviors accounted for an additional, but marginal amount of variance. Reduced talking time might represent a safety behavior and may be considered an easy to measure final common behavioral outcome of cognitive processes underlying social anxiety.

  3. Performance Based Education: A Social Alchemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Millard

    1982-01-01

    An exploration of performance-based education is focused through these questions: What image of human beings does it project? What image of professionals does it project? What purpose does it serve? What image of knowledge does it project? (CT)

  4. Performance Based Education: A Social Alchemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Millard

    1982-01-01

    An exploration of performance-based education is focused through these questions: What image of human beings does it project? What image of professionals does it project? What purpose does it serve? What image of knowledge does it project? (CT)

  5. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  6. Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

  7. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  8. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  9. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  10. The Relationship between the Learning Organization Concept and Firms' Financial Performance: An Empirical Assessment. [and] Invited Reaction: Linking Learning with Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; Ellinger, Alexander E.; Yang, Baiyin; Howton, Shelly W.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study of 208 manufacturing managers that found a positive correlation between the seven dimensions of learning organizations and four measures of business financial performance. "Invited Reaction" by Timothy T. Baldwin and Camden C. Danielson critiques the use of key respondent perceptions and bottom-line performance.…

  11. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    PubMed

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  13. Electrocortical Evidence of Enhanced Performance Monitoring in Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Frosio, Kristen E; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Mills, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    Self-focused attention is thought to be a key feature of social anxiety disorder. Yet few studies have used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether socially anxious individuals display greater monitoring of their performance and attention to their errors. Similarly, only a few studies have used ERPs to examine how social anxiety is related to processing of performance feedback. Individuals with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of social anxiety completed a trial-and-error learning task. Self-focus was manipulated using false heart-rate feedback during a random subset of trials. Performance feedback was given using emotional and neutral faces in a positive context (correct=happy face; incorrect=neutral face) and negative context (correct=neutral face; incorrect=disgust face) in order to investigate biased interpretation and attention to feedback. Socially anxious subjects displayed enhanced amplitude of the ERN and CRN, suggesting greater response monitoring, and enhanced Pe amplitude, suggesting greater processing of errors relative to the low social anxiety group. No group differences were observed with respect to feedback processing. Before learning stimulus-response mappings in the negative context, the FRN was larger for self-focus compared to standard trials and marginally larger for socially anxious subjects compared to controls. These findings support cognitive models and suggest avenues for future research.

  14. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  15. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  16. A Structural Equation Model of the Factors Associated with Influence and Power of IT Departments and Their Relationship to Firm's IT Orientation and Business Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowshik, Raghu V.

    2010-01-01

    Although few firms can function without an information technology (IT) department, senior executives often consider IT as secondary. Historically, studies have found IT departments to have low influence and power status compared to other departments. Few, if any, studies have investigated what factors contribute to this subservient position. Three…

  17. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  18. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  19. Relation between social cohesion and team performance in soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Nicola, Nicola; Rizac, Anis

    2003-02-01

    Investigations of the influence on team performance of team composition, in terms of task-related attributes, e.g., personality traits, cognitive abilities, often assumes this relation to be mediated by the strength (intensity) of the interpersonal relations (social cohesion) among team members. However, there has been little empirical examination of how much social cohesion actually affects team outcomes. This preliminary study sought to examine this issue using soccer teams, which have been held to resemble workplace teams. Perceptions of team cohesion were collected from 198 Israeli soccer players (comprising 36 national league teams) during the week preceding their weekly games. A significant correlation was found between the perceptions of social cohesion and the results of the soccer matches, indicating a link between team social cohesion and team performance. Implications of the results, as well as the study's limitations, are discussed, and avenues for research are suggested.

  20. Postural stability and physical performance in social dancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yamazaki, Hideo; Morita, Takae; Ohta, Toshiki

    2008-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the benefits of social dancing on postural stability and physical performance in dancers aged 50 years or more. Walking speed, lower limb reaction time and low back flexibility were measured in 202 social dancers and 202 community-dwelling comparison subjects aged 50-87 years. The results showed that dancers who were older than 60 years had better postural stability and faster leg reaction times, whilst dancers aged 50-59 showed only better flexibility, when compared with the controls. Male dancers had greater low back flexibility and leg reaction time compared to controls. In contrast, female dancers had superior performance only for leg reaction time when compared with controls. The results indicate that social dancing is associated with enhanced postural stability and physical performance in older adults.

  1. Why Firms Change Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    Described is the subjective process by which the minimum asking price and the maximum offer prices are determined for a firm changing hands. Insight is gained into the meaning of fixed cost, opportunity cost, profit, present value, capital gain, and comparative advantages. (Author/RM)

  2. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  3. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  4. Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Tim; Child, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using…

  5. Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Tim; Child, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using…

  6. Social Performance Cues Induce Behavioral Flexibility in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Toelch, Ulf; Bruce, Matthew J.; Meeus, Marius T. H.; Reader, Simon M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations) are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores) had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success. PMID:21811477

  7. Peer Influence on Academic Performance: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Emotional Intervention Effects.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.

  8. Essays on Participative Web and Social Media for Information Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous growth in online consumer participation has facilitated new business models by firms trying to leverage User-Generated Content (UGC). As a type of the outcomes of UGC, social media is one of the fastest-growing media forms and may significantly affect firm's economic actions or performances. My dissertation investigates several…

  9. Essays on Participative Web and Social Media for Information Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous growth in online consumer participation has facilitated new business models by firms trying to leverage User-Generated Content (UGC). As a type of the outcomes of UGC, social media is one of the fastest-growing media forms and may significantly affect firm's economic actions or performances. My dissertation investigates several…

  10. Determinants of Firm Internal Labor Markets in Large Law Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholey, Douglas R.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of individual mobility within firms (promotion) and between firms (lateral entry) are developed and listed. Using data from 80 large law firms over a 3-year period, 8 hypotheses were tested by regressing number of promotions and number of lateral entries on 11 independent variables. Appended are 57 citations. (MLF)

  11. The Role of Climate and Socialization in Developing Interfunctional Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Minsky, Barbara D.

    2002-01-01

    Develops a model illustrating that two elements of organizational culture--climate and socialization processes--foster acceptance of organizational values and facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, which in turn influences firm performance. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  12. The Role of Climate and Socialization in Developing Interfunctional Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Minsky, Barbara D.

    2002-01-01

    Develops a model illustrating that two elements of organizational culture--climate and socialization processes--foster acceptance of organizational values and facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, which in turn influences firm performance. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  13. CRP for Pesticides - Testing Firms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This list includes firms that have conducted tests or have indicated an interest in conducting tests on child-resistant packaging. This list is not intended to indicate EPA approval, certification, or endorsement of these firms, nor is it comprehensive..

  14. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    PubMed

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  15. Achievement goal promotion at university: social desirability and social utility of mastery and performance goals.

    PubMed

    Darnon, Céline; Dompnier, Benoît; Delmas, Florian; Pulfrey, Caroline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The present research examines the ambivalence of achievement goal promotion at university, and more specifically in the psychology curriculum. On the one hand, psychology teachers explicitly encourage mastery but not performance (neither approach nor avoidance) goals. On the other hand, the selection process encourages the endorsement of not only mastery but also performance-approach goals. In fact, it would seem that both performance-approach and mastery goals are valued in a university context. Two pilot studies verified the above assumptions. Subsequently, Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed that each of these goals corresponds to different aspects of social value. Indeed, high endorsement of mastery goals was associated with being judged as both likable (social desirability) and likely to succeed (social utility). High endorsement of performance-approach goals enhanced social utility judgments but reduced perceived likability. Performance-avoidance goals only enhanced perceived likability. The discussion focuses on the 2 functions of university, namely education (apparent in the official discourse of teachers) and selection (apparent in the university structure), and on the perceived value of achievement goals.

  16. Brain Network Organization and Social Executive Performance in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Sedeño, Lucas; Couto, Blas; García-Cordero, Indira; Melloni, Margherita; Baez, Sandra; Morales Sepúlveda, Juan Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Huepe, David; Hurtado, Esteban; Matallana, Diana; Kuljis, Rodrigo; Torralva, Teresa; Chialvo, Dante; Sigman, Mariano; Piguet, Olivier; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by early atrophy in the frontotemporoinsular regions. These regions overlap with networks that are engaged in social cognition-executive functions, two hallmarks deficits of bvFTD. We examine (i) whether Network Centrality (a graph theory metric that measures how important a node is in a brain network) in the frontotemporoinsular network is disrupted in bvFTD, and (ii) the level of involvement of this network in social-executive performance. Patients with probable bvFTD, healthy controls, and frontoinsular stroke patients underwent functional MRI resting-state recordings and completed social-executive behavioral measures. Relative to the controls and the stroke group, the bvFTD patients presented decreased Network Centrality. In addition, this measure was associated with social cognition and executive functions. To test the specificity of these results for the Network Centrality of the frontotemporoinsular network, we assessed the main areas from six resting-state networks. No group differences or behavioral associations were found in these networks. Finally, Network Centrality and behavior distinguished bvFTD patients from the other groups with a high classification rate. bvFTD selectively affects Network Centrality in the frontotemporoinsular network, which is associated with high-level social and executive profile.

  17. 12 CFR 513.8 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 513.8 Section 513.8 Banks and... Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit... of independent public accountants and their accounting firms from performing independent audit...

  18. 12 CFR 390.97 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 390.97 Section 390.97 Banks and... debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. (a) Scope. This... accountants and their accounting firms from performing independent audit and attestation services required by...

  19. 12 CFR 513.8 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 513.8 Section 513.8 Banks and... Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit... of independent public accountants and their accounting firms from performing independent audit and...

  20. 12 CFR 390.97 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 390.97 Section 390.97 Banks and... debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. (a) Scope. This... accountants and their accounting firms from performing independent audit and attestation services required by...

  1. 12 CFR 390.97 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 390.97 Section 390.97 Banks and... debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. (a) Scope. This... accountants and their accounting firms from performing independent audit and attestation services required by...

  2. Response of firm agent network to exogenous shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hideaki; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Souma, Wataru; Kaizoji, Taisei

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes an agent-based model of interacting firms, in which interacting firm agents rationally invest capital and labor in order to maximize payoff. Both transactions and production are taken into account in this model. First, the performance of individual firms on a real transaction network was simulated. The simulation quantitatively reproduced the cumulative probability distribution of revenue, material cost, capital, and labor. Then, the response of the firms to a given exogenous shock, defined as a sudden change of gross domestic product, is discussed. The longer tail in cumulative probability and skewed distribution of growth rate are observed for a high growth scenario.

  3. Psychopathology and academic performance, social well-being, and social preference at school: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Verboom, C E; Penninx, B W J H; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioning, and gender and age differences. This study addresses these limitations by examining adolescents' psychopathology and functioning at school, reported by child, parent, teacher, and peers during primary and secondary school in a large Dutch longitudinal cohort study (N = 2230). Teacher reports of psychopathology, especially regarding attention problems and withdrawn/depressed problems, followed by parent reports regarding hyperactivity, were most strongly associated with academic performance. The same held for social preference which was associated with teacher and parent ratings of withdrawn/depressed problems and hyperactivity. In contrast, social well-being was best predicted by child reports (at primary school) of affective problems. In girls, the association between ADHD problems and poor academic performance was stronger than in boys and conduct problems were more often associated with poor school functioning in general. These findings can help identify adolescents at risk for poor functioning and design interventions that effectively reduce or prevent poor school functioning.

  4. Are older adults more social than younger adults? Social importance increases older adults' prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias; Brandimonte, Maria; Filippello, Pina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of social importance on prospective remembering in younger and older adults as a possible factor contributing to the age-prospective memory paradox. Using a between-subjects design, 40 younger and 40 older adults worked on a time-based prospective memory task in which social importance was varied. Overall, younger adults outperformed older adults in the prospective memory task. Importantly, in contrast to younger adults, older adults' prospective memory performance was significantly better in the social importance condition than in the standard condition. This interaction was not reflected in participants' time-monitoring behaviour. Findings are discussed in the context of recent prospective memory theories.

  5. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  6. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  7. Health expenditures spent for prevention, economic performance, and social welfare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu

    2016-12-01

    Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.

  8. Does microblogging convey firm-specific information? Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dehua; Li, Xiao; Xue, Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the impact of opening microblogging account in Sina Weibo on the diffusion of firm-specific information in Chinese stock market. With the unique sample of firms opening their official accounts, the empirical results show that this newly emerged information diffusion channel, i.e., Sina Weibo, plays an important role in conveying firm-specific information to the market. Generally speaking, these empirical findings have practical implications to securities regulators who have interest in monitoring the diffused information via social media.

  9. Strategic Orientation in the Globalization of Software Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L.; Carmel, Erran; Dunkle, Debora

    In the search for profits, software firms are globalizing their development activities. Some firms achieve greater profits by becoming more efficient, whereas others do so by reaching new markets; some do both. This paper creates an a priori typology of strategies based on the extent to which firms are focused on operational improvement or market access, have a dual focus or are unfocused. We find that firms with these strategies differ in degree of internationalization, organization of offshoring and performance outcomes related to offshoring. Market-oriented firms receive a greater proportion of their total revenue from sales outside the U.S., showing a greater international orientation. They keep more of their offshore development in-house via captive operations. They also are most likely to report increased non-U.S. sales as a result of offshoring. On the other hand, operations-oriented firms have lower levels of international sales, are more likely to go offshore via outsourced software development, and achieve greater costs savings and labor force flexibility as a result of offshoring. Operations-oriented firms also face more obstacles in offshoring, perhaps because of their reliance on outsourcing. Dual focus firms generally achieve some of the best of both strategies, whereas unfocused firms achieve lower cost benefits.

  10. Neural patterns underlying social comparisons of personal performance

    PubMed Central

    Birg, Robert; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humans often evaluate their abilities by comparing their personal performance with that of others. For this process, it is critical whether the comparison turns out in one’s favor or against it. Here, we investigate how social comparisons of performance are encoded and integrated on the neural level. We collected functional magnetic resonance images while subjects answered questions in a knowledge quiz that was related to their profession. After each question, subjects received a feedback about their personal performance, followed by a feedback about the performance of a reference group who had been quizzed beforehand. Based on the subjects’ personal performance, we divided trials in downward and upward comparisons. We found that upward comparisons correlated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula. Downward comparisons were associated with increased activation in the ventral striatum (VS), the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The extent to which subjects outperformed the reference group modulated the activity in the VS and in the dorsal ACC. We suggest that the co-activation of the VS and the dorsal ACC contributes to the integration of downward comparisons into the evaluation of personal performance. PMID:24948156

  11. Social jetlag negatively correlates with academic performance in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.

  12. The Impact of Community Bonding and Bridging Social Capital on Educational Performance in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menahem, Gila

    2011-01-01

    The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…

  13. The Impact of Community Bonding and Bridging Social Capital on Educational Performance in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menahem, Gila

    2011-01-01

    The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…

  14. 12 CFR 513.8 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accounting firm has, since the occurrence of the act or failure to act, implemented corrective internal... public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 513.8 Section 513.8 Banks and Banking..., suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services....

  15. 12 CFR 513.8 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounting firm has, since the occurrence of the act or failure to act, implemented corrective internal... independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 513.8 Section 513.8 Banks and... Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing...

  16. 12 CFR 513.8 - Removal, suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accounting firm has, since the occurrence of the act or failure to act, implemented corrective internal... public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services. 513.8 Section 513.8 Banks and Banking..., suspension, or debarment of independent public accountants and accounting firms performing audit services....

  17. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  18. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  19. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    PubMed

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  20. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance

    PubMed Central

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Simonin, Jérôme; Martin, Jean-Claude; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Gaze represents a major non-verbal communication channel in social interactions. In this respect, when facing another person, one's gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an action-perception online performance. However, little is known about processes involved in the real-time self-regulation of social gaze. The present study investigates the impact of a gaze-contingent viewing window on fixation patterns and the awareness of being the agent moving the window. In face-to-face scenarios played by a virtual human character, the task for the 18 adult participants was to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking. The virtual character was embedded in naturalistic backgrounds to enhance realism. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behavior, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half of the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These participants also spent more time looking at the eyes and mouth regions of the virtual human character. The outcomes of the study highlight the dissociation between non-volitional gaze adaptation and the self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes, linked by bottom-up and top-down processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, in particular concerning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) where the poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech is considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede facial exploration. PMID:22529796

  1. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  2. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  3. Social Presence in Online Discussions as a Process Predictor of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joksimovic, S.; Gaševic, D.; Kovanovic, V.; Riecke, B. E.; Hatala, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the steady development of online education and online learning environments, possibilities to support social interactions between students have advanced significantly. This study examined the relationship between indicators of social presence and academic performance. Social presence is defined as students' ability to engage socially with an…

  4. Measuring Economic Discrimination of Hispanic-Owned Architecture and Engineering Firms in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Manuel J.

    2004-01-01

    Using data developed for the U.S. District Court, this study compared the performance of Hispanic-owned firms and two groupings of non-Hispanic-owned firms in three South Florida markets: architecture (n= 176), structural engineering (n= 144), and civil engineering (n = 200). Within each market, firms?earnings are expressed as functions of…

  5. Measuring Economic Discrimination of Hispanic-Owned Architecture and Engineering Firms in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Manuel J.

    2004-01-01

    Using data developed for the U.S. District Court, this study compared the performance of Hispanic-owned firms and two groupings of non-Hispanic-owned firms in three South Florida markets: architecture (n= 176), structural engineering (n= 144), and civil engineering (n = 200). Within each market, firms?earnings are expressed as functions of…

  6. Social Networks Use, Loneliness and Academic Performance among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska

    2016-01-01

    The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…

  7. Performing Masculinity: Considering Gender in Doctoral Student Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2011-01-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to understand the ways in which socialization to a discipline might be gendered. How might socialization teach students not just the skills, but the gendered values that are equated with success in a discipline? This article begins with a review of the socialization literature before turning to a definition…

  8. Physical Attractiveness, Social Network Location, and Performance in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 25(2), 129-163. Combs, G. (2003). The...precursors of subjective physical attractiveness and self- ascribed traits. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 25(5), 371-398. 53 March, J. G...Hussey, T., Leveque, J., & Pineau, P. (2006). Cosmetics: They influence more than caucasian female facial attractiveness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology ,

  9. Performing Masculinity: Considering Gender in Doctoral Student Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2011-01-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to understand the ways in which socialization to a discipline might be gendered. How might socialization teach students not just the skills, but the gendered values that are equated with success in a discipline? This article begins with a review of the socialization literature before turning to a definition…

  10. PROFITABILITY AND SIZE OF FIRM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: The profit ratio as a measure of the relative ability of firms to expand; the profit dratio as a measure of efficiency; other uses of the... profit ratio; earlier studies using the profit ratio; valid conclusions of earlier studies; assets vs. net worth; methodology of this study...distribution of post-tax profit ratex; effect of taxes on the relative ability to expand; relative profitability of income firms; variability of profit rates

  11. Evaluation of udder firmness by palpation and a dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2014-01-01

    Swelling of the mammary gland is an important health status sign for clinical exploration and palpation is a routine diagnostic tool for mastitis detection in dairy cows. Data on repeatability or validity of specific methods of udder palpation are rare. The overall objective was to study the validity of estimates of udder firmness generated by palpation and by using a validated dynamometer. Specifically, we set out to determine within-observer repeatability and between-observer repeatability in 2 specific experiments. Additionally, we compared a 4-point palpation scoring system with estimates obtained with a dynamometer in this study. In a pilot trial, we determined the range of udder firmness of 25 cows and developed an in vitro model for udder firmness. This model enabled training of the observers and allowed investigating a 4-point palpation scoring system. In vivo, udder firmness was determined before and after milking by palpation and by using a dynamometer. Within-observer repeatability based on estimates of udder firmness of 25 cows obtained by 3 observers on a single day by palpation was 0.968. Within-observer repeatability of estimates of udder firmness of 25 cows obtained with the dynamometer by a single observer was 0.997. The coefficient of variation of the same measures was 9.1%. To determine between-observer repeatability (palpation: 0.932; dynamometer: 0.898), udder firmness of 100 cows was measured on 4 different days by 9 observers in experiment 2. Udder firmness in dairy cows could be measured repeatably with the dynamometer and by palpation, especially when performed by a single observer. Estimates of udder firmness generated by palpation and with the dynamometer were moderately related (correlation coefficient = 0.54). Training of observers through the pilot trial or practical experience in the 4 d of the study in experiment 2 did not improve the correlation. Further research is warranted to understand how udder firmness develops in infected

  12. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media.

  13. In-situ synthesized ZnFe2O4 firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs as a long-life anode material with high lithium storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianbo; Zhang, Wanxi; Li, Linlin; Jin, Bo; Jin, Enmei; Jeong, Sangmoon; Jiang, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Because of two different metal cations in the crystal structures, binary transition metal oxides possess a lot of unique properties. ZnFe2O4 emerges from these transition metal oxides on account of its high theoretical capacity (1072 mAh g-1). One-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would be a desirable conductive additive for ZnFe2O4, thereby improving the electrochemical performance of ZnFe2O4. In this work, we prepare ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs by solvothermal method with further heat-treatment. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles are firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs. ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite displays high specific capacity (1278 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, and 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1500 mA g-1 after 500 cycles), and good rate performance (367 mAh g-1 even at a current density of 6000 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles). The superior electrochemical performance may promote ZnFe2O4 to be a promising alternative anode in lithium-ion batteries.

  14. The historical impact of ISO 9000 on Lebanese firms.

    PubMed

    Mezher, Toufic; Ajam, Maher; Shehab, Mohamad

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the new ISO 9001:2000 standard on the Quality Management Systems (QMS) of Lebanese firms that were already certified under ISO 9000:1994. To get an accurate feedback of stakeholders in a firm, three different questionnaires were developed and distributed to management, employees, and customers respectively. Empirical results indicate that ISO 9001:2000 has improved the QMS performance of Lebanese firms over that of the 1994 edition. Nevertheless, results showed that the new standard still has some weaknesses when it comes to improving suppliers' relationships and empowering employees.

  15. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior Towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class behavior were made during oral presentations of 94 students (60% females) in the ages of 13–18 years. Speakers’ social performance, speech quality, and nervousness during the presentation were also rated. Findings showed that the social performance of socially anxious students was a predictor of class behavior, whereas their overt nervousness was not. Surprisingly, the quality of their speech was negatively related to class behavior. Implications of these findings for the treatment of socially anxious adolescents are discussed. PMID:19842023

  16. Nervousness and performance characteristics as predictors of peer behavior towards socially anxious adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blöte, Anke W; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D F; Tuinenburg, Eveline M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2010-12-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class behavior were made during oral presentations of 94 students (60% females) in the ages of 13-18 years. Speakers' social performance, speech quality, and nervousness during the presentation were also rated. Findings showed that the social performance of socially anxious students was a predictor of class behavior, whereas their overt nervousness was not. Surprisingly, the quality of their speech was negatively related to class behavior. Implications of these findings for the treatment of socially anxious adolescents are discussed.

  17. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  18. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  20. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250...

  2. Social Capital and School Performance: A Local-Level Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…

  3. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

    PubMed

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-07-06

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements.

  4. A model for evaluating the social performance of construction waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scant attention is paid to social performance of construction waste management (CWM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a model for assessing the social performance of CWM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the model, the social performance of CWM can be quantitatively simulated. - Abstract: It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects.

  5. Association of Social Determinants With Children's Hospitals' Preventable Readmissions Performance.

    PubMed

    Sills, Marion R; Hall, Matt; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Macy, Michelle L; Cutler, Gretchen J; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Morse, Rustin B; Auger, Katherine A; Raphael, Jean L; Gottlieb, Laura M; Fieldston, Evan S; Shah, Samir S

    2016-04-01

    Performance-measure risk adjustment is of great interest to hospital stakeholders who face substantial financial penalties from readmissions pay-for-performance (P4P) measures. Despite evidence of the association between social determinants of health (SDH) and individual patient readmission risk, the effect of risk adjusting for SDH on readmissions P4P penalties to hospitals is not well understood. To determine whether risk adjustment for commonly available SDH measures affects the readmissions-based P4P penalty status of a national cohort of children's hospitals. Retrospective cohort study of 43 free-standing children's hospitals within the Pediatric Health Information System database in the calendar year 2013. We evaluated hospital discharges from 2013 that met criteria for 3M Health Information Systems' potentially preventable readmissions measure for calendar year 2013. The analysis was conducted from July 2015 to August 2015. Two risk-adjustment models: a baseline model adjusted for severity of illness and an SDH-enhanced model that adjusted for severity of illness and the following 4 SDH variables: race, ethnicity, payer, and median household income for the patient's home zip code. Change in a hospital's potentially preventable readmissions penalty status (ie, change in whether a hospital exceeded the penalty threshold) using an observed-to-expected potentially preventable readmissions ratio of 1.0 as a penalty threshold. For the 179,400 hospital discharges from the 43 hospitals meeting inclusion criteria, median (interquartile range [IQR]) hospital-level percentages for the SDH variables were 39.2% nonwhite (n = 71,300; IQR, 28.6%-54.6%), 17.9% Hispanic (n = 32,060; IQR, 6.7%-37.0%), and 58.7% publicly insured (n = 106,116; IQR, 50.4%-67.8%). The hospital median household income for the patient's home zip code was $ 40,674 (IQR, $ 35,912-$ 46,190). When compared with the baseline model, adjustment for SDH resulted in a change in penalty status for 3

  6. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  7. Global and Local Evaluations of Public Speaking Performance in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest versus the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n = 43) or low (n = 47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self and experimenter assessments again after three days, in addition to a measure of post-event processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the high social anxiety group rated their performance more negatively than the low social anxiety group did. Moreover, the high social anxiety group’s ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the low social anxiety group’s ratings. As expected, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. PMID:22035989

  8. Spaces of Innovation: Experiences from Two Small High-Tech Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Tuula; Heiskanen, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: By comparing two small high-tech firms specialising in medical technology this article seeks to answer the following questions: What are the key characteristics of innovation processes in the case firms? How do the mutual relationships between mental, social and physical spaces explain the different pathways in the innovation processes in…

  9. Outsourcing Relationships between Firms and Their Training Providers: The Role of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Thomas W.; Klaas, Brian S.

    2005-01-01

    Firms increasingly use external vendors to provide training for their employees. And because trust has been found to be essential in successful interfirm relationships, this study identified a number of factors thought to be associated with both self-interested trust and socially oriented trust between firms and their training suppliers. Using…

  10. Outsourcing Relationships between Firms and Their Training Providers: The Role of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Thomas W.; Klaas, Brian S.

    2005-01-01

    Firms increasingly use external vendors to provide training for their employees. And because trust has been found to be essential in successful interfirm relationships, this study identified a number of factors thought to be associated with both self-interested trust and socially oriented trust between firms and their training suppliers. Using…

  11. Spaces of Innovation: Experiences from Two Small High-Tech Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Tuula; Heiskanen, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: By comparing two small high-tech firms specialising in medical technology this article seeks to answer the following questions: What are the key characteristics of innovation processes in the case firms? How do the mutual relationships between mental, social and physical spaces explain the different pathways in the innovation processes in…

  12. Associations between oxytocin receptor genotypes and social cognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael C; Horan, William P; Nurmi, Erika L; Rizzo, Shemra; Li, Wendy; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities, which are strongly associated with social functioning. To advance our understanding of the genetic variation that is associated with social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we genotyped 74 schizophrenia outpatients who completed social cognitive performance measures assessing mentalizing, social perception, and emotional intelligence, as well as clinical symptoms. We assessed seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) previously found to show replicable associations with socio-emotional processes. For one of the seven SNPs, rs2268493, the 'T' allele was significantly associated with poorer performance on a composite social cognition index, as well as specific tests of mentalizing and social perception. None of the SNPs were associated with clinical symptoms. Though the sample size is small, these findings provide initial support for the involvement of genetic variants of the OXTR in social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  13. To trade or not to trade: firm-level analysis of emissions trading in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Coria, Jessica; Löfgren, Asa; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies--given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies--is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allows us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  15. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changing the Firm through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdier, Eric

    1992-01-01

    A survey of French research by CEREQ ("A French research centre for analysis of occupations and of vocational education and training") shows that firms have undertaken a number of experiments, most of them large scale, to retrain their work force. These initiatives are situated within a general context of change. Training programs based…

  17. Formal and Informal Work Group Relationships With Performance: A Moderation Model Using Social

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    performance (Baldwin et. al., 1997; Sparrowe et. al., 2001; Yang & Tang, 2004). This idea is consistent with a group research phenomenon termed “social...performance of members of project teams in an academic setting. This research - 9 - expects to find a similar relationship between centrality and...the Casciaro and Lobo (2005) study, they closely resemble the idea of formal and informal social interaction respectively, as defined in social

  18. Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

  19. Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…

  20. Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…

  1. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  2. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  3. Persistent Patterns in Trading Firms' Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Neda; Doyne Farmer, J.

    2007-03-01

    To understand the dynamics of price formation in financial markets, we take the approach of investigating the actions of market participants. We examine the impact of the participating firms on the price and find that different firms have different patterns of impact. Each firm can be representative of many traders with different trading habits and strategies but nevertheless we observe statistically significant differences in the firms' market impacts. We also investigate a method of clustering the firms based on a simplified conception of strategies. We find consistent clusters and patterns in firm strategies and show that these relations are statistically significant.

  4. Social Cartographies as Performative Devices in Research on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa; Stein, Sharon; Pashby, Karen; Nicolson, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review social cartography as a methodological approach to map and collectively engage diverse perspectives within the study of higher education. We illustrate the uses of this approach by drawing on our own experiences engaging it as part of an international research project about the effects of the convergence of globalization…

  5. Social Networks and Performance in Distributed Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda, Jordi; Monguet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this…

  6. Social Cartographies as Performative Devices in Research on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa; Stein, Sharon; Pashby, Karen; Nicolson, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review social cartography as a methodological approach to map and collectively engage diverse perspectives within the study of higher education. We illustrate the uses of this approach by drawing on our own experiences engaging it as part of an international research project about the effects of the convergence of globalization…

  7. Social Networks and Performance in Distributed Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda, Jordi; Monguet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this…

  8. Combining oxytocin administration and positive emotion inductions: Examining social perception and analytical performance.

    PubMed

    Human, Lauren J; Thorson, Katherine R; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-04-01

    Intranasal administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has, in some studies, been associated with positive effects on social perception and cognition. Similarly, positive emotion inductions can improve a range of perceptual and performance-based behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examined how OT administration and positive emotion inductions interact in their associations with social and analytical performance. Participants (N=124) were randomly assigned to receive an intranasal spray of OT (40IU) or placebo and then viewed one of three videos designed to engender one of the following emotion states: social warmth, pride, or an affectively neutral state. Following the emotion induction, participants completed social perception and analytical tasks. There were no significant main effects of OT condition on social perception tasks, failing to replicate prior research, or on analytical performance. Further, OT condition and positive emotion inductions did not interact with each other in their associations with social perception performance. However, OT condition and positive emotion manipulations did significantly interact in their associations with analytical performance. Specifically, combining positive emotion inductions with OT administration was associated with worse analytical performance, with the pride induction no longer benefiting performance and the warmth induction resulting in worse performance. In sum, we found little evidence for main or interactive effects of OT on social perception but preliminary evidence that OT administration may impair analytical performance when paired with positive emotion inductions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Anxiety, Affect, Cortisol Response and Performance on a Speech Task.

    PubMed

    Losiak, Wladyslaw; Blaut, Agata; Klosowska, Joanna; Slowik, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by increased emotional reactivity to social stimuli, but results of studies focusing on affective reactions of socially anxious subjects in the situation of social exposition are inconclusive, especially in the case of endocrinological measures of affect. This study was designed to examine individual differences in endocrinological and affective reactions to social exposure as well as in performance on a speech task in a group of students (n = 44) comprising subjects with either high or low levels of social anxiety. Measures of salivary cortisol and positive and negative affect were taken before and after an impromptu speech. Self-ratings and observer ratings of performance were also obtained. Cortisol levels and negative affect increased in both groups after the speech task, and positive affect decreased; however, group × affect interactions were not significant. Assessments conducted after the speech task revealed that highly socially anxious participants had lower observer ratings of performance while cortisol increase and changes in self-reported affect were not related to performance. Socially anxious individuals do not differ from nonanxious individuals in affective reactions to social exposition, but reveal worse performance at a speech task. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Firm-stakeholder connectedness in the deregulating electric utility business: Exchange relationships in a network context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Mark Alan

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation extends current research on firm-stakeholder relationships by proposing a stakeholder connectedness model in a network context involving the deregulating electric utility industry. Connectedness involves the degree to which firms and stakeholders form dependent-interdependent relationships in a network context. First, this dissertation suggests that firm-stakeholder relationships are multilateral and multidirectional. Evolving business practices increasingly involve models in which firms and stakeholders are connected through complex dependent-interdependent exchange relationships. Depending on the type of exchange involved, these relationships often are multilateral and multidirectional, particularly in a network context. Second, this dissertation presents a network-based model in which the degree of connectedness among firms and stakeholders are defined based on types of dependence-interdependence. Recognizing the social and economic nature of exchange among firms and stakeholders, this paper suggests that differing types of trust and control can effectively describe both dependence-interdependence and the degree of connectedness among firms and stakeholders. Third, this dissertation suggests that, from the perspective of exchange relationships in a network environment, power-based relationships provide only a partial explanation of firm-stakeholder interaction. This dissertation conceptualizes power as a subset of dependent-interdependent relationships and one of several factors that influence connectedness among firms and stakeholders in a network. The general proposition of this paper is that firms increasingly are interconnected through exchange relationships. Connectedness among firms and stakeholders in a network can be developed and maintained more effectively when based on long-term relationships. To support this proposition, models of differing types of firm-stakeholder connectedness are provided. Through case study research of firms

  11. Performance in a Social Context: Date Rape versus Date Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Cynthia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the performance of texts ("trigger scripting") as a method of modifying sexual attitudes and assertiveness in a dating context in order to prevent date rape or unwanted sexual aggression. Suggests that live performance alone and live performance plus discussion cam modify sexual attitudes and increase awareness of the issues.…

  12. Walking in the neighbourhood: Performing social citizenship in dementia.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Alison; Kelson, Elizabeth; Baumbusch, Jennifer; O'Connor, Deborah; Purves, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The proliferation of community-based activity programs for people with dementia suggests an appetite for new approaches to support quality of life and well-being for this population. Such groups also have potential to promote social citizenship, although this remains poorly understood. This article presents findings from a subset of data from an ethnographic study of a community-based program for people with young onset dementia; it focuses on Paul's Club and the experiences of 12-15 members who are physically healthy, with moderate to moderately severe dementia. Analysis suggests how aspects of social citizenship are constructed and revealed through the Club's everyday practice of walking in the neighbourhood. Three major themes emerged: Keeping the focus off dementia; Creating a place of belonging; and Claiming a place in the community How the group balances consideration of members' vulnerability and agency is discussed, and the article concludes with implications for future practice and research initiatives.

  13. Self-appraised social problem solving abilities, emotional reactions and actual problem solving performance.

    PubMed

    Shewchuk, R M; Johnson, M O; Elliott, T R

    2000-07-01

    Self-report measures of social problem solving abilities have yet to be associated with objective problem solving performance in any consistent manner. In the present study, we investigated the relation of social problem solving abilities--as measured by the Social Problem Solving Skills Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R [Maydeu-Olivares, A. & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1996). A factor analytic study of the Social Problem Solving Inventory: an integration of theory and data. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 115-133])--to performance on a structured problem solving task. Unlike previous studies, we examined the relation of problem solving skills to performance curves observed in repeated trials, while controlling for affective reactions to each trial. Using hierarchical modeling techniques, a negative problem orientation was significantly predictive of performance and this effect was not mediated by negative affectivity. Results are discussed as they pertain to contemporary models of social problem solving.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1156 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1156 Firm. Firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby; as applied...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised;...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised;...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1156 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1156 Firm. Firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby; as applied...

  20. Hot Shots and Cool Reception? An Expanded View of Social Consequences for High Performers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elizabeth M; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Dong, Yuntao

    2017-02-13

    While high performers contribute substantially to their workgroups and organizations, research has indicated that they incur social costs from peers. Drawing from theories of social comparison and conservation of resources, we advance a rational perspective to explain why high performers draw both intentional positive and negative reactions from peers and consider how cooperative work contexts moderate these effects. A multisource field study of 936 relationships among 350 stylists within 105 salons offered support for our model and an experiment with 204 management students constructively replicated our findings and ruled out alternative explanations. Results indicated that peers offered more support and also perpetrated more undermining to high performers. Paradoxical cognitive processes partly explain these behaviors, and cooperative contexts proved socially disadvantageous for high performers. Findings offer a more comprehensive view of the social consequences of high performance and highlight how peer behaviors toward high performers may be calculated and strategic rather than simply reactionary. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  2. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  3. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn

    2007-09-01

    This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  4. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy...

  5. Altered activation of the ventral striatum under performance-related observation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Becker, M P I; Simon, D; Miltner, W H R; Straube, T

    2017-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear of social and performance situations. The consequence of scrutiny by others for the neural processing of performance feedback in SAD is unknown. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation to positive, negative, and uninformative performance feedback in patients diagnosed with SAD and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects who performed a time estimation task during a social observation condition and a non-social control condition: while either being monitored or unmonitored by a body camera, subjects received performance feedback after performing a time estimation that they could not fully evaluate without external feedback. We found that brain activation in ventral striatum (VS) and midcingulate cortex was modulated by an interaction of social context and feedback type. SAD patients showed a lack of social-context-dependent variation of feedback processing, while control participants showed an enhancement of brain responses specifically to positive feedback in VS during observation. The present findings emphasize the importance of social-context processing in SAD by showing that scrutiny prevents appropriate reward-processing-related signatures in response to positive performances in SAD.

  6. Applying a social network analysis (SNA) approach to understanding radiologists' performance in reading mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli Taba, Seyedamir; Hossain, Liaquat; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: Observer performance has been widely studied through examining the characteristics of individuals. Applying a systems perspective, while understanding of the system's output, requires a study of the interactions between observers. This research explains a mixed methods approach to applying a social network analysis (SNA), together with a more traditional approach of examining personal/ individual characteristics in understanding observer performance in mammography. Materials and Methods: Using social networks theories and measures in order to understand observer performance, we designed a social networks survey instrument for collecting personal and network data about observers involved in mammography performance studies. We present the results of a study by our group where 31 Australian breast radiologists originally reviewed 60 mammographic cases (comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases) and then completed an online questionnaire about their social networks and personal characteristics. A jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC) method was used to measure performance of radiologists. JAFROC was tested against various personal and network measures to verify the theoretical model. Results: The results from this study suggest a strong association between social networks and observer performance for Australian radiologists. Network factors accounted for 48% of variance in observer performance, in comparison to 15.5% for the personal characteristics for this study group. Conclusion: This study suggest a strong new direction for research into improving observer performance. Future studies in observer performance should consider social networks' influence as part of their research paradigm, with equal or greater vigour than traditional constructs of personal characteristics.

  7. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  8. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  9. Cooperative Education Programs in CPA Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibadoux, Gregory M.; Greenberg, Ira S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the background of employed students in a sampling of accounting cooperative education programs, the nature of the final selection process made by the firms, the value of the students to the firm, and the value of the program to the students as perceived by members of the firm. (CT)

  10. An analysis of the size distribution of Italian firms by age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Pasquale

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the size distribution of Italian firms by age. In other words, we want to establish whether the way that the size of firms is distributed varies as firms become old. As a proxy of size we use capital. In [L.M.B. Cabral, J. Mata, On the evolution of the firm size distribution: Facts and theory, American Economic Review 93 (2003) 1075-1090], the authors study the distribution of Portuguese firms and they find out that, while the size distribution of all firms is fairly stable over time, the distributions of firms by age groups are appreciably different. In particular, as the age of the firms increases, their size distribution on the log scale shifts to the right, the left tails becomes thinner and the right tail thicker, with a clear decrease of the skewness. In this paper, we perform a similar analysis with Italian firms using the CEBI database, also considering firms’ growth rates. Although there are several papers dealing with Italian firms and their size distribution, to our knowledge a similar study concerning size and age has not been performed yet for Italy, especially with such a big panel.

  11. Performance in multiple domains of social cognition in parents of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Plana, India; Jackson, Philip L; Godmaire-Duhaime, Florence; Bédard Lacroix, Jacinthe; Achim, Amélie M

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition refers to a set of cognitive abilities that allow us to perceive and interpret social stimuli. Social cognition is affected in schizophrenia and impairments have also been documented in unaffected relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be related to a genetic vulnerability to the disease. This study aims to investigate potential impairments in four domains of social cognition (mentalizing, emotion recognition, social knowledge and empathy) in the same group of relatives in order to gather a more complete picture of social cognition difficulties in this population. The Batterie Intégrée de Cognition Sociale (BICS) (mentalizing, emotion recognition, and social knowledge) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (empathy) were administered to 31 parents of patients with a psychotic disorder and 38 healthy controls. Parents of patients performed significantly worse than controls on the mentalizing test but significantly better on the social knowledge test. No significant between-group differences were observed for emotion recognition and empathy. This study is the first to evaluate four social cognition domains in this population. The results precise which social cognition processes may be impaired or preserved in unaffected relatives of patients and lead us to propose an hypothesis about a mechanism that could underlie the mentalizing difficulties observed in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metacognitive, Social and Interpersonal Skills and Aptitudes in Officer Performance With Distributed Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    changes in operational context that require to their input. Interpersonal and social skills are required a shift in the team equivalent of...their control. significant differences in performance outcomes. Social Skills There is no doubt that many early studies focused on the individual as...a source of leadership ability and they It has been proposed that social skills are significant in found that need for achievement, motivation, and

  13. Boundary Conditions of the High-Investment Human Resource Systems-Small-Firm Labor Productivity Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clint; Way, Sean A.; Kerr, Gerry; Thacker, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Although a few published, multiindustry, firm-level, empirical studies have linked systems of high-investment or high-performance human resource management practices to enhanced small-firm performance, this stream of strategic human resource management research is underdeveloped and equivocal. Accordingly, in this study, we use a sample of…

  14. Boundary Conditions of the High-Investment Human Resource Systems-Small-Firm Labor Productivity Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clint; Way, Sean A.; Kerr, Gerry; Thacker, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Although a few published, multiindustry, firm-level, empirical studies have linked systems of high-investment or high-performance human resource management practices to enhanced small-firm performance, this stream of strategic human resource management research is underdeveloped and equivocal. Accordingly, in this study, we use a sample of…

  15. Essential Performance Objectives for Social Studies: Illustrative Learning Activities (7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Designed for use in Michigan junior high schools in conjunction with the publication "Essential Performance Objectives for the Social Studies," this handbook contains over 175 social studies learning activities. Material is divided into three sections. (1) An extensive introduction considers methods for improving classroom teaching. Topics…

  16. The Analysis of Social Teachers' Performance in the Senior High Schools of Ciamis Regency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulyadi, Endang; Yuniarsih, Tjutju; Disman; Supardan, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    This research is intended to analyze the principal's leadership, school cultures, teachers' welfare, achievement motivation and the competence of social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency and their effects towards the teachers' performance. Population of this research are Social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency,…

  17. SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT, PERSONALITY AND LEARNING PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-CULTURAL PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of learning program, containing four conditions of social reinforcement; positive reinforcement for correct choices, negative reinforcement for...incorrect choices, both positive and negative evaluation for either response, and no social evaluation. It was found that the presence of negative ... reinforcement as a factor significantly lowered the learning performance in one group. The opposite trend was evidenced in the other group. This discrepancy

  18. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  19. Investigating whether and when Family Ethnic/Race Socialization Improves Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony N.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the link between family ethnic/race socialization and Black kindergarteners' and first graders' academic performance as measured by their general knowledge, math, and reading assessment scores. Drawing on identity theory, the authors predicted that repeated instances of family ethnic/race socialization would increase academic…

  20. Social Networks, Communication Styles, and Learning Performance in a CSCL Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hichang; Gay, Geri; Davidson, Barry; Ingraffea, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the relationships between communication styles, social networks, and learning performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. Using social network analysis (SNA) and longitudinal survey data, we analyzed how 31 distributed learners developed collaborative learning…

  1. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  2. The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolici, Maria Francesca; Cuffaro, Miranda; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. It takes for granted that the analysis of a country's performance cannot be limited solely to either economic or social factors. The aim of the paper is to combine relevant economic and "non-economic" (mainly social) aspects of a country's performance…

  3. Mapping the Social Side of Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting Closeness, Trust, and Efficacy with Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Canrinus, Esther T.; Forbes, Cheryl A.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Cornelissen, Frank; Van Lare, Michelle; Hsiao, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study foregrounds the important, but often understudied social side of pre-service teacher development and its relation to teaching performance in one university-based teacher preparation program in the US. We examine the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers' social relationships and perceptions of peer trust and…

  4. Modeling Social Structure as Network Effects: Rewards for Learning Improves Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazy, James K.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Schwandt, David R.

    A theoretical representation of social structure in agent-based organizations is developed. To test the model we generated a hypothesis from organizational learning theory and tested it using computational experiments. We found that emergent social structure associated with rewarding agent learning increased collective output over and above pay for performance.

  5. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  6. Social Networks, Communication Styles, and Learning Performance in a CSCL Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hichang; Gay, Geri; Davidson, Barry; Ingraffea, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the relationships between communication styles, social networks, and learning performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. Using social network analysis (SNA) and longitudinal survey data, we analyzed how 31 distributed learners developed collaborative learning…

  7. Social Networks and Students' Performance in Secondary Schools: Lessons from an Open Learning Centre, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhingi, Wilkins Ndege; Mutavi, Teresia; Kokonya, Donald; Simiyu, Violet Nekesa; Musungu, Ben; Obondo, Anne; Kuria, Mary Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Given the known positive and negative effects of uncontrolled social networking among secondary school students worldwide, it is necessary to establish the relationship between social network sites and academic performances among secondary school students. This study, therefore, aimed at establishing the relationship between secondary school…

  8. Teachers and students: Reflections on social control and future performance

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ernest A.; Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1984-01-01

    To instruct consists of arranging controls between teacher, student, and subject matter. Initial controls must emanate from the teacher since those of the subject matter are minimal, crude, or missing. Teachers mand students to behave in certain ways with respect to a given subject matter. Eventually, however, the teacher must transfer the teacher mediated and managed control of the student to natural controls functioning directly through student interaction with the subject matter. Difficulty in doing this occurs due to the reinforcers for both student and teacher derived from social contact. Nevertheless, the student eventually must be taught to interact with the subject matter independent of teacher involvement if the student is to maintain effective contact with the subject matter beyond the period of formal instruction. PMID:22478606

  9. 20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... before the Social Security Administration. 410.686b Section 410.686b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Representation of Parties § 410.686b Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration. (a) General. A fee for services performed for an individual before the Social...

  10. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  11. A model for evaluating the social performance of construction waste management.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongping

    2012-06-01

    It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects.

  12. Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.

  13. Using Emotional Intelligence and Social Support to Predict Job Performance of Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…

  14. Dandelion Seeds: Poetry as Performance and Research for Social Justice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Mary Stone

    2013-01-01

    A rally in Washington, DC to transform the U. S. schools provided an example of merging poetry, performance, and research for social justice activism. The arts-based research forms of a/r/tography and performance ethnography provided the poet/performer/researcher/activist with frameworks of sense-making that were fluid, intrasubjective, and…

  15. Using Emotional Intelligence and Social Support to Predict Job Performance of Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…

  16. Social Capital, Savings, and Educational Performance of Orphaned Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Karimli, Leyla; Chang-Keun, Han; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of social capital on savings and educational performance of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-level economic strengthening program in Uganda. Findings indicate that if given the opportunity, poor families in Uganda will use financial institutions to save for the education of their adolescent youth. Moreover, although the results are mixed, overall, adolescents with higher levels of social capital and social support, including participation in youth groups, are likely to report better saving performance compared to their counterparts with lower levels of social capital and social support. The results point to: (1) the role for family-economic strengthening programs specifically focused on improving the educational outcomes of orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and (2) the need for adolescents to be encouraged to participate in youth groups since these groups seem to offer the much needed supportive informal institutional structure for positive adolescent outcomes. PMID:20948971

  17. Global and local evaluations of public speaking performance in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cody, Meghan W; Teachman, Bethany A

    2011-12-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest vs. the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n=43) or low (n=47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self-assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self- and experimenter assessments again after 3 days, in addition to a measure of postevent processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the High SA group rated their performance more negatively than the Low SA group. Moreover, the High SA group's ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the Low SA group's ratings. As expected, postevent processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety.

  18. Classroom social experiences as predictors of academic performance.

    PubMed

    Flook, Lisa; Repetti, Rena L; Ullman, Jodie B

    2005-03-01

    A model linking children's peer acceptance in the classroom to academic performance via academic self-concept and internalizing symptoms was tested in a longitudinal study. A sample of 248 children was followed from 4th to 6th grade, with data collected from different informants in each year of the study to reduce respondent bias. A path analysis supported the model; a lack of peer acceptance in the classroom in 4th grade predicted lower academic self-concept and more internalizing symptoms the following year, which in turn, predicted lower academic performance in 6th grade. An alternative path with internalizing symptoms predicting declines in peer acceptance was tested and received some support as well. Implications of the findings for schools are discussed.

  19. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  20. A performative and poetical narrative of critical social theory in nursing education: an ending and threshold of social justice.

    PubMed

    Lapum, Jennifer; Hamzavi, Neda; Veljkovic, Katarina; Mohamed, Zubaida; Pettinato, Adriana; Silver, Sarabeth; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a poetical and performative narrative is shared to examine how the use of stories to critically self-reflect on oppression facilitates an understanding of critical social theory in nursing education and impacts social justice. A fusion of prose with a poetical narrative is employed; the latter is reserved to capture the immediacy of personal, emotive, and embodied storied experiences. This deeply intimate and dialogical story begins with a pedagogical experiment created to facilitate nursing students' understanding of critical social theory. Drawing upon Paulo Freire's work, the nursing teacher in a professional development course attempted to deconstruct power relations and cultivate an open and safe learning environment by sharing a poem that depicts her oppression. Students then anonymously wrote a word/statement about their oppression. The teacher created a composite poem from students' words and shared it with the class; it was a powerful moment that highlighted their shared humanity. As a way to further explore stories and consider how to preserve these words, a small group of students and the teacher formed the 'the oppression group'. Towards the end, we conclude an unfinished story by realizing that the chains of oppression are loosening and humanity is surfacing. There is still a camouflaging of an authentic self. There are still stories to be told. The group is not yet certain if a social representation of an authentic self is possible and if all stories can be told. It has become apparent that the personal can play out in social justice as enacted in the classroom between teacher and students and provides an entry point into the development of the capacity to be social agents in nursing. The group simultaneously concludes the story with both an ending and a threshold of social justice.

  1. Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.

  2. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence.

  3. Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T

    2008-12-01

    The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.

  4. Kinetics of moisturizing and firming effects of cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Fontaine, K; Piérard, G E

    2008-04-01

    The assessment of cosmetic efficacy is rarely performed in studies comparing different concentrations of active compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the skin hydrating and the skin firming dose-response effects of cosmetic formulations enriched in compounds derived from algae and fish collagen. A series of factors were studied including the type of formulation (cream or serum), the concentration in active ingredients, the effect of repetitive applications, as well as any residual effect of the formulations after stopping their applications. The serum enriched in marine compounds showed a better moisturizing effect in short term. The cream appeared more active later, particularly following repeat applications. A sustained tensor (firming) effect was observed during treatment with both the lotion and the cream. However, no remnant firming effect was perceived after stopping treatment.

  5. The Private Military Firms: Historical Evolution and Industry Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT The Private Military Firms – Historical Evolution and...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2007 Authors: _____________________________________ Yusuf Alabarda

  6. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  7. Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-07-01

    Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P < .05) and was found to mediate the relation between working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development.

  8. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-06

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors.

  9. The Resource-Based View and Value: The Customer-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clulow, Val; Barry, Carol; Gerstman, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The resource-based view (RBV) explores the role of key resources, identified as intangible assets and capabilities, in creating competitive advantage and superior performance. To a great extent the conceptual analysis and empirical research within the RBV has focused on the firm's perspective of key resources and the value to the firm of…

  10. The Teaching Firm: Where Productive Work and Learning Converge. Report on Research Findings and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teaching Firm project examined the process and role of informal learning in seven high-performance work organizations in the manufacturing industry. The working concept of a teaching firm was defined as "an environment in which teaching and learning are institutionally and culturally embedded in the organization and are perceived to be…

  11. The Resource-Based View and Value: The Customer-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clulow, Val; Barry, Carol; Gerstman, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The resource-based view (RBV) explores the role of key resources, identified as intangible assets and capabilities, in creating competitive advantage and superior performance. To a great extent the conceptual analysis and empirical research within the RBV has focused on the firm's perspective of key resources and the value to the firm of…

  12. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  13. Social Cognitive Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…

  14. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  15. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  16. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  17. The Mechanics of Social Capital and Academic Performance in an Indian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Sharique; Bagde, Surendrakumar

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine how social capital affects the creation of human capital. Specifically, we study how college students' peers affect academic performance. Building on existing research, we consider the different types of peers in the academic context and the various mechanisms through which peers affect performance. We test our model…

  18. Third-Year College Retention and Transfer: Effects of Academic Performance, Motivation, and Social Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.; Casillas, Alex; Oh, In-Sue

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness on third-year retention, transfer, and dropout behavior. To accommodate the three outcome categories and nesting of data within institutions, we fit a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression path model with first-year academic performance as a mediating…

  19. The Mechanics of Social Capital and Academic Performance in an Indian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Sharique; Bagde, Surendrakumar

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine how social capital affects the creation of human capital. Specifically, we study how college students' peers affect academic performance. Building on existing research, we consider the different types of peers in the academic context and the various mechanisms through which peers affect performance. We test our model…

  20. The Effect of Age, Race, and Sex on Social Cognitive Performance in Individuals With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Kouros, Chrystyna; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L

    2017-05-01

    Age, race, and sex are linked to social cognitive performance among healthy individuals, but whether similar effects are evident in schizophrenia is unknown. Data from 170 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 98 healthy controls were used to examine relations between these demographic factors and performance across multiple domains and measures of social cognition. Sex was not related to performance on any domain, but older age was related to poorer emotion recognition from dynamic stimuli in both patients and controls. In patients, older age was also associated with better abilities to decipher hints. Both Caucasian patients and controls performed better than African American individuals on emotion recognition and mental state attribution tasks that use only Caucasian individuals as visual stimuli. Findings suggest rather limited influences of demographic factors but do demonstrate normative age and race effects among patients. Findings also highlight important methodological considerations for measurement of social cognition.

  1. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  2. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale…

  3. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale…

  4. Social rank and reproductive performance of pampas deer females (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Morales-Piñeyrúa, Jéssica Tatiana; Ciappesoni, Gabriel; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2014-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine if success index of pampas deer females is related with females' age and if social rank makes any influence on reproductive performance. Female social rank was determined in 18 groups of animals composed of 1 male: 5-9 females (total=98 females). Date of parturition for each female and sex and birth weight of fawns were recorded for each birth. The females were categorized in three hierarchical ranks: low (<0.33) (group LR), medium (0.33-0.66) (group MR), and high (>0.66) (group HR). The success index increased with age in pampas deer females (P<0.001). Social rank had no effect on calving success, relative calving dates, sex ratio or body weight at birth. In this study, the success index was related with females' age, and the reproductive performance did not differ between females of different social ranks.

  5. Cyberstalking Victimization, Depression, and Academic Performance: The Role of Perceived Social Support from Parents.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2017-08-10

    Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.

  6. Specialization and herding behavior of trading firms in a financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, Fabrizio; Moro, Esteban; Vaglica, Gabriella; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2008-04-01

    Agent-based models of financial markets usually make assumptions about agent's preferred stylized strategies. Empirical validations of these assumptions have not been performed so far on a full-market scale. Here we present a comprehensive study of the resulting strategies followed by the firms which are members of the Spanish Stock Exchange. We are able to show that they can be characterized by a resulting strategy and classified in three well-defined groups of firms. Firms of the first group have a change of inventory of the traded stock which is positively correlated with the synchronous stock return whereas firms of the second group show a negative correlation. Firms of the third group have an inventory variation uncorrelated with stock return. Firms tend to stay in the same group over the years indicating a long term specialization in the strategies controlling their inventory variation. We detect a clear asymmetry in the Granger causality between inventory variation of firms and stock return. We also detect herding in the buying and selling activity of firms. The herding properties of the two groups are markedly different and consistently observed over a four-year period of trading. Firms of the second group herd much more frequently than the ones of the first group. Our results can be used as an empirical basis for agent-based models of financial markets.

  7. Performance error-related activity in monkey striatum during social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Mendoza, Raymundo; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring our performance is fundamental to motor control while monitoring other’s performance is fundamental to social coordination. The striatum is hypothesized to play a role in action selection, action initiation, and action parsing, but we know little of its role in performance monitoring. Furthermore, the striatum contains neurons that respond to own and other’s actions. Therefore, we asked if striatal neurons signal own and conspecific’s performance errors. Two macaque monkeys sitting across a touch-sensitive table in plain view of each other took turns performing a simple motor task to obtain juice rewards while we recorded single striatal neurons from one monkey at a time. Both monkeys made more errors after individually making an error but made fewer errors after a conspecific error. Thus, monkeys’ behavior was influenced by their own and their conspecific’s past behavior. A population of striatal neurons responded to own and conspecific’s performance errors independently of a negative reward prediction error signal. Overall, these data suggest that monkeys are influenced by social errors and that striatal neurons signal performance errors. These signals might be important for social coordination, observational learning and adjusting to an ever-changing social landscape. PMID:27849004

  8. Olfactory performance segregates effects of anhedonia and anxiety on social function in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Kristina; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Stanford, Arielle; Vaez-Azizi, Leila; Antonius, Daniel; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R.; Malaspina, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Background Social dysfunction is common among individuals with schizophrenia. While often attributed to anhedonia, social dysfunction could also result from unrecognized anxiety. We examined the contributions of anhedonia and anxiety to social function using olfactory function to examine whether the domains had separate underpinnings. Methods We assessed anhedonia, anxiety and social function as well as olfactory function in well-characterized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and healthy controls. Results We included 56 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients exhibited significantly higher levels of anhedonia and anxiety than controls, and the domains were highly correlated in patients. The combination of anhedonia and anxiety more strongly predicted social dysfunction than either measure alone. Smell identification was differentially related to the symptoms, with better performance predicting less anhedonia but more social fear in male patients. Limitations The use of self-report measures precludes differentiation between recollected or recounted experience. Aside from smell identification and odour threshold, additional measures of olfaction may be considered for future studies. Conclusion Anhedonia and anxiety were strongly correlated and both negatively impacted social function. The olfactory biomarker results support the conclusion that these domains are separate. Social function in patients with schizophrenia may improve with interventions for anxiety, even in the presence of marked negative symptoms. PMID:26107162

  9. Olfactory performance segregates effects of anhedonia and anxiety on social function in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Kristina; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Stanford, Arielle; Vaez-Azizi, Leila; Antonius, Daniel; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R; Malaspina, Dolores

    2015-11-01

    Social dysfunction is common among individuals with schizophrenia. While often attributed to anhedonia, social dysfunction could also result from unrecognized anxiety. We examined the contributions of anhedonia and anxiety to social function using olfactory function to examine whether the domains had separate underpinnings. We assessed anhedonia, anxiety and social function as well as olfactory function in well-characterized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and healthy controls. We included 56 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients exhibited significantly higher levels of anhedonia and anxiety than controls, and the domains were highly correlated in patients. The combination of anhedonia and anxiety more strongly predicted social dysfunction than either measure alone. Smell identification was differentially related to the symptoms, with better performance predicting less anhedonia but more social fear in male patients. The use of self-report measures precludes differentiation between recollected or recounted experience. Aside from smell identification and odour threshold, additional measures of olfaction may be considered for future studies. Anhedonia and anxiety were strongly correlated and both negatively impacted social function. The olfactory biomarker results support the conclusion that these domains are separate. Social function in patients with schizophrenia may improve with interventions for anxiety, even in the presence of marked negative symptoms.

  10. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  11. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  12. The Influence of Social Comparison with Less Fortunate Others on Task Performance: The Role of Gender Motivations or Appropriate Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Monteil, Jean-Marc

    1995-01-01

    Tested whether social comparisons with probably less fortunate others differently affected boys and girls' cognitive performance in circumstances maximizing concerns about social integration and peer acceptance. Results from 64 French 10- to 12-year-old children show boys performed better than girls when adverse social comparison was anticipated,…

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage and Academic Performance in Public and Private Senior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…

  14. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals.

  15. Live-social-video reward maintains joystick task performance in bonnet macaques.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1993-12-01

    A number of studies have now indicated that monkeys of several species will perform hundreds of food-rewarded joystick tasks on a daily basis. Our goal in this study was to identify the level of joystick task performance that could be maintained by 10 sec. of live, color video of a conspecific social group contingent upon the completion of a joystick task. The subjects were five individually housed bonnet macaques that were highly experienced on joystick tasks. Performance with social-video reward was compared to that maintained by a 190-mg banana-flavored pellet reward and to a nonreward condition. Comparable levels of task activity were maintained by both video and pellet reward, whereas task activity nearly ceased in the absence of reward. Four of the five monkeys increased their levels of task activity between the first and second weeks of social-video reward.

  16. Mental Toughness Moderates Social Loafing in Cycle Time-Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J; Peters, Derek M; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Twenty-seven men (Mage = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual performance identified, and once in a group with individual performance not identified. Using a median split of the mental toughness index, participants were divided into high and low mental toughness groups. Cycling distance was compared using a 2 (trial) × 2 (high-low mental toughness) analysis of variance. We hypothesized that mentally tough participants would perform equally well under both conditions (i.e., no indication of social loafing) compared with low mentally tough participants, who would perform less well when their individual performance was not identifiable (i.e., demonstrating the anticipated social loafing effect). The high mental toughness group demonstrated consistent performance across both conditions, while the low mental toughness group reduced their effort in the non-individually identifiable team condition. The results confirm that (a) clearly identifying individual effort/performance is an important situational variable that may impact team performance and (b) higher perceived mental toughness has the ability to negate the tendency to loaf.

  17. Social Environment Influences Performance in a Cognitive Task in Natural Variants of the Foraging Gene

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Celine; Burns, James G.; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Mery, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, natural genetic variation in the foraging gene affects the foraging behaviour of larval and adult flies, larval reward learning, adult visual learning, and adult aversive training tasks. Sitters (fors) are more sedentary and aggregate within food patches whereas rovers (forR) have greater movement within and between food patches, suggesting that these natural variants are likely to experience different social environments. We hypothesized that social context would differentially influence rover and sitter behaviour in a cognitive task. We measured adult rover and sitter performance in a classical olfactory training test in groups and alone. All flies were reared in groups, but fly training and testing were done alone and in groups. Sitters trained and tested in a group had significantly higher learning performances compared to sitters trained and tested alone. Rovers performed similarly when trained and tested alone and in a group. In other words, rovers learning ability is independent of group training and testing. This suggests that sitters may be more sensitive to the social context than rovers. These differences in learning performance can be altered by pharmacological manipulations of PKG activity levels, the foraging (for) gene's gene product. Learning and memory is also affected by the type of social interaction (being in a group of the same strain or in a group of a different strain) in rovers, but not in sitters. These results suggest that for mediates social learning and memory in D. melanogaster. PMID:24349049

  18. Social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users.

    PubMed

    Wiefferink, C H; Detmar, S B; Coumans, B; Vogels, T; Paulussen, T G W

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users who practice bodybuilding, fitness, powerlifting or combat sports. In this questionnaire-based study, 144 respondents answered questions on their actual use and intention to use such drugs and also on their background characteristics and beliefs, such as their attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy. While all social psychological determinants correlated with intention to use these drugs, the most important predictors were personal norms, beliefs about performance outcomes and the perceived behavior of others. Non-users held more restrictive norms about using performance-enhancing drugs, were less optimistic about the performance-enhancing outcomes and believed that fewer significant others used performance-enhancing drugs than users and ex-users. The results of this study indicate that users attribute advantages to performance-enhancing drugs and are inclined to overlook the risks of using them. Preventive interventions should focus on influencing personal norms and social processes.

  19. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

  20. 7 CFR 51.1012 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1012 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1551 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1551 Firm. Firm means that the potato is not...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1006 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1006 Firm. Firm means that the fruit is not soft...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but...

  4. 7 CFR 51.893 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Definitions § 51.893 Firm. Firm means that the berry does not yield more than slightly to moderate...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but...

  6. 7 CFR 51.893 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Definitions § 51.893 Firm. Firm means that the berry does not yield more than slightly to moderate...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2843 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2843 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly...

  10. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  11. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  12. A Firm Venture for a Public College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershfield, Allan F.

    1998-01-01

    The Fashion Institute of Technology (New York) is developing a Center for Design Innovation to nurture start-up of design firms and facilitate contacts between firms and clothing manufacturers, but its primary purpose is to generate revenue for the college. The evolution of the center and the lessons learned that may be useful to other public…

  13. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  14. Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

  15. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Social comparison performance standards, threat, and tolerance for experimentally-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Phillips, Heath

    2011-11-01

    Social modelling experiments have illustrated how upward social comparisons (i.e., observing pain tolerant role models) can facilitate tolerance relative to downward social comparison (i.e., observing pain intolerant alternatives). However, because clinical studies suggest that people prefer to make downward social comparisons with less fortunate others when they are threatened or overwhelmed with pain or illness, it seems plausible that upward social comparisons confer fewer benefits when pain is appraised as threatening. To address this issue, we assessed effects of verbally-presented upward and downward social comparison standards on tolerance for cold pressor pain among 124 Australian adults (44 men, 80 women) primed with either more or less threatening orienting information about task-related pain sensations. As predicted, participants exposed to the lower threat orienting prime and upward comparison performance standard were significantly more pain tolerant than peers in all other conditions. Conversely, the average tolerance time for participants presented with the higher threat orienting prime and upward comparison standard did not differ from that of either downward comparison group. The research highlighted powerful situational influences on tolerance for experimental pain and identified conditions under which verbally-presented upward social comparison standards may facilitate and hinder the capacity to bear pain.

  17. Team Sports Performance Analysed Through the Lens of Social Network Theory: Implications for Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João; Silva, Pedro; Duarte, Ricardo; Davids, Keith; Garganta, Júlio

    2017-02-15

    This paper discusses how social network analyses and graph theory can be implemented in team sports performance analyses to evaluate individual (micro) and collective (macro) performance data, and how to use this information for designing practice tasks. Moreover, we briefly outline possible limitations of social network studies and provide suggestions for future research. Instead of cataloguing discrete events or player actions, it has been argued that researchers need to consider the synergistic interpersonal processes emerging between teammates in competitive performance environments. Theoretical assumptions on team coordination prompted the emergence of innovative, theoretically driven methods for assessing collective team sport behaviours. Here, we contribute to this theoretical and practical debate by re-conceptualising sports teams as complex social networks. From this perspective, players are viewed as network nodes, connected through relevant information variables (e.g. a ball-passing action), sustaining complex patterns of interaction between teammates (e.g. a ball-passing network). Specialised tools and metrics related to graph theory could be applied to evaluate structural and topological properties of interpersonal interactions of teammates, complementing more traditional analysis methods. This innovative methodology moves beyond the use of common notation analysis methods, providing a richer understanding of the complexity of interpersonal interactions sustaining collective team sports performance. The proposed approach provides practical applications for coaches, performance analysts, practitioners and researchers by establishing social network analyses as a useful approach for capturing the emergent properties of interactions between players in sports teams.

  18. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  19. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thinking

    PubMed Central

    Gázquez, José J.; Sainz, Jorge; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Molero, María del M.; Soler, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N = 441) were boys and 50.2% (N = 444) were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence. PMID:25999891

  1. An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human capital and encourage a high degree of social exchange within an organization, and that these are positively related to the organization's overall performance. On the basis of a sample of Japanese establishments, the results provide support for the existence of these mediating mechanisms through which high-performance work systems affect overall establishment performance.

  2. The Impact of Accountability on Teachers' Assessments of Student Performance: A Social Cognitive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Bohmer, Matthias; Grasel, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Research on teachers' judgments of student performance has demonstrated that educational assessments may be biased or may more correctly take the achievements of students into account depending on teachers' motivations while making the judgment. Building on research on social judgment formation the present investigation examined whether the…

  3. Social Media and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in South-East Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…

  4. The Suffolk County Department of Social Services Performance Study. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottheim, David; Wilson, George R.

    The logic and methodology applied in a management science approach to performance and staff utilization in the Client Benefits (CBA) and Community Service (CSA) divisions of the Suffolk County (New York) Department of Social Services (SCDSS) are described. Using a blend of classical organization theory and management science techniques, the CBA…

  5. Building Learning Communities: Partnerships, Social Capital and VET Performance. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janelle; Gorringe, Scott; Lacey, Justine

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Building Learning Communities: Partnerships, Social Capital and VET Performance." It provides regional summaries and the "facts and flavour" for each of the following areas: (1) Restructuring Rural Landscape (Wide Bay Burnett, Queensland); (2)…

  6. Maryland School Performance Assessment Program, 1992. Social Studies List of Outcomes and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The Maryland School Performance Program for 1992 puts forward social studies outcomes and indicators for grades K-3, grades 4-5, and grades 6-8. Specific indicators for each grade grouping further delineate the following seven individual outcomes: (1) political systems--students will demonstrate an understanding of the historical development and…

  7. The Suffolk County Department of Social Services Performance Study. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottheim, David; Wilson, George R.

    The logic and methodology applied in a management science approach to performance and staff utilization in the Client Benefits (CBA) and Community Service (CSA) divisions of the Suffolk County (New York) Department of Social Services (SCDSS) are described. Using a blend of classical organization theory and management science techniques, the CBA…

  8. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors

    PubMed Central

    HANNON, BRENDA; MCNAUGHTON-CASSILL, MARY

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety. PMID:21804694

  9. Early Childhood Practitioner Judgments of the Social Validity of Performance Checklists and Parent Practice Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from three field tests evaluations of early childhood intervention practitioner performance checklists and three parent practice guides are reported. Forty-two practitioners from three early childhood intervention programs reviewed the checklists and practice guides and made (1) social validity judgments of both products, (2) judgments of…

  10. The Effect of Interactive Technology on Informal Learning and Performance in a Social Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a qualitative multiple case study research design using a mixed methods approach to provide insight into the effect of interactive technology on informal learning and performance in a social business setting inhabited by knowledge workers. The central phenomenon examined is the variance in behavioral intention towards…

  11. Reliability Issues and Solutions for Coding Social Communication Performance in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Coggins, Truman E.; Beilinson, Jill S.; Donaldson, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the utility of time-interval analysis for documenting the reliability of coding social communication performance of children in classroom settings. Of particular interest was finding a method for determining whether independent observers could reliably judge both occurrence and duration of ongoing behavioral dimensions for…

  12. Diagnostic Utility of the Social Skills Improvement System Performance Screening Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Wang, Ye; Mohammadiamin, Houra; Cirks, Christen K.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers investigated the diagnostic utility of the Social Skills Improvement System: Performance Screening Guide (SSIS-PSG). Correlational, regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and conditional probability analyses were run to compare ratings on the SSIS-PSG subscales of Prosocial Behavior, Reading Skills, and Math Skills, to…

  13. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  14. Peer Relationships, Social Behaviours, Academic Performance and Loneliness in Korean Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yoolim

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…

  15. Students' Performance at Tutorial Online of Social Studies through the Use of Learning Cycle Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe student's performance in tutorial online (tuton) of Social Studies through developing the 5Es--Engage Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate--Learning Cycle Model (the 5Es-LCM). The study conducted at UT-Online portal uses the Research and Development (R&D) method. The research subjects consisted of…

  16. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  17. The Differential Effects of General Mental Ability and Emotional Intelligence on Academic Performance and Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lynda Jiwen; Huang, Guo-hua; Peng, Kelly Z.; Law, Kenneth S.; Wong, Chi-Sum; Chen, Zhijun

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the debate about whether emotional intelligence (EI) has incremental validity over and above traditional intelligence dimensions. We propose that EI and general mental abilities (GMA) differ in predicting academic performance and the quality of social interactions among college students. Using two college student samples, we…

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  19. Improving Learning through Performance Assessment in a Social Studies Methods Course for Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaman, Heather; Kistler, Sara Lamb

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how two instructors used assessment data to improve an undergraduate course, Teaching Social Studies in the Elementary Classroom. This entailed revising the core assignment for the course--the creation of a thematic unit of instruction--and developing a scoring guide to assess teacher candidates' performance. Data collected…

  20. The Effects of Teaching Styles on Motor Performance, Self Concept, and Social Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael

    The effects of three teaching styles in Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles were examined in terms of the motor skill acquisition and social skill development of 96 randomly selected fifth grade students, who were taught a hockey accuracy task. Performance data were collected prior to, midway through, and following training and were analyzed:…

  1. Organizational Socialization and Its Relation with Organizational Performance in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ali; Ozturk, Inci; Polatcan, Mahmut; Saylik, Ahmet; Bil, Erkut

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore organizational socialization and organizational performance levels of secondary school teachers and the relation between the two variables mentioned. The study is designed as correlational research. The target population of the research consists of 5744 teachers who work in public and private Anatolian high…

  2. Social Reinforcement, Personality and Learning Performance in Cross-Cultural Programmed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, John D.

    An Arab Culture Assimilator, basically a branching type of learning program, was administered to forty-seven subjects in two groups involved in a cross-cultural field study in order to determine the differing effects of varied social reinforcement on learning performance. The conditions of reinforcement were: correct, positive; incorrect,…

  3. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  4. Loaded Pistols: The Interplay of Social Intervention and Anti-Aesthetic Tradition in Learning Disabled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…

  5. The Effects of CW (Chemical Warfare)-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    measure of the degree to which the monkeys were adapting to the capture and handling routine. Training on three learning and performance tasks which...facility during laboratory testing. Adaptation to capture and handling. The behavioral 7. testing performed in the laboratory requires that the monkeys...serving as subjects be removed from their social groups each day, weighed, and brought to the test apparatus. They also must "" N be adapted to the

  6. Robot Comedy Lab: experimenting with the social dynamics of live performance.

    PubMed

    Katevas, Kleomenis; Healey, Patrick G T; Harris, Matthew Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The success of live comedy depends on a performer's ability to "work" an audience. Ethnographic studies suggest that this involves the co-ordinated use of subtle social signals such as body orientation, gesture, gaze by both performers and audience members. Robots provide a unique opportunity to test the effects of these signals experimentally. Using a life-size humanoid robot, programmed to perform a stand-up comedy routine, we manipulated the robot's patterns of gesture and gaze and examined their effects on the real-time responses of a live audience. The strength and type of responses were captured using SHORE™computer vision analytics. The results highlight the complex, reciprocal social dynamics of performer and audience behavior. People respond more positively when the robot looks at them, negatively when it looks away and performative gestures also contribute to different patterns of audience response. This demonstrates how the responses of individual audience members depend on the specific interaction they're having with the performer. This work provides insights into how to design more effective, more socially engaging forms of robot interaction that can be used in a variety of service contexts.

  7. Robot Comedy Lab: experimenting with the social dynamics of live performance

    PubMed Central

    Katevas, Kleomenis; Healey, Patrick G. T.; Harris, Matthew Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The success of live comedy depends on a performer's ability to “work” an audience. Ethnographic studies suggest that this involves the co-ordinated use of subtle social signals such as body orientation, gesture, gaze by both performers and audience members. Robots provide a unique opportunity to test the effects of these signals experimentally. Using a life-size humanoid robot, programmed to perform a stand-up comedy routine, we manipulated the robot's patterns of gesture and gaze and examined their effects on the real-time responses of a live audience. The strength and type of responses were captured using SHORE™computer vision analytics. The results highlight the complex, reciprocal social dynamics of performer and audience behavior. People respond more positively when the robot looks at them, negatively when it looks away and performative gestures also contribute to different patterns of audience response. This demonstrates how the responses of individual audience members depend on the specific interaction they're having with the performer. This work provides insights into how to design more effective, more socially engaging forms of robot interaction that can be used in a variety of service contexts. PMID:26379585

  8. Evaluating the Social Media Performance of Hospitals in Spain: A Longitudinal and Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Basagoiti Bilbao, Ignacio; Traver Salcedo, Manuel; Traver Salcedo, Vicente

    2017-05-23

    Social media is changing the way in which citizens and health professionals communicate. Previous studies have assessed the use of Health 2.0 by hospitals, showing clear evidence of growth in recent years. In order to understand if this happens in Spain, it is necessary to assess the performance of health care institutions on the Internet social media using quantitative indicators. The study aimed to analyze how hospitals in Spain perform on the Internet and social media networks by determining quantitative indicators in 3 different dimensions: presence, use, and impact and assess these indicators on the 3 most commonly used social media - Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. Further, we aimed to find out if there was a difference between private and public hospitals in their use of the aforementioned social networks. The evolution of presence, use, and impact metrics is studied over the period 2011- 2015. The population studied accounts for all the hospitals listed in the National Hospitals Catalog (NHC). The percentage of hospitals having Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube profiles has been used to show the presence and evolution of hospitals on social media during this time. Usage was assessed by analyzing the content published on each social network. Impact evaluation was measured by analyzing the trend of subscribers for each social network. Statistical analysis was performed using a lognormal transformation and also using a nonparametric distribution, with the aim of comparing t student and Wilcoxon independence tests for the observed variables. From the 787 hospitals identified, 69.9% (550/787) had an institutional webpage and 34.2% (269/787) had at least one profile in one of the social networks (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) in December 2015. Hospitals' Internet presence has increased by more than 450.0% (787/172) and social media presence has increased ten times since 2011. Twitter is the preferred social network for public hospitals, whereas private hospitals

  9. Evaluating the Social Media Performance of Hospitals in Spain: A Longitudinal and Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media is changing the way in which citizens and health professionals communicate. Previous studies have assessed the use of Health 2.0 by hospitals, showing clear evidence of growth in recent years. In order to understand if this happens in Spain, it is necessary to assess the performance of health care institutions on the Internet social media using quantitative indicators. Objectives The study aimed to analyze how hospitals in Spain perform on the Internet and social media networks by determining quantitative indicators in 3 different dimensions: presence, use, and impact and assess these indicators on the 3 most commonly used social media - Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. Further, we aimed to find out if there was a difference between private and public hospitals in their use of the aforementioned social networks. Methods The evolution of presence, use, and impact metrics is studied over the period 2011- 2015. The population studied accounts for all the hospitals listed in the National Hospitals Catalog (NHC). The percentage of hospitals having Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube profiles has been used to show the presence and evolution of hospitals on social media during this time. Usage was assessed by analyzing the content published on each social network. Impact evaluation was measured by analyzing the trend of subscribers for each social network. Statistical analysis was performed using a lognormal transformation and also using a nonparametric distribution, with the aim of comparing t student and Wilcoxon independence tests for the observed variables. Results From the 787 hospitals identified, 69.9% (550/787) had an institutional webpage and 34.2% (269/787) had at least one profile in one of the social networks (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) in December 2015. Hospitals’ Internet presence has increased by more than 450.0% (787/172) and social media presence has increased ten times since 2011. Twitter is the preferred social network for public

  10. Paying for performance and the social relations of health care provision: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Priscilla; Nichter, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Over the past decade, the use of financial incentive schemes has become a popular form of intervention to boost performance in the health sector. Often termed "paying for performance" or P4P, they involve "…the transfer of money or material goods conditional upon taking a measurable action or achieving a predetermined performance target" (Eldridge & Palmer, 2009, p.160). P4P appear to bring about rapid improvements in some measured indicators of provider performance, at least over the short term. However, evidence for the impact of these schemes on the wider health system remains limited, and even where evaluations have been positive, unintended effects have been identified. These have included: "gaming" the system; crowding out of "intrinsic motivation"; a drop in morale where schemes are viewed as unfair; and the undermining of social relations and teamwork through competition, envy or ill feeling. Less information is available concerning how these processes occur, and how they vary across social and cultural contexts. While recognizing the potential of P4P, the authors argue for greater care in adapting schemes to particular local contexts. We suggest that insights from social science theory coupled with the focused ethnographic methods of anthropology can contribute to the critical assessment of P4P schemes and to their adaptation to particular social environments and reward systems. We highlight the need for monitoring P4P schemes in relation to worker motivation and the quality of social relations, since these have implications both for health sector performance over the long term and for the success and sustainability of a P4P scheme. Suggestions are made for ethnographies, undertaken in collaboration with local stakeholders, to assess readiness for P4P; package rewards in ways that minimize perverse responses; identify process variables for monitoring and evaluation; and build sustainability into program design through linkage with complementary reforms

  11. A Closer Look at Social Skills and School Performance: Students' Peer Relations Skills and Assertion Skills as Predictors for Their Written and Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…

  12. A Closer Look at Social Skills and School Performance: Students' Peer Relations Skills and Assertion Skills as Predictors for Their Written and Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…

  13. Relationship between social competence and neurocognitive performance in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Raud, Triin; Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy may affect a child's social skills and social cognition. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between sociocognitive skills and neurocognitive performance in children with epilepsy. Thirty-five children with epilepsy between the ages of 7 and 12 years (25 with partial and 10 with generalized epilepsy) and 30 controls participated. Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks, Social Cognition Questionnaire proposed by Saltzman-Benaiah and Lalonde (2007), and Social Skills Rating System were used to assess social competence and sociocognitive skills. Neurocognitive performance was assessed using the NEPSY battery. Children with epilepsy demonstrated more difficulties in understanding false belief (p<.001) and intentional lying (p<.05) and exhibited more behavioral problems (p<.05). Notably, their social skills were at the same level as typically developing peers. Children with epilepsy performed significantly worse in attention, executive, verbal, and fine motor tasks (p<.05). We found positive correlations between the understanding of false belief and in executive (r=.6, p<.05), verbal (r=.45-.49, p<.05), and visuospatial skills (r=.34-.48, p<0.01). Children with generalized epilepsy had more problems in memory tasks (p<.05) and understanding of sarcasm (p<.05) compared with children with partial epilepsy. An age of onset over 9.1 years was positively associated with ToM skills (r=.42, p<.05). In conclusion, better ToM in children with better executive functions, and language and visuospatial skills was revealed. The type of epilepsy and age of onset significantly affected ToM skills.

  14. Exploration of older and younger British adults' performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT).

    PubMed

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-09-01

    Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used in the UK with older and younger adults. There is a growing body of research that suggests that older adults have difficulty with skills associated with social perception. There is therefore a need to determine whether British adults, and more specifically British older adults, perform similarly to the Australian normative TASIT scores available in the manual. To explore the differences between older and younger British adults' performance on TASIT, and to determine whether younger and older British adults perform similarly to the data from Australian adults in TASIT manual. TASIT was administered to a total of 42 native British English speaking participants. The participants were split into two age groups 18-45 and 60-90 years. Comparisons were made between the two groups and the Australian data in TASIT manual. The younger British and Australian adults obtained similar scores on all parts of TASIT. The older British adults though, obtained significantly lower scores than the Australian younger adults on all parts of TASIT and when education was controlled for they obtained significantly lower scores than the British younger adults. The findings are discussed in the light of previous research that has found that older adults are worse than younger adults at social inferences. The findings of the current study suggest that caution should be used when using TASIT with older British adults to assess social perception abilities. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  15. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Verboom, Charlotte E; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Verhulst, Frank C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in adolescents while testing gender differences. Depressive problems and functioning of 2,230 children were measured with structured questionnaires. The measurements took place biennially over 3 waves, from late childhood into adolescence (age range = 10-18 years). To examine the longitudinal relation between depression and functioning, path analyses with cross-lagged effects were conducted with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were used to test for gender differences, which were only observed for academic performance. Other findings indicated substantial stability in depressive problems and functioning over time and within-wave correlations between depression and the 3 types of functioning. Poor social well-being was predicted by depressive problems but not the other way around. The relation between depressive and social problems was bidirectional, that is, they predicted each other. Finally, depressive problems and academic performance were bidirectionally related as well but only in girls.

  16. Bank-Firm Credit Network in Japan: An Analysis of a Bipartite Network

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Luca; Miccichè, Salvatore; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Hideaki; Gallegati, Mauro; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the networked nature of the Japanese credit market. Our investigation is performed with tools of network science. In our investigation we perform community detection with an algorithm which is identifying communities composed of both banks and firms. We show that the communities obtained by directly working on the bipartite network carry information about the networked nature of the Japanese credit market. Our analysis is performed for each calendar year during the time period from 1980 to 2011. To investigate the time evolution of the networked structure of the credit market we introduce a new statistical method to track the time evolution of detected communities. We then characterize the time evolution of communities by detecting for each time evolving set of communities the over-expression of attributes of firms and banks. Specifically, we consider as attributes the economic sector and the geographical location of firms and the type of banks. In our 32-year-long analysis we detect a persistence of the over-expression of attributes of communities of banks and firms together with a slow dynamic of changes from some specific attributes to new ones. Our empirical observations show that the credit market in Japan is a networked market where the type of banks, geographical location of firms and banks, and economic sector of the firm play a role in shaping the credit relationships between banks and firms. PMID:25933413

  17. Bank-firm credit network in Japan: an analysis of a bipartite network.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Luca; Miccichè, Salvatore; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Hideaki; Gallegati, Mauro; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the networked nature of the Japanese credit market. Our investigation is performed with tools of network science. In our investigation we perform community detection with an algorithm which is identifying communities composed of both banks and firms. We show that the communities obtained by directly working on the bipartite network carry information about the networked nature of the Japanese credit market. Our analysis is performed for each calendar year during the time period from 1980 to 2011. To investigate the time evolution of the networked structure of the credit market we introduce a new statistical method to track the time evolution of detected communities. We then characterize the time evolution of communities by detecting for each time evolving set of communities the over-expression of attributes of firms and banks. Specifically, we consider as attributes the economic sector and the geographical location of firms and the type of banks. In our 32-year-long analysis we detect a persistence of the over-expression of attributes of communities of banks and firms together with a slow dynamic of changes from some specific attributes to new ones. Our empirical observations show that the credit market in Japan is a networked market where the type of banks, geographical location of firms and banks, and economic sector of the firm play a role in shaping the credit relationships between banks and firms.

  18. The Effect of Peer-Coaching on Social Skills Performance of Middle School Students with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, John

    2014-01-01

    Students with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often face significant social challenges in the middle school setting. For example, as students move beyond elementary school social interactions between peers typically become more complex and less predictable. When social demands begin to exceed the performance levels of students with…

  19. The Effect of Peer-Coaching on Social Skills Performance of Middle School Students with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, John

    2014-01-01

    Students with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often face significant social challenges in the middle school setting. For example, as students move beyond elementary school social interactions between peers typically become more complex and less predictable. When social demands begin to exceed the performance levels of students with…

  20. Psychometric Performance of a Novel Measure of Social Support among Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Social support is protective for a variety of health outcomes, and individuals living outside their country of origin ("sojourners") might use social support in distinctive ways. The authors performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the 18-item Index of Sojourner Social Support (ISSS) using data obtained from 190 Spanish-speaking…

  1. A Multidisciplinary Research Framework on Green Schools: Infrastructure, Social Environment, Occupant Health, and Performance.

    PubMed

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J; Schaeffer, Joshua W; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary research agenda that links school facilities, health, and educational outcomes. We conducted a nonsystematic review of peer review publications, government documents, organizational documents, and school climate measurement instruments. We found that studies on the impact of physical environmental factors (air, lighting, and thermal comfort) on health and occupant performance are largely independent of research on the social climate. The current literature precludes the formation of understanding the causal relation among school facilities, social climate, occupant health, and occupant performance. Given the average age of current school facilities in the United States, construction of new school facilities or retrofits of older facilities will be a major infrastructure investment for many municipalities over the next several decades. Multidisciplinary research that seeks to understand the impact of sustainable design on the health and performance of occupants will need to include both an environmental science and social science perspective to inform best practices and quantification of benefits that go beyond general measures of costs savings from energy efficiencies. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. The Buffering Effect of Mindfulness on Abusive Supervision and Creative Performance: A Social Cognitive Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Our research draws upon social cognitive theory and incorporates a regulatory approach to investigate why and when abusive supervision influences employee creative performance. The analyses of data from multiple time points and multiple sources reveal that abusive supervision hampers employee self-efficacy at work, which in turn impairs employee creative performance. Further, employee mindfulness buffers the negative effects of abusive supervision on employee self-efficacy at work as well as the indirect effects of abusive supervision on employee creative performance. Our findings have implications for both theory and practice. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:28955285

  3. The Buffering Effect of Mindfulness on Abusive Supervision and Creative Performance: A Social Cognitive Framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Our research draws upon social cognitive theory and incorporates a regulatory approach to investigate why and when abusive supervision influences employee creative performance. The analyses of data from multiple time points and multiple sources reveal that abusive supervision hampers employee self-efficacy at work, which in turn impairs employee creative performance. Further, employee mindfulness buffers the negative effects of abusive supervision on employee self-efficacy at work as well as the indirect effects of abusive supervision on employee creative performance. Our findings have implications for both theory and practice. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

  4. Privatization and Entry of a Foreign Firm with Demand Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the effects of trade with a foreign firm and privatization of the domestic public firm on an incentive for the domestic firm to reduce costs by undertaking R&D investment, under demand uncertainty. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm, and the effects of demand uncertainty, on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  5. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND BUSINESS FIRM STRATEGIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    characteristic economic patterns also provide a basis for business firms to plan their policies for investment and other international business activities in relation to opportunities in different kinds of environments. (Author)

  6. Design firms shaken by utility deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Korman, R.

    1994-04-11

    Deregulation of the US utility industry has wrought massive change in the engineering community. Power-plant design firms not only play with a livelier ball this spring, they`re playing an entirely new game.

  7. A-E Firm Bridges Color Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1974-01-01

    An architectural-engineering firm has sponsored a seminar on professional careers for black students, started a speakers bureau and a work study program, and participated in curriculum critiques at colleges. (Author/MLF)

  8. 78 FR 70987 - Proxy Advisory Firm Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proxy Advisory Firm Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable discussion; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Securities and Exchange Commission will host...

  9. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  10. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  11. External Causes of Small Construction Firm Failures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    reasons for non-management contractor failures. These interviews led to letters and some phone interviews with national surety associations as we! l as...Table C-4 * 14 * CONSTRUCTION FIRM LIABILITIES FOI LOWI NG FA I L UPF 2500 ..... 200 1500* 0 00 00 1954 190 1966 197 1978 1984 1957 1963 1969 1975 1981...payroll according to Mr. Randell Tanner of Huffines, Tanner, and Russell Incorporated a Georgia commercial insurance firm. --As if to negate contractor

  12. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  13. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  15. Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: an analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Kettler, Ryan J

    2010-12-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally representative sample of children and adolescent ages 3-18 years. Using the national standardization sample of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales (N = 4,550) across 3 informants (teacher, parent, and student) and across 3 broad age groupings (3-5 years, 5-12 years, and 13-18 years), these base rates were computed. Results showed that the base rates for social skills acquisition deficits and problem behaviors are extremely low in the general population. Base rates for social skills performance deficits and social skills strengths were considerably higher, with students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group reporting fewer performance deficits and more social skills strengths than older children (13-18 years). Teachers and parents reported more performance deficits and fewer social skills strengths across all age groups than students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of base rate information in clinical decision making.

  16. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  17. Music performance anxiety in skilled pianists: effects of social-evaluative performance situation on subjective, autonomic, and electromyographic reactions.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Murakoshi, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2009-11-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA), or stage fright in music performance, is a serious problem for many musicians, because performance impairment accompanied by MPA can threaten their career. The present study sought to clarify on how a social-evaluative performance situation affects subjective, autonomic, and motor stress responses in pianists. Measurements of subjective state anxiety, heart rate (HR), sweat rate (SR), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles were obtained while 18 skilled pianists performed a solo piano piece(s) of their choice under stressful (competition) and non-stressful (rehearsal) conditions. Participants reported greater anxiety in the competition condition, which confirmed the effectiveness of stress manipulation. The HR and SR considerably increased from the rehearsal to competition condition reflecting the activation of sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, participants showed higher levels of the EMG magnitude of proximal muscles (biceps brachii and upper trapezius) and the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles in the forearm (extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis) in the competition condition. Although these responses can be interpreted as integral components of an adaptive biological system that creates a state of motor readiness in an unstable or unpredictable environment, they can adversely influence pianists by disrupting their fine motor control on stage and by increasing the risk of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. The relationship between the social management of emotional intelligence and academic performance among medical students.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p < .0001), and was a predictor of poor result in the overall CA (adjusted OR 1.06 95% CI 1.011-1.105). Negative relationships might exist between emotional social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools.

  19. The effects of staffing and training on firm productivity and profit growth before, during, and after the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsang; Ployhart, Robert E

    2014-05-01

    This study integrates research from strategy, economics, and applied psychology to examine how organizations may leverage their human resources to enhance firm performance and competitive advantage. Staffing and training are key human resource management practices used to achieve firm performance through acquiring and developing human capital resources. However, little research has examined whether and why staffing and training influence firm-level financial performance (profit) growth under different environmental (economic) conditions. Using 359 firms with over 12 years of longitudinal firm-level profit data, we suggest that selective staffing and internal training directly and interactively influence firm profit growth through their effects on firm labor productivity, implying that staffing and training contribute to the generation of slack resources that help buffer and then recover from the effects of the Great Recession. Further, internal training that creates specific human capital resources is more beneficial for prerecession profitability, but staffing is more beneficial for postrecession recovery, apparently because staffing creates generic human capital resources that enable firm flexibility and adaptation. Thus, the theory and findings presented in this article have implications for the way staffing and training may be used strategically to weather economic uncertainty (recession effects). They also have important practical implications by demonstrating that firms that more effectively staff and train will outperform competitors throughout all pre- and postrecessionary periods, even after controlling for prior profitability. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Socializing by Day May Affect Performance by Night: Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation is Differentially Mediated by Social Exposure in Extraverts vs Introverts.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Tracy L; Killgore, William D S; Balkin, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    to examine the effects of socially enriched versus socially impoverished environments on performance and alertness decline during sleep deprivation in extraverts versus introverts. participants (n = 29 men, n = 19 women) were assigned to socially enriched (n = 24; 13 introverts, 11 extraverts) or socially impoverished (n = 24; 12 introverts, 12 extraverts) conditions (activities matched) for 12 hours (1000-2200) on Day 1 followed by 22 hours of sleep deprivation (2200-2000; 36 h awake total), monitored by actigraphy. The median split of volunteers' Eysenck Extraversion scores was used for extravert/introvert categorization. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were administered every 2 hours throughout. PVT speed, transformed lapses, modified MWT sleep-onset latency, and SSS were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance, with covariates of age and total actigraphic activity during enrichment or impoverishment. residential sleep/performance testing facility. forty-eight healthy adults (aged 18-39). Twelve hours of socially enriched or isolated environments in extraverts and introverts prior to sleep deprivation. Social experience interacted with personality type to affect alertness and vigilance. Social enrichment, as compared with social impoverishment, was associated with more PVT lapses at 04:00 overall. Similarly, following social enrichment, PVT speed was significantly slower among extraverts than among introverts during sleep deprivation, but no personality-group differences emerged following social impoverishment. MWT sleep latency and SSS subjective sleepiness did not show significant personality or social-condition effects during sleep deprivation. the effect of social exposure on vulnerability or resiliency to sleep deprivation was modulated by introversion and extraversion. Extraverts exposed to social environments were more vulnerable to subsequent sleep

  1. Communication, opponents, and clan performance in online games: a social network approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.

  2. Communication, Opponents, and Clan Performance in Online Games: A Social Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved. PMID:23745617

  3. Optimization for performance-based design under seismic demands, including social costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Oscar; Foschi, Ricardo O.; Ascheri, Juan P.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Grossman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Performance-based design in earthquake engineering is a structural optimization problem that has, as the objective, the determination of design parameters for the minimization of total costs, while at the same time satisfying minimum reliability levels for the specified performance criteria. Total costs include those for construction and structural damage repairs, those associated with non-structural components and the social costs of economic losses, injuries and fatalities. This paper presents a general framework to approach this problem, using a numerical optimization strategy and incorporating the use of neural networks for the evaluation of dynamic responses and the reliability levels achieved for a given set of design parameters. The strategy is applied to an example of a three-story office building. The results show the importance of considering the social costs, and the optimum failure probabilities when minimum reliability constraints are not taken into account.

  4. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  5. Performance Correlates of Social Behavior and Organization in Non-Human Primates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    the troop were not consistent with changes in social behavior and status. Two further studies investigated the effects of the omission of reinforce... effects on individual behavior. Such effects might modulate the way in which individuals perform on tasks that are important for the individual or for...might result from an individual’s sharing of the emotional or monetary rewards for a job well done with others. A third possibility is that the effects

  6. Mental Toughness Moderates Social Loafing in Cycle Time-Trial Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J.; Peters, Derek M.; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Method: Twenty-seven men (M[subscript age] = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual…

  7. Mental Toughness Moderates Social Loafing in Cycle Time-Trial Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J.; Peters, Derek M.; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Method: Twenty-seven men (M[subscript age] = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual…

  8. Examining associations between psychosis risk, social anhedonia, and performance of striatum-related behavioral tasks.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Nicole R; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-08-01

    Both psychosis and anhedonia have been associated to some extent with striatal functioning. The current study examined whether either psychosis risk or social anhedonia was associated with performance on 3 tasks related to striatal functioning. Psychosis risk participants had extremely elevated Perceptual Aberration/Magical Ideation (PerMag) scores (n = 69), with 43% of psychosis risk participants also having semistructured interview-assessed psychotic-like experiences which further heightens their risk of psychotic disorder (Chapman, Chapman, Kwapil, Eckblad, & Zinser, 1994). Compared with both extremely elevated social anhedonia (n = 60) and control (n = 68) groups, the PerMag group exhibited poorer performance on 2 of the striatum-related tasks, the Weather Prediction Task (WPT) and the Learned Irrelevance Paradigm, but not on Finger Tapping. In addition, PerMag participants with psychotic-like experiences were especially impaired on the WPT. Overall, this study arguably provides the first evidence that psychosis risk but not social anhedonia is associated with performance on the WPT, a task thought to be strongly associated with activation in the associative striatum, and also suggests that the WPT might be especially useful as a behavioral measure of psychosis risk.

  9. The Effects of Social Information, Co-Worker Credibility and Social Cue Unanimity on Task Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    realistically by utilizing mixed social cues. Moscovici (1976) asserts that "when an individual or subgroup influences a group, the main factor of success is...Because the research of Moscovici (1976), Allen (1965, 1975) and others has demonstrated that the presence of an individual whose 6 reported perceptions...reduction of conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1975, 11, 215-233. Moscovici , S. Social influence and social change, London

  10. Analysing the Correlation between Social Network Analysis Measures and Performance of Students in Social Network-Based Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnik, Goran; Costa, Eric; Alves, Cátia; Castro, Hélio; Varela, Leonilde; Shah, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Social network-based engineering education (SNEE) is designed and implemented as a model of Education 3.0 paradigm. SNEE represents a new learning methodology, which is based on the concept of social networks and represents an extended model of project-led education. The concept of social networks was applied in the real-life experiment,…

  11. Analysing the Correlation between Social Network Analysis Measures and Performance of Students in Social Network-Based Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnik, Goran; Costa, Eric; Alves, Cátia; Castro, Hélio; Varela, Leonilde; Shah, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Social network-based engineering education (SNEE) is designed and implemented as a model of Education 3.0 paradigm. SNEE represents a new learning methodology, which is based on the concept of social networks and represents an extended model of project-led education. The concept of social networks was applied in the real-life experiment,…

  12. The Effects of CW (Chemical Warfare)-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    g-o3oi 9\\a AD- The Effects of CW-Related Che~icala onne k So1ial Behavior and Performancec 0) 0o Annual Report Bradford N. Punnell W. Ben Iturrian...11. TITLE (include Security Classification) The Effects of CW-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bradford N...performance that will be sensitive to the effects Ofb/C•4 -related chemicals considered Tor use as l antidotes or prophyractics against-a agents

  13. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause) ...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause) ...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause) ...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause) ...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause) ...

  18. 46 CFR 201.22 - Firms and corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firms and corporations. 201.22 Section 201.22 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.22 Firms and corporations. Except as regards law firms, practice before the Administration by firms or corporations on behalf of...

  19. Validation of the functional and social performance - DSF-84 checklist: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rogeria Pimentel de Araujo; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Soares, Iraci; Dos Santos, Alex de Assis Santos; Sousa, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    To develop, implement and validate an instrument for assessing the functional and social performance of young male adults with lower limb amputees based on the international classification of functionality, incapacity, and health. Developed the instrument, the items were grouped into domains (organic aspects - OA, daily activities - DA, performance components - PC, social participation - SP and environmental factors - EF) for statistical analysis. The implementation of the instrument was filmed for validation. Four assessors watched the films on two occasions and gave scores. Intra-class correlation was used to evaluate intra- and inter-rater reproducibility and to the internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha and the criterion validity was assessed by Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results showed good reliability in the scores for OA, DA, PC and SP domains and a reasonable reliability for the EF domain. The differences between assessors performed by the analysis of variance were not significant. The reliability intra-rater, performed through the test-retest method, showed in all domains high levels of intra-rater correspondence. The results show the validity and reliability of DSF-84 to young male adults with amputation of the lower limb, being useful for this population. In this study have been developed, implemented, and validated an instrument (DSF-84) for assessing the functional and social performance of young male adults with lower limb amputees based on the ICF. The results show the validity and reliability of DSF-84 to young male adults with amputation of the lower limb, being useful for this population.

  20. Employee Participation Programs, Group-Based Incentives, and Company Performance: A Union-Nonunion Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Data from 841 Michigan manufacturing firms indicates that employee participation programs contribute substantially more to business performance in unionized than in nonunionized firms. Profit and gain sharing had more impact on performance in nonunionized firms. (SK)

  1. Socializing by Day May Affect Performance by Night: Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation is Differentially Mediated by Social Exposure in Extraverts vs Introverts

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tracy L.; Killgore, William D.S.; Balkin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the effects of socially enriched versus socially impoverished environments on performance and alertness decline during sleep deprivation in extraverts versus introverts. Design: Participants (n = 29 men, n = 19 women) were assigned to socially enriched (n = 24; 13 introverts, 11 extraverts) or socially impoverished (n = 24; 12 introverts, 12 extraverts) conditions (activities matched) for 12 hours (1000–2200) on Day 1 followed by 22 hours of sleep deprivation (2200-2000; 36 h awake total), monitored by actigraphy. The median split of volunteers' Eysenck Extraversion scores was used for extravert/introvert categorization. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were administered every 2 hours throughout. PVT speed, transformed lapses, modified MWT sleep-onset latency, and SSS were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance, with covariates of age and total actigraphic activity during enrichment or impoverishment. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Forty-eight healthy adults (aged 18–39). Interventions: Twelve hours of socially enriched or isolated environments in extraverts and introverts prior to sleep deprivation. Results Social experience interacted with personality type to affect alertness and vigilance. Social enrichment, as compared with social impoverishment, was associated with more PVT lapses at 04:00 overall. Similarly, following social enrichment, PVT speed was significantly slower among extraverts than among introverts during sleep deprivation, but no personality-group differences emerged following social impoverishment. MWT sleep latency and SSS subjective sleepiness did not show significant personality or social-condition effects during sleep deprivation. Conclusions: The effect of social exposure on vulnerability or resiliency to sleep deprivation was modulated by introversion and extraversion

  2. Decelerating the diminishing returns of citizenship on task performance: the role of social context and interpersonal skill.

    PubMed

    Ellington, J Kemp; Dierdorff, Erich C; Rubin, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    Recent scholarship on citizenship behavior demonstrates that engaging too often in these behaviors comes at the expense of task performance. In order to examine the boundary conditions of this relationship, we used resource allocation and social exchange theories to build predictions regarding moderators of the curvilinear association between citizenship and task performance. We conducted a field study of 366 employees, in which we examined the relationship between the frequency of interpersonal helping behavior and task performance and tested for the moderating influences of 3 social context features (social density, interdependence, and social support) and of employees' levels of interpersonal skill. Results provided corroborating evidence of the diminishing returns between citizenship and task performance. Further, these diminishing returns were decelerated when contexts were characterized by high interdependence and social density and when employees possessed strong interpersonal skills. Implications for extending future citizenship theory and research to incorporate curvilinearity are presented.

  3. Social density processes regulate the functioning and performance of foraging human teams

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Myatt, Julia P.; Fürtbauer, Ines; Oesch, Nathan; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Sumner, Seirian; Usherwood, James R.; Hailes, Stephen; Brown, M. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Social density processes impact the activity and order of collective behaviours in a variety of biological systems. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how density of people affects collective human motion in the context of pedestrian flows. However, there is a distinct lack of empirical data investigating the effects of social density on human behaviour in cooperative contexts. Here, we examine the functioning and performance of human teams in a central-place foraging arena using high-resolution GPS data. We show that team functioning (level of coordination) is greatest at intermediate social densities, but contrary to our expectations, increased coordination at intermediate densities did not translate into improved collective foraging performance, and foraging accuracy was equivalent across our density treatments. We suggest that this is likely a consequence of foragers relying upon visual channels (local information) to achieve coordination but relying upon auditory channels (global information) to maximise foraging returns. These findings provide new insights for the development of more sophisticated models of human collective behaviour that consider different networks for communication (e.g. visual and vocal) that have the potential to operate simultaneously in cooperative contexts. PMID:26675584

  4. Automatic testing of cognitive performance in baboons maintained in social groups.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Paleressompoulle, Dany

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory procedures used to study the cognitive functions of primates traditionally have involved removal of the subjects from their living quarters to be tested singly in a remote experimental room. This article presents an alternative research strategy favoring testing primates while they are maintained in their social group. The automatic learning device for monkeys (ALDM) is a computerized test system controlled by an automatic radio frequency identification of subjects. It is provided ad lib inside the social group of monkeys, for voluntary self-testing on a 24-h schedule. Nine baboons were tested with ALDM during a 7-month period. Experiments were performed to assess learning in motor control and abstract reasoning tasks. The results revealed high trial frequencies and excellent learning performance, even in tasks involving the highest cognitive complexities. A different study using ALDM with a group of 3 rhesus monkeys revealed social influences on learning. Beyond its interest for cognitive psychologists, ALDM is of interest for pharmacologists and cognitive neuroscientists working with nonhuman primates. ALDM also can serve as an enrichment tool for captive animals and may be used to study a variety of species other than primates.

  5. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  6. Firm competition in a probabilistic framework of consumer choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Xiao, Rui; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-04-01

    We develop a probabilistic consumer choice framework based on information asymmetry between consumers and firms. This framework makes it possible to study market competition of several firms by both quality and price of their products. We find Nash market equilibria and other optimal strategies in various situations ranging from competition of two identical firms to firms of different sizes and firms which improve their efficiency.

  7. How small firms contrast with large firms regarding perceptions, practices, and needs in the U.S

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2013-01-01

    As many larger secondary woodworking firms have moved production offshore and been adversely impacted by the recent housing downturn, smaller firms have become important to driving U.S. hardwood demand. This study compared and contrasted small and large firms on a number of factors to help determine the unique characteristics of small firms and to provide insights into...

  8. Who Are the Children Most Vulnerable to Social Exclusion? The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem, Popularity, and Nonverbal Intelligence on Cognitive Performance Following Social Exclusion.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Valentina; Riva, Paolo; Caprin, Claudia

    2016-07-26

    Social exclusion has a profound emotional impact on children. However, there is still limited and partly conflicting experimental evidence for the possible effect of social exclusion on children's cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the possibility that some children are more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of social exclusion on cognitive performance. We selected 4 potential candidates that could moderate the effects of social exclusion: relational self-esteem, peer ratings of popularity, rejection sensitivity and nonverbal intelligence. Individual differences in these 4 potential moderating factors were first assessed in a sample of 318 children (45.6 % females; mean age = 9.92 years). Then, in a subsequent experimental session, the participants were either socially included or excluded using a typical manipulation (i.e., the Cyberball paradigm). Following the manipulation, the children's cognitive performance was assessed using a logical reasoning test. The results showed that the children with lower scores for relational self-esteem (the bottom 37.46 % of the sample), lower popularity (43.49 %) or weaker nonverbal intelligence (37.80 %) performed worse on the logical reasoning test following social exclusion. Moreover, children with combined low self-esteem, popularity and nonverbal intelligence were the most affected by social exclusion. This study identified factors that make some children more vulnerable to the negative effects of social exclusion. Overall, the present work underscores the value of considering basic cognitive and relational individual differences when developing interventions aimed at preventing the negative effects of social exclusion among children.

  9. The impact of information disclosure on market liquidity: Evidence from firms' use of Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Qixing; Wang, Lin; Qin, Liangjuan; Zhao, Xiaoye; Wang, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popular use of social media by firms, empirical research investigating their economic values still lags. Based on the Security Exchange Commission's (SEC) new regulation on Fair Disclosure valid important corporate information discloses via social media (RIDSM), in this study, we examine the effectiveness of this new regulation to market liquidity. We collect trade data including daily volume and bid-ask spread to assemble a unique data set at individual firm level from S&P 500 firms and analyze the firms' bid-ask spread and volume before and after issuing the regulation. This natural experiment allows us to separate the effect of regulation from the effect of other confounding factors. The results from our panel data analyses indicate that bid-ask spread has decreased by about 5% in response to the new regulation. Our results are statistically significant and highly robust. We also examine the impact of the new regulation on a volume-based measure of liquidity, and find that the regulation is associated with greater volume, consistent with a reduction in information asymmetry. Moreover, this result holds mainly for firms that are high-tech, consistent with them being in greater need of this additional information disclosure channel.

  10. Electronic performance monitoring and social context: impact on productivity and stress.

    PubMed

    Aiello, J R; Kolb, K J

    1995-06-01

    In a laboratory study, the presence of individual- or work-group-level electronic performance monitoring (EPM) was manipulated as participants worked on a data-entry task alone, as a member of a noninteracting aggregate, or as a member of a cohesive group. The pattern of results suggested the operation of a social facilitation effect, as highly skilled monitored participants keyed more entries than highly skilled nonmonitored participants. The opposite pattern was detected among low-skilled participants. No signs of social loafing were detected among group-monitored participants. Nonmonitored workers and members of cohesive groups felt the least stressed. The implications of these findings for organizations adopting EPM systems are discussed.

  11. Cortisol reactivity and performance abilities in social situations in adults with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lense, Miriam D; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed.

  12. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  13. In ADHD patients performing the Counting Stroop task: a social neuroscience approach.

    PubMed

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Trujillo, Celia; Sánchez-Cortazar, Julián; Barrios, Fernando A

    2012-10-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms are manifested in social dynamics. In this study, the brain activity of eight child and adolescent patients diagnosed with ADHD was examined while they performed the Counting Stroop task and results were interpreted using social neuroscience premises. Brain activity was identified in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions related to the orienting system of attention and with linguistic, facial recognition, and mnemonic processes. Consistent with previous reports, these patients showed no activation in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices related to the executive system of attention. Also, they manifested activation in the insular cortex involving interoceptive processes that may be associated with impulsiveness. Global brain activity involves a network formed during early development and includes experiential components such as learning of rules, reward systems, empathy, and decision making. An integrative assessment of ADHD should consider psychosocial and neurobiological causes integrated into an individual's own experiences assembled throughout life.

  14. Cortisol Reactivity and Performance Abilities in Social Situations in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed. PMID:24245731

  15. The firm as a bundle of barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Watanabe, T.

    2010-08-01

    We empirically investigate the firm growth model proposed by Buldyrev et al. by using a unique dataset that contains the daily sales of more than 200 thousand products, which are collected from about 200 supermarkets in Japan over the last 20 years. We find that the empirical firm growth distribution is characterized by a Laplace distribution at the center and power-law at the tails, as predicted by the model. However, some of these characteristics disappear once we randomly reshuffle products across firms, implying that the shape of the empirical distribution is not produced as described by the model. Our simulation results suggest that the shape of the empirical distribution stems mainly from the presence of relationship between the size of a product and its growth rate.

  16. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  17. Hospital Evaluations by Social Media: A Comparative Analysis of Facebook Ratings among Performance Outliers.

    PubMed

    Glover, McKinley; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Choy, Garry; Prabhakar, Anand M; Pandharipande, Pari V; Gazelle, G Scott

    2015-10-01

    An increasing number of hospitals and health systems utilize social media to allow users to provide feedback and ratings. The correlation between ratings on social media and more conventional hospital quality metrics remains largely unclear, raising concern that healthcare consumers may make decisions on inaccurate or inappropriate information regarding quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which hospitals utilize social media and whether user-generated metrics on Facebook(®) correlate with a Hospital Compare(®) metric, specifically 30-day all cause unplanned hospital readmission rates. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all U.S. hospitals performing outside the confidence interval for the national average on 30-day hospital readmission rates as reported on Hospital Compare. Participants were 315 hospitals performing better than U.S. national rate on 30-day readmissions and 364 hospitals performing worse than the U.S. national rate. The study analyzed ratings of hospitals on Facebook's five-star rating scale, 30-day readmission rates, and hospital characteristics including beds, teaching status, urban vs. rural location, and ownership type. Hospitals performing better than the national average on 30-day readmissions were more likely to use Facebook than lower-performing hospitals (93.3 % vs. 83.5 %; p < 0.01). The average rating for hospitals with low readmission rates (4.15 ± 0.31) was higher than that for hospitals with higher readmission rates (4.05 ± 0.41, p < 0.01). Major teaching hospitals were 14.3 times more likely to be in the high readmission rate group. A one-star increase in Facebook rating was associated with increased odds of the hospital belonging to the low readmission rate group by a factor of 5.0 (CI: 2.6-10.3, p <  0.01), when controlling for hospital characteristics and Facebook-related variables. Hospitals with lower rates of 30-day hospital-wide unplanned readmissions have

  18. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise: Procedures for improving the customer service of bank tellers.

    PubMed

    Crowell, C R; Anderson, D C; Abel, D M; Sergio, J P

    1988-01-01

    Customer service for bank tellers was defined in terms of 11 verbal behavior categories. An audio-recording system was used to track the occurrence of behaviors in these categories for six retail banking tellers. Three behavior management interventions (task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise), applied in sequence, were designed to improve overall teller performance with regard to the behavioral categories targeted. Clarification was accomplished by providing clear delineation of the various target categories, with specific examples of the behaviors in each. Feedback entailed presentation of ongoing verbal and visual information regarding teller performance. Praise consisted of verbal recognition of teller performance by branch managers. Results showed that clarification effects emerged quickly, producing an overall increase in desired behaviors of 12% over baseline. Feedback and praise effects occurred more gradually, resulting in overall increases of 6% and 7%, respectively. A suspension of all procedures led to a decline in overall performance, whereas reinstatement of feedback and praise was again accompanied by performance improvement. These findings extend the generality of behavior management applications and help to distinguish between possible antecedent and consequent effects of performance feedback.

  20. Task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise: Procedures for improving the customer service of bank tellers

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Charles R.; Anderson, D. Chris; Abel, Dawn M.; Sergio, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    Customer service for bank tellers was defined in terms of 11 verbal behavior categories. An audio-recording system was used to track the occurrence of behaviors in these categories for six retail banking tellers. Three behavior management interventions (task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise), applied in sequence, were designed to improve overall teller performance with regard to the behavioral categories targeted. Clarification was accomplished by providing clear delineation of the various target categories, with specific examples of the behaviors in each. Feedback entailed presentation of ongoing verbal and visual information regarding teller performance. Praise consisted of verbal recognition of teller performance by branch managers. Results showed that clarification effects emerged quickly, producing an overall increase in desired behaviors of 12% over baseline. Feedback and praise effects occurred more gradually, resulting in overall increases of 6% and 7%, respectively. A suspension of all procedures led to a decline in overall performance, whereas reinstatement of feedback and praise was again accompanied by performance improvement. These findings extend the generality of behavior management applications and help to distinguish between possible antecedent and consequent effects of performance feedback. PMID:16795713

  1. Beefing up operations in service firms.

    PubMed

    Chase, R B; Hayes, R H

    1991-01-01

    Many articles exhort service firm managers to empower workers and first-line supervisors, exploit technology, focus on the customer, and, above all, provide outstanding service. This article proposes a framework to help you evaluate your company's competitive standing in each of these areas. It discusses four types of companies on a continuum, from the company that is simply "available for service" to the firm that delivers world class service. The authors focus on operations, the function that controls the service encounter, and apply the manufacturing strategy paradigm to services as a means of implementing change.

  2. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Ontology-Based Model Of Firm Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyska, Boryana; Stoenchev, Nikolay

    2010-10-01

    Competitiveness is important characteristics of each business organization (firm, company, corporation etc). It is of great significance for the organization existence and defines evaluation criteria of business success at microeconomical level. Each criterium comprises set of indicators with specific weight coefficients. In the work an ontology-based model of firm competitiveness is presented as a set of several mutually connected ontologies. It would be useful for knowledge structuring, standardization and sharing among experts and software engineers who develop application in the domain. Then the assessment of the competitiveness of various business organizations could be generated more effectively.

  4. Genius begins at home: Shared social identity enhances the recognition of creative performance.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K; Millard, Kathryn

    2017-02-05

    The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists' performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2.10), whereas British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTAs than Oscars (OR: 2.26). Furthermore, results support the hypothesis that these patterns are more pronounced as the diagnostic value of a quality indicator increases - that is, in the conferring of actual awards rather than nominations. Specifically, US artists won a greater proportion of Oscar awards than nominations (OR: 1.77), while British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTA awards than nominations (OR: 1.62). Additional analyses show that the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying in-group culture (US culture in the case of Oscars, British culture in the case of BAFTAs) are more likely to be recognized than the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying the culture of other (out-)groups. These are the first data to provide clear evidence from the field that the recognition of exceptional creative performance is enhanced by shared social identity between perceivers and performers.

  5. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    PubMed Central

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines. PMID:27713417

  6. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  7. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance.

    PubMed

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-07

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  8. Effects of Social Determinants on Chinese Immigrant Food Service Workers' Work Performance and Injuries: Mental Health as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2015-07-01

    The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Mental health problems, which were associated with decreased work performance and increased injuries, also mediated relationships between job/employment concerns and both work performance and injuries but did not mediate the influences of discrimination and social support. This research reveals mechanisms by which social determinants influence immigrant worker health, pointing to complementary strategies for reducing occupational health disparities.

  9. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  10. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    PubMed

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p < 0.001). Estimates of male and female students in same-gender comparison conditions did not differ. In two of three opposite-gender conditions, male students' estimates were higher than those of females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Social comparison influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may

  11. Sickness as cultural performance: drama, trajectory, and pilgrimage root metaphors and the making social of disease.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, R

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the use of root metaphors in the description of social activity and especially the performance of sickness. It starts with a critical account of Susan Sontag's examination of the use of illness as metaphor in literature. There then follows a brief analysis of another account of society based on the discussion of creative literature-Kenneth Burke's "Dramatism," itself acknowledged as a source by Erving Goffman. Goffman's own expressed reservations about his supposed use of a dramatic metaphor are then extended to suggest that Goffman was more concerned with "performance" in a broader sense. The discussion of performative metaphors is then shifted by a critical consideration of Anselm Strauss and colleagues' view of sickness as manifold performances of work rather than drama, expressed in their metaphor of "trajectory." Sickness as a process compounded of many performances is further explored using ideas developed by the anthropologist Victor Turner toward the end of his life, in collaboration with his wife, Edith Turner. It is finally suggested that sickness as cultural performance enables us to understand the dialectical relationships between expressive and instrumental activities surrounding sickness. This in turn leaves room for the nonreductionist understanding, within a sociological framework, of individual idiosyncrasy, biological accident, and the discourse of healing.

  12. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    PubMed

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-09-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  15. Are Social Competence Difficulties Caused by Performance or Acquisition Deficits? The Importance of Self-Regulatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted three studies which examined the performance vs. skill acquisition model of social skills deficits. In Study 1, baseline social behaviors for a random sample of 12 boys with comorbid emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), learning disabilities (LD), language delays, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) revealed that…

  16. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  17. Quality Judgments of Journals as Indicators of Research Performance in the Humanities and the Social and Behavioral Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederhof, A. J.; Zwaan, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted in The Netherlands to construct and validate an indicator of research performance through collecting peer judgments of journals from 385 international scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Quality of coverage by the Social Science Citation Index and Arts and Humanities Citation Index is examined. (24…

  18. Are Social Competence Difficulties Caused by Performance or Acquisition Deficits? The Importance of Self-Regulatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted three studies which examined the performance vs. skill acquisition model of social skills deficits. In Study 1, baseline social behaviors for a random sample of 12 boys with comorbid emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), learning disabilities (LD), language delays, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) revealed that…

  19. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  20. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  1. The Role of Social Media for Collaborative Learning to Improve Academic Performance of Students and Researchers in Malaysian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Rahmi, Waleed Mugahed; Othman, Mohd Shahizan; Yusuf, Lizawati Mi

    2015-01-01

    Social media is widely considered to improve collaborative learning among students and researchers. However, there is a surprising lack of empirical research in Malaysian higher education to improve performance of students and researchers through the effective use of social media that facilitates desirable outcomes. Thus, this study offers a…

  2. Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-F. Wu, C.-R. Li, Y.-T.

    2008-07-01

    While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy.

  3. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  4. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  5. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  6. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  7. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  8. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued...

  9. On size and growth of business firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fabritiis, G.; Pammolli, F.; Riccaboni, M.

    2003-06-01

    We study size and growth distributions of products and business firms in the context of a given industry. Firm size growth is analyzed in terms of two basic mechanisms, i.e., the increase of the number of new elementary business units and their size growth. We find a power-law relationship between size and the variance of growth rates for both firms and products, with an exponent between -0.17 and -0.15, with a remarkable stability upon aggregation. We then introduce a simple and general model of proportional growth for both the number of firm independent constituent units and their size, which conveys a good representation of the empirical evidences. This general and plausible generative process can account for the observed scaling in a wide variety of economic and industrial systems. Our findings contribute to shed light on the mechanisms that sustain economic growth in terms of the relationships between the size of economic entities and the number and size distribution of their elementary components.

  10. Textile firm converts to wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The successful conversion in a textile firm from using oil and gas fired boilers to wood is described. The use of wood waste saved $2.50 per million Btu over what it would cost to burn it and the $2.7 million investment has almost paid for itself after four years of operation.

  11. Effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement in office employees.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Duijts, Saskia F A; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; Boot, Cécile R L

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention as well as the effectiveness of both separate interventions. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 412 office employees were allocated to the combined social and physical environmental intervention, to the social environmental intervention only, to the physical environmental intervention only, or were part of the control group. Data on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement were obtained with questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Multilevel analyses were performed. The combined intervention showed a decrease in contextual performance and dedication. The social environmental intervention showed an improvement in task performance. The physical environmental intervention revealed an improvement in absorption. Although the study showed some promising results, it is not recommended to implement the current interventions.

  12. Psychometric Properties of Virtual Reality Vignette Performance Measures: A Novel Approach for Assessing Adolescents' Social Competency Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Fishbein, Diana H.; Hubal, Robert C.; Eldreth, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents. Performance data were collected from 117 African-American male 15-17 year olds. Data for 18 performance measures were obtained, based on…

  13. Same-sex attraction, social relationships, psychosocial functioning, and school performance in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M; de Bruyn, Eddy H; Hakvoort, Esther M

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data were collected from 866 Dutch high school students (mean age 13.61 years) by means of a computer-based questionnaire. Of the participants, 74 (8.5%) reported having feelings of SSA. The participants with SSA rated the quality of their relationships with their fathers and their peers lower than did those without SSA. Participants with SSA also had poorer mental health (higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem) and lower school performance. A mediation analysis revealed that differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of the same-sex attracted youths' social relationships, especially with fathers and peers. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  14. Application of NIR spectroscopy for firmness evaluation of peaches*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xia-ping; Ying, Yi-bin; Zhou, Ying; Xie, Li-juan; Xu, Hui-rong

    2008-01-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was proved to be a useful tool for quality analysis of fruits. A bifurcated fiber type NIR spectrometer, with a detection range of 800~2500 nm by InGaAs detector, was used to evaluate the firmness of peaches. Anisotropy of NIR spectra and firmness of peaches in relation to detecting positions of different parts (including three latitudes and three longitudes) were investigated. Both spectra absorbency and firmness of peach were influenced by longitudes (i, ii, iii) and latitudes (A, B, C). For modeling, two thirds of the samples were used as the calibration set and the remaining one third were used as the validation or prediction set. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models for different longitude and latitude spectra and for the whole fruit show that collecting several NIR spectra from different longitudes and latitudes of a fruit for NIR calibration modeling can improve the modeling performance. In addition, proper spectra pretreatments like scattering correction or derivative also can enhance the modeling performance. The best results obtained in this study were from the holistic model with multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) pretreatment, with correlation coefficient of cross-validation r cv=0.864, root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=6.71 N, correlation coefficient of calibration r=0.948, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC=4.21 N and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP=5.42 N. The results of this study are useful for further research and application that when applying NIR spectroscopy for objectives with anisotropic differences, spectra and quality indices are necessarily measured from several parts of each object to improve the modeling performance. PMID:18600785

  15. The relationship between dorsolateral prefrontal activation and speech performance-based social anxiety using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Kuster, Anootnara T; Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Matteucci, Alyssa; Herbert, James D

    2017-06-01

    Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a promising new technology that has demonstrated utility in the study of normal human cognition. We utilized fNIR spectroscopy to examine the effect of social anxiety and performance on hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Socially phobic participants and non-clinical participants with varying levels of social anxiety completed a public speaking task in front of a small virtual audience while the DLPFC was being monitored by the fNIR device. The relationship between anxiety and both blood volume (BV) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly as a function of speech performance, such that individuals with low social anxiety who performed well showed an increase in DLPFC activation relative to those who did not perform well. This result suggests that effortful thinking and/or efficient top-down inhibitory control may have been required to complete an impromptu speech task with good performance. In contrast, good performers who were highly socially anxious showed lower DLPFC activation relative to good performers who were low in social anxiety, suggesting autopilot thinking or less-effortful thinking. In poor performers, slight increases in DLPFC activation were observed from low to highly anxious individuals, which may reflect a shift from effortless thinking to heightened self-focused attention. Heightened self-focused attention, poor inhibitory control resulting in excessive fear or anxiety, or low motivation may lower performance. These results suggest that there can be different underlying mechanisms in the brain that affect the level of speech performance in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety. This study highlights the utility of the fNIR device in the assessment of changes in DLPFC in response to exposure to realistic phobic stimuli, and further supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  16. The Impact of Social Exclusion on "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Performance in Relation to Borderline Personality Disorder Features.

    PubMed

    Savage, Megan; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2017-05-17

    In this study we used the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) to explore facial emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also used Cyberball, a computerized task designed to mimic social ostracism, to examine the response of BPD-feature participants to social exclusion. Seventeen individuals with BPD features were compared to 16 healthy controls on RMET performance pre- and post-exclusion via Cyber-ball. Our results revealed a significant interaction between BPD-feature status and RMET performance in relation to neutral stimuli following a social exclusion experience. BPD participants' ability to correctly identify neutral faces significantly decreased following exclusion. This finding suggests that once an individual with BPD features experiences a social exclusion event, his or her objectivity decreases and affective valence is ascribed to stimuli previously perceived as neutral. Our results may help to explain, in part, the social instability seen in BPD.

  17. Impact of parallel trade on pharmaceutical firm's profits: rise or fall?

    PubMed

    Guo, Shen; Hu, Bin; Zhong, Hai

    2013-04-01

    Most existing studies on parallel trade conclude that it reduces pharmaceutical firms' profits. One special feature of the pharmaceutical industry is the presence of price regulation in most countries. Taking into account the impact of parallel trade on the regulated pharmaceutical prices [Pecorino, P.: J. Health Econ. 21, 699-708 (2002)] shows that a pharmaceutical firm's profit is greater in the presence of parallel trade. The present paper relaxes the assumption on identical demands among countries, and takes into account transaction costs. The results of our model show that a firm's profits may increase or decrease in the presence of parallel trade, depending on its bargaining power in the price negotiation and market size of the drug. Changes in social welfare due to the transition to parallel trade regime are also considered.

  18. An empirical analysis of ERP adoption by oil and gas firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of enterprise-resource-planning (ERP) systems for the information technology infrastructure of large and medium-sized businesses, there is limited empirical evidence on the competitive benefits of ERP implementations. Case studies of individual firms provide insights but do not provide sufficient evidence to draw reliable inferences and cross-sectional studies of firms in multiple industries provide a broad-brush perspective of the performance effects associated with ERP installations. To narrow the focus to a specific competitive arena, I analyze the impact of ERP adoption on various dimensions of performance for firms in the Oil and Gas Industry. I selected the Oil and Gas Industry because several companies installed a specific type of ERP system, SAP R/3, during the period from 1990 to 2002. In fact, SAP was the dominant provider of enterprise software to oil and gas companies during this period. I evaluate performance of firms that implemented SAP R/3 relative to firms that did not adopt ERP systems in the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation periods. My analysis takes two different approaches, the first from a financial perspective and the second from a strategic perspective. Using the Sloan (General Motors) model commonly applied in financial statement analysis, I examine changes in performance for ERP-adopting firms versus non-adopting firms along the dimensions of asset utilization and return on sales. Asset utilization is more closely aligned with changes in leanness of operations, and return on sales is more closely aligned with customer-value-added. I test hypotheses related to the timing and magnitude of the impact of ERP implementation with respect to leanness of operations and customer value added. I find that SAP-adopting companies performed relatively better in terms of asset turnover than non-SAP-adopting companies during both the implementation and post-implementation periods and that SAP

  19. ISO 14001 adoption and industrial waste generation: the case of Swedish manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on ISO 14001 has constituted one of the most important developments in sustainable industry management in recent years. Previous research on the impact of EMSs has relied heavily on corporate representatives' subjective perception of benefits. Moreover, studies tend to focus on the systems' impact on firms' overall environmental performance, not distinguishing between the differences in different environmental aspects. This study aims to contribute knowledge about the influence of certified EMSs on industrial waste generation based on objective industrial waste data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in waste generation over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified firms (66 firms) and non-certified firms (50 firms). Consideration is given to the improvement efforts in the firms before EMS adoption. Analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for three different industrial waste parameters: hazardous waste, waste to landfill and the total amounts of waste. The results indicate that the certified EMSs have no statistically significant effect on any of the three waste parameters.

  20. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance.

    PubMed

    Demos, Alexander P; Carter, Daniel J; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant - an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter - an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate's arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant's view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate's performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate's performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate's performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers' parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate's part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant's part in live

  1. The Human Performance Technology Model as a Framework for Implementation of Social Media in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyszlo, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are ubiquitous and used by millions of people every day. Existing research on social media is primarily descriptive, survey based, and focused on who is using social media and how people and organizations are using the tools. Although many organizations have shown interest in using social media, they often demonstrate uncertainty…

  2. Role of Social Performance in Predicting Learning Problems: Prediction of Risk Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Prette, Almir Del; De Oliveira, Lael Almeida; Gresham, Frank M.; Vance, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are specific behaviors that individuals exhibit in order to successfully complete social tasks whereas social competence represents judgments by significant others that these social tasks have been successfully accomplished. The present investigation identified the best sociobehavioral predictors obtained from different raters…

  3. The Human Performance Technology Model as a Framework for Implementation of Social Media in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyszlo, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are ubiquitous and used by millions of people every day. Existing research on social media is primarily descriptive, survey based, and focused on who is using social media and how people and organizations are using the tools. Although many organizations have shown interest in using social media, they often demonstrate uncertainty…

  4. Role of Social Performance in Predicting Learning Problems: Prediction of Risk Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Prette, Almir Del; De Oliveira, Lael Almeida; Gresham, Frank M.; Vance, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are specific behaviors that individuals exhibit in order to successfully complete social tasks whereas social competence represents judgments by significant others that these social tasks have been successfully accomplished. The present investigation identified the best sociobehavioral predictors obtained from different raters…

  5. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance.

  6. Social anxiety in adolescents: the effect of video feedback on anxiety and the self-evaluation of performance.

    PubMed

    Parr, Clare J; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A negative self-generated image is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Video feedback (VF) is an effective therapeutic technique for correcting this distorted image with adults during stressful social tasks. This study investigated the effectiveness of VF with adolescents. Thirty-six highly socially anxious adolescents (13 to 17-year-olds) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: VF or no VF. Both groups gave two brief speeches to a video camera. Self-rated measures of anticipatory anxiety, predicted performance and actual performance during the speeches were completed at several time points. The speeches were also rated by two independent observers. Adolescents who received VF, in comparison with control participants, developed more positive appraisals of their performance during the first speech. Predictions of their performance on the second speech also improved, and a reduction in state anxiety was observed. Furthermore, a more positive appraisal of performance was generalized to the second speech. The independent observers could not distinguish between the participants who received VF and those who did not. When used with socially anxious adolescents, VF may be a beneficial therapeutic technique in correcting a distorted self-perception of performance, reducing anxiety prior to entering a stressful social task and enhancing predictions of performance for future tasks.

  7. Why does interactional justice promote organizational loyalty, job performance, and prevent mental impairment? The role of social support and social stressors.

    PubMed

    Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior.

  8. Microcap pharmaceutical firms: linking drug pipelines to market value.

    PubMed

    Beach, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article examines predictors of the future market value of microcap pharmaceutical companies. This is problematic since the large majority of these firms seldom report positive net income. Their value comes from the potential of a liquidity event such as occurs when a key drug is approved by the FDA. The typical scenario is one in which the company is either acquired by a larger pharmaceutical firm or enters into a joint venture with another pharmaceutical firm. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the impact of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its investment in research and development on the firm's market cap. Using annual financial data from 2007 through 2010, this study finds that the status of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its research and development expenses are significant predictors of the firm's future stock value relative to other microcap pharmaceutical firms.

  9. The eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey: psychometric evaluation showed excellent performance.

    PubMed

    Moser, André; Stuck, Andreas E; Silliman, Rebecca A; Ganz, Patricia A; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2012-10-01

    Evaluation and validation of the psychometric properties of the eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS). Secondary analyses of data from three populations: Boston breast cancer study (N=660), Los Angeles breast cancer study (N=864), and Medical Outcomes Study (N=1,717). The psychometric evaluation of the eight-item mMOS-SS compared performance across populations and with the original 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Internal reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and discriminant validity were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, principal factor analysis (PFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Spearman and Pearson correlation, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. mMOS-SS internal reliability was excellent in all three populations. PFA factor loadings were similar across populations; one factor >0.6, well-discriminated two factor (instrumental/emotional social support four items each) >0.5. CFA with a priori two-factor structure yielded consistently adequate model fit (root mean squared errors of approximation 0.054-0.074). mMOS-SS construct and discriminant validity were similar across populations and comparable to MOS-SS. Psychometric properties held when restricted to women aged ≥ 65 years. The psychometric properties of the eight-item mMOS-SS were excellent and similar to those of the original 19-item instrument. Results support the use of briefer mMOS-SS instrument; better suited to multidimensional geriatric assessments and specifically in older women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance

    PubMed Central

    Demos, Alexander P.; Carter, Daniel J.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner’s coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant – an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter – an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate’s arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant’s view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate’s performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate’s performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate’s performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers’ parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate’s part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant

  11. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills.

  12. The Chinese version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP): validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Tianmei, Si; Liang, Shu; Yun'ai, Su; Chenghua, Tian; Jun, Yan; Jia, Cheng; Xueni, Li; Qi, Liu; Yantao, Ma; Weihua, Zhang; Hongyan, Zhang

    2011-01-30

    The Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) is a 100-point single-item rating scale that assesses four important domains of patients with mental disorders. This study was designed to examine the validity and reliability of a Chinese version of the PSP. The study was conducted in a sample of 157 patients with schizophrenia (confirmed by DSM-IV-TR criteria, SCID-P interview). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.84) and the inter-rater reliability (kappa value=0.82, ICC=0.94 for PSP total score) was good. The test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95). The scale showed good construct validity with statistically significant correlations with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) (ICC of 0.95). The PSP score had a good negative correlation with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. The improvement in PSP after 8 weeks of treatment was significantly correlated with the reduction in PANSS: after 8 weeks of treatment, the responders (defined as those with a reduction in PANSS total score ≥50%) experienced a greater improvement in PSP than the non-responders. The Chinese version of the PSP is a convenient and valid instrument to assess the personal and social functions of stabilized and acute patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Nanotechnology, voluntary oversight, and corporate social performance: does company size matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.

  14. NASA cash boost for space firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-09-01

    NASA has awarded 1.1bn to three US firms to design and develop the "next generation of human spaceflight capabilities". Boeing, Sierra Nevada and Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), who will receive 460m, 212.5m and 440m respectively, will use the money to improve and test their systems intended to fly astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) within the next five years.

  15. US firms leave business lobby group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Three US energy and hi-tech firms have left the US Chamber of Commerce - a powerful group that lobbies on behalf of business - because it has openly questioned the science behind climate change. The departing organizations protest that the chamber and another business lobbying group, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), could cripple advances in renewable energy by becoming representatives of fossil-fuel interests.

  16. From top dog to bottom half: social comparison strategies in response to poor performance.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, F X; Benbow, C P; Gerrard, M

    1994-10-01

    Although the hypothesis that people will alter comparison behavior in response to threat is consistent with the formulation of social comparison theory, the empirical evidence for the natural occurrence of such shifts is weak. Two studies were conducted to examine this hypothesis. In the first study, adolescents' perceptions were assessed before, during, and 6 months after their participation in an academic program for gifted students. Male students who performed poorly, and also worse than they had expected in the program, demonstrated self-protective "strategies" by lowering the amount and level of academic comparison they reported engaging in and by lowering their perception of the importance of academics. Female students, who generally performed as well as expected, reported relatively little change. By follow-up, most of the male students' perceptions had returned to baseline. A second study found that both male and female college students who thought they had performed poorly academically also demonstrated these shifts in comparison. Motivations behind the strategies are discussed.

  17. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... participate in any legal proceedings against invention promoters or promotion firms. Complaints submitted to... promotion firm, explain the basis for the complaint, and include the signature of the complainant....

  19. 18 CFR 284.7 - Firm transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firm transportation... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES General Provisions and Conditions § 284.7 Firm transportation service. (a) Firm...

  20. MBA for Small Firms and Microenterprises? Development Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Paul; Baty, Richard; Abdullah, Farouk; Seaman, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on an investigation amongst small firm owner-managers in the service sector into potential demand for an MBA. Design/methodology/approach: Relevant recent literature is critiqued concerning small firms and learning, and MBAs and small firms. A description is given of the research methods employed involving a mail questionnaire…