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Sample records for firms domestic wages

  1. Bringing the Firms into Globalization Research: The Effects of Foreign Investment and Exports on Wages in Mexican Manufacturing Firms.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2011-05-01

    Researchers specializing in organizations and labor markets have paid insufficient attention to the effects that foreign ownership of a firm and its orientation towards export production may have on the wages it pays to its workers. Using information from a nationally-representative sample of manufacturing firms in Mexico, a paradigmatic case of a developing country that is highly integrated into world markets, we find that foreign-owned and export-oriented firms pay considerably more than nationally-owned firms engaged in the production of goods for sale in the domestic market. Second, beyond paying higher wages to their workers, foreign-owned firms also raise the wages paid by domestic firms operating in the same regional labor markets. The wage premium in foreign and export-oriented firms cannot be explained by their size, industry, geographical location, productivity, use of advanced technology, or the sociodemographic composition of their workforce. We find evidence that wages in foreign-owned companies in Mexico are dependent on the country of origin of the capital investment. A greater difference between the industry-specific wages paid in the country of ownership and Mexico is associated with a higher wage premium in Mexican affiliates. Future work should strive to link information from foreign-owned affiliates with their parent companies abroad.

  2. Bringing the Firms into Globalization Research: The Effects of Foreign Investment and Exports on Wages in Mexican Manufacturing Firms

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Andrés; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Researchers specializing in organizations and labor markets have paid insufficient attention to the effects that foreign ownership of a firm and its orientation towards export production may have on the wages it pays to its workers. Using information from a nationally-representative sample of manufacturing firms in Mexico, a paradigmatic case of a developing country that is highly integrated into world markets, we find that foreign-owned and export-oriented firms pay considerably more than nationally-owned firms engaged in the production of goods for sale in the domestic market. Second, beyond paying higher wages to their workers, foreign-owned firms also raise the wages paid by domestic firms operating in the same regional labor markets. The wage premium in foreign and export-oriented firms cannot be explained by their size, industry, geographical location, productivity, use of advanced technology, or the sociodemographic composition of their workforce. We find evidence that wages in foreign-owned companies in Mexico are dependent on the country of origin of the capital investment. A greater difference between the industry-specific wages paid in the country of ownership and Mexico is associated with a higher wage premium in Mexican affiliates. Future work should strive to link information from foreign-owned affiliates with their parent companies abroad. PMID:21566699

  3. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  4. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  5. Minimum Wage Increases and the Working Poor. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.

    Most economists agree that the difficulties of targeting minimum wage increases to low-income families make such increases ineffective tools for reducing poverty. This paper provides estimates of the impact of minimum wage increases on the poverty gap and the number of poor families, and shows which factors are barriers to decreasing poverty…

  6. Domestic Work and the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhhirt, Michael; Ludwig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that household tasks prohibit women from unfolding their full earning potential by depleting their work effort and limiting their time flexibility. The present study investigated whether this relationship can explain the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in West Germany. The empirical analysis applied fixed-effects…

  7. Domestic Work and the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhhirt, Michael; Ludwig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that household tasks prohibit women from unfolding their full earning potential by depleting their work effort and limiting their time flexibility. The present study investigated whether this relationship can explain the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in West Germany. The empirical analysis applied fixed-effects…

  8. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for... legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Agricultural In-Season Wage Report and ETA Form 232-A, Wage Survey Interview Record, Extension with Revisions...

  9. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    PubMed Central

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  10. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap.

    PubMed

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates.

  11. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates. PMID:24273347

  12. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  13. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  14. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of…

  15. Wages and Productivity in Mexican Manufacturing. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    A study examined determinants of wages and productivity in Mexico from 1993 and 1999 using two national surveys. In 1993, 7,619 employees from 575 firms were interviewed. In 1999, 6,259 employees from 722 firms were interviewed. Findings indicate that wage premiums and productivity increased with years of schooling, but workers had higher benefits…

  16. Wages and Productivity in Mexican Manufacturing. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    A study examined determinants of wages and productivity in Mexico from 1993 and 1999 using two national surveys. In 1993, 7,619 employees from 575 firms were interviewed. In 1999, 6,259 employees from 722 firms were interviewed. Findings indicate that wage premiums and productivity increased with years of schooling, but workers had higher benefits…

  17. Privatization and Entry of a Foreign Firm with Demand Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the effects of trade with a foreign firm and privatization of the domestic public firm on an incentive for the domestic firm to reduce costs by undertaking R&D investment, under demand uncertainty. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm, and the effects of demand uncertainty, on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  18. Effect of Foreign Presence on Domestic Performance: The Cases of Education in the US and Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Melaku

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of foreign presence on the performance of domestic institutions and economic agents. We identify three types of foreign presence: international students, inward foreign investment, and exporting activities. The first chapter investigates the impacts of international students on the graduation performance of…

  19. Effect of Foreign Presence on Domestic Performance: The Cases of Education in the US and Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Melaku

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of foreign presence on the performance of domestic institutions and economic agents. We identify three types of foreign presence: international students, inward foreign investment, and exporting activities. The first chapter investigates the impacts of international students on the graduation performance of…

  20. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  1. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  2. Wage-Tenure Profiles in Contractual Labor Markets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    firms in cyclically-sensitive industries pay wage premiums to compensate workers for the uncertainty associated with employment variability. Abowd and...the range of compensating wage differentials reported by Abowd and Ashenfelter. Of more direct interest to the paper are the wage effects of TECH...lifetime employment is peculiar to Japan, but not to the U.S., needs to be reconsidered. r -25- REFERENCES Abowd , James and Orley Ashenfelter

  3. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: An Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Mia; Szulkin, Ryszard

    1999-01-01

    A study of Swedish workers investigated whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of firms' managerial staff. Gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures proved essential to explaining women's relatively low wages. Women working in male-dominated establishments had lower wages than firms with more women managers.…

  4. 78 FR 46373 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Domestic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... needs prevailing wage rate information in order to determine the appropriate minimum wage an...; Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage Report ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On July 31, 2013, the Department of... collection request (ICR) revision titled, ``Domestic Agricultural In- Season Wage Report,'' to the Office of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.199-2 - Wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)(1) wages) that are properly allocable to domestic production gross receipts (DPGR) (as defined in... expense used in calculating the taxpayer's taxable income (or adjusted gross income, if applicable) for... proportion of paragraph (e)(1) wages that the amount of DPGR bears to the taxpayer's total gross receipts...

  6. 26 CFR 1.199-2 - Wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(1) wages) that are properly allocable to domestic production gross receipts (DPGR) (as defined in... expense used in calculating the taxpayer's taxable income (or adjusted gross income, if applicable) for... proportion of paragraph (e)(1) wages that the amount of DPGR bears to the taxpayer's total gross receipts...

  7. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  8. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  9. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  10. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  11. Wage Developments During 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Janice D.

    1978-01-01

    Although wages rose slightly more than prices in 1977, inflation left workers with generally smaller real income. The article examines various factors affecting wage movements and summarizes 1977 wage changes in the economy as a whole and under collective bargaining agreements. (MF)

  12. Fixed Wages, Layoffs, Unemployment Compensation, and Welfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    feasibility and optimality of alternative employment contracts. For the case where layoffs are prohibited, they demonstrate that both the fixed wage--constant...society’s point of view. In the case with layoffs , they show that the competitive mechanism leads to a less than optimal number of layoffs , and...demonstrate that unemployment insurance with less than complete experience rating lowers the cost of layoffs to the firm and encourages labor mobility. In the

  13. Ageing, productivity and wages in Austria☆

    PubMed Central

    Mahlberg, Bernhard; Freund, Inga; Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Prskawetz, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Current demographic developments in industrialized countries and their consequences for workforce ageing challenge the sustainability of intergenerational transfers and economic growth. A shrinking share of the young workforce will have to support a growing share of elderly, non-working people. Therefore, the productivity of the workforce is central to a sustainable economic future. Using a new matched employer–employee panel dataset for Austrian firms for the period 2002–2005, we study the relationship between the age structure of employees, labour productivity and wages. These data allow us to account, simultaneously, for both socio-demographic characteristics of employees and firm heterogeneity, in order to explain labour productivity and earnings. Our results indicate that firm productivity is not negatively related to the share of older employees it employs. We also find no evidence for overpayment of older employees. Our results do not show any association between wages and the share of older employees. Furthermore, we find a negative relationship between the share of young employees and labour productivity as well as wages, which is more prevalent in the industry and construction sector. PMID:23734070

  14. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History.

    PubMed

    Grafova, Irina B; Stafford, Frank P

    2009-04-01

    Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, never smokers, former smokers, and future quitters reveals that there is no observed wage gap between former smokers and those who have never smoked. There is, however, a wage gap between those smokers who will continue smoking and three other groups of individuals: (1) those smokers who will quit smoking in the future, (2) those smokers who have quit smoking already, and (3) those who never smoked. The wage gap between smokers and non-smokers, observed in the 1986 cross-section, is largely driven by those who persist as smokers, 1986-2001. These results support the hypothesis that the cross-sectional wage differential is not driven by smoking per se, but may be driven by a non-causal explanation. One plausible interpretation is that a common factor such as myopia, leads to reduced investment in both health capital or firm-specific or other human capital.

  15. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  16. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2017-05-01

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  18. Wage Structures and Labor Turnover in the U.S. and in Japan. Occasional Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob; Higuchi, Yoshio

    A study was conducted to test the proposition that intensive formation of human capital on the job is the basic reason for the strong degree of worker attachment to the firm in Japan. The greater emphasis on training and retraining, much of it specific to the firm, results also in steeper wage trajectories, because of growth of skills in the firm,…

  19. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Such data may be obtained by surveying comparable firms in the area that employ primarily nondisabled... terms of employees or which competes for or bids on contracts of a similar size or nature. Employers may... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing...

  20. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Such data may be obtained by surveying comparable firms in the area that employ primarily nondisabled... terms of employees or which competes for or bids on contracts of a similar size or nature. Employers may... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing...

  1. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Such data may be obtained by surveying comparable firms in the area that employ primarily nondisabled... terms of employees or which competes for or bids on contracts of a similar size or nature. Employers may... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing...

  2. In Search of the High Road in a Low-Wage Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Bernhardt, Annette D.

    1996-01-01

    A study examined the effects of high-performance innovations on workers and job quality by conducting six case studies of firms that had implemented reforms in both the production and the service end of their operations. All the firms were in the traditionally low-wage retail industry. These case studies were drawn on to examine, first, the nature…

  3. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  4. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  5. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements.

    PubMed

    Basu, B

    1998-09-01

    "This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment."

  6. Wage differentials among Appalachian sawmills

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf

    1977-01-01

    Wage differences among Appalachian sawmills were investigated, using multiple-regression analysis. Wages and fringe benefits were found to vary with type of product sawed, education of the work force, distance to urban areas, general wage levels, and use of collective-bargaining agreements between management and labor.

  7. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  8. Wages and Profit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of wages and profits, paying particular attention to how elementary children experience and learn these concepts, this document presents 3 teaching units. The grade K-2 unit, "A Job Well Done," provides activities which focus on different types of jobs and the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards…

  9. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations... the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2) In addition, domestic service employees who work more than 40 hours... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions....

  11. 29 CFR 552.3 - Domestic service employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic service employment. 552.3 Section 552.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.3 Domestic...

  12. 29 CFR 552.101 - Domestic service employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic service employment. 552.101 Section 552.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.101 Domestic...

  13. 29 CFR 552.3 - Domestic service employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic service employment. 552.3 Section 552.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.3 Domestic...

  14. 29 CFR 552.101 - Domestic service employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic service employment. 552.101 Section 552.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.101 Domestic...

  15. Rural hospital wages and the area wage index.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Howard, Hilda A

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities.

  16. Rural Hospital Wages and the Area Wage Index

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Howard, Hilda A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities. PMID:12545604

  17. The health insurance status of low-wage workers: the role of workplace composition and marital status.

    PubMed

    Vistnes, Jessica; Monheit, Alan C

    2011-10-01

    Many of the provisions in the Affordable Care Act (ACA), such as tax credits and penalties for employers, vary by employer size and average wage level. Therefore, knowing the wage and firm size distribution of low-wage workers and how employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) characteristics vary by these dimensions is particularly important for understanding the extent to which low-wage workers and their employers may be affected by different provisions in the ACA. To inform this issue, the authors use data from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component to examine offers of coverage and cost-sharing requirements by the wage distribution and firm size dimensions of employers. They also draw on Medical Expenditure Panel Survey household-level data to describe the household circumstances of low-wage workers. The authors find that where low-wage workers are employed, who their colleagues are, and their spouses' wage levels are important factors in determining low-wage workers' access to coverage and the cost and generosity of such coverage.

  18. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  19. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  20. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  1. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  2. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  3. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  4. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  5. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  6. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  7. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  13. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Procedures § 4.3 Wage determinations. (a) The minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for... section 2(a) thereof will be set forth in wage determinations issued by the Administrator. Wage.... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most...

  14. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Procedures § 4.3 Wage determinations. (a) The minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for... section 2(a) thereof will be set forth in wage determinations issued by the Administrator. Wage.... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most...

  15. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage determinations. 4.3 Section 4.3 Labor Office of the... and Procedures § 4.3 Wage determinations. (a) The minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for... section 2(a) thereof will be set forth in wage determinations issued by the Administrator. Wage...

  16. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  17. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  18. The Wages of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  19. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Room Careers OVW FOIA Contact the Office Domestic Violence Get Help | What is Domestic Violence? Get Help ... 7233) 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) What is Domestic Violence? We define domestic violence as a pattern of ...

  20. Wage Determination and Discrimination among Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Joseph F.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzed determinants of wage rates of older workers and the large discrepancies existing between wage earned by Whites, non-Whites, men, and women. Human capital and geographic variables were important wage determinants. Differences in variables cannot completely explain the wage differentials of race and sex. (Author)

  1. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  2. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  3. International labor migration and domestic labor supply.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R

    1992-04-01

    "This paper constructs a dynamic, general equilibrium framework to study the relationship between international labor migration and domestic labor supply. The general equilibrium nature of the model enables us to endogenize the pattern of labor migration. The effect of labor migration on domestic wage rates and labor supply is shown to depend on the pattern of labor migration. If the substitution effect dominates the income effect in labor supply, the domestic supply of labor necessarily decreases in response to an inflow of migrants....Similarly, if the dominant effect is the income effect, the immigration of labor necessarily increases the domestic supply of labor."

  4. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  6. Response of firm agent network to exogenous shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hideaki; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Souma, Wataru; Kaizoji, Taisei

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes an agent-based model of interacting firms, in which interacting firm agents rationally invest capital and labor in order to maximize payoff. Both transactions and production are taken into account in this model. First, the performance of individual firms on a real transaction network was simulated. The simulation quantitatively reproduced the cumulative probability distribution of revenue, material cost, capital, and labor. Then, the response of the firms to a given exogenous shock, defined as a sudden change of gross domestic product, is discussed. The longer tail in cumulative probability and skewed distribution of growth rate are observed for a high growth scenario.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1038 - Domestic employees under age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1038 Domestic employees under age 18. Domestic services you perform in a private home of your employer are excluded from employment, regardless of the amount earned, in any year in...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1038 - Domestic employees under age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1038 Domestic employees under age 18. Domestic services you perform in a private home of your employer are excluded from employment, regardless of the amount earned, in any year in...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1038 - Domestic employees under age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1038 Domestic employees under age 18. Domestic services you perform in a private home of your employer are excluded from employment, regardless of the amount earned, in any year in...

  10. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval, when needed...

  11. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval, when...

  12. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking ...

  13. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  14. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-12-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, the productivity gap between these two groups is considerably larger than the wage gap. In small firms, employee absenteeism results in lower productivity and wages, and the marginal productivity loss due to team worker absenteeism is significantly higher than the wage loss. No similar wage-productivity gap exists for large firms. Our findings suggest that productivity loss or gain is most likely to be underestimated when valued according to wages for team workers. The findings help to value the burden of illness-related absenteeism. This is important for economic evaluations that seek to measure the productivity gain or loss of a health care technology or intervention, which in turn can impact policy makers' funding decisions.

  15. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How ... are available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening ...

  16. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... are available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  17. Insurance within the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiso, Luigi; Pistaferri, Luigi; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the allocation of risk between firms and their workers using matched employer-employee panel data. Unlike previous contributions, this paper focuses on idiosyncratic shocks to the firm, which are the correct empirical counterpart of the theoretical notion of diversifiable risk. We allow for both temporary and permanent shocks to output…

  18. Insurance within the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiso, Luigi; Pistaferri, Luigi; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the allocation of risk between firms and their workers using matched employer-employee panel data. Unlike previous contributions, this paper focuses on idiosyncratic shocks to the firm, which are the correct empirical counterpart of the theoretical notion of diversifiable risk. We allow for both temporary and permanent shocks to output…

  19. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  20. Stall in Women's Real Wage Growth Slows Progress in Closing the Wage Gap. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Since 1979, the wage gap between women and men has narrowed significantly, falling by more than 10 percent overall. The closing of the wage gap has slowed considerably in the 1990's, however, with women's real wages (adjusted for inflation) stagnating in recent year and men's wages continuing to decline. The lack of growth in both women's and…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1057 - Domestic service in the employer's home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic service in the employer's home. 404.1057 Section 404.1057 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1057...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1057 - Domestic service in the employer's home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic service in the employer's home. 404.1057 Section 404.1057 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1057...

  3. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  4. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  5. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  6. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  7. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  8. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  9. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  10. Who really pays for health insurance? The incidence of employer-provided health insurance with sticky nominal wages.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D

    2005-03-01

    This paper addresses two seeming paradoxes in the realm of employer-provided health insurance: First, businesses consistently claim that they bear the burden of the insurance they provide for employees, despite theory and empirical evidence indicating that workers bear the full incidence. Second, benefit generosity and the percentage of premiums paid by employers have decreased in recent decades, despite the preferential tax treatment of employer-paid benefits relative to wages-trends unexplained by the standard incidence model. This paper offers a revised incidence model based on nominal wage rigidity, in an attempt to explain these paradoxes. The model predicts that when the nominal wage constraint binds, some of the burden of increasing insurance premiums will fall on firms, particularly small companies with low-wage employees. In response, firms will reduce employment, decrease benefit generosity, and require larger employee premium contributions. Using Current Population Survey data from 2000-2001, I find evidence for this kind of wage rigidity and its associated impact on the employment and premium contributions of low-wage insured workers during a period of rapid premium growth.

  11. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1) For...

  12. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1) For...

  13. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1) For...

  14. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1) For...

  15. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1) For...

  16. The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette

    The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

  17. The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette

    The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

  18. Firms, crowds, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of "firms, crowds, and innovation" and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices-for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production-relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on "sociality" in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.

  19. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  20. 75 FR 61577 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... the prevailing wage as determined by the NPC, the Federal minimum wage, the State minimum wage and the local minimum wage. The NPRM proposes to include consideration of the use of DBA wages and SCA wages for... minimum wage. The prevailing wage is the highest of the following: (1) The wage rate set forth in the CBA...

  1. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  2. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  3. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, except where a special procedure is... rate or piece rate is adjusted during a work contract, and is higher than the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect...

  4. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  5. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  6. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  7. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  8. Domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the usefulness of white feminist domestic intervention to Aboriginal women who are victims of domestic violence. The discussion opens with a brief history of Aboriginal society before the age of colonization, followed by a summary of feminist intervention to fight domestic violence and the reactions of the Aboriginal women and communities towards this. It also presents a brief description of works conducted overseas where more appropriate frameworks are being used in intervening against domestic violence such as anti-racist social work. Towards the end, this paper explores some future possibilities for workers, in both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal societies.

  9. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  10. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  11. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  12. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  13. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  14. Emerging Two-Tier Wage Systems: Employment Opportunity or Wage Attack?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    1987-01-01

    Two challenges to "Equal pay for equal work" are subminimum wages and workfare. There is no evidence that either two-tiered wage system would permanently increase employment. Instead the results may be (1) less union strength; (2) lower wages in general; (3) layoff of workers in the higher tiers; and (4) more discrimination against Black youth.…

  15. Why Firms Change Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    Described is the subjective process by which the minimum asking price and the maximum offer prices are determined for a firm changing hands. Insight is gained into the meaning of fixed cost, opportunity cost, profit, present value, capital gain, and comparative advantages. (Author/RM)

  16. Firms, crowds, and innovation

    PubMed Central

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of “firms, crowds, and innovation” and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices—for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production—relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on “sociality” in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays. PMID:28690428

  17. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its obligation under § 655.122(l), an employer must offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a... prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in...

  18. Determinants of Firm Internal Labor Markets in Large Law Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholey, Douglas R.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of individual mobility within firms (promotion) and between firms (lateral entry) are developed and listed. Using data from 80 large law firms over a 3-year period, 8 hypotheses were tested by regressing number of promotions and number of lateral entries on 11 independent variables. Appended are 57 citations. (MLF)

  19. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  20. CRP for Pesticides - Testing Firms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This list includes firms that have conducted tests or have indicated an interest in conducting tests on child-resistant packaging. This list is not intended to indicate EPA approval, certification, or endorsement of these firms, nor is it comprehensive..

  1. ASSESSING THE TRAINING NEEDS WITHIN A FIRM (IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING INTERNATIONAL, 2(9)/346-353, SEP 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    A CASE STUDY BY A SENIOR TRAINING OFFICER OF THE BRITISH ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL TRAINING BOARD SHOWS WHY A FIRM MUST EXAMINE IN DETAIL A NUMBER OF FACTORS TO DETERMINE WHERE TO APPLY ITS TRAINING EFFORT. EXCESSIVE LABOR COSTS MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO INADEQUATE OR INAPPROPRIATE INITIAL TRAINING, HIGH LABOR TURNOVER DUE TO LOW WAGES, ESTABLISHMENT OF…

  2. 29 CFR 552.99 - Basis for coverage of domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis for coverage of domestic service employees. 552.99 Section 552.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.99 Basis...

  3. 29 CFR 552.99 - Basis for coverage of domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basis for coverage of domestic service employees. 552.99 Section 552.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.99 Basis...

  4. 29 CFR 552.102 - Live-in domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Live-in domestic service employees. 552.102 Section 552.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.102 Live-in...

  5. 29 CFR 552.102 - Live-in domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Live-in domestic service employees. 552.102 Section 552.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.102 Live-in...

  6. 76 FR 81189 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...The Department of Labor (the Department or DOL) proposes to revise the current Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA or the Act) regulations pertaining to the exemption for companionship services and live-in domestic services. Section 13(a)(15) of the FLSA exempts from its minimum wage and overtime provisions domestic service employees employed ``to provide companionship services for individuals who......

  7. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  8. Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

  9. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  10. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  11. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  12. The Federal Wage Garnishment Law. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Federal Wage Garnishment Law limits the amount of an employee's disposable earnings which may be garnisheed in any one week, and protects him from discharge because of garnishment for any one indebtedness. Coverage of the garnishment law, an explanation of garnishment, wages subject to garnishment, and restrictions on the garnishment amount…

  13. Immigrant qualifications: recognition and relative wage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B J; Iredale, R R

    1993-01-01

    "One aim of this study is to examine the labor market outcomes of immigrants relative to the Australian born.... In particular, this article examines both the extent of formal nonrecognition of overseas qualifications and the indirect implications for wage outcomes of a lack of full recognition of qualifications. Immigrant relative wage analysis...is the subject of the second part of this article...."

  14. Intersectionopoly: A Simulation of the Wage Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Maria; May, Matthew; Burrington, Lori A.; Becker, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a simulation activity designed to teach students about the wage gap. The wage gap is an important topic in many sociology classrooms, but it can be difficult to convey the accumulated disadvantage experienced by women and racial/ethnic minorities to students using in-class discussions, lectures, or assigned readings alone.…

  15. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  16. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  17. 75 FR 68416 - Administrative Wage Garnishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... parallels the existing operational regulations of other agencies to effectuate the collection of non-tariff... enactment of the DCIA, agencies were required to obtain a court judgment before garnishing the wages of non... administrative garnishment of non-Federal wages. Whenever the Financial Management Service collects such a...

  18. The Union Impact on Hospital Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fottler, Myron D.

    1977-01-01

    Appraises the impact of unions on the wages of nonprofessional hospital employees in 21 metropolitan areas in 1966, 1969, and 1972. Effect of other wage determinants is also examined. Analysis shows that impact has been significant and that it has been greater in private than in public hospitals. (Editor/LAS)

  19. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  20. Bobbing for Widgets: Compensating Wage Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Catherine; McInnes, Melayne Morgan; Solnick, Sara; Ensminger, Jean; Fryer, Roland; Heiner, Ronald; Samms, Gavin; Sieberg, Katri; Wilson, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe a classroom game that introduces the concept of compensating wage differentials by allowing students to negotiate over the assignment of jobs and wages. Two jobs are designed so that neither job requires special skills, but one is significantly more unpleasant than the other. By varying the job titles and duties, students can…

  1. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  2. The Impact of Obesity on Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between body weight and wages have found mixed results. This paper uses a larger data set and several regression strategies in an attempt to generate more consistent estimates of the effect of weight on wages. Differences across gender, race, and ethnicity are explored. This paper finds that weight lowers wages…

  3. The Impact of Obesity on Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between body weight and wages have found mixed results. This paper uses a larger data set and several regression strategies in an attempt to generate more consistent estimates of the effect of weight on wages. Differences across gender, race, and ethnicity are explored. This paper finds that weight lowers wages…

  4. Estimating the effects of wages on obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, DaeHwan; Leigh, John Paul

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the effects of wages on obesity and body mass. Data on household heads, aged 20 to 65 years, with full-time jobs, were drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for 2003 to 2007. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics is a nationally representative sample. Instrumental variables (IV) for wages were created using knowledge of computer software and state legal minimum wages. Least squares (linear regression) with corrected standard errors were used to estimate the equations. Statistical tests revealed both instruments were strong and tests for over-identifying restrictions were favorable. Wages were found to be predictive (P < 0.05) of obesity and body mass in regressions both before and after applying IVs. Coefficient estimates suggested stronger effects in the IV models. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that low wages increase obesity prevalence and body mass.

  5. "Domestic violence".

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  6. An empirical examination of the influence of industry and firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, B.

    A gradual shift in U.S. firms' 'center of gravity' toward international markets is taking place. This study seeks to explain which drivers are related to this push toward international markets by U.S. firms. In addressing internationalization, previous research has not focused on various drivers that influence the rate of internationalization. Drivers refer to forces, both within and outside the firm, that impact (both positively and negatively) a firm's extent of internationalization. The role of these drivers on the rate of internationalization, though acknowledged in the literature, is yet to be validated through empirical research. This research seeks to narrow the gap in the literature by testing the various relationships among industry drivers, firm drivers, and the rate of internationalization. The objectives of this study are: (A) To develop a conceptual framework that takes into account various forces that influence the internationalization strategy of a firm; (B) To examine empirically (a) the influence of industry drivers on the rate of internationalization pursued by firms; and, (b) the influence of firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms. The sample for this study consists of 158 large U.S.- based multinational firms drawn from seven different industries. Data for the study is gathered from a variety of sources including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; COMPUSTAT; and WORLDSCOPE databases. Set-wise regression models were used for data analysis. This study found that global market growth rate, domestic market growth rate, relative size of domestic market to international market, employee productivity, administrative investments, as well as new plant and equipment influences the international strategy of firms. This study explains about 24 percent of the variance of the rate of internationalization. This research finding is contributory to our existing understanding of internationalization in many ways

  7. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  8. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  9. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  10. Relative Wage Determination Among Industries: Some Theoretical and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    This report is concerned with cyclical variation in the relative wages of industries. The determination of relative wages is investigated in three different contexts. The first area deals with a broad overview of the relative wage model where the basic elements are introduced. Second, a more complete relative wage model is developed in the context…

  11. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... wage limitation. Payments made by an employer to you as an employee in a calendar year that are more than the annual wage limitation are not wages. The annual wage limitation is: Calendar year...

  12. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  13. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  14. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  15. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... § 531.59 The tip wage credit. In determining compliance with the wage payment requirements of the Act... such employee in the workweek for which the wage payment is made. This credit is in addition to any...

  16. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    PubMed

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  17. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    PubMed

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  18. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses: analytic simplicity versus analytic precision.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss estimates when using average wages compared with age-specific wages. Published estimates for average and age-specific wages for combined male/female wages were obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics. A polynomial interpolation was used to convert 5-year age-banded wage data into annual age-specific wages estimates. To compare indirect cost estimates, average wages and age-specific wages were used to project productivity losses at various stages of life based on the human capital approach. Discount rates of 0, 3, and 6 % were applied to projected age-specific and average wage losses. Using average wages was found to overestimate lifetime wages in conditions afflicting those aged 1-27 and 57-67, while underestimating lifetime wages in those aged 27-57. The difference was most significant for children where average wage overestimated wages by 15 % and for 40-year-olds where it underestimated wages by 14 %. Large differences in projecting productivity losses exist when using the average wage applied over a lifetime. Specifically, use of average wages overestimates productivity losses between 8 and 15 % for childhood illnesses. Furthermore, during prime working years, use of average wages will underestimate productivity losses by 14 %. We suggest that to achieve more precise estimates of productivity losses, age-specific wages should become the standard analytic approach.

  19. WAGES, WAGE VIOLATIONS, AND PESTICIDE SAFETY EXPERIENCED BY MIGRANT FARMWORKERS IN NORTH CAROLINA*

    PubMed Central

    ROBINSON, ERIN; NGUYEN, HA T.; ISOM, SCOTT; QUANDT, SARA A.; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; CHEN, HAIYING; ARCURY, THOMAS A.

    2012-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed. PMID:21733804

  20. Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Erin; Nguyen, Ha T; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed.

  1. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial.

  2. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  3. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  4. Wages and Tips in Hotels and Motels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harry B.

    1975-01-01

    In 23 of the 24 metropolitan areas surveyed in June 1973, table waiters and waitresses in hotels and motels generally received lower wages than their assistants, though tips caused their total hourly earnings to be considerably higher. (Author/MW)

  5. Geographic wage indexing for CETA and Medicare.

    PubMed

    Greene, R

    1980-09-01

    The tailoring of grants-in-aid to wage levels in the localities which receive them enjoys growing popularity among Federal policymakers; two ongoing programs illustrate the flexibility of this technique.

  6. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  7. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  8. 31 CFR 535.508 - Payments to blocked accounts in domestic banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... domestic banks. 535.508 Section 535.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... in domestic banks. (a) Any payment or transfer of credit, including any payment or transfer by any U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firm or branch to a blocked account in a domestic bank in the name...

  9. 31 CFR 535.508 - Payments to blocked accounts in domestic banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic banks. 535.508 Section 535.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... in domestic banks. (a) Any payment or transfer of credit, including any payment or transfer by any U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firm or branch to a blocked account in a domestic bank in the name...

  10. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John

    2011-07-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one's own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading.

  11. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed Central

    Mirowsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one’s own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading. PMID:24156083

  12. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  13. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  14. 48 CFR 222.404 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute wage determinations. 222.404 Section 222.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction...

  15. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  16. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  17. Age and disability: explaining the wage differential.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda; Munley, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995-2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

  18. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions.

  19. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  20. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages.

  1. Women and Work in Appalachia: The Waging War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Leslie

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the low wages and dead-end jobs most Appalachian women workers face and explores nontraditional employment options which offer higher wages, benefits, security, and a chance for truly meeting a family's needs. (DS)

  2. 29 CFR 5.31 - Meeting wage determination obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.31 Meeting wage determination obligations. (a) A contractor or subcontractor performing work subject to a Davis-Bacon wage determination may discharge his minimum...

  3. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  4. Rural Low-Wage Employment Rises among Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert; Parker, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the percentage of low-wage workers in rural areas was higher than in urban areas or in 1979. The share of women and minorities in low-wage work stabilized, but the share of White men increased. Low-wage work increased in higher-skilled occupations, and the share of college educated low-wage workers increased significantly since 1979. (TD)

  5. PROFITABILITY AND SIZE OF FIRM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: The profit ratio as a measure of the relative ability of firms to expand; the profit dratio as a measure of efficiency; other uses of the... profit ratio; earlier studies using the profit ratio; valid conclusions of earlier studies; assets vs. net worth; methodology of this study...distribution of post-tax profit ratex; effect of taxes on the relative ability to expand; relative profitability of income firms; variability of profit rates

  6. 5 CFR 532.227 - Agency wage committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... having the largest number of wage employees covered by exclusive recognition in the Department of Defense... largest number of wage employees by exclusive recognition in the agency. (c) Recommendations of agency... establish an agency wage committee for the purpose of considering matters relating to the conduct of...

  7. 5 CFR 532.227 - Agency wage committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... having the largest number of wage employees covered by exclusive recognition in the Department of Defense... largest number of wage employees by exclusive recognition in the agency. (c) Recommendations of agency... establish an agency wage committee for the purpose of considering matters relating to the conduct of...

  8. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  9. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  10. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  11. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  12. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  13. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  14. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  15. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  16. 29 CFR 8.5 - Filing of wage determination record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Filing of wage determination record. 8.5 Section 8.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Review of Wage Determinations § 8.5 Filing of wage determination record. The Associate...

  17. 29 CFR 8.5 - Filing of wage determination record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing of wage determination record. 8.5 Section 8.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Review of Wage Determinations § 8.5 Filing of wage determination record. The Associate...

  18. 29 CFR 8.5 - Filing of wage determination record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing of wage determination record. 8.5 Section 8.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Review of Wage Determinations § 8.5 Filing of wage determination record. The Associate...

  19. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding certain additions to wages. (a) Section 548.3(e) authorizes as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  20. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  1. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the average...

  2. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  3. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  4. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  5. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  6. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  7. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  8. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  9. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  10. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  11. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  12. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  13. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  14. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  15. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  16. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  17. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  18. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employs any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker must pay the wages owed such worker when due. In... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual wage limitation. 404.1047 Section 404.1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1047 Annual...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annual wage limitation. 404.1047 Section 404.1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1047 Annual...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual wage limitation. 404.1047 Section 404.1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1047 Annual...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1042 - Wages when paid and received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1042... employee in the course of employment, that are considered to be wages, are deemed to be paid at the time... received by the employee. (2) We consider tips to be received in the course of employment whether they are...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1047 - Annual wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual wage limitation. 404.1047 Section 404.1047 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1047 Annual...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1042 - Wages when paid and received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1042... employee in the course of employment, that are considered to be wages, are deemed to be paid at the time... received by the employee. (2) We consider tips to be received in the course of employment whether they are...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1042 - Wages when paid and received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1042... employee in the course of employment, that are considered to be wages, are deemed to be paid at the time... received by the employee. (2) We consider tips to be received in the course of employment whether they are...

  6. 75 FR 135 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...: E9-31180] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings... Committee Act, notice is hereby given that the Department of Defense Wage Committee will meet in closed... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Craig Jerabek, Designated Federal Officer for the Department of Defense Wage...

  7. 5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys. 532.207... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys. (a) Wage surveys shall be conducted on a 2-year cycle at annual intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made...

  8. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  9. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  10. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  11. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  12. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  13. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  14. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  15. 27 CFR 70.242 - Wages, salary and other income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages, salary and other... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.242 Wages, salary and other income. (a... as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of...

  16. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  17. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  18. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or...

  19. 17 CFR 256.920 - Salaries and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salaries and wages. 256.920... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.920 Salaries and wages. (a) This account shall include salaries... and appropriately referenced to detailed records subdividing salaries and wages by departments...

  20. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... conclusion that wage rate is not based upon an entry level position. (See also § 525.10(c).) (h) A prevailing... such as file clerk or general office clerk, requiring the same general skill levels. (g) The...

  1. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... conclusion that wage rate is not based upon an entry level position. (See also § 525.10(c).) (h) A prevailing... such as file clerk or general office clerk, requiring the same general skill levels. (g) The...

  2. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  3. 5 CFR 532.203 - Structure of regular wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Structure of regular wage schedules. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.203 Structure of regular wage schedules. (a) Each nonsupervisory and leader regular wage schedule shall have 15 grades, which shall be designated as...

  4. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You must...

  5. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  6. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  7. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act and the regulations thereunder, or where the employee fails to receive such amounts free and clear... indirectly, may not be made if they cut into the wage required to be paid under the Act. The...

  8. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  9. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    PubMed

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  11. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  12. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  13. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  14. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  15. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  16. Dual Wage Families: Optimizing Mutual Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine A.; Hartl, Alan

    Dual wage families are becoming the norm. Increased maternal participation in the workplace has transformed the lives of families and these dramatic changes have created an urgent need for strategies to assist families with two working parents. Most individuals pursuing this lifestyle are eager to learn how to cope more effectively with various…

  17. Comparable Wages, Inflation, and School Finance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    A Comparable Wage Index (CWI) is an attractive mechanism for measuring geographic variations in the cost of education. A CWI measures uncontrollable variations in educator pay by observing systematic variations in the earnings of comparable workers who are not educators. Together, the 2000 census and the Occupational Employment Statistics survey…

  18. The Employment and Wages of Legalized Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.; Tienda, Marta

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants using the Legalization Application Processing System file which is based on individual records of amnesty applicants and draws comparisons with sample of foreign-born population from Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986, and 1988. Among demographic differences of total foreign-born…

  19. Local Clerical and Custodial Wage Administration Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakos, Estelle

    Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), Illinois, collected salary-related data for clerical and custodial personnel, in order to establish a compatible wage structure, provide business management course information, and improve secretarial career counseling. Limiting data sampling to the geographical boundries of the Moraine Valley District…

  20. Who Are the "Low-Wage" Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek

    A study attempted to identify low-wage workers in the United States by providing a statistical portrait of all workers who made less than $6.25 per hour in 1993. Data for the analysis were gathered from a cross-section of the Merged Outgoing Rotation Group File--Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1993 and panel data from the National Longitudinal…

  1. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  2. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  3. Comparable Wages, Inflation, and School Finance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    A Comparable Wage Index (CWI) is an attractive mechanism for measuring geographic variations in the cost of education. A CWI measures uncontrollable variations in educator pay by observing systematic variations in the earnings of comparable workers who are not educators. Together, the 2000 census and the Occupational Employment Statistics survey…

  4. The Consequences of Indexing the Minimum Wage to Average Wages in the U.S. Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Even, William E.

    The consequences of indexing the minimum wage to average wages in the U.S. economy were analyzed. The study data were drawn from the 1974-1978 May Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 180 monthly CPS Outgoing Rotation Group files for 1979-1993 (approximate annual sample sizes of 40,000 and 180,000, respectively). The effects of indexing on the…

  5. Standardizing the home?: Women reformers and domestic service in New Deal New York.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In response to the poor working conditions suffered by domestics struggling to survive the Depression, middle-class women's organizations initiated various legislative reforms aimed at tackling the problems they believed plagued the occupation. Throughout these years, organized women debated three key pieces of reform related to domestic service: efforts to suppress street-corner markets, health requirements for prospective domestics, and state-level wage and hour reform. These reforms were united by the rhetoric of privacy, which clubwomen used both to oppose wage and hour reform and to support requirements that domestics have physicals before applying for work. This article examines the fine distinction that middle-class women's organizations drew between public and private in the appropriate application of government power and the resulting conflict between progressive women's gender ideology and their most deeply-held reform ideals. In doing so, it reveals organized women's struggle to reconcile their humane ideals with the reality in their kitchens.

  6. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  7. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  8. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  9. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g...

  10. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250...

  11. Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.

    PubMed

    Johar, Meliyanni; Katayama, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    PubMed

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  13. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025.

    PubMed

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025.

  14. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  15. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  16. 29 CFR 552.99 - Basis for coverage of domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basis for coverage of domestic service employees. 552.99 Section 552.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., and vacuum cleaners that have moved in or were produced for interstate commerce and also that...

  17. 29 CFR 552.99 - Basis for coverage of domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basis for coverage of domestic service employees. 552.99 Section 552.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., and vacuum cleaners that have moved in or were produced for interstate commerce and also that...

  18. 29 CFR 552.99 - Basis for coverage of domestic service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basis for coverage of domestic service employees. 552.99 Section 552.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., and vacuum cleaners that have moved in or were produced for interstate commerce and also that...

  19. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  20. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  1. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  2. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  3. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  4. An update on affirmative businesses or social firms for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard; Mandiberg, James

    2006-10-01

    Social firms, or "affirmative businesses" as they are known in North America, are businesses created to employ people with disabilities and to provide a needed product or service. This Open Forum offers an overview of the development and status of social firms. The model was developed in Italy in the 1970s for people with psychiatric disabilities and has gained prominence in Europe. Principles include that over a third of employees are people with a disability or labor market disadvantage, every worker is paid a fair-market wage, and the business operates without subsidy. Independent of European influence, affirmative businesses also have developed in Canada, the United States, Japan, and elsewhere. The success of individual social firms is enhanced by locating the right market niche, selecting labor-intensive products, having a public orientation for the business, and having links with treatment services. The growth of the social firm movement is aided by legislation that supports the businesses, policies that favor employment of people with disabilities, and support entities that facilitate technology transfer. Social firms can empower individual employees, foster a sense of community in the workplace, and enhance worker commitment through the organization's social mission.

  5. Wages, health benefits, and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Doty, Michelle M; Ho, Alice

    2004-10-01

    Employer-based health insurance provides the majority of U.S. workers with access to health care and protection against devastating financial losses. Millions of workers, however, do not receive health benefits from their employers, and few sources of affordable coverage exist outside the employer-based system. This study, based on data from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, finds a deep divide in the U.S. labor force and an urgent need for expanding access to comprehensive and affordable coverage to working Americans and their families. According to the authors, higher-wage workers are more likely than their lower-paid counterparts to have health insurance and health-related benefits, such as paid sick leave, and to use preventive care services. Low-wage workers, meanwhile, are much more likely to forgo needed health care because of cost and to report problems paying medical bills.

  6. The effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on the wages of direct care workers.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Reagan A; Smith, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    Despite growing demand for nursing and home health care as the US population ages, compensation levels in the low-skill nursing labor market that provides the bulk of long-term care remain quite low. The challenge facing providers of long-term care is that Medicaid reimbursement rates for nursing home and home health care severely restrict the wage growth that is necessary to attract workers, resulting in high turnover and labor shortages. Almost half of US states have responded by enacting "pass-through" provisions in their Medicaid programs, channeling additional long-term care funding directly to compensation of lower-skill nursing workers. We test the effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on hourly wages for direct care workers. We estimate several specifications of wage models using employment data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for nursing, home health, and personal care aides. The effect of pass-through programs is identified by an indicator variable for states with programs; 20 states adopted pass-throughs during the sample period. Workers in states with pass-through programs earn as much as 12% more per hour than workers in other states after those programs are implemented. Medicaid wage pass-through programs appear to be a viable policy option for raising compensation levels of direct care workers, with an eye toward improving recruitment and retention in long-term care settings.

  7. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  8. Employment Gains and Wage Declines: The Erosion of Black Women’s Relative Wages Since 1980

    PubMed Central

    PETTIT, BECKY; EWERT, STEPHANIE

    2009-01-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women’s employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap. PMID:19771940

  9. Role of intensive and extensive variables in a soup of firms in economy to address long run prices and aggregate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Gallegati, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    We review the production function and the hypothesis of equilibrium in the neoclassical framework. We notify that in a soup of sectors in economy, while capital and labor resemble extensive variables, wage and rate of return on capital act as intensive variables. As a result, Baumol and Bowen's statement of equal wages is inevitable from the thermodynamics point of view. We try to see how aggregation can be performed concerning the extensive variables in a soup of firms. We provide a toy model to perform aggregation for production and the labor income as extensive quantities in a neoclassical framework.

  10. Changing the Firm through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdier, Eric

    1992-01-01

    A survey of French research by CEREQ ("A French research centre for analysis of occupations and of vocational education and training") shows that firms have undertaken a number of experiments, most of them large scale, to retrain their work force. These initiatives are situated within a general context of change. Training programs based…

  11. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  12. Persistent Patterns in Trading Firms' Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Neda; Doyne Farmer, J.

    2007-03-01

    To understand the dynamics of price formation in financial markets, we take the approach of investigating the actions of market participants. We examine the impact of the participating firms on the price and find that different firms have different patterns of impact. Each firm can be representative of many traders with different trading habits and strategies but nevertheless we observe statistically significant differences in the firms' market impacts. We also investigate a method of clustering the firms based on a simplified conception of strategies. We find consistent clusters and patterns in firm strategies and show that these relations are statistically significant.

  13. Gender-Based Wage Differentials in a Predominantly Female Profession: Observations from Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cheryl, Bland; Gates, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Despite numerous studies examining nursing wages, very little attention has focused on nursing wage differentials. We build on previous research by modeling nursing wages and examining male-female wage differences within the context of the current nursing shortage. Our results show that male nurses do earn a wage premium, largely explained by…

  14. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  15. Wage determination in the union and nonunion sectors.

    PubMed

    Bloch, F E; Kuskin, M S

    1978-01-01

    This study contains estimates of wage equations for white male union and nonunion employees. The authors find that nonunion wages are generally more responsive than union wages to individuals' education and experience and to regional price-level variation. Despite those differences, however, estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials based on these separate equations do not differ greatly from a differential obtained from a union dummy variable in an equation based on combined union and nonunion observations. Union-nonunion differentials vary widely across occupational groups and are generally larger in the lower skilled and more highly unionized occupations. The results for manufacturing, for which additional industry data are available, indicate a negative impact of high concentration ratios on the wages of all workers and a greater impact of establishment size on nonunion than on union wages. Data were drawn from the May 1973 Current Population Survey.

  16. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  17. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  18. Contingent feasibility for forest carbon credit: evidence from South Korean firms.

    PubMed

    Roh, TaeWoo; Koo, Ja-Choon; Cho, Dong-Sung; Youn, Yeo-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, a global governmental response to climate change, protocol signatories make an effort to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. South Korea is not included in the list of Annex I countries; yet, South Korea is the seventh highest emitter of CO2. The South Korean government has enacted various institutional policies to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. While previous studies have focused on the guidance that reflects the stance of suppliers in the carbon market, this study focuses on South Korean firms' actual demand for forest carbon credits. By applying the contingent valuation method, we estimated domestic firms' willingness to pay for forest carbon credits. We then applied a rank-ordered logistic regression to confirm whether the rank of forest carbon credits, as compared to any other carbon credit, is influenced by a firm's characteristics. The results showed that Korean firms are willing to pay 5.45 USD/tCO2 and 7.77 USD/tCO2 for forest carbon credits in domestic and overseas forest carbon projects, respectively. Therefore, the introduction of forest carbon credits in the Korean carbon market seems reasonable. Analysis of the priority rankings of forest carbon credits, however, demonstrated that forestry projects were least likely to be ranked by firms as their first priority. Although relative preferences for forest carbon credits were influenced by individual firms' characteristics such as prior experience of environmental CSR related activities and whether the firm established an emissions reduction plan, the impact of perceived behavior control, whether the firm was included in the emissions target management scheme on forest carbon credits was negligible. Therefore, forest carbon credits are not a feasible solution without strong government support or institutional instruments. The results of this study are expected to provide policy makers with realistic approaches to formulate climatic change-related policies. Copyright © 2014

  19. 48 CFR 622.404-11 - Wage determination appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 622.404-11 Wage determination appeals. The cognizant contracting activity is the contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 222.1008 - Procedures for obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008 Procedures for obtaining wage...

  1. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the procedures...

  2. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the procedures...

  3. The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

    2004-09-01

    We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1156 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1156 Firm. Firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby; as applied...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised;...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised;...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1156 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1156 Firm. Firm as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby; as applied...

  10. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy...

  11. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, D. A.; Balázs, E.; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact – we consider this to be ‘super-domestication’. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might – and can – advance in the future. PMID:17940074

  12. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reimburse the firm for the excess amount. (2) After EPA receives a firm's application, EPA will take one of... of the firm, its principals, or its key employees does not show an unwillingness or inability to... perform renovations covered by this section in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a...

  13. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  14. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  15. Cooperative Education Programs in CPA Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibadoux, Gregory M.; Greenberg, Ira S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the background of employed students in a sampling of accounting cooperative education programs, the nature of the final selection process made by the firms, the value of the students to the firm, and the value of the program to the students as perceived by members of the firm. (CT)

  16. 78 FR 1 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... 3206-AM59 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for..., 2012, abolishing the Washington, DC, Federal Wage System special wage schedule for printing and...

  17. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Butler...

  18. Women, War, and Wages: The Effect of Female Labor Supply on the Wage Structure at Midcentury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David H.; Lyle, David

    2004-01-01

    We exploit the military mobilization for World War II to investigate the effects of female labor supply on the wage structure. The mobilization drew many women into the workforce permanently. But the impact was not uniform across states. In states with greater mobilization of men, women worked more after the war and in 1950, though not in 1940.…

  19. Ideological Wage Inequalities? The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems "within" professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional…

  20. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  1. Ideological Wage Inequalities? The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems "within" professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional…

  2. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  3. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  4. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  5. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  6. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2010-01-01

    This article employs a unique method of inferring the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to offer new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the United States on workers' wages. We estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants,…

  7. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  8. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  9. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  10. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  11. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  12. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2010-01-01

    This article employs a unique method of inferring the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to offer new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the United States on workers' wages. We estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants,…

  13. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., contracting agencies may select and obtain a wage determination using WDOL. (See § 4.4(c).) Although the WDOL... subsequent issuance of wage determinations for one or more composite localities. (4) In no event may a... thereon pursuant to section 4(c) of the Act is warranted, shall file its request for such hearing...

  14. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  15. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  16. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  17. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  18. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  19. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  20. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  1. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  2. 75 FR 27735 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11893] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... meeting of the Department of Defense Wage Committee will be held on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, at 10 a.m. at...

  3. Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth: A Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzler, Isabelle Katz; Ellis, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways to close the gap between the courts' approach to applying Federal law to sex-based and race-based wage discrimination and the law's potential to change wage inequities. Discusses the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Explores ways the court applies these laws. (JS)

  4. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... periodic rate (and not an overtime rate) for the current payroll period or at a predetermined fixed... other wages is less than the aggregate of the amounts determined under the table provided in section... weekly wage table for married person ($2.50 per week for 5 weeks) 12.50 Less: Tax previously withheld on...

  5. Desperate Measures: Strikes and Wages in Post-Accord America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Jake

    2006-01-01

    Using previously unreleased data on nearly every authorized work stoppage that occurred between 1984 and 2002, this paper tests whether the positive wage-strike relationship held following the breakdown of the post-war labor-capital accord. Unlike in decades past, these findings indicate a complete decoupling of the wage-strike relationship. Even…

  6. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  7. 48 CFR 22.404-1 - Types of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of wage determinations. 22.404-1 Section 22.404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... determination, and is used in contracts performed within a specified geographical area. General wage...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental wage payments. 31.3402(g)-1 Section 31.3402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-1 Supplemental wage payments. (a) In general...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a contract. (b)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed or working upon the site of the work will... relationship which may be alleged to exist between the Contractor and such laborers and mechanics. Any wage... mechanics are considered wages paid to such laborers or mechanics, subject to the provisions of paragraph (e...

  11. CETA and Sex Related Wage Differentials: The Boston Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, Pawan K.; Jantzen, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the CETA program on the sexual wage differential of participants. The sources of sex-related wage differentials among CETA Title I (now Title IIB) participants before and after program participation are analyzed in order to examine the impact of training on the earnings gap. (CT)

  12. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  13. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1013 Review of wage determination. (a) Based on incumbent collective bargaining agreement. (1) If wages, fringe benefits, or periodic increases provided for in a collective bargaining agreement...

  14. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Service Contract Labor... wage determination specifying the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid to service... performance of a contract for services subject to the Act is unknown at the time of solicitation,...

  15. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  16. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  17. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... age 63, became disabled, or died before age 63 to find your elapsed years. (3) Then we subtract 5 from...

  18. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... age 63, became disabled, or died before age 63 to find your elapsed years. (3) Then we subtract 5 from...

  19. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... age 63, became disabled, or died before age 63 to find your elapsed years. (3) Then we subtract 5 from...

  20. The Effect of International Competition on Union and Nonunion Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Stewart, James B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the impact of international competition on union and nonunion wages found that international competition was a significant determinant and that the net negative effect of a given import share of union and nonunion wages decreased sharply in absolute magnitude as the percentage of organized workers increased. (Author)

  1. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  2. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to...

  6. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  7. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  8. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  11. Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth: A Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzler, Isabelle Katz; Ellis, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways to close the gap between the courts' approach to applying Federal law to sex-based and race-based wage discrimination and the law's potential to change wage inequities. Discusses the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Explores ways the court applies these laws. (JS)

  12. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  13. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  14. 26 CFR 1.105-4 - Wage continuation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “wage continuation plan” means an accident or health plan, as defined in § 1.105-5, under which wages...) which are not normal working days for the particular employee. Also, section 105(d) does not apply to... absent from work on a Friday and the succeeding Monday (two working days) on account of a personal...

  15. 26 CFR 1.105-4 - Wage continuation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “wage continuation plan” means an accident or health plan, as defined in § 1.105-5, under which wages...) which are not normal working days for the particular employee. Also, section 105(d) does not apply to... absent from work on a Friday and the succeeding Monday (two working days) on account of a personal...

  16. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  17. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509... pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any pension, paid by Switzerland or any agency or instrumentality thereof, or by any political subdivisions or...

  18. 42 CFR 412.266 - Availability of wage data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of wage data. 412.266 Section 412.266 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Review Board Composition and Procedures § 412.266 Availability of wage data. A hospital may obtain the...

  19. Wage Inequality and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Five Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    1999-01-01

    Using 1940-90 Censuses, a study of changes in male wage inequality and skill premiums shows that relative demand for most skilled workers rose steadily over the years. The pace of industrial change, especially in blue-collar manufacturing, was inversely related to the overall growth in wage inequality. (SK)

  20. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  1. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Whether remuneration paid after 1954 for employment performed after 1936 constitutes wages is determined... the statutory exclusions from wages), apply with respect only to remuneration paid after 1954 for employment performed after 1936. Whether remuneration paid after 1936 and before 1940 for employment...

  3. Male-Female Wage Differentials: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, B. F.; Traynham, Earle C.

    This paper reviews some of the past literature on male-female wage differentials in order to determine the early hypotheses which are the historical roots of the current theoretical and empirical work analyzing male-female wage differentials. Part 1 reviews the discrimination hypotheses, which emphasize differences in the labor market conditions…

  4. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Service Contract Labor... wage determination specifying the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid to service... to be employed on the contract. Based upon the information provided on the e98, the Department...

  5. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage rate...

  7. Wage, Work Environment, and Staffing: Effects on Nurse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes—less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  8. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual’s log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young. PMID:25798025

  9. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent wage disparity between documented and undocumented Mexican immigrant men, and a 9 percent documented-undocumented wage disparity for Mexican immigrant women. We also find that in comparison to authorized Mexicans, undocumented Mexican immigrants have lower returns to human capital and slower wage growth. PMID:25414526

  10. Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes.

  11. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY.

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-05-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual's log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young.

  12. The earnings of informal carers: wage differentials and opportunity costs.

    PubMed

    Heitmueller, Axel; Inglis, Kirsty

    2007-07-01

    A substantial proportion of working age individuals in Britain are looking after sick, disabled or elderly people, often combining their work and caring responsibilities. Previous research has shown that informal care is linked with substantial opportunity costs for the individual due to forgone wages as a result of non-labour market participation. In this paper we show that informal carers exhibit further disadvantages even when participating. Using the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) we decompose wage differentials and show that carers can expect lower returns for a given set of characteristics, with this wage penalty varying along the pay distribution and by gender. Furthermore, opportunity costs from forgone wages and wage penalties are estimated and found to be substantial.

  13. The reservation wages of Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    There exists a lot of research on the reservation wages of the unemployed as a determinant of unemployment duration. Little is known about the reservation wages of those who are not in the labor force but might be potential labor force returnees, such as Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries. The main objective of this article is to assess what can be learned from the subjective reservation wages of DI beneficiaries. Using the New Beneficiary Data System (NBDS), the article assesses the magnitudes of reservation wages compared to the last wage earned and the benefit amount, as well as the determinants of reservation wages in a regression framework. The NBDS is unique in that it provides the reservation wages and the work history of DI beneficiaries before and after joining the DI rolls. The article has several noteworthy results and policy implications: *Data show that a significant portion of beneficiaries report being likely to accept a job if offered one. Based on the NBDS, 13 percent of DI beneficiaries who did not work since joining the rolls in 1981-1982 reported in 1991 that they would be willing to work if offered a job and provided their reservation wages. *DI beneficiaries do not appear to price themselves out of the labor market. Half of them would want a wage that is 80 percent or less of the last wage earned before receiving DI. It is estimated that approximately 7 percent of long-term DI beneficiaries may potentially return-to-work if they search for jobs and have a wage offer distribution with a mean at 80 percent of their last wage. *The nonlabor income in addition to the benefit is positively and significantly associated with the reservation wage, while the benefit amount per se is not. However, this result needs to be treated with caution given that nonlabor income is endogenous to the model. *Heterogeneity exists between persons still under the DI program and those that have moved to the Old-Age program. The subsamples of

  14. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1014 Domestic service by a student for..., your work is not covered as employment. (b) Explanation of terms—(1) Work of a household nature means...

  15. Participatory Research Is the First Step towards Political Action: The Case of Young Female Domestic Servants in Dakar, Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaw, Bamba

    1996-01-01

    Studied working conditions of female domestic workers in Dakar, Senegal, using group interviews. Found that most leave rural families for economic reasons. Village solidarity networks help find work, maintain rural norms, and provide support. Few employers provide written contracts, medical insurance, or adequate wages. Heavy work responsibilities…

  16. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  17. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  18. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.

  19. The employment and wages of legalized immigrants.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Tienda, M

    1993-01-01

    "This article analyzes the employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants [in the United States] using the Legalization Application Processing System (LAPS) file, an administrative file based on the individual records of amnesty applicants, and draws comparisons with a sample of the foreign-born population from the Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986 and 1988. Compared to the total foreign-born population, the legalized immigrant population differs in four important respects that bear on labor market position: 1) a younger age structure; 2) a less balanced gender composition; 3) a greater representation of Latin Americans; and 4) few years of U.S. residence. LAPS data reveal high rates of labor force participation among legalized immigrants, which exceeded the rates of the foreign-born population by approximately 5 and 17 percent for men and women, respectively."

  20. Shared vision promotes family firm performance

    PubMed Central

    Neff, John E.

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance. PMID:26042075

  1. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  2. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    PubMed

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  3. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  4. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  5. 29 CFR 525.12 - Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates... Terms and conditions of special minimum wage certificates. (a) A special minimum wage certificate shall specify the terms and conditions under which it is granted. (b) A special minimum wage certificate shall...

  6. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  7. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  8. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  9. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  10. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  11. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  12. 76 FR 53045 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... 3206-AM49 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... Monmouth, New Jersey, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine...

  13. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  14. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  15. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  16. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  17. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  18. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  19. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  20. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  1. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  2. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  3. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  4. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  5. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  6. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  7. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  8. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  9. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  10. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  11. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  12. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  13. Labor Market Dropouts and Trends in the Wages of Black and White Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    2003-01-01

    When discouraged unemployed black males are accounted for, real wage growth for black men over 1969-98 is reduced by about 40% and black-white wage convergence by about one-third. An important source of selection bias is the changing gap between wages of workers and potential wages of nonworkers. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  14. 29 CFR 1.6 - Use and effectiveness of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness of wage determinations. (a)(1) Project wage determinations initially issued shall be effective for... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and effectiveness of wage determinations. 1.6 Section 1... the period of its effectiveness it is void. Accordingly, if it appears that a wage determination...

  15. 29 CFR 4.165 - Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specifying higher monetary wages or fringe benefits than those contained in an applicable determination. However, if an applicable wage determination contains a wage or fringe benefit provision for a class of... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general. 4.165...

  16. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4... Wage Determination Procedures § 4.54 Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. (a... within which a wage or fringe benefit determination is applicable is, therefore, defined in each...

  17. 76 FR 70321 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Cumberland, ME, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... RIN 3206--AM38 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Cumberland, ME, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY..., nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Cumberland, Kennebec, and Penobscot...

  18. Low-Wage Jobs and Workers: Trends and Options for Change. Research Findings. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Displaced Homemakers Network, Washington, DC.

    This study was conducted to determine how many workers are in low-wage jobs; their characteristics and changes in their characteristics over time; the characteristics of the low-wage jobs; gender, sex, and racial factors influencing participation in low-wage jobs; and the relationship of low-wage work to family poverty and welfare receipt. The…

  19. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  20. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  1. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  2. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  3. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the...

  4. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  5. Occupational adjustment of the prospective payment system wage index

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Gregory C.

    1989-01-01

    In this article, the bias in the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) hospital wage index that results from its failure to hold hospital occupation mix constant is examined. On average, the difference between the current PPS wage index and a fixed-occupation-mix Laspeyres index is small, approximately 2 percent. However, occupation-mix distortions are substantially larger for a small proportion of labor market areas, especially some in the South. Biases in the wage index resulting from its failure to appropriately account for labor substitution and intra-occupational worker characteristics are also analyzed but are not found to be significant. PMID:10313354

  6. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    PubMed

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  7. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men.

  8. EXPLAINING THE MOTHERHOOD WAGE PENALTY DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    PubMed Central

    STAFF, JEREMY; MORTIMER, JEYLAN T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women. PMID:22037996

  9. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-02-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  10. U.S. Metric Board 1979 Survey of Selected Large U.S. Firms and Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-19

    U.S. sales (29 percent). In some cases, companies convert products destined for the foreign market only. The Fortune 500 group exhibits a greater...percentage of metric sales (33 percent) than do those companies in the second 500 group (24 percent); sales in domestic and foreign markets are combined for...is, firms can produce soft, hard, hybrid, or any mix of products), of the 70 companies defined as metric, about three quarters are involved in soft

  11. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as...) If wages, fringe benefits, or periodic increases provided for in a collective bargaining agreement...

  12. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as...) If wages, fringe benefits, or periodic increases provided for in a collective bargaining agreement...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... laborer or mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall not...

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall not...

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall not...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mechanics engaged in work under this contract must be submitted for approval in writing by the head of the... mechanic in excess of the agency approved wage rate shall be at the expense of the Contractor and shall not...

  18. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  19. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  20. 31 CFR 285.11 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or judicial or administrative body. For purposes of this section, the terms “wage garnishment order... the Secretary of the Treasury. The withholding order shall contain the signature of, or the image...

  1. 48 CFR 1322.404-6 - Modification of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... extension beyond 90 days after bid opening from the Department of Labor Administrator, Wage and Hour...

  2. 48 CFR 1322.404-6 - Modification of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... extension beyond 90 days after bid opening from the Department of Labor Administrator, Wage and Hour...

  3. The Aggregate Supply Curve: Keynes and Downwardly Sticky Money Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Keynes's explanation of both the rationale underlying downwardly sticky money wages and the consequences this phenomenon has for macroeconomic theory are reviewed. An aggregate supply curve appropriate to today's economy is then interpreted. (Author/RM)

  4. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... committee members, consideration shall be given to the requirement in the prevailing rate law for labor and... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A...

  5. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  6. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

  7. 7 CFR 51.1012 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1012 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1551 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1551 Firm. Firm means that the potato is not...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1006 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1006 Firm. Firm means that the fruit is not soft...

  10. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  11. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but...

  12. 7 CFR 51.893 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Definitions § 51.893 Firm. Firm means that the berry does not yield more than slightly to moderate...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but...

  14. 7 CFR 51.893 - Firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Definitions § 51.893 Firm. Firm means that the berry does not yield more than slightly to moderate...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2843 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2843 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly...

  18. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  19. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  20. A Firm Venture for a Public College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershfield, Allan F.

    1998-01-01

    The Fashion Institute of Technology (New York) is developing a Center for Design Innovation to nurture start-up of design firms and facilitate contacts between firms and clothing manufacturers, but its primary purpose is to generate revenue for the college. The evolution of the center and the lessons learned that may be useful to other public…