Science.gov

Sample records for firs

  1. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL).

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen

    2000-01-01

    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  2. Silvics of grand fir

    Treesearch

    Marvin W. Foiles

    1959-01-01

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) is one of the two balsam firs found in the northern Rocky Mountain region and one of seven in the Pacific Northwest. Except in the southern part of its range, where it is often confused with white fir (Abies concolor), it is distinguished from other firs in its range by its needles, which are distinctly two-ranked. Grand fir differs...

  3. Fir Engraver (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1986-01-01

    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, belongs to the family of insects called bark beetles, which live between the bark and wood of host trees. A wide-ranging, native beetle, the fir engraver attacks most species of fir in the Western United States. Epidemics can cause severe tree mortality. From 1977 to 1978, for example, the fir engraver killed an estimated 1...

  4. Seed maturity in white fir and red fir

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver

    1974-01-01

    White fir and red fir seed collected over a 2-month period in northern California was tested for germination of fresh and stratified seed. Ratio of embryo length to embryo cavity length was found to be the most useful index of seed maturity for white and red fir. Cone specific gravity also was correlated with nearly all measures of seed germination. Data suggest that...

  5. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle

    1981-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  6. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees

    Treesearch

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham

    1960-01-01

    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  7. FIR sample change

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-11

    ISS029-E-025108 (11 Oct. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, works on the Fluids Integrated Rack/Fluids and Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF), conducting another session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE). Fossum is working at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. Using indicator plants to assess susceptibility of Californian red fir and white fir to the fir engraver beetle

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1986-01-01

    Using a Vegetation Drought Index (VDI) for estimating the susceptibility of California red and white firs to the fir engraver beetle (Scolytus venttralis) was evaluated in northern California forests where these true firs (Abies species) occur in mixed conifer and true fir stands. Midway through the summer drought, true fir...

  9. Dwarfmistletoe of Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Donald P. Graham

    1961-01-01

    Dwarfmistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii Engelm.), one of the most destructive enemies of Douglas-fir, causes serious losses in many stands. This parasitic plant is present almost everywhere within the range of Douglas-fir in the northern, central, and southern Rockies. It is abundant in eastern Washington and Oregon and is common in southwestern Oregon and northern...

  10. Heart Rots of Red and White Firs

    Treesearch

    J.W. Kimmey; H.H. Jr. Bynum

    1961-01-01

    Heart rots, caused by fungi that attack the heartwood of living trees, are responsible for the greatest volume loss sustained by California red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white fir (A. concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl.). These two firs comprise 25 percent of the commercial timber of California. More than 13 percent of the volume in these firs is useless cull...

  11. The identification of Douglas-fir wood

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)

    1963-01-01

    Douglas-fir is one of the largest, most abundant and widely distributed species of trees native to North America, and next to the southern yellow pines, it is cut in the greatest quantities of any wood of commercial importance. It belongs to the coniferous family and is, therefore, a softwood. Other names for Douglas -fir are red fir, yellow fir, Oregon pine, Puget...

  12. Growth classification systems for red fir and white fir in northern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1983-01-01

    Selected crown and bole characteristics were predictor variables in growth classification equations developed for California red fir, Shasta red fir, and white fir in northern California. Individual firs were classified on the basis of percent basal area increment (PCTBAI ) as Class 1 (≤ 1 pct), Class 2 (> 1 pct and ≤ 3 pct), or Class 3 (> 3...

  13. Damage from wind and other causes in mixed white fir-red fir stands adjacent to clearcuttings

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon

    1973-01-01

    Damage to timber surrounding clearcuttings and in one light selection cutting in mixed white fir-red fir stands was monitored for 6 years in northeastern California. In some years, bark beetles apparently killed more trees than did wind damage, but in two of the study years, severe wind storms caused much damage. One storm produced mainly break-age, apparently...

  14. Weather and tree growth associated with white fir mortality caused by fir engraver and roundheaded fir borer

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; Ralph C. Hall

    1975-01-01

    White fir (Abides concolor [Cord. & Glend.] Lindl.) stands in Western North America periodically suffer extensive tree mortality caused by outbreaks of the fir engraver bark beetle (Scolytus ventralis Lec.). The cambial zone of the boles infested by S. ventralis is also colonized by the roundheaded fir borer...

  15. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  16. Silvical characteristics of balsam fir (Abies balsamea)

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1959-01-01

    Balsam fir takes its name from the Latin word for balm. Some people know the tree as the Balm-of-Gilead fir. It has also been called the blister fir, because of the bark blisters that yield Canada balsam, a resin that is used for, among other things, mounting microscope slides. The needles of balsam fir have a spicy aroma that Donald Culross Peattie has called "...

  17. Noble fir: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography on noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.) includes both North American and European references. Its purpose is to list articles for those interested in the species; the most important references have been abstracted. An article concerning California red fir and one concerning Shasta red fir are included, as their silvical characteristics...

  18. Decay of subalpine fir in Colorado

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth; Ross W. Davidson

    1960-01-01

    Spruce-fir is one of the major forest types in the central Rocky Mountains. Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmanni Parry, is usually the predominant species with subalpine fir, Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. ) Nutt., making up one-fourth or less of the total volume. Lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., is frequently present at the lower elevations of the spruce-fir...

  19. Growing corkbark fir and subalpine fir for nursery production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This bulletin is largely based on research conducted at the University of Idaho during 2000-2009. Corkbark and subalpine fir have desirable characteristics for Christmas tree and landscape use, including soft, fragrant foliage that ranges from dark green to silvery or bluish-green. Depending on seed...

  20. Silvical characteristics of white fir

    Treesearch

    David C. Maul

    1958-01-01

    White fir (Abies concolor Gord. and Glend.) Lindl.) is an economically important native tree in western United States and parts of Mexico. In the United States it is widely distributed in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast regions, extending from New Mexico and Wyoming, westward to Oregon and California. It attains best development in California...

  1. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  2. FIR Emission From Rich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Caroline

    1994-12-01

    Previous searches for far infrared (FIR) emission from dominant cluster galaxies using small, X-ray selected samples have found 20% to 50% of clusters to have significant FIR emission. In a new study, I have analyzed the 60microns and 100microns emission properties of cD galaxies in a complete sample of 163 Abell Clusters. For comparison, a control sample of 207 blank fields was analyzed to determine the distribution of spurious detections, which is greater than expected from Gaussian statistics. The contribution of Galactic cirrus at 60 microns and 100 microns to non-Gaussian noise is clearly demonstrated by the correspondence of a 98% confidence level to a signal to noise of 4 or 4.5 rather than to a signal to noise of 2 as expected from Gaussian statistics. After correcting for contaminated fields and spurious signals, I find that about 10% of cD galaxies in rich clusters are sources of FIR emission. Typical detected cDs have FIR luminosities of about 3 times 10(44) erg sec(-1) , which is comparable to the blue luminosities from these objects and an order of magnitude greater than the X-ray luminosities produced in the cores of clusters. Dust masses derived from the 60microns and 100 microns fluxes are ~ 10(7) M _sun. Because only about 10% of the clusters have high FIR luminosities, such strong emission is probably a transient state for an individual cluster. It has been suggested that this FIR emission is due to dust heated by electron collisions from the hot gas that dominates the intra-cluster medium. Study of the optical and X-ray properties of these clusters allows us to test models for the heating process of the dust, the origin of the dust, and its importance as a mechanism for cooling the hot gas. The central electron density and the temperature distribution for the hot gas are determined from analysis of ROSAT PSPC observations of four of these clusters. My program of UBVI imaging is designed to identify dust lanes and morphology that might indicate

  3. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa)

    Treesearch

    J. B. St. Clair; W. B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham, (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The cross...

  4. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa).

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham. (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindle. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The...

  5. Weather, logging, and tree growth associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1973-01-01

    The boles of 32 recently killed, and 41 living, white fir were examined for embedded fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis) attack scars. Of 287 scars found in annual rings for the years 1934-69, only 2 to 3 percent represented reproductively successful attacks. Trends in scar abundance were directly correlated with trends in white fir killed by ...

  6. Graft union formation in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1969-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) graft unions were examined between 2 and 84 days after grafting. Room temperature was maintained at 60-70 F throughout the growing season. In most respects grafts of Douglas-fir followed development patterns previously reported for spruce and pine grafts, but specific differences...

  7. What's in your Douglas-fir bark?

    Treesearch

    M. Gabriela Buamscha; James E. Altland

    2008-01-01

    Douglas-fir bark is a common waste product of forest industry, and has potential use as a substrate in container nurseries. Douglas-fir bark (DFB) is strongly acidic and contains amounts of phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper and manganese within or above the levels recommended for growing container crops. As the pH of DFB decreases, electrical conductivity and amounts...

  8. Setup for FIR scattering on plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raensch, Jens; Aschinger, Andreas; Winter, Joerg

    2008-09-07

    We propose a new method for the investigation of plasma crystals. It is equivalent to the X-ray scattering methods of solid state physics but using far infrared (FIR) laser beams with wavelengths comparable to the Debye length of the system. This method could provide information about structure and dynamics of large 3D plasma crystals. Such crystals with up to 1 million particles have been realised in CCP discharges using micron sized Melamin-Formaledhyd (MF) particles. We present the setup of the FIR laser system, scattering arrangement, and plasma chamber. Results are discussed including video analysis of plasma crystals and FIR scattering on test samples.

  9. Risk-rating systems for mature red fir and white fir in northern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of crown and bole characteristics, risk-rating systems to predict the probability that a tree will die within 5 years were developed for mature red fir and white fir in northern California. The systems apply to firs at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) in diameter-at-breast-height (d.b.h.), growing in mature stands, with the original overstory at least partially...

  10. Estimating stand age for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson

    1954-01-01

    Stand age for Douglas-fir has been defined as the average age of dominant and codominant trees. It is commonly estimated by measuring the age of several dominants and codominants and computing their arithmetic average.

  11. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  12. Thinning balsam fir thickets with soil sterilants

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    Under certain conditions that we do not yet fully understand, balsam fir has a tendency to form dense thickets that cause stagnation of growth. This condition is common throughout the spruce-fir region, and it presents the landowner with one of his most perplexing management problems. A typical thicket averaging 15 feet tall may contain 5,000 to 10,000 stems per acre (...

  13. Radial growth of grand fir and Douglas-fir 10 years after defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Blue Mountains outbreak.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial-growth recovery related to amount of tree defoliation was measured 10 years after a severe outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough). For the period 1978-82, growth of qrand fir surpassed and was significantly greater than in the preoutbreak period, 1968-72. Douglas-fir growth during the postoutbreak period...

  14. Price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Roger D. Fight

    1992-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were developed for Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber. These grade-specific price projections can be used in evaluating management practices that will affect the quality of saw logs produced under various management regimes.

  15. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  16. Effects of fir sawyer beetle on spatial structure of Siberian fir stands

    Treesearch

    Vladimir L. Gavrikov; Valentina P. Vetrova

    1991-01-01

    Insects not only use plants for food and habitat; they also change plant populations by influencing their structure and dynamics. This influence is evidenced in the alteration of the spatial structure of a stand. The fir sawyer, Monochamus urussovi Fisch. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is the most abundant xylophagous insect injuring siberian fir,

  17. Decay in white fir top-killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman; Robert F. Scharpf

    1972-01-01

    Stands heavily defoliated in 1936-37 by the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Hemerocampa pseudotsugata McD., at Mammoth Lakes, California, were studied to determine the incidence and extent of decay in top-damaged trees. This was done by dissecting the tops of trees felled during logging. Comparisons were made with white fir in a nearby logged area that was...

  18. Stand and tree characteristics influencing density of fir engraver beetle attack scars in white fir

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1973-01-01

    Density of embedded scars resulting from old fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis Lec.) attacks was assessed in 3,430 bole cross sections cut from 603 white firs growing in both cutover and in virgin old-growth stands in northern California. Mean scar density was directly related to percentage of mature stand removed by logging and was higher in...

  19. Douglas-fir growth and yield: research 1909-1960.

    Treesearch

    R.O. Curtis; D.D. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Systematic research on growth and yield of Douglas-fir began in 1909. This line of early research evolved over time and culminated in publication of USDA Bulletin 201, The Yield of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. B201 had an enormous influence on development of Douglas-fir forestry and was arguably the most influential single research publication ever produced in...

  20. HOW to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir

    Treesearch

    Mike Albers; Jana Albers; Jane Cummings Carlson; Linda Haugen; Nancy Wenner

    1996-01-01

    Needlecast diseases are common in balsam fir stands and Christmas tree plantations in the northeastern and north central United States and in southern Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Three different needlecast fungi, Lirula nervata, Lirula mirabilis and Isthmiella faullii, cause similar disease symptoms on balsam fir. These diseases may affect other firs planted in...

  1. User's guide to the Douglas-fir beetle impact model

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Marsden; Bov B. Eav; Matthew K. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.) occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precedent...

  2. Little response of true fir saplings to understory shrub removal

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver; Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    2002-01-01

    The ability of white fir and California red fir to become established, persist, and eventually dominate montane shrub fields is well known. When the firs have eventually dominated do the understory shrubs continue to inhibit growth? In a small study in the southern Cascade Range of northeastern California, we tested the growth response of a thinned stand of saplings to...

  3. System Verilog modelling of FIR filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, Łukasz; Wegrzyn, Marek

    2006-02-01

    In the paper modelling of FIR filters by means of Verilog and SystemVerilog is presented. Hardware/software co-design approach for such systems is applied in the presented design. As a final technology for a FIR filters system implementation, a FPSLIC device is considered. Filters system demonstrates example methods of communication between FPGA and AVR microcontroller in a FPSLIC structure, i.e. the communication through SRAM memory, addressing lines, data bus, interrupts. It also demonstrates how to serve peripheral elements in FPSLIC device by means of DPI interface. FIR filters model contains also interface which implements a FPSLIC cache logic and gives opportunity to a dynamical reconfiguration of FPGA in a FPSLIC structure.

  4. [Utilization of compressed Chinese fir thinning wood].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiying; Wei, Ping; Liu, Jinghong

    2005-12-01

    With Chinese fir thinnings as raw material, and through measuring the physical-mechanical indices of its compressed wood, observing the variation of its microstructure and using IR analysis, an optimized technique of compressing Chinese fir thinnings was established. The technique was: compression ratio 50%-60%, thickness after compression 20 mm, moisture content before compression 50%, compressing time 20-30 minutes, and hot compressing temperature 180-200 degrees C. CH, an environmentally friendly cooking additive, had positive effects on softening the wood. During compressing, only the cells of fast-growing Chinese fir were extruded, their cavity became smaller, while the cell wall was not destroyed. The thickness reversion ratio of compressed wood was 2.68%, and its size stability and mechanical quality were as good as hardwoods (Betula lumninifera).

  5. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  6. Optical implementation of systolic FIR filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Govind, G.; Antony, S.

    1987-01-01

    An optical systolic finite impulse response (FIR) filter (or convolution operation) implementation using barrel shifters and a modified signed-digit adder is presented. The computational element used in systolic FIR filters in electronics includes a multiplier and an accumulator. It is noted that a speed-up in the throughput data rate can be achieved along with a high degree of regularity and concurrency by replacing the multiplier with barrel shifters and accumulators. It is shown that the modified signed-digit adder is implemented using symbolic substitution logic and the input operands in the various cells are arranged on the same input data plane to give all the required summation terms.

  7. Predicting susceptibility of white fir during a drought-associated outbreak of the fir engraver, Scolytus centralis, in California

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina; C.J. DeMars

    1994-01-01

    Phenotypic traits were compared with a vigor (growth efficiency) index for accuracy in predicting susceptibility of white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl., during a drought-associated outbreak of the fir engraver, Scolytus centralis LeC., in the central Sierra Nevada at Lake Tahoe, California.Predictor variables were estimated for 633 firs in six forest...

  8. Assessing the susceptibility of white fir to the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis Lec. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), using fungal inoculation

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina; C.J. DeMars

    1993-01-01

    A method of assessing susceptibility of white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., by fungal inoculation was tested during an outbreak of the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeC., at Lake Tahoe, California, in 1987 through 1989.A total of 592 firs growing in six forest stands containing trees infested by the beetle were inoculated with the mutualistic...

  9. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to the fir engraver and its fungal symbiont in northern California

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina

    1996-01-01

    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeC., attacks white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., and other true firs, Abies spp., in western North America. The biology, attack behavior, and ecology of this bark beetle were recently summarized by Berryman and Ferrell (1988). During the summer flight season, the attacking beetles bore into the cambial zone of...

  10. Fifteen-year results from a Grand fir-Shasta red fir spacing study.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1987-01-01

    A 43-year-old, even-aged stand of advance reproduction of grand fir and Shasta red fir in central Oregon responded to release and thinning with diameter and height growth two to three times the prerelease rate. The response began the first growing season after the overstory was killed with 2,4-D. Diameter growth during the second and third 5-year periods after release...

  11. Two important publications on Douglas fir yields

    Treesearch

    R.E. McArdle; W.H. Meyer

    1931-01-01

    Two publications, resulting from years of study by the Forest Experiment Station of the growth and yield of Douglas fir forests, have just been distributed. Both are of signal value to foresters and timberland owners of western Oregon and Washington who are interested in knowing what wood volume forest lands of various qualities are capable of producing under both...

  12. Epicormic branching on pruned white fir

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Cosens

    1952-01-01

    Epicormic branches have developed on white fir (Abies concolor) one to two years after part of the live limbs were removed in a pruning experiment. The appearance of an average of six epicormic sprouts per tree raises some doubt as to the desirability of planting this species.

  13. True fir spacing trials: 10-year results.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen precommercial thinning trials were established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and the west side of the Cascade Range during the period 1987 through 1994. This paper updates a previous report, with results for the first 10 years after establishment. Results are given for (1) all trees, (2) the largest 80 per acre of any species, and (3)...

  14. Sargent's fir hybrid: Abies amabilis x lasicarpa

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1977-01-01

    On a short trip into the northern Olympic Mountains of Washington in the summer of 1896, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent found a fir tree that he thought might be a natural hybrid between Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes and A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. The founder and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Sargent was generally...

  15. Highlights of Douglas fir natural regeneration.

    Treesearch

    Leo A. Isaac

    1937-01-01

    Enough natural reproduction to produce a fully stocked stand immediately after logging occurs on only a small percentage of the clear-cut and broadcast-burned areas in the Douglas fir region. Studies have been made of the environmental factors that enter into this rather hesitant transition from old forest to new in order to work out a silvicultural system for the type...

  16. Users guide for noble fir bough cruiser.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; Keith A. Blatner; Roger C. Chapman; William E. Schlosser

    2005-01-01

    The bough cruiser spreadsheet was developed to provide a method for cruising noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.) stands to estimate the weight of boughs that might be harvested. No boughs are cut as part of the cruise process. The approach is based on a two-stage sample. The first stage consists of fixed-radius plots that are used to estimate the...

  17. Inheritance of graft compatibility in Douglas fir.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1973-01-01

    Graft compatibility of genetically related and unrelated rootstock-scion combinations was compared. Scion clones were 75% compatible when grafted on half-related rootstocks but only 56% compatible when grafted on unrelated rootstocks. Most variance associated with graft incompatibility in Douglas-fir appears to be caused by multiple genes.

  18. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Treesearch

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  19. Reconsidering price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Roger D. Fight

    2004-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were once again developed for Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber. These grade-specific price projections can be used to demonstrate the returns to land management of practices that lead to high-quality logs that produce a larger proportion of high grades of lumber. The price ratios among low, medium,...

  20. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  1. Tall oil precursors of Douglas-fir

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.O.; Zinkle, D.F.; Conner, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition. High contents of sterol esters (about 35%) and a new triterpene alcohol are reported. The lightwood-inducing effect of paraquat was limited.

  2. Forest growth in the Douglas fir region.

    Treesearch

    W.H. Meyer; P.A. Briegleb

    1936-01-01

    A study of forest growth in western Oregon and western Washington, the so-called Douglas fir region, was made in 1934-35 by the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station. This is one phase of the Nation-wide forest survey undertaken by the Department of Agriculture under authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act. Other phases of the survey are an...

  3. Mortality and growth reduction of white fir following defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1963-01-01

    In 5 years after a 1954-56 outbreak of Hemerocampa pseudotsugata in Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties, California, 20 percent of the merchantable white fir, or 11,071 board feet per acre, died in heavily defoliated stands. Another 1,113 board feet per acre was lost owing to radial growth reductions in partly defoliated trees; 12 percent of these trees...

  4. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  5. Financial analysis of pruning coast Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; James M. Cahlll; Thomas D. Fahey; Thomas A. Snellgrove

    1987-01-01

    Pruning of coast Douglas-fir was evaluated; recent product recovery information for pruned and unpruned logs for both sawn and peeled products was used. Dimensions of pruned and unpruned trees were simulated with the Douglas-fir stand simulator (DFSIM). Results are presented for a range of sites, ages at time of pruning, ages at time of harvest, product prices, and...

  6. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  7. A model to estimate noble fir bough weight.

    Treesearch

    Keith A. Blatner; Roger D. Fight; Nan Vance; Mark Savage; Roger. Chapman

    2005-01-01

    The harvesting of noble fir (Abies procera) for the production of Christmas wreaths and related products has been a mainstay of the nontimber forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for decades. Although noble fir is the single most important bough product harvested in the PNW, little or no work has been published concerning the...

  8. Dwarf mistletoe-infected red fir: growth after release

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf

    1979-01-01

    Release cutting, live crown ratio, diameter-at-breast height, and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum f. sp. magnificae). acted to affect radial and height growth of red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.). Infected and noninfected red firs responded well to release as expressed by increased radial growth: growth...

  9. Shelterwood regeneration of true fir: conclusion after 8 years

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Laacke; Jeanne H. Tomascheski

    1986-01-01

    Shelterwood cuttings on Swain Mountain Experimental Forest were measured to determine performance six to eight years after the shelterwood cutting and before shelterwood removal. Use of appropriate selecting criteria minimized windthrow of seed trees. Regeneration remained red fir, even where the major seed source was white fir. Density of seed trees may affect...

  10. Biological Degradation of Chinese Fir with Trametes Versicolor (L.) Lloyd.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiling; Wang, Chuangui; Fei, Benhua; Ma, Xinxin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Shuangyan; Huang, Anmin

    2017-07-20

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) has been an important afforestation species in northeast China. It has obvious defects of buckling and cracking easily, which are caused by its chemical components. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd, a white-rot fungus, can decompose the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the wood. White-rot fungus was used to biologically degrade Chinese fir wood. The effects of different degradation time on the Chinese fir wood's mechanical properties, micromorphology, chemical components, and crystallinity were studied. The results showed that the heartwood of Chinese fir was more durable than the sapwood and the durability class of Chinese fir was III. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd had a greater influence on the mechanical properties (especially with respect to the modulus of elasticity (MOE)) for the sapwood. Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd degraded Chinese fir and colonized the lumen of various wood cell types in Chinese fir, penetrated cell walls via pits, caused erosion troughs and bore holes, and removed all cell layers. The ability of white-rot fungus to change the chemical composition mass fraction for Chinese fir was: hemicellulose > lignin > cellulose. The durability of the chemical compositions was: lignin > cellulose > hemicellulose. The crystallinity of the cellulose decreased and the mean size of the ordered (crystalline) domains increased after being treated by white-rot fungus.

  11. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting grand fir in California

    Treesearch

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum was detected on grand fir in 2003 and 2005 in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, in association with infected California bay laurel. Isolates derived from stem lesions were used to inoculate grand fir seedlings in two tests. Isolations from lesions on inoculated plants were positive for P. ramorum...

  12. Price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas D. Fahey; Roger D. Fight

    1988-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were developed for Douglas-fir lumber produced in the Douglas-fir region. These grade-specific price projections can be used as an aid in evaluating management practices that will affect the quality of saw logs that are produced.

  13. True fir spacing and yield trials—20-year update

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    This report updates data and comparisons from previous reports (Curtis and others 2000, Curtis 2008) on a series of precommercial thinning and yield trials in high-elevation true fir–hemlock stands, using data from the 12 replicates for which 20-year data are now available. The stands were varying mixtures of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Douglas ex Loudon)...

  14. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  15. Douglas-fir tussock moth: an annotated bibliography.

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Lorna C. Youngs

    1978-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes references to 338 papers. Each deals in some way with either the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), or a related species. Specifically, 210 publications and 82 unpublished documents make some reference, at least, to the Douglas-fir tussock moth; 55 are concerned with other species in...

  16. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  17. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  18. Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

  19. Growth of White fir after Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks: long-term records in the Sierra Nevada.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial growth of white fir trees, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr., defoliated almost 30 years ago by Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), in the central Sierra Nevada was compared with 22 years of growth prior to the outbreak. There was little difference in growth between the two...

  20. Losses associated with Douglas-fir and true fir tops killed by western spruce budworm in eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 133 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and 69 true firs (Abies spp.) with dead tops caused by defoliation by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were felled, dissected, and examined for height loss and incidence and...

  1. Symptoms associated with inoculation of stems on living Douglas-fir and Grand Fir Trees with Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Gary Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Katie Coats; Marianne Elliott; Annie DeBauw; Norm Dart

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the potential risk of infection and colonization of living Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and grand fir (Abies grandis) stems, the stems on over 150 trees of each species were inoculated at a Christmas tree farm near Los Gatos, California. This study had the following objectives: 1)...

  2. Tree growth in thinned and unthinned White fir stands 20 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-year postoutbreak growth was compared in thinned and unthinned, severely defoliated stands. Basal area of unthinned white fir has declined 37 percent and pine basal area has increased 32 percent since 1964. The stand thinned in 1960 has the lowest basal area in the study area, but the greatest tree growth before and after the outbreak. All defoliated fir are...

  3. Ten-year risk-rating systems for California red fir and white fir: development and use

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1989-01-01

    Logistic regression equations predicting the probability that a tree will die from natural causes--insects, diseases, intertree competition--within 10 years have been developed for California red fir (Abies magnifica) and white fir (A. concolor). The equations, like those with a 5-year prediction period already developed for these...

  4. A key to arboreal spiders of Douglas-fir and true fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    A.R. Moldenke; B.L. Fichter; W.P. Stephen; C.E. Griswold

    1987-01-01

    This illustrated key for identifying spiders inhabiting true fir and Douglas-fir is based on extensive collections from throughout the three North American Pacific Coast States. Details of the age classes present at budburst and the season in which to expect adults are presented for all species. This paper is written for people unfamiliar as well as familiar with...

  5. Multidimensional multichannel FIR deconvolution using Gröbner bases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianping; Do, Minh N

    2006-10-01

    We present a new method for general multidimensional multichannel deconvolution with finite impulse response (FIR) convolution and deconvolution filters using Gröbner bases. Previous work formulates the problem of multichannel FIR deconvolution as the construction of a left inverse of the convolution matrix, which is solved by numerical linear algebra. However, this approach requires the prior information of the support of deconvolution filters. Using algebraic geometry and Gröbner bases, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of exact deconvolution FIR filters and propose simple algorithms to find these deconvolution filters. The main contribution of our work is to extend the previous Gröbner basis results on multidimensional multichannel deconvolution for polynomial or causal filters to general FIR filters. The proposed algorithms obtain a set of FIR deconvolution filters with a small number of nonzero coefficients (a desirable feature in the impulsive noise environment) and do not require the prior information of the support. Moreover, we provide a complete characterization of all exact deconvolution FIR filters, from which good FIR deconvolution filters under the additive white noise environment are found. Simulation results show that our approaches achieve good results under different noise settings.

  6. Status of the spruce; Fir cooperative research program

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, G.D.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Arre, T. ); Eager, C. ); Mohnen, V. ); MedLarz, S. )

    1987-01-01

    Aside from the mixed conifer forest in the San Bernadino National Forest near the Los Angeles Basin, the only significant visible decline and mortality of a U.S. forest possibly caused by regional air pollution is found in the high elevation spruce/fir forests of the Appalachians (VA, NC, TN, W VA), Adirondacks (NY), Green Mountains (VT), and the White Mountains (NH). In January, most of the scientists that have or are currently studying Spruce-Fir conditions met in Philadelphia. They came to a consensus on the regional condition of the Spruce-Fir forests. The results of that meeting are summarized.

  7. The Alcator C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Irby, J. H.; Bosco, J.; Kanojia, A.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Michael, P.; Murray, R.; Rokhman, Y.; Vieira, R.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Mansfield, D. K.

    2009-11-01

    A multi-chord FIR polarimetry diagnostic is being developed for the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak to be used to determine the q-profile and to study density and magnetic field fluctuations. This poloidally viewing system using retro-reflectors on the inner wall will have geometry and fields similar to those planned for ITER. The full optical layout will be discussed, as well as simulations of the expected Faraday and Cotton-Mouton signal levels. Bench test results from a single chord system including all optical components will be presented, and preliminary experimental results from C-Mod will be compared with simulated Faraday rotation angle calculated using Thomson Scattering density profiles and EFIT reconstructions of actual C-Mod plasmas.

  8. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we study the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on GMC structure. We consider three different GMCs with mass in the range M_GMC = 10^{3-6} {M_{⊙}}. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. In the fiducial case (MGMC ≈ 105M⊙), the photoevaporation time (tpe) increases from 1 Myr to 30 Myr for gas metallicity Z=0.05-1 Z_{⊙}, respectively. Next, we compute the time-dependent luminosity of key FIR lines tracing the neutral and ionized gas layers of the GMCs, ([C II] at 158 {μ m}, [O III] at 88 μ m) as a function of G0, and Z until complete photoevaporation at tpe. We find that the specific [C II] luminosity is almost independent on the GMC model within the survival time of the cloud. Stronger FUV fluxes produce higher [C II] and [O III] luminosities, however lasting for progressively shorter times. At Z = Z⊙ the [C II] emission is maximized (L_CII≈ 10^4 {L_{⊙}} for the fiducial model) for t<1 {Myr} and log G0 ≥ 3. Noticeably, and consistently with the recent detection by Inoue et al. (2016) of a galaxy at redshift z ≈ 7.2, for Z≤ 0.2 {Z_{⊙}} the [O III] line might outshine [C II] emission by up to ≈1000 times. We conclude that the [O III] line is a key diagnostic of low metallicity ISM, especially in galaxies with very young stellar populations.

  9. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  10. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  11. Genecology of Douglas fir in western Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    J. Bradley St Clair; Nancy L. Mandel; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland

    2005-01-01

    Background and Aims. Genecological knowledge is important for understanding evolutionary processes and for managing genetic resources. Previous studies of coastal Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) have been inconclusive with respect to geographical patterns of variation, due in part to...

  12. Site index curves for Douglas-fir in New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Carleton B. Edminster; Lewis H. Jump

    1976-01-01

    Presents a figure, table, and FORTRAN subroutine for estimating site indexes for Douglas-fir stands in New Mexico. Site index is expressed as the average height of dominant trees at a breast-height age of 100 years.

  13. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  14. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  15. Dimension lumber grades from white fir in Lakeview area.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1955-01-01

    Production of white fir lumber in the western pine region amounted to a little more than a billion board feet in 1954, or about 13 percent of the output of pine-region sawmills. Moreover, production of the white fir lumber is expanding, and it is important to know what grades of lumber can be expected so that timber and log values can be more accurately appraised....

  16. Compositional changes of douglas fir seeds during germination.

    PubMed

    Ching, T M

    1966-10-01

    Changes in weight, water content, nucleic acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds in embryo and gametophyte of Douglas fir seeds (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) were studied at 6 stages of germination. Lipids, proteins, and reserve phosphorus compounds in the gametophyte were utilized for the synthesis of carbohydrates, structural components, and soluble compounds in the seedling.The general quantitative metabolic changes that occur during germination of Douglas fir seeds are comparable to those known for angiosperm seeds.

  17. Coaxial visible and FIR camera system with accurate geometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Yuka; Shibata, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2017-05-01

    A far-infrared (FIR) image contains important invisible information for various applications such as night vision and fire detection, while a visible image includes colors and textures in a scene. We present a coaxial visible and FIR camera system accompanied to obtain the complementary information of both images simultaneously. The proposed camera system is composed of three parts: a visible camera, a FIR camera, and a beam-splitter made from silicon. The FIR radiation from the scene is reflected at the beam-splitter, while the visible radiation is transmitted through this beam-splitter. Even if we use this coaxial visible and FIR camera system, the alignment between the visible and FIR images are not perfect. Therefore, we also present the joint calibration method which can simultaneously estimate accurate geometric parameters of both cameras, i.e. the intrinsic parameters of both cameras and the extrinsic parameters between both cameras. In the proposed calibration method, we use a novel calibration target which has a two-layer structure where thermal emission property of each layer is different. By using the proposed calibration target, we can stably and precisely obtain the corresponding points of the checker pattern in the calibration target from both the visible and the FIR images. Widely used calibration tools can accurately estimate both camera parameters. We can obtain aligned visible and FIR images by the coaxial camera system with precise calibration using two-layer calibration target. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed camera system is useful for various applications such as image fusion, image denoising, and image up-sampling.

  18. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  19. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata)) were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (18 deg to 25 deg), convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width (TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies) have a high impact on current TRW (r = 0.60 to 0.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest- steppe) and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  20. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  1. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata)) were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (18 deg to 25 deg), convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width (TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies) have a high impact on current TRW (r = 0.60 to 0.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest- steppe) and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  2. The FIR Emission and [CII] in LINERs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Sempere, M. J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2001-07-01

    LINERs galaxies have been considered as the low level end of the family of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). But a lack of consensus does still exist on the nature of these galaxies. Some of them show clear evidences for an AGN nature whereas data at different frequencies seem to support an Starburst origin as the responsible of their observed properties. The general properties at FIR of LINERs have not been properly studied. Among the LINERs reported in the multifrequency catalogue by Carrillo, Masegosa et al. (1999) 335 have been observed with IRAS. In this paper we present a preliminary analysis of these data. The most relevant result obtained so far is that the 12 microns emission is associated with the cold disk dust emission. The ISO database have been used to search for all the LINERs observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrograph looking for C+ detections. In 27 galaxies out of the 69 LINERs observed with ISO the [CII]λ 158 microns has been measured. The main conclussion from this analysis is that C+ is not related to the recent star formation events but instead it seems to be associated to the PDRs in giant molecular clouds.

  3. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success1

    PubMed Central

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2016-01-01

    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide. PMID:27335071

  4. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2016-07-01

    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide.

  5. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    PubMed

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  6. Predicting postfire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz

    2007-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were monitored for 4 years following three wildfires. Logistic regression analyses were used to develop models predicting the probability of attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, 1905) and the probability of Douglas-fir mortality within 4 years following...

  7. Natural regeneration 10 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    B.E. Wickman; K.W. Seidel; G. Lynn. Star

    1986-01-01

    A survey of natural regeneration 10 years after severe grand fir mortality caused by an outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth was conducted in the Wenaha-Tucannon Wilderness in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Seedling stocking was only moderate, but seedling density was adequate where present. Grand fir is dominating both preoutbreak and postoutbreak...

  8. Stability of nuclear DNA content among divergent and isolated populations of Fraser fir

    Treesearch

    L.D. Auckland; J.S. Johnston; H.J. Price; F.E. Bridgwater

    2001-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic species consisting of six major disjunct populations in the Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A. Nuclear DNA content was measured with laser flow cytometry to determine if genome size differences could be detected among the disjunct populations of Fraser fir and its close relatives, balsam fir

  9. Environmental characteristics of the Grand Fir Mosaic and adjacent habitat types

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson; John C. Byrne

    2000-01-01

    Grand Fir Mosaic habitats differ from adjacent forest habitats in their slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Remote monitoring stations were used to sample the environment at a Grand Fir Mosaic site and three adjacent habitat types. The Grand Fir Mosaic site has shorter growing seasons, cooler temperatures, and more soil moisture than the other sites...

  10. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  11. Upgrades to the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Sameer; Irby, Jim; Watterson, Reich; Vieira, Rui; Leccacorvi, Rick; Parkin, William; Murray, Rick; Marmar, Earl

    2016-10-01

    The 3-Chord FIR Polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. Two FIR lasers locked together with a slight frequency offset provide a signal IF at 4 MHz, which allows for the fast response of the system. Recently implemented upgrades including relocation of the laser table from the C-Mod experimental cell to a more shielded location, the design and installation of a humidity controlled beam-line to convey the FIR beams across the cell, and improved collimation optics will be discussed. Results from initial testing of the system during C-Mod operation, as well as fluctuation data from the most recent and previous campaigns will be presented and compared. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Progress on the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wolfe, S.

    2010-11-01

    A poloidally viewing FIR polarimetry diagnostic is being developed for the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The primary diagnostic components are a two-wave FIR laser at 117.73 microns and newly developed detectors whose performance characteristics will be described. Faraday rotation will be used both to refine the q-profile measurement by adding constraints to EFIT , and to study density and magnetic field fluctuations. A three-chord system has been installed, one chord of which is being tested during the FY10 C-Mod campaign. The FIR laser source is affected by both stray magnetic fields and mechanical vibrations present in the experimental cell thereby impacting the measurement. Methods developed to mitigate and correct for these effects will be discussed. Initial Faraday data will be compared with expectations from numerical simulation.

  13. FIR digital filter-based ZCDPLL for carrier recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Qassim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the performance of the newly proposed two-tap FIR digital filter-based first-order zero-crossing digital phase-locked loop (ZCDPLL) in the absence or presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The introduction of the two-tap FIR digital filter widens the lock range of a ZCDPLL and improves the loop's operation in the presence of AWGN. The FIR digital filter tap coefficients affect the loop convergence behaviour and appropriate selection of those gains should be taken into consideration. The new proposed loop has wider locking range and faster acquisition time and reduces the phase error variations in the presence of noise.

  14. Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Stephen V.; Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B.W.T.; Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Williams, Gwyn P.

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on).

  15. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  16. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  17. Yield tables for managed stands of coast Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen; Donald L. Reukema; Donald J. DeMars

    1982-01-01

    Yield tables generated by the stand simulation program DFSIM (Douglas-Fir SIMulator) are presented for a number of possible management regimes. These include a “normal” yield table; tables for stands planted or precommercially thinned to 300 and 400 trees per acre; tables for commercially thinned stands with and without prior commercial thinning; and tables...

  18. Seed production of Douglas-fir increased by thinning.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Reukema

    1961-01-01

    In planning thinnings and final harvest cuttings for stands of young-growth Douglas-fir, foresters need reliable information on the capacity of young-growth stands to bear seed, on the periodicity of seed crops, and on the effects of thinning and other forest practices on seed production. One of the first studies designed to help provide this information was begun in...

  19. Some observations on age relationships in spruce-fir regeneration

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the ages of seedlings of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L) Mill.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) 15 years after the first harvest of a two-cut shelterwood operation revealed that very few potential crop-tree seedlings in the sample occurred as advance...

  20. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  1. The Grand Fir Mosaic Ecosystem -- History and Management Impacts

    Treesearch

    D. E. Ferguson; J. L. Johnson-Maynard; P. A. McDaniel

    2007-01-01

    The Grand Fir Mosaic (GFM) ecosystem is found on ash-cap soils in some mid-elevation forests of northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Harvesting on GFM sites results in successional plant communities that are dominated by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and western coneflower (Rudbeckia occidentalis), and have large...

  2. Infection of Douglas-fir by Leptographium wageneri.

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Everett M. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    In three related experiments, root systems of 2-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were dip-inoculated with a viscous blend of Leptographium wageneri var. pseudotsugae Harrington and Cobb spores and hyphal fragments and planted in a sterile potting medium. Infection...

  3. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir populations. II. Western Montana

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1982-01-01

    Populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) from Montana west of the Continental Divide were compared in common environments. Differentiation was observed for six variables reflecting growth potential, phenology and cold hardiness. Adaptation of populations for numerous traits is viewed as a balance between selection of high growth potential in...

  4. Predicting Douglas-fir's response to a warming climate

    Treesearch

    Andrea Watts; Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad. St. Clair

    2015-01-01

    Douglas-fir is an iconic tree in the Pacific Northwest. Although individual trees may appear to be identical, genetic differences within each tree have resulted from adaptation to the local environment. These genetic differences over time have resulted in differences among populations that are important to the species' survival and growth in changing climates....

  5. Breeding design considerations for coastal Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Randy. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of designing forest tree breeding programs are reviewed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwest. Breeding populations are discussed given current and future breeding zone sizes and seed orchard designs. Seed orchard composition is discussed for potential genetic gain and maintaining...

  6. Manager's handbook for balsam fir in the North Central States.

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1986-01-01

    Presents the resource manager with a key to the recommended practices for managing balsam fir stands, especially for timber. Discusses control of growth , establishment, composition, and damaging agents; also discusses managing for boughs and Christmas trees, wildlife habitat, esthetics, water. Includes information on estimating yield and growth.

  7. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  8. Douglas-fir beetle attack and tree mortality following wildfire

    Treesearch

    Sharon M. Hood; Barbara Bentz; Kevin C. Ryan

    2003-01-01

    A major concern after wildfires is the buildup of bark beetle populations in fire injured trees, and subsequent attack and population buildup in adjacent unburned areas. To examine this concern, we documented fire injury and insect attacks in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the 2001 Green Knoll Fire, Wyoming to determine attack preferences, brood production, and...

  9. Successful natural regeneration cuttings in California true firs.

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon

    1979-01-01

    In stands of mixed white and red fir in northeastern California, cuttings for natural regeneration became well stocked with seedlings within 2 to 5 years after cutting. Seed tree and shelterwood cuttings, clearcut strips not more than 3 chains (60 m) wide, and patches not exceeding 4 chains (80 m) width were studied. Incidence of damage among residual trees in or...

  10. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  11. Determining the age of dwarfmistletoe infections on red fir

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf; J.R. Parmeter

    1966-01-01

    Dwarfmistletoe on red fir in California can be aged rapidly and reliably by counting the number of annual rings showing swelling and then adding 1 year for the lag period between infection and swelling. Infections were correctly aged in 70 percent of the cases observed, and were aged to within 1 year in the other 30 percent.

  12. True fir-hemlock spacing trials: design and first results.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen; Jan A. Henderson

    2000-01-01

    A series of 18 precommercial thinning trials was established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and along the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon from 1987 through 1994. This paper documents establishment of these installations and presents some preliminary observations and results. Substantial differences in growth rates in height...

  13. Lumber yield and log values of Shasta red fir.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham; Douglas L. Hunt

    1963-01-01

    The value of lumber produced from each of 362 Shasta red fir logs of southern Oregon was determined through a cooperative study in 1960. Lumber grade yield from each log provided the basis for calculating the comparative value of each log grade-log diameter class, in accordance with grading and scaling practices used both east and west of the...

  14. Predicting stocking improvement in reproduction stands of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1948-01-01

    Some cut or burned-over Douglas-fir areas restocked promptly and fully. Others do not and seemingly never will restock adequately without the help of artificial seeding or planting. On some areas widely scattered seedlings become established and grow; filling-in is by second generation trees from the seed of these scattered parents. On still other areas stocking...

  15. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Treesearch

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  16. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Treesearch

    Morris Cline; Mark Yoders; Dipti Desai; Constance Harrington; William. Carlson

    2006-01-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the...

  17. The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program

    Treesearch

    Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw

    1973-01-01

    I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.

  18. Foliage weight distribution in the upper crown of balsam fir

    Treesearch

    Steven Kleinschmidt; Gordon L. Bakersville; Dale S. Solomon

    1980-01-01

    A model was developed to predict the weight of foliage at each age on a branch for a given whorl from undefoliated balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The normal weight of foliage by age classes can be compared to the weight of foliage remaining on a branch to estimate recent, annual defoliation by spruce budworm (Choristoneura...

  19. Heartwood formation in living stumps of douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W.E. Hillis

    1970-01-01

    An anatomical and chemical examination was made of living stumps of Douglas-fir. Changes in heartwood and extractives formation are not significant under the conditions of severe physiological stress that exisred unless cell morphology was also altered. It is proposcd that the factors controlling the amount and composition of heartwood extractives are incorporated...

  20. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  1. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery

    Treesearch

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden

    2009-01-01

    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  2. Hopkins in U.S. Lab with FIR/FCF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-15

    ISS037-E-013951 (14 Oct. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, works at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. Introduction of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir to Argentina

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Leonardo A. Gallo

    2001-01-01

    Patterns of shoot elongation of 2-yr seedlings from native North American populations of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir were compared to those of Argentine land races originating from unknown provenances. The comparisons were conducted in Moscow, Idaho (USA), and suggested that the ponderosa pine land race was descended from a California provenance at low or middle...

  4. Productivity of a mature Douglas-fir stand.

    Treesearch

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1960-01-01

    Records from a mature Douglas-fir stand on the Mount Hood National Forest in northwestern Oregon indicate that very high rates of gross growth are maintained up to ages as high as 250 years. Where such stands are held in reserve for future clear cutting, forest managers have an opportunity to recapture a large share of this gross production by salvaging mortality at...

  5. Soil reaction and germination of Douglas-fir seed.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1954-01-01

    Wood ash and its accompanying alkalinity have sometimes been cited as being harmful to germination of tree seed on slash-burned forest land. Unasylva, the United Nations forestry publication, recently carried a report of research in British Columbia on the effect of slash burning on germination and initial survival of lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. One finding was...

  6. Two commercial thinnings in century-old Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Steele

    1954-01-01

    As young-growth forests replace old-growth forests as the primary source of Douglas-fir raw material, the technique of managing young stands becomes increasingly important. Managers of young-growth timber need to know whether it is economical and silviculturally feasible to make thinnings in stands that are close to rotation age. Final harvest of some stands of this...

  7. Light thinning in century-old Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Steele

    1948-01-01

    A stand-improvement study in century-old Douglas-fir at the Wind River Experimental Forest provides an example of a commercial thinning that gave a substantial intermediate harvest, salvaged considerable material that would have been lost through mortality, greatly increased the net growth rate, and improved the general vigor of the stand, leaving the forest in a more...

  8. Foundations of biodiversity in managed Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; D.R. Thysell; L.J. Villa; T.M. Wilson; S.M. Wilson; J.M. Trappe; W. Colgan; E.R. Ingham; M. Holmes

    1996-01-01

    The controversy over old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests and late-seral species has resulted in substantial information about biodiversity (Carey 1989, 1995, Carey and Johnson 1995, Carey et al. 1990, 1992, Forsmann et al. 1984). Major compilations of old-growth related research and its management implications include Gutierrez...

  9. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-Fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. Ruggiero; Keith B. Aubry; Andrew B. Carey; Mark H. Huff

    1991-01-01

    Old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest—and their most celebrated inhabitant, the northern spotted owl—have engendered an acrimonious controversy that has been raging for over a decade. Should ancient forests be protected for their aesthetic appeal and because they provide a broad range of ecological values, including the most amenable...

  10. Small-forest management in the spruce-fir region

    Treesearch

    A. C. Hart

    1953-01-01

    Small forest properties occupy about 3.4 million acres, or 25 percent of the total forest land, in the spruce-fir region of Maine and New Hampshire. Careful management of these small forest properties is important to the region and to the owners.

  11. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Christy; Stephen D. West

    1993-01-01

    Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life...

  12. The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    1991-01-01

    Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat...

  13. Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

  14. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Cong; Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    The Catalog of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere, by Karachentsev (1972), was studied and a well-matched comparison sample taken from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies, by Karachentseva (1973), in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies.

  15. Cordwood volume tables for second-growth Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler; Elmer W. Shaw

    1949-01-01

    The increasing harvest of second-growth Douglas-fir for pulpwood makes cordwood volume tables, based on the conventional measures of tree diameter and height, useful tools for the pulpwood operators and forest managers seeking to determine the merchantable contents of their stands. Recent investigations in the Puget Sound vicinity into the cubic-foot content of a cord...

  16. Parasite records for the Douglas-fir tussock moth.

    Treesearch

    Torolf R. Torgersen

    1981-01-01

    This is an annotated assemblage of parasite and hyperparasite records for the Douglas-fir tussock moth. Species in more than 50 genera in the Hymenoptera and Diptera are included. These records are from published literature, unpublished reports, and other miscellaneous sources. These last sources include specimens reared by the author, species identification files (...

  17. Applied forest management in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Briegleb

    1950-01-01

    In the past decade or two sustained yield management has been emphasized as never before in the Douglas-fir region. It would be difficult to cite all the economic and technological factors that have encouraged landowners to grow timber as a crop. But one of the most potent sources of encouragement is the fund of technical information on timber growth, silviculture, and...

  18. Response of individual Douglas-fir trees to release.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Reukema

    1961-01-01

    To evaluate effects of different degrees of release on individual Douglas-fir trees, a study was started in 1952 in a 41-year-old, site IV stand at the Wind River Experimental Forest. A remeasurement at the end of four growing seasons showed that dominants respond more quickly and positively to the removal of competing trees than codominants or intermediates. A second...

  19. Thirteen years of thinning in a Douglas-fir woodland

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1963-01-01

    The impressive, integrated forest products industries and large forest ownerships of the Douglas-fir region are well known. Sometimes overlooked are the 53,000 owners of woodlands of under 100 acres, the average holding being 35 acres. These small tracts, totaling 1,900,000 acres, are growing timber at rates far below their potential.1 To secure...

  20. Stem infection by dwarf mistletoe in California firs

    Treesearch

    John R. Parmeter; Robert F. Scharpf

    1982-01-01

    In fir stands infested with dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz.), the majority of susceptible understory trees had one or more stem infections. Most stem infections entered through infected branches and grew slowly around the stem, resulting in small amounts of decay or stem killing. Decay was not found in trees less than 50...

  1. Factors affecting diurnal stem contraction in young Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Constance Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Diurnal fluctuation in a tree's stem diameter is a function of daily growth and of the tree's water balance, as water is temporarily stored in the relatively elastic outer cambial and phloem tissues. On a very productive site in southwestern Washington, U.S.A we used recording dendrometers to monitor stem diameter fluctuations of Douglas-fir at plantation...

  2. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to balsam twig aphid

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1989-01-01

    Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the central Sierra Nevada in California. Bud phenology was observed to explore...

  3. Reproduction following small group cuttings in virgin Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1953-01-01

    Quick and adequate regeneration of Douglas-fir forests as they are harvested is a major forest management problem in the Puget Sound region. Clear-cutting by staggered settings has not always resulted in adequate regeneration even where no part of the area is more than one-fourth mile from a seed source. Single tree selection, experimented with extensively, has many...

  4. A simple index of stand density for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    R.O. Curtis

    1982-01-01

    The expression RD = G/(Dg½), where G is basal area and Dg is quadratic mean stand diameter, provides a simple and convenient scale of relative stand density for Douglas-fir, equivalent to other generally accepted diameter-based stand density measures.

  5. Some economic considerations in thinning Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1957-01-01

    Many thousands of acres of young Douglas-fir stands in western Washington are ready for commercial thinning. This is true even after liberal allowance is made for premerchantable and under stocked stands, unfavorable topography, and lack of markets. However, with but few exceptions, regular systematic thinning is not being practiced even in favorably located, operable...

  6. Release of Douglas-fir seedlings: growth and treatment costs

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1986-01-01

    Foresters often lack information on growth of woody shrubs and their effect on conifer seedling survival and growth. Deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus H. & A.) was treated by several manual and chemical methods at age 3 and again at age 5 in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) plantation on a medium-quality...

  7. Assessing post-fire Douglas-fir mortality and Douglas-fir beetle attacks in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz; Ken Gibson; Kevin Ryan; Gregg DeNitto

    2007-01-01

    Douglas-fir has life history traits that greatly enhance resistance to injury from fire, thereby increasing post-fire survival rates. Tools for predicting the probability of tree mortality following fire are important components of both pre-fire planning and post-fire management efforts. Using data from mixed-severity wildfire in Montana and Wyoming, Hood and Bentz (...

  8. Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, D.L.; Filip, G.M.; Willits, S.A.; Parks, C.G.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon.

  9. Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Dean L. Parry; Gregory M. Filip; Susan A. Willits; Catherine G. Parks

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon. Sap rot, caused principally by Cryptoporus...

  10. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  11. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near

  12. [Community stability for spruce-fir forest at different succession stages in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-tao; Zhang, Qing; Kang, Xin-gang; Yang, Ying-jun; Xu, Guang; Zhang, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the analysis of three forest communities (polar-birch secondary forest, spruce-fir mixed forest, spruce-fir near pristine forest) in Changbai Mountains, a total of 22 factors of 5 indices, including the population regeneration, soil fertility (soil moisture and soli nutrient), woodland productivity and species diversity that reflected community characteristics were used to evaluate the stability of forest community succession at different stages by calculating subordinate function values of a model based on fuzzy mathematics. The results that the indices of population regeneration, soli nutrient, woodland productivity and species diversity were the highest in the spruce-fir mixed forest, and the indices of soil moisture were the highest in the spruce-fir near-pristine forest. The stability of three forest communities was in order of natural spruce-fir mixed forest > spruce-fir near pristine forest > polar-birch secondary forest.

  13. AmeriFlux US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Law, Bev [Oregon State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site. Site Description - The Marys River Fir site is part of the "Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon and Northern California (ORCA)". Located in the western region of Oregon the Marys River site represents the western extent of the climate gradient that spans eastward into the semi-arid basin of central Oregon. The sites that make up the eastern extent of the ORCA climate gradient is the Metolius site network (US-Me1, US-ME2, US-ME4, US-Me5) all of which are part of the TERRA PNW project at Oregon State University.

  14. Development of the Alcator C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Irby, J. H.; Bosco, J.; Kanojia, A.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Michael, P.; Murray, R.; Vieira, R.; Wolfe, S.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Mansfield, D. K.

    2008-11-01

    A multi-chord FIR polarimetry diagnostic is being developed for the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak to be used to determine the q-profile and to study density and magnetic field fluctuations. This poloidally viewing system using retro-reflectors on the inner wall will have geometry and fields similar to those planned for ITER. The optical layout will be discussed, as well as simulations of the expected Faraday and Cotton-Mouton signal levels, and the plans to integrate these data into EFIT. Details of the hardware being developed and procured including the FIR laser system, the laser power and frequency control system, optical components, detectors, beam position feedback system, and inner wall retro-reflectors and shutter will be presented.

  15. Dowel-nut connection in Douglas-fir peeler cores

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Wolfe; John R. King; Agron. Gjinolli

    As part of an effort to encourage more efficient use of small-diameter timber, the Forest Products Laboratory cooperated with Geiger Engineers in a study of the structural properties of Douglas-fir peeler cores and the efficacy of a bdowel-nutc connection detail for application in the design of a space frame roof system. A 44.5-mm- (1.75-in.-) diameter dowel-nut...

  16. Moisture patterns in douglas-fir and tanoak slash

    Treesearch

    Norman C. Scott

    1964-01-01

    Moisture content in Douglas-fir cull logs and boles of felled tanoaks was sampled periodically at 2-inch intervals to a depth of 6 inches from October 1960-0ctober 1961. The study area had been clear cut in 1958 and the hardwoods felled in 1959. Analysis of the data showed that the moisture level in tanoak stems decreased at an increasing rate from a 6-inch depth to...

  17. Uphill falling of old-growth Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Douglas L. Hunt; John W. Henley

    1981-01-01

    Five timber sales were made in old-growth Douglas-fir with matched cutting units. On one unit of each sale uphill falling by either hydraulic jacks or tree-pulling machine was required; on the other unit free falling was required. Logging equipment and methods were the same in each unit. Uphill falling produced a larger volume of timber at less cost than free falling...

  18. Fall Creek second-growth Douglas-fir thinning study.

    Treesearch

    E. E. Matson; Harold A. Rapraeger

    1950-01-01

    As the supply of old-growth timber in the Douglas-fir region decreases, there will be a continuous increase in the use of second growth. Eventually the entire wood-using industry will be wholly dependent on the younger timber stands, The exact amount of second growth being cut at present is not known, but it is estimated that close to one-third of the lumber production...

  19. Balsam Fir Dominant Species Under Rethinned Northern White-Cedar

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1972-01-01

    A 20-year thinning study in a Wisconsin swamp stand of middle-aged northern white-cedar indicates that advance tree reproduction and shrubs grow little under after a second thinning to less than 150 square feet of basal area per acre. Balsam fir will probably dominate this undergrowth, particularly if the area is used heavily by snowshoe hare or white-tailed deer....

  20. Prediction and assignment of the FIR spectrum of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helminger, P.; Messer, J. K.; De Lucia, F. C.; Bowman, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter microwave studies are used to predict and assign the FIR rotational-torsional spectrum of hydrogen peroxide. Special attention is given to the strong Q-branch features that have recently been used by Traub and Chance to place an upper limit on the atmospheric abundance of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, 67 new transitions are reported in the 400-1000 GHz region.

  1. A preliminary study of the deterioration of alder and Douglas-fir chips in outdoor piles.

    Treesearch

    Ernest. Wright

    1954-01-01

    In the fall of 1952, E. E. Matson of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station learned that the Fir-Tex Insulating Board Company bf St. Helens, Oregon was considering mixing alder with Douglas-fir chips for outside storage. Since alder heartwood i s more susceptible to decay than that of Douglas-fir, the question arose whether mixing the two might...

  2. [Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei

    2010-12-01

    A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.

  3. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  4. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

  6. Behavior of ground vegetation under a partially cut stand of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Krueger

    1960-01-01

    Environmental changes resulting from logging in the Douglas-fir region often create ideal growing conditions for many woody and herbaceous plants. A rapid increase of brush and low vegetation, in turn, can seriously hinder efforts to establish a new stand. Consequently, one argument against partial cutting in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is...

  7. Dwarf Mistletoe on Red Fir . . . infection and control in understory stands

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf

    1969-01-01

    Height and age of understory red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) were related to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobiilm campylopodum f. abietinum) infection from the surrounding overstory red fir on four National Forests in California. Percentage of trees infected and intensity of infection increased significantly as height of understory...

  8. Fraser fir stand structure in the Black Mountains of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Rachael H. McManamay; Lynn M. Resle; James B. Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, naturally occurring populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh.] Poir) have experienced devastating mortality rates due to attack by the exotic insect, balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). The decline in Fraser fir is particularly concerning because its natural geographic...

  9. Detecting changes in tree health and productivity in silver fir-beech forests of Slovenia

    Treesearch

    N. Torelli; W.C. Shortle; K. Cufar; F. Ferlin; K.T. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Cambial electrical resistance (CER) was used as an objective measure of vitality of silver fir (Abies alba) in the forests of Slovenia. Trees were rated during the growing season by CER and a subjective crown status index (CSI). Both CER and CSI were inversely correlated to annual ring width increment. Using both CER and CSI, fir were assigned to...

  10. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Treesearch

    Bruce S. Dien; Junyong Zhu; Patricia J. Slininger; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Bryan R. Moser; Patricia J. O' Bryan; Roland Gleisner; Michael A. Cotta

    2016-01-01

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils (SCO) using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrolyzing using commercial cellulases. A new SPORL process that uses pH...

  11. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: A comparison of seedlings from 12 fir species

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; John Frampton; Fred Hain

    2012-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) (BWA), first reported on Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret, on Mount Mitchell in 1955 (Amman 1966, Boyce 1955), is a major pest in Christmas tree plantations and in native stands. Nearly all Fraser fir Christmas trees produced in North Carolina...

  12. Population buildup and vertical spread of dwarf mistletoe on young red and white firs in California

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Rate of population buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz., was slow in most small red firs and white firs 12 to 15 years after inoculation with the parasite. Where population buildup did occur, it remained clustered in the lower portions of tree crowns near inoculation sites. Maximum distance of vertical spread was 16...

  13. Climate and growth rate as related to an outbreak of silver fir beetles.

    Treesearch

    Gerard M. Thomas

    1957-01-01

    In 1947, an outbreak of silver fir beetles, Pseudohylesinus grandis Sw. and P. granulatus (Lec.), was discovered in northwestern Washington. The epidemic flourished for the next six years, killing some 525 million board-feet of Pacific silver fir, Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes. Prior to 1947, the silver...

  14. A pioneer exotic tree search for the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Roy R. Silen; Donald L. Olson

    1992-01-01

    After three-quarters of a century of introduction of 152 conifer and broadleaf species, no promising candidate exotic was found for the Douglas-fir region. Growth curves spanning 50 years or longer are figured for many species. Firs, pines, larches, spruces, hemlocks, and cedars originating in northwestern North America had superior growth rates to those from other...

  15. White fir stands killed by tussock moth...70-mm. color photography aids detection

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman

    1968-01-01

    The use of large-scale 70 mm. aerial photography proved to be an effective technique for detecting trees in white fir stands killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth in northeastern California. Correlations between ground and photo estimates of dead trees were high. But correlations between such estimates of lesser degrees of tree damage--thin tops and topkill--were much...

  16. A forest health inventory assessment of red fir (Abies magnifica) in upper montane California

    Treesearch

    Leif Mortenson; Andrew N. Gray; David C. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the forest health of red fir (Abies magnifica) and how it compared with commonly-associated species Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white fir (Abies concolor) in the upper montane forests of California. We evaluated tree mortality rates...

  17. Response of different white fir geographic provenances to Trichosporium symbioticum inoculation in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    We inoculated the fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) associated fungus Trichosporium symbioticum Wright onto 56 white fir (Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) trees planted in a common garden study near Camino, California, that represented five geographic provenances of this species....

  18. Height-diameter equations for young-growth red fir in California and southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1989-01-01

    Total tree height of young-growth red fir can be estimated from the relation of total tree height to diameter outside bark at breast height (DOB). Total tree heights and corresponding diameters were obtained from stem analyses of 562 trees distributed across 56 sampling locations in the true fir forest type of California and Oregon. The resulting equations can predict...

  19. Dwarf mistletoe in red and white firs in California–23 to 28 years after inoculation

    Treesearch

    John R. Parmeter Jr.; Robert F. Scharpf

    1989-01-01

    Spread and buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum, was studied on inoculated white fir, Abies concolor, and red fir, A. magnifica, in northern California for 23 to 28 years. At the end of these studies (1986), and in the absence of overstory infection, 13 of 23 trees had dwarf mistletoe populations...

  20. Guide to understory burning in ponderosa pine-larch-fir forests in the Intermountain West

    Treesearch

    Bruce M. Kilgore; George A. Curtis

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the objectives, prescriptions, and techniques used in prescribed burning beneath the canopy of ponderosa pine stands, and stands of ponderosa pine mixed with western larch, Douglas-fir, and grand fir. Information was derived from 12 districts in two USDA Forest Service Regions and seven National Forests in Montana and Oregon.

  1. How to identify brooms in Douglas-fir caused by dwarf mistletoe.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Tinnin; Donald M. Knutson

    1985-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe causes obvious brooms in Douglas-fir. The brooms are the easiest means of recognizing the presence of dwarf mistletoe; however, dwarf mistletoe is not the only cause of brooming in Douglas-fir. Therefore, accurate identification of dwarf mistletoe brooms is important. If no evidence of aerial shoots can be found in the brooms, and if the brooms occur...

  2. Lumber recovery from young-growth red and white fir in northern California.

    Treesearch

    W.Y. Pong

    1982-01-01

    Lumber recovery data from 1,106 logs from 341 young-growth white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr) trees are presented. All logs were processed through a quad-band headsaw. Nominal 2x4's and 2x6's made up over 93 percent of the lumber volume; nearly 70...

  3. Decay losses associated with wounds in commercially thinned true fir stands in northern California.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1989-01-01

    A total of 562 white firs (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and red firs (A. magnifica A. Murr.) with logging wounds were felled, dissected, and analyzed for infection and decay in 28 commercially thinned stands on the Klamath and Tahoe National Forests in California. On the Klamath National Forest, decay...

  4. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  5. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  6. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  7. Documentation of the Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak-population model.

    Treesearch

    J.J. Colbert; W. Scott Overton; Curtis. White

    1979-01-01

    Documentation of three model versions: the Douglas-fir tussock moth population-branch model on (1) daily temporal resolution, (2) instart temporal resolution, and (3) the Douglas-fir tussock moth stand-outbreak model; the hierarchical framework and the conceptual paradigm used are described. The coupling of the model with a normal-stand model is discussed. The modeling...

  8. Early genetic testing of coastal Douglas-fir for Swiss needle cast tolerance.

    Treesearch

    Fatih Temel; G.R. Johnson; W.T. Adams

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of early testing coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) for Swiss needle cast (SNC; caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde) Petrak) tolerance was investigated using 55 Douglas-fir families from western Oregon. Seedlings were inoculated with P...

  9. Jet Drying of Southern Pine and Douglas-Fir: Exploratory Study

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1978-01-01

    Southern pine and Douglas-fir boards, containing both heart- and sapwood and 1.75 inches thick, were jet dried at temperatures from 160 to 400 F and air velocities from 3,000 to 9,000 fmp. Jet drying was more effective for southern pine than for Douglas-fir.

  10. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America

    Treesearch

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  11. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  12. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Treesearch

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  13. A SNP resource for douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation

    Treesearch

    Glenn R. Howe; Jianbin Yu; Brian Knaus; Richard Cronn; Scott Kolpak; Peter Dolan; W. Walter Lorenz; Jeffrey F.D. Dean

    2013-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauco) are native to North America, the coastal variety is...

  14. Release of Oregon white oak from overtopping Douglas-fir: effects on soil water and microclimate.

    Treesearch

    W.D. Devine; C.A. Harrington

    2007-01-01

    Many former Oregon white oak woodland and savanna stands in the coastal Pacific Northwest have been invaded and subsequently overtopped by Douglas-fir during the past century. We examined soil water and microclimate conditions near overtopped oak trees and near oak trees that had been released from Douglas-fir. In each of the three study years, volumetric soil water...

  15. Rx for Abies: silvicultural options for diseased firs in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    G.M. Filip; C.L. Schmitt

    1990-01-01

    The true firs are important species in Oregon and Washington forests, but root diseases, stem decays, and dwarf mistletoes cause more mortality, growth loss, and cull in these species than in any other. This paper consolidates research, observations, and management techniques for diseases of true firs, especially the effects of silvicultural activities on root diseases...

  16. Seedfall and seed viability within artificial canopy gaps in a western Washington douglas-fir forest

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2015-01-01

    Seedfall of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) has been studied at the forest edge-clearcut interface and in small canopy gaps, but it has not been evaluated in gap sizes that would be typical of a group-selection method of regeneration. In a mature Douglas-fir forest in the Puget Sound...

  17. A ponderosa pine-grand fir spacing study in central Oregon: results after 10 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1985-01-01

    The 10-year growth response from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl, ex Laws.) and grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure pine, pure fir, and a 50-percent mixture of...

  18. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  19. Growth of white firs defoliated by Modoc budworm in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1980-01-01

    Open-grown, pole-sized white firs defoliated by Modoc budwonn (Choristoneura viridis) in northeastern California in the years 1959-62 and 1973-75 suffered only minor growth reductions and topkilling compared with the effects that more protracted budworm outbreaks have had elsewhere on their conifer hosts. Growth index analysis indicated that the firs...

  20. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1983-01-01

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E. 1983. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 626-632. Growth, phenology, and cold hardiness of seedlings from 74 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) from central Idaho were compared in four...

  1. Early development of matched planted and naturally regenerated Douglas-fir stands after slash burning in the Cascade Range.

    Treesearch

    R.E. Miller; R.E. Bigley; S. Webster

    1993-01-01

    We compared matched planted and naturally regenerated plots in 35- to 38- year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) stands at seven locations in western Washington and Oregon. Total number of live stems is similar, but stands planted to Douglas fir average 26 more live stemslac of Douglas-fir and 39 fewer...

  2. Estimating extent of mortality associated with the Douglas-fir beetle in the Central and Northern Rockies

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Kenneth E. Gibson; John Anhold; Dawn Hansen; Ralph Thier; Phil Mocettini

    1999-01-01

    Data collected from Douglas-fir stands infected by the Douglas-fir beetle in Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Utah, were used to develop models to estimate amount of mortality in terms of basal area killed. Models were built using stepwise linear regression and regression tree approaches. Linear regression models using initial Douglas-fir basal area were built for all...

  3. Mortality of spruce and fir in Maine in 1976-78 due to the spruce budworm outbreak

    Treesearch

    Donald W. Seegrist; Stanford L. Arner

    1982-01-01

    The spruce budworm population in Maine's spruce-fir forests has been at epidemic levels since the early 1970's. Spruce-fir mortality in 1976-78 is compared with predictions of what mortality would have been had the natural mortality rates remained at the levels experienced before the budworm outbreak. It appears that mortality of spruce and fir has increased...

  4. Genecology of Douglas Fir in Western Oregon and Washington

    PubMed Central

    ST CLAIR, J. BRADLEY; MANDEL, NANCY L.; VANCE-BORLAND, KENNETH W.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genecological knowledge is important for understanding evolutionary processes and for managing genetic resources. Previous studies of coastal Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) have been inconclusive with respect to geographical patterns of variation, due in part to limited sample intensity and geographical and climatic representation. This study describes and maps patterns of genetic variation in adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir in western Oregon and Washington, USA. • Methods Traits of growth, phenology and partitioning were measured in seedlings of 1338 parents from 1048 locations grown in common gardens. Relations between traits and environments of seed sources were explored using regressions and canonical correlation analysis. Maps of genetic variation as related to the environment were developed using a geographical information system (GIS). • Key Results Populations differed considerably for adaptive traits, in particular for bud phenology and emergence. Variation in bud-set, emergence and growth was strongly related to elevation and cool-season temperatures. Variation in bud-burst and partitioning to stem diameter versus height was related to latitude and summer drought. Seedlings from the east side of the Washington Cascades were considerably smaller, set bud later and burst bud earlier than populations from the west side. • Conclusions Winter temperatures and frost dates are of overriding importance to the adaptation of Douglas fir to Pacific Northwest environments. Summer drought is of less importance. Maps generated using canonical correlation analysis and GIS allow easy visualization of a complex array of traits as related to a complex array of environments. The composite traits derived from canonical correlation analysis show two different patterns of variation associated with different gradients of cool-season temperatures and summer drought. The difference in growth and phenology between the

  5. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  6. Optimum FIR filter for sampled signals in presence of jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Paolo Walter

    1996-02-01

    The requirements of the integrated readout electronics for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders pose new challenges both to hardware design and to the performance of signal processing algorithms. Both aspects have been treated in detail by the FERMI(RD16) collaboration [C. Alippi et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 344 (1994) 180], from which this work has been motivated. The estimation of the amplitude of sampled signals is usually performed with a digital FIR filter, or with a more sophisticated non linear digital filter using FIR filters as building blocks [S.J. Inkinen and J. Niittylahti, Trainable FIR-order statistic hybrid filters, to be published in IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems; H. Alexanian et al., FERMI Collaboration, Optimized digital feature extraction in the FERMI microsystem Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 357 (1995)]. In presence of significant signal phase jitter with respect to the clock, the phase dependence of the filter output can be a major source of error. This is especially true for measurements of large amplitudes for which the effect of electronic noise becomes negligible. This paper reports on the determination of digital FIR filters that optimize the signal over noise ratio due to known jitter distributions for different filter lengths. As the presence of electronic noise is neglected, the results are mainly relevant for measurements of large signals. FERMI is a collaboration with the aim of designing integrated electronics for the read out of calorimeter detectors in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders. It includes: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; LPNHE Universities Paris VI-VII, Paris, France; Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, Sezine INFN, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell'Universitá e Sezione

  7. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  8. 2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry on TPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geck, W. R.; Qin, X.; Liao, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple fan-beam approach to 2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry is under investigation for use on next generation tokamaks such as TPX. The approach utilizes a small number (3-5) of inside launch fan beams, and a finite number (5-15) of receive horns positioned within the vacuum vessel on the outboard side of the plasma. Positioning of the horns is achieved with minimal penetration of internal structures, within the design constraints dictated by a highly restricted viewing access. The choice of operating frequency is discussed considering both physics and design issues.

  9. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the Douglas fir-hemlock type and the coastal Douglas-fir-hardwood type.

    Treesearch

    David V. SANDBERG; Franklin R. Ward

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Coastal Douglas-fir—Hemlock Type, Coastal Douglas-fir—Hardwood Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-051....

  10. High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B.

    2010-02-03

    New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

  11. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  12. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  13. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  14. Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  15. Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

  16. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-07-15

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  17. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  18. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  19. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  20. A HIRES analysis of the FIR emission of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1994-01-01

    The high resolution (HiRes) algorithm has been used to analyze the far infrared emission of shocked gas and dust in supernova remnants. In the case of supernova remnant IC 443, we find a very good match between the resolved features in the deconvolved images and the emissions of shocked gas mapped in other wavelengths (lines of H2, CO, HCO+, and HI). Dust emission is also found to be surrounding hot bubbles of supernova remnants which are seen in soft X-ray maps. Optical spectroscopy on the emission of the shocked gas suggests a close correlation between the FIR color and local shock speed, which is a strong function of the ambient (preshock) gas density. These provide a potentially effective way to identify regions of strong shock interaction, and thus facilitate studies of kinematics and energetics in the interstellar medium.

  1. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  2. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to enhancing the closed-loop bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally cancelling its acoustical resonances and antiresonances with an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an arbitrary filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth as small as 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by cancelling the six largest resonances and antiresonances of a high-finesse optical resonator piezomechanical transfer function, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. More broadly, this approach is applicable to stabilization of optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  3. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  4. Postseason hunting to reduce deer damage to Douglas-fir in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1980-01-01

    Effects of two successive postseason deer hunts on deer browsing of Douglas-fir seedlings in the Coast Range in western Oregon were evaluated. Terminal browsing was significantly lower on the area subjected to more hunting compared with other areas.

  5. The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

    2014-01-01

    The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

  6. Skyline logging productivity under alternative harvesting prescriptions and levels of utilization in larch-fir stands

    Treesearch

    Rulon B. Gardner

    1980-01-01

    Larch-fir stands in northwest Montana were experimentally logged to determine the influence of increasingly intensive levels of utilization upon rates of yarding production, under three different silvicultural prescriptions. Variables influencing rate of production were also identified.

  7. Response to commercial thinning in a 110-year-old Douglas-fir stand.

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Williamson

    1982-01-01

    During a 19-year period after a 110-year-old Douglas-fir stand was thinned, both standard plot compilations and stem analysis showed that growth of heavily and lightly thinned stands equaled growth of stands in control plots.

  8. Silvical characteristics of bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa [Vasey] Mayr)

    Treesearch

    Gerald W. Gause

    1966-01-01

    Describes the climatic, edaphic, physiographic, and biotic habitat conditions of the natural range of bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa [Vasey] Mayr) and how this tree reproduces, grows, and dies.

  9. [Effects of Chinese fir litter on soil organic carbon decomposition and microbial biomass carbon].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Si-Long; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2013-09-01

    By using 13C stable isotope tracer technique, this paper studied the effects of Chinese fir litter addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, and dissolved organic carbon in 0-5 cm and 40-45 cm layers. The decomposition rate of SOC in 40-45 cm layer was significantly lower than that in 0-5 cm layer, but the priming effect induced by the Chinese fir litter addition showed an opposite trend. The Chinese fir litter addition increased the soil total microbial biomass carbon and the microbial biomass carbon derived from native soil significantly, but had less effects on the soil dissolved organic carbon. Turning over the subsoil to the surface of the woodland could accelerate the soil carbon loss in Chinese fir plantation due to the priming effect induced by the litters.

  10. View of FE Stott installing hardware on the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-22

    ISS021-E-011440 (22 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, installs hardware in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. View of FE Stott installing hardware on the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-22

    ISS021-E-011443 (22 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, installs hardware in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. View of FE Stott installing hardware on the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-22

    ISS021-E-011438 (22 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, installs hardware in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. The GASS HI Survey And FIR Emission From The Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Brunner, S.; Pisano, D. J.; Lockman, F. J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Ford, A.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Calabretta, M. R.; Murphy, T.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Nakanishi, H.

    2007-12-01

    The new Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS) measured 21cm neutral hydrogen using the Parkes Multibeam instrument at high velocity resolution over all declinations south of the equator. We use a preliminary reduction of these data to study the correlation between HI and far-infrared emission (as derived from the IRIS reprocessing of the IRAS 100-micron survey) across the Southern Hemisphere, and particularly in the Magellanic Stream. While the Magellanic Stream is prominent in HI, it is essentially invisible in the FIR with a FIR emissivity per HI atom at most one tenth that of Galactic disk gas. The low FIR emissivity of the Magellanic Stream allows to trace it in maps of the FIR/HI ratio as a shadow across the sky, even where its HI is blended with local around V(lsr) = 0.

  14. Outbreak of Zeiraphera rufimitrana on silver fir hitherto unknown in southwest Germany

    Treesearch

    Hermann Bogensch& #252; tz; Hermann tz

    1991-01-01

    The most important defoliator of the silver fir, Abies alba, is Choristoneura murinana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (Bogenschtz 1978). The fact that Zeiraphera rufimitrana H.-S. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) (Bovey 1978) often occurs simultaneously with C. murinana has, in practice,...

  15. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Treesearch

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  16. Tree shaking machine aids cone collection in a Douglas-fir seed orchard.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Copes; William K. Randall

    1983-01-01

    A boom-type tree shaker was used in a Douglas-fir seed orchard to remove cones from 7- to 9-meter tall grafted Douglas-fir trees. An average of 55 percent of the cones were removed by shaking, while damage inflicted to the upper crown was confined primarily to branch and leader breakage in the top three internodes. Damage to the lower bole, where the shaker head...

  17. Early survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir with red alder in four mixed regimes.

    Treesearch

    Marshall D. Murray; Richard E. Miller

    1986-01-01

    To quantify between-species interactions, we measured and compared survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir and associated planted and volunteer red alder at a location on the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington. The planted alder were wildlings dug either from a nearby area or from a distant, coastal site and interplanted into a 3-year-old Douglas-fir...

  18. Released advance reproduction of white and red fir. . . growth, damage, mortality

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon

    1973-01-01

    Advance reproduction of white fir and red fir released by cutting overmature over-story was studied at the Swain Mountain Experimental Forest in northern California, at 6,300 feet elevation. Seedling and sapling height growth before logging was only 0.1-0.2 foot per year. Five years after cutting, seedling and sapling height growth had accelerated to about 0.5 to 0.8...

  19. Optimal uneven-aged stocking guides: an application to spruce-fir stands in New England

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey

    2014-01-01

    Management guides for uneven-aged forest stands periodically need to be revisited and updated based on new information and methods. The current silvicultural guide for uneven-aged spruce-fir management in Maine and the northeast (Frank, R.M. and Bjorkbom, J.C. 1973 A silvicultural guide for spruce-fir in the northeast. General Technical Report NE-6, Forest Service. U.S...

  20. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (<~ 1.5 kpc; D=100 Mpc) and of the weaker ``clumps'' of diffuse emission south and west (>~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  1. Mulching to regenerate a harsh site: effect on Douglas-fir seedlings, forbs, grasses, and ferns

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler; Henry R. Harrison

    1994-01-01

    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata District, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were planted in an effort to restore the natural forest to what was then pastureland. Douglas-fir seedlings were released from a complex forb-grass-fern plant community by applying very large (10-ft square) and very small (2-foot...

  2. Gross yield and mortality tables for fully stocked stands of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1955-01-01

    Increasing interest in the practice of intensive forestry has demonstrated the need for gross yield tables for Douglas-fir showing the volume of trees that die as well as volume of live trees. Net yield tables for Douglas-fir, published in 1930, give the live volume in fully stocked stands at different ages on different sites. As in all normal yield tables, no...

  3. Adaptive FIR neural model for centroid learning in self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Mauro; Raugi, Marco

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a training method for the formation of topology preserving maps is introduced. The proposed approach presents a sequential formulation of the self-organizing map (SOM), which is based on a new model of the neuron, or processing unit. Each neuron acts as a finite impulse response (FIR) system, and the coefficients of the filters are adaptively estimated during the sequential learning process, in order to minimize a distortion measure of the map. The proposed FIR-SOM model deals with static distributions and it computes an ordered set of centroids. Additionally, the FIR-SOM estimates the learning dynamic of each prototype using an adaptive FIR model. A noteworthy result is that the optimized coefficients of the FIR processes tend to represent a moving average filter, regardless of the underlying input distribution. The convergence of the resulting model is analyzed numerically and shows good properties with respect to the classic SOM and other unsupervised neural models. Finally, the optimal FIR coefficients are shown to be useful for visualizing the cluster densities.

  4. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of

  5. FIR polarimetry diagnostic for the C-Mod tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Marmar, E. S.; Xu, P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-chord polarimeter on Alcator C-Mod will make measurements of the poloidal magnetic field and plasma fluctuations. The beams from two frequency-offset, 200 mW, FIR lasers operating at 117.73 μm are combined to produce collinear, counter-rotating, circularly polarized beams. The beams are divided into three chords which are directed into the plasma at one toroidal location. Corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on the inside wall return the beam for a double pass. The mixing product of the two beams is detected both before (reference) and after (signal) the plasma using polarization sensitive detectors that produce a beat signal at ~ 4 MHz. During the plasma discharge, the phase delay of the signal mixer, which depends on the Faraday effect, is evaluated with respect to the reference and produces line-integrated information on the poloidal magnetic field. Measurements on C-Mod require the phase error to be at the 0.1 degree level, and great care in the design of optical mounts, polarizers, beam-splitters, focusing optics, and acoustic and magnetic shielding was required. Development of new planar diode Schottky detectors was necessary to provide high sensitivity for a diagnostic that will eventually have at least six chords. Absorption of the FIR laser light by water vapor requires that the entire beam path be purged with dry air. Six retro-reflectors on the inner wall arranged in an ITER-like configuration provide poloidally viewing chords from near the mid-plane to well into the plasma scrape off layer. A pneumatically controlled shutter protects the in-vessel optics during boronizations and during limited discharges that might accelerate damage to the retro-reflector surfaces. Tests indicate there is no measurable signal contamination from the toroidal magnetic field due to the Cotton-Mouton effect. Polarization sensitivity of the wire mesh beamsplitters necessitated system calibration. Good agreement to EFIT reconstructions has been observed along with

  6. Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kačík, František; Veľková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Kačíková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

    2012-08-21

    Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects.

  7. Seed parasitism redirects ovule development in Douglas fir

    PubMed Central

    von Aderkas, Patrick; Rouault, Gaëlle; Wagner, Rebecca; Rohr, René; Roques, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Many parasitic species of insects complete their entire development in seeds. They feed off storage reserves within the ovule. These reserves only normally accumulate in fertilized ovules. Consequently, female insects that oviposit their eggs directly into the plant ovule need to be able to select correctly, as unfertilized ovules of conifers normally become so-called empty seed. We provide clear evidence that in conifers, seed-parasitizing insects do not need to discriminate between fertilized and unfertilized plant ovules when ovipositing their eggs. A host-specific insect, the chalcid Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), lays its eggs in ovules of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) before fertilization has taken place in the plant. Oviposition not only prevents the expected degeneration and death of unfertilized ovules, but it induces energy reserve accumulation. Ovules that would otherwise develop as empty seed are redirected in their development by the insect to provide food for the developing larvae. Instead of the insect exploiting normal events during seed development, the insect manipulates seed development for its own reproductive advantage. PMID:16011924

  8. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  9. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  10. Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application.

  11. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter β < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.

  12. A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation

  13. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir. PMID:26154763

  14. 1D and 2D economical FIR filters generated by Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoljub Pavlović, Vlastimir; Stanojko Dončov, Nebojša; Gradimir Ćirić, Dejan

    2013-11-01

    Christoffel-Darboux formula for Chebyshev continual orthogonal polynomials of the first kind is proposed to find a mathematical solution of approximation problem of a one-dimensional (1D) filter function in the z domain. Such an approach allows for the generation of a linear phase selective 1D low-pass digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter function in compact explicit form by using an analytical method. A new difference equation and structure of corresponding linear phase 1D low-pass digital FIR filter are given here. As an example, one extremely economic 1D FIR filter (with four adders and without multipliers) is designed by the proposed technique and its characteristics are presented. Global Christoffel-Darboux formula for orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and for two independent variables for generating linear phase symmetric two-dimensional (2D) FIR digital filter functions in a compact explicit representative form, by using an analytical method, is proposed in this paper. The formula can be most directly applied for mathematically solving the approximation problem of a filter function of even and odd order. Examples of a new class of extremely economic linear phase symmetric selective 2D FIR digital filters obtained by the proposed approximation technique are presented.

  15. Tropospheric water vapor retrieval from a nadir THz/FIR sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Mendrok, Jana; Dupuy, Eric; Kasai, Yasuko

    2008-12-01

    This work presents clear-sky simulations to study water vapor (H2O) retrieval from a nadir sounder operating in the TeraHertz (THz) and Far-Infrared (FIR) spectral domains (100-500 cm-1). The THz/FIR retrieval is compared with retrieval from the mid-InfraRed (IR) 7μm H2O band (1200-2000 cm-1). The THz/FIR observations are more sensitive in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere than the IR measurements. On the other hand, the IR sounder has better performance in the lower troposphere. The retrieval error due to uncertainties on the temperature profile are of the same order of magnitude in the THz/FIR and IR bands. No significant retrieval errors from contaminating species have been found. The calculations for several atmospheric scenarios show that retrieval performances are not only dependent on the H2O abundance but also on the temperature gradient. Hence, sensitivity in the UT/LS layer, with a low temperature gradient, is poor. The combination of FIR and IR merges the advantages of both bands, and allows to slightly decorrelate temperature and H2O VMR.

  16. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-07-06

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.

  17. Natural regeneration of Douglas-fir and associated species using modified clear-cutting systems in the Oregon Cascades.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1963-01-01

    Clear cutting is the standard harvesting system in old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Pacific Northwest. Usually these clear cuts are in "staggered settings" of 15 to 80 acres with the surrounding stand left uncut to provide seed and serve as a firebreak. However, satisfactory natural regeneration of Douglas-fir...

  18. Growth of bear-damaged trees in a mixed plantation of Douglas-fir and red alder.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Donald L. Reukema; Timothy A. Max

    2007-01-01

    Incidence and effects of tree damage by black bear (Ursus americanus altifrontalis) in a 50-year-old, coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation are described. Bears girdled or partially girdled 35 dominant or codominant Douglas-fir trees per acre, but only in that...

  19. Coarse woody debris in a Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose; N.S. Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Spruce-fir forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains receive high atmospheric nitrogen inputs and have high nitrate levels in soil solution and streamwater. High levels of excess nitrogen have been associated with reduced tree vigor. Additionally, the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratz.) has killed the majority of endemic Fraser fir [

  20. Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

  1. Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata),a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen forest

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), is a unique fir, the sole member of the subgenus Pseudotorreya. It is a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen sclerophyll forest, and is now restricted to a highly fragmented range in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California. Expected heterozygosity for 30 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems...

  2. Deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir in Oregon and Washington: a summary of findings to date.

    Treesearch

    Ernest Wright; K.H. Wright

    1954-01-01

    In 1952 and 1953 cooperative research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station and the Research Department of Weyerhaeuser Timber Company to obtain information concerning the rate of deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir. The study was prompted by an outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle that developed in 1951 and has since killed an estimated...

  3. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  4. Stereo photo series for quantifying forest residues in the Douglas-Fir-Hemlock type of the Willamette National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Vihnanek

    1990-01-01

    A series of stereo photographs displays a range of residue loadings for harvested units in the Douglas-fir-western hemlock cover type common to the Willamette National Forest. Postburn residue levels are also represented for the Douglas-fir-western hemlock types. Information with each photo includes measured quadratic means and weights for various size classes, woody...

  5. Site index curves for white fir in the southwestern United States developed using a guide curve method

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Mathiasen; William K. Olsen; Carleton B. Edminster

    2006-01-01

    Site index curves for white fir (Abies concolor) in Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado were developed using height-age measurements and an estimated guide curve and 95% confidence intervals for individual predictions. The curves were developed using height-age data for 1,048 white firs from 263 study sites distributed across eight...

  6. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Treesearch

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  7. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  8. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Boyce; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Paula F. Murakami

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) nutrition on the foliar physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in northern New England, USA. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA), spruce and fir saplings were sampled from control, Al-, and Ca-supplemented...

  9. Estimating decay in 40- to 90-year-old grand fir stands in the Clearwater region of northern Idaho.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; John W. Schwandt; Susan K. Hagle

    1990-01-01

    The fir decay equation for Oregon and Washington was used to predict stem decay in 12 grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) stands in the Clearwater region of northern Idaho. These 12 stands represented a range in geographic and stand characteristic variation. All 12 observed decay percentages were within their associated 95-percent...

  10. Assessing the effects of vegetation types on carbon storage fifteen years after reforestation on a Chinese fir site

    Treesearch

    Qinkui Wang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a significant role in sequestering carbon (C) in biomass and soils. Plantations established in subtropical China since the 1980s, mainly of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) in monocultures, have proved to be major C sinks. However, information is lacking about whether mixing Chinese fir with broadleaved tree...

  11. Within-stand spatial distribution of tree mortality caused by the Douglas-Fir beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; John A. Anhold; A. Steve Munson

    2001-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, causes considerable mortality in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, forests. Within-stand distribution of mortality was examined in affected stands using geostatistical techniques. A 10 x 10 m grid was established in two 4-ha study sites. Live and beetle-killed host basal area was measured at...

  12. Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40- and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    T. R. Horton; R. Molina; K. Hood

    2005-01-01

    We investigated ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in forest stands containing both early successional Douglas-fir and late successional western hemlock at two points in the typical stand development by identifying EM fungi from roots of Douglas-fir and western hemlock in mixed stands. Tn an early seral stage forest, EM roots of western hemlock seedlings and intermingling 40-...

  13. Height growth and site index curves for Douglas-fir on dry sites in the Willamette National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Joseph E Means; Mary E. Helm

    1985-01-01

    Equations and curves are presented for estimating height and site index of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) on hot, dry sites in the Willamette National Forest in western Oregon. The equations are based on the dissected stems of 27 trees. The curves differ from those previously published for Douglas-fir. Instructions are presented...

  14. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  15. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  16. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time.

    Treesearch

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  17. Repeated manual release in a young plantation: effect on Douglas-fir seedlings, hardwoods, shrubs, forbs, and grasses.

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler; Henry Harrison

    1994-01-01

    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were released by chain sawing and grubbing competing vegetation around them at different frequencies (0, 2, and 3 grubbings) over a 5-year period. After 5 years, average Douglas-fir stem diameter (measured at 12 inches above mean...

  18. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  19. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-08-28

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP.

  20. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+.

  1. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San’ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I.; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP. PMID:26314382

  2. Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.

    2008-06-01

    Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L∞ and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.

  3. Alignment and Polarization Sensitivity Study on the Cassini: CIRS FIR Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument flying on the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn is a cryogenic spectrometer with far-infrared (FIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) channels. The CIRS FIR channel is a polarizing interferometer that contains three polarizing grid components. These components are an input polarizer, a polarizing beamsplitter, and an output polarizer/analyzer. They consist of a 1.5 micron thick mylar substrate with 2 microns wide copper wires, with 2 microns spacing (4 microns pitch) photolithographically deposited on the substrate. This paper details the alignment sensitivity studies performed on the polarizing beamsplitter, and the polarization sensitivity studies performed on all three polarizing components in the FIR interferometer.

  4. Canopy light transmittance in Douglas-fir--western hemlock stands.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoffrey G; Davis, Melinda M; Chapotin, Saharah Moon

    2002-02-01

    We measured vertical and horizontal variation in canopy transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation in five Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (Douglas-fir-western hemlock) stands in the central Cascades of southern Washington to determine how stand structure and age affect the forest light environment. The shape of the mean transmittance profile was related to stand height, but height of mean maximum transmittance was progressively lower than maximum tree height in older stands. The vertical rate of attenuation declined with stand age in both the overstory and understory. A classification of vertical light zones based on the mean and variance of transmittance showed a progressive widening of the bright (low variance and high mean) and transition (high variance and rapid vertical change) zones in older stands, whereas the dim zone (low variance and mean) narrowed. The zone of maximum canopy surface area in height profiles, estimated by inversion of transmittance profiles, changed from relatively high in the canopy in most young stands ("top-heavy") to lower in the canopy in older stands ("bottom-heavy"). In the understory, all stands had similar mean transmittances, but the spatial scale of variation increased with stand age and increasing crown size. The angular distribution of openness was similar in all stands, though the older stands were less open at all angles than the younger stands. Understory openness was generally unrelated to transmittance in the canopy above. Whole-canopy leaf area indices, estimated using three methods of inverting light measurements, showed little correspondence across methods. The observed patterns in light environment are consistent with structural changes occurring during stand development, particularly the diversification of crowns, the creation of openings of various sizes and the elaboration of the outer canopy surface. The ensemble of measurements has potential use in distinguishing

  5. [Effects of broadleaf plantation and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Qun; He, Zong-Ming; Hu, Zhen-Hong; Yang, Jing-Yu; Yu, Zai-Peng; Wang, Min-huang

    2013-02-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the soil C and N pools in a 19-year-old broadleaf plantation and a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation in subtropical China, aimed to understand the effects of tree species on the soil C and N pools. In the broadleaf plantation, the C and N stocks in 0-40 cm soil layer were 99.41 Mg.hm-2 and 6. 18 Mg.hm-2, being 33.1 % and 22. 6 % larger than those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The standing biomass and the C and N stocks of forest floor in the broadleaf plantation were 1.60, 1.49, and 1.52 times of those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. There was a significant negative relationship between the forest floor C/N ratio and the soil C and N stocks. In the broadleaf plantation, the fine root biomass in 0-80 cm soil layer was 1.28 times of that in the Chinese fir plantation, and the fine root biomass in 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 48. 2 % of the total fine root biomass. The C and N stocks in the fine roots in the broadleaf plantation were also higher than those in the Chinese fir plantation. In 0-10 cm soil layer, its C stock had a significant positive relationship with the fine root C stock. It was suggested that as compared with Chinese fir plantation, the soil in broadleaf plantation had a greater potential to accumulate organic carbon.

  6. Anti-FIRs (PUF60) auto-antibodies are detected in the sera of early-stage colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Sohei; Hoshino, Tyuji; Hiwasa, Takaki; Satoh, Mamoru; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Tsuchida, Sachio; Komukai, Yuji; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Shimada, Hideaki; Nomura, Fumio; Matsushita, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Anti-PUF60, poly(U)-binding-splicing factor, autoantibodies are reported to be detected in the sera of dermatomyositis and Sjogren's syndrome that occasionally associated with malignancies. PUF60 is identical with far-upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) that is a transcriptional repressor of c-myc gene. In colorectal cancers, a splicing variant of FIR that lacks exon2 (FIRΔexon2) is overexpressed as a dominant negative form of FIR. In this study, to reveal the presence and the significance of anti-FIRs (FIR/FIRΔexon2) antibodies in cancers were explored in the sera of colorectal and other cancer patients. Anti-FIRs antibodies were surely detected in the preoperative sera of 28 colorectal cancer patients (32.2% of positive rates), and the detection rate was significantly higher than that in healthy control sera (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.01). The level of anti-FIRs antibodies significantly decreased after the operation (p < 0.01). Anti-FIRs antibodies were detected in the sera of early-stage and/or recurrent colon cancer patients in which anti-p53 antibodies, CEA, and CA19-9 were not detected as well as in the sera of other cancer patients. Furthermore, the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic for anti-FIRs antibodies was significantly larger (0.85) than that for anti-p53 antibodies or CA19-9. In conclusions, the combination of anti-FIRs antibodies with other clinically available tumor markers further improved the specificity and accuracy of cancer diagnosis. PMID:27756887

  7. Modified FIR thermometry for surface temperature sensing by using high power laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Xinlu; Zhang, Zhilin; Zhong, Hujiang; Chen, Yujin; Zhao, Enming; Vasilescu, Steven; Liu, Lu

    2017-01-23

    The FIR (fluorescence intensity ratio) technique for optical thermometry has attracted considerable attention over recent years due to its high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. However, it is thought that a heating effect induced by incident light may lead to temperature overestimations, which in turn impedes the reliability of this technique for applications which require high levels of accuracy. To further improve the FIR technique, this paper presents a modified calibration expression, which is suitable for surface temperature sensing, based on the temperature distribution (calculated through COMSOL software). In addition, this modified method is verified by the experimental data.

  8. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

  9. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  10. Laminated root rot damage in a young Douglas-fir stand.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Nelson

    1980-01-01

    Damage occurring from the disease laminated root rot {Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilbertson) on two 10-acre plots in a young (40-year-old) stand of Douglas-fir was studied for 25 years. After 25 years, nearly 5 percent of the basal area was killed by the disease. Stand damage caused by vegetative spread of the fungus was significantly related to...

  11. Microbial lipid production from SPORL-pretreated Douglas fir by Mortierella isabellina

    Treesearch

    S.M. Harde; Z. Wang; M. Horne; Junyong Zhu; X. Pan

    2016-01-01

    The solid substrate and spent liquo robtained after SPORL pretreatment of Douglas fir residues were evaluated as substrates for the production of intracellular microbial lipid by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757. The production of lipid was investigated in a batch fermentation using different strategies viz. separate hydrolysis...

  12. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  13. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings

    Treesearch

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams

    2010-01-01

    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  14. Douglas-fir in northern California: effects of shade on germination, survival, and growth

    Treesearch

    Rudolph O. Strothmann

    1972-01-01

    Effects of four light intensities on germination, survival, and early growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were studied on south-facing cutblocks in northwestern California. Tested were four shade intensities: 0, 25, 50, and 75 percent. On seeded spots, 50 percent shade resulted in greatest germination and survival, being significantly...

  15. Place of partial cutting in old-growth stands of the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Leo A. Isaac

    1956-01-01

    During the early 1930's, as use of the logging truck and tractor increased, a form of partial harvesting mature and overmature virgin stands developed in the Douglas-fir region (2). The cutting pattern varied from taking a few scattered high-grade trees per acre to clear cutting small areas. Partial harvesting caught on quickly because at that time only the high-...

  16. Overstory response to alternative thinning treatments in young Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Liane R. Davis; Klaus J. Puettmann; Gabriel F. Tucker

    2007-01-01

    An increase in land dominated by young second-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest has coincided with heightened concerns over loss of old-growth habitat. In search of options for managing young forests to provide late-successional forest structures, the Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study was designed to test the effectiveness of modified thinning...

  17. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  18. Spruce-fir forest changes during a 30-year nitrogen saturation experiment

    Treesearch

    Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; John D. Aber; Lindsey E. Rustad

    2017-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a high elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) – balsam fir (Abies balsamea) forest on Mount Ascutney Vermont, USA in 1988 to test the nitrogen (N) saturation hypothesis, and to better understand the mechanisms causing forest decline at the time. The study established replicate control, lowand high dose nitrogen addition plots (i...

  19. Northern flying squirrel mycophagy and truffle production in fir forests in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    J.R. Waters; K.S. McKelvey; C.J. Zabel; D.L. Luoma

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest....

  20. Substrate pH Affects Nutrient Availability in Fertilized Douglas Fir Bark Substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine how pH and nutrient availability in Douglas fir bark substrates respond to lime and sulfur (S) rates. The treatment design was a two by nine factorial arrangement with two substrate types and nine pH-altering amendments. The two substrates were 100% DFB or ...

  1. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  2. Lumber recovery from Douglas-fir thinnings at a bandmill and two chipping canters.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Douglas L. Hunt

    1972-01-01

    Trees cut in thinning of Douglas-fir stands were processed into lumber at a profiled cant chipper, a square cant chipper with resaw, and a bandmill. Results are reported in terms of both cubic feet and Scribner long log scale. Included are tables by log input by diameter class for three studies, recovery by lumber grade and dimension item for three...

  3. Foliar essential oils and deer browsing preference of Douglas-fir genotypes

    Treesearch

    M.A. Radwan

    1978-01-01

    Yield and composition of essential oils were compared in foliage of Douglas-fir. Five clones with different susceptibilities to deer browsing were used; foliage was collected during the dormant season. There were no qualitative differences among the oils of the different clones, but the oils differed quantitatively in all variables measured. Eight variables appeared...

  4. Estimating the weight of Douglas-fir tree boles and logs with an iterative computer model.

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Waddell; Dale L Weyermann; Michael B. Lambert

    1987-01-01

    A computer model that estimates the green weights of standing trees was developed and validated for old-growth Douglas-fir. The model calculates the green weight for the entire bole, for the bole to any merchantable top, and for any log length within the bole. The model was validated by estimating the bias and accuracy of an independent subsample selected from the...

  5. The economic significance of mortality in old-growth Douglas-fir management.

    Treesearch

    R.O. McMahon

    1961-01-01

    Current mortality in the Douglas-fir subregion, exclusive of catastrophic mortality, approximates a billion feet a year. The Forest Service report "Timber Resources for America's Future" recommended "...utilizing a substantial portion of the unsalvaged mortality loss..." as one means of permanently increasing the Nation's timber supply and...

  6. Genetic variation and seed zones of Douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Robert K. Campbell; Albert I. Sugano

    1993-01-01

    Provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth...

  7. Similar patterns of change in stemwood calcium concentration in red spruce and Siberian fir

    Treesearch

    W.C. Shortle; K.T. Smith; R. Minocha; V.A. Alexeyev

    1995-01-01

    Changes in stemwood calcium concentration ([Ca]) for the last 120 years occurred in a common pattern for two sample collections of red spruce (n = 33 and 20) from the northeastern United States and for one sample collection of Siberian fir (n = 20) from southcentral Siberia, Russia. The [Ca]was measured for wood formed during the...

  8. Twenty-one-year development of Douglas-fir stands repeatedly thinned at varying intervals.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Reukema

    1972-01-01

    Douglas-fir stands first thinned at about age 38 have been observed for 21 years. Four treatments were compared; no thinning, light thinning at 3-year intervals, moderate thinning at 6-year intervals, and heavy thinning at 9-year intervals. Eighteen years after initial thinnings (the first common end to all thinning cycles), all thinned stands had virtually the same...

  9. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  10. Financial feasibility of marker-aided selection in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; N.C. Wheeler; S.H. Strauss

    2000-01-01

    The land area required for a marker-aided selection (MAS) program to break-even (i.e., have equal costs and benefits) was estimated using computer simulation for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwestern United States. We compared the selection efficiency obtained when using an index that included the...

  11. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  12. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees.

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland. Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  13. Vacuum collection of Douglas-fir pollen for supplemental mass pollinations.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes; N.C. Vance; W.K. Randall; A. Jasumback; R. Hallman

    1991-01-01

    An Aget Cyclone dust collector and peripheral equipment were fieldtested for use in vacuuming large quantities of pollen from 30- to 40-foot trees in a Douglas-fir seed orchard. The Cyclone machine (Model 20SN31P) operated without a vacuum bag or filter device, so no blockage or reduction in vacuum efficiency occurred when large volumes of pollen were collected....

  14. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  15. Characteristics of residues in a cable-logged area of old-growth Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    W.Y. Pong; John W. Henley

    1984-01-01

    The volume and character of woody material on the ground in four old-growth Douglas-fir cutting units in the Cascade Range in Oregon were determined before and after harvesting by cable and yarding of unutilized material (YUM). Total volume of residue increased after logging in all units. Coarse residues were reduced by YUM yarding. Small changes in the defect...

  16. Tree height estimation in redwood/Douglas-fir stands in Mendocino County

    Treesearch

    Helge Eng

    2012-01-01

    In this study, height-diameter equations were developed for managed stands of coastal redwood/Douglas-fir stands in Mendocino County. Equations were developed by species to predict tree height as a function of diameter as well as other factors that are known to potentially explain tree height, including site class and live crown ratio. Two equation forms were compared...

  17. Distribution of Redwood Caused by the Balsam Woolly Aphid in Fraser Fir of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman

    1970-01-01

    Examination of 5-foot sections of felled Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., trees infested or killed by the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), revealed that the height of the first annual ring of aphid-caused redwood increased as the height of the trees increased. The number of red rings varied from two in a...

  18. Organic matter content of soil after logging of fir and redwood forests

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin

    1980-01-01

    Organic matter in soil controls a variety of soil properties. A study in Humboldt County, California, evaluated changes in percentages of organic matter in soil as a function of time after timber harvest and soil depth in fir and redwood forests. To assess organic matter content, samples were taken from cutblocks of various ages in soil to depths of 1.33 m. Results...

  19. Can auger planting improve survival of Douglas-fir seedlings? Res

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller

    1969-01-01

    Survival and apparent vigor of Douglas-fir seedlings were compared after: (1) hoe planting of root-trimmed seedlings; (2) as above plus manual site preparation; (3) auger planting of untrimmed seedlings. After two growing seasons, surviving with method (3) but not (2) was significantly greater than survival with method (1). After the third season, survival...

  20. Physiological responses of planting frozen and thawed Douglas-fir seedlings

    Treesearch

    M. Anisul Islam; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    We studied the short-term (7-day) physiological responses of planting thawed and frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in 2 separate experiments under cool-moist and warm-dry growing conditions, respectively. Our results showed that shoot water potential, root hydraulic conductance, net photosynthesis (A), and...

  1. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  2. Early warning system for Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the Western United States.

    Treesearch

    Gary E. Daterman; John M. Wenz; Katharine A. Sheehan

    2004-01-01

    The Early Warning System is a pheromone-based trapping system used to detect outbreaks of Douglas-fir tussock moth (DFTM, Orgyia pseudotsugata) in the western United States. Millions of acres are susceptible to DFTM defoliation, but Early Warning System monitoring focuses attention only on the relatively limited areas where outbreaks may be...

  3. Douglas-fir site as a basis for selecting Christmas tree lands.

    Treesearch

    Elmer W. Shaw

    1954-01-01

    Owners of Douglas-fir reproduction stands often ask, "Is this land suited for Christmas tree production, or should I hold it for timber?" In answering this question, foresters will find a consideration of site will usually be helpful as a supplement to personal judgment and experience. The following table shows how some of the stand characteristics, important...

  4. Manufacture and performance of full size structural flakeboards from Douglas-fir forest residues

    Treesearch

    J. Dobbin McNatt

    1978-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory manufactured and assessed the performance of 4- by 8-foot structural flakeboard panels from Douglas-fir forest residues after target performance goals were developed. The 42 pcf, three- layer boards were 1/2 inch thick with high quality disk cut flakes for the faces and lower quality flakes processed through a ring flaker in the core....

  5. The New Zealand douglas-fir breeding program: proposed adjustments for a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Heidi Dungey; Charlie Low; Mark Miller; Kane Fleet; Alvin D. Yanchuk

    2012-01-01

    Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950s. These trials showed that material of Oregon and Californian origin was growing faster than other provenances. Additional collections were made to further evaluate provenance...

  6. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion

    Treesearch

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  7. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying Douglas-fir in eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and grade) of Douglas-fir lumber when kiln-dried and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice in eastern Washington. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade...

  8. Efficient and Accurate Optimal Linear Phase FIR Filter Design Using Opposition-Based Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S. K.; Dutta, R.; Choudhury, R.; Kar, R.; Mandal, D.; Ghoshal, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

  9. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  10. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method

    Treesearch

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty

    1988-01-01

    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  11. FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir and northern hardwood types

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; Richard A. Hosmer; Homer T., Jr. Hayslett; Homer T. Hayslett

    1987-01-01

    A matrix model, FIBER, has been developed to provide the forest manager with a means of simulating the management and growth of forest stands in the Northeast. Instructional material is presented for the management of even-aged and multi-aged spruce-fir, mixedwood, and northern hardwood stands. FIBER allows the user to simulate a range of silvicultural treatments for a...

  12. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  13. The vibrational properties of Chinese fir wood during moisture sorption process

    Treesearch

    Jiali Jiang; Jianxiong Lu; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC) and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) and logarithmic decrement σ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and 6 of wood vaned...

  14. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kirstin; Du, Baoguo; Kayler, Zachary; Siegwolf, Rolf; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kammerer, Bernd; Jaeger, Carsten; Schaub, Marcus; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  15. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  16. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  17. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  18. Lumber grade recovery from old-growth Douglas-fir at a northwestern Oregon sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke

    1960-01-01

    A study was begun in July 1957 to supplement available data on lumber recovery from old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) saw logs. This study is part of a continuing program of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station to develop grade-yield recovery figures for primary products of timber stands in Oregon and Washington....

  19. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    PubMed

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri)

    Treesearch

    S.A. Josserand; K.M. Potter; G. Johnson; J.A. Bowen; J. Frampton; C.D. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 14 microsatellite loci from Fraser fir (Abies fraseri). These markers originated from cloned inserts enriched for DNA sequences containing tandem di- and tri-nucleotide repeats. In total, 36 clones were selected, sequenced and evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for 14 of these...

  1. Supplemental treatments to aid planted Douglas-fir in dense bracken fern

    Treesearch

    Edward J. Dimock

    1964-01-01

    Why do some forest lands restock quickly and well after timber cutting but others do not? Answers have been slow in coming--partl y because of empiricism in research, partly because of the problem's general complexity, A part of the general problem concerns the poor survival of, planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var, menziesii) on...

  2. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Treesearch

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  3. DFSIM with economics: A financial analysis option for the DFSIM Douglas-fir simulator.

    Treesearch

    Roger O. Fight; Judith M. Chittester; Gary W. Clendenen

    1984-01-01

    A modified version of the DFSIM Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) growth and yield simulator, DFSIM WITH ECONOMICS, now has an economics option that allows the user to estimate present net worth at the same time a silvicultural regime is simulated. If desired, the economics option will apply a...

  4. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in the: sierra mixed conifer type, sierra true fir type.

    Treesearch

    W.G. Maxwell; F.R. Ward

    1979-01-01

    Five series of photographs display different forest residue loading levels, by size classes, for areas of like timber type (Sierra mixed conifer and Sierra true fir) and cutting objective. Information with each photo includes measured weights, volumes and other residue data, information about the timber stand and harvest actions, and assessment of fire behavior and...

  5. Screening Douglas-fir for rapid early growth in common-garden tests in Spain

    Treesearch

    Gabriel Toval Hernandez; Guillermo Vega Alonso; Gonzalo Puerto Arribas; James L. Jenkinson

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-firs from 91 seed sources in North America were evaluated after 5 and 6 years in 15 common-garden tests in the mountainous regions of northwest and north central Spain. Analyses of tallest trees showed that most of the sources of highest potential for reforestation in Spain are found in regions where the Pacific Ocean air mass dominates climate. Fast growers...

  6. Genetic structure of Heterbasidion annosum in white fir mortality centers in California

    Treesearch

    M. Garbelotto; F.W. Cobb; T.D. Bruns; William J. Otrosina; Tina Popenuck; Garey Slaughter

    1999-01-01

    The structure of Heterobasidion annosum populations was studied in 15 mixed-conifer sites in central and northern California. Study sites dis­played mortality of white fir trees in enlarging discrete patches (mortality centers). At each site, fungal genotypes were defined by somatic compat­ibility tests. In two sites, further genetic and molecular...

  7. Response of thinned White fir stands to fertilization with nitrogen plus sulphur.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1991-01-01

    A single application of 200 pounds nitrogen (N) plus 33 pounds of sulphur (S) per acre to white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glen.) Lindl.) increased periodic annual increments of basal area and volume by 1.7 ft2acre-1year-1 and 43 to 68 ft3acre

  8. Timing and Duration of Release Treatments Affect Vegetation Development in a Young California White Fir Plantation

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    2001-01-01

    The density and development of snowbrush, greenleaf manzanita, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California white fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and an herbicide created treatment regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The timing and duration of...

  9. Winter injury among white fir seedlings...unusual pattern in seed source study

    Treesearch

    M. Thompson Conkle; W. J. Libby; J. L. Hamrick

    1967-01-01

    White fir seeds collected from 43 sources were sown at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif. in 1963. Observations made 3 years later showed that seedlings from northern sources sustained more winter injury than did southern origin seedlings. Seedlings from low elevations were less severely damaged than seedlings from higher elevations in the same...

  10. A diameter increment model for Red Fir in California and Southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    Periodic (10-year) diameter increment of individual red fir trees in Califomia and southern Oregon can be predicted from initial diameter and crown ratio of each tree, site index, percent slope, and aspect of the site. The model actually predicts the natural logarithm ofthe change in squared diameter inside bark between the startand the end of a 10-year growth period....

  11. Seasonality and abundance of truffles from oak woodlands to red fir forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm P. North

    2002-01-01

    Truffles are an important food source for many small mammals in forest ecosystems; however, we know little about the seasonality, abundance, or diversity of the truffle community in the Sierra Nevada. This study examined how truffle abundance and diversity varied between oak woodland, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed-conifer, and red fir (

  12. Predicting height increment of young-growth red fir in California and southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    An equation is given to estimate 10-year height increment for young-growth red fir trees in California and southern Oregon. The independent variables are the individual tree, stand, and site characteristics significantly related to a tree's height growth. Data used to develop the equation came from stem analysis of 492 trees sampled from 56 stands in the study...

  13. Treatment duration and time since disturbance affect vegetation development in a young California red fir plantation

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1997-01-01

    The density and development of greenleaf manzanita, snowbrush, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California red fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and herbicides created treatment regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The duration and timing of the...

  14. Predicting the effects of tropospheric ozone on regional productivity of ponderosa pine and white fir.

    Treesearch

    D.A. Weinstein; J.A. Laurence; W.A. Retzlaff; J.S. Kern; E.H. Lee; W.E. Hogsett; J. Weber

    2005-01-01

    We simulated forest dynamics of the regional ponderosa pine-white fir conifer forest of the San Bernadino and Sierra Nevada mountains of California to determine the effects of high ozone concentrations over the next century and to compare the responses to our similar study for loblolly pine forests of the southeast. As in the earlier study, we linked two models, TREGRO...

  15. Height-age and site index curves for Pacific silver fir in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Hoyer; Francis R. Herman

    1989-01-01

    Forty felled dominant and codominant Pacific silver fir trees (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) from 39 locations provided the basis for height-age and site index curves. Trees were from upper slope forests of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Trees ranged in age from 100 to 300 years and were identified by their height-growth trend as...

  16. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    Treesearch

    Christina M. Restaino; David L. Peterson; Jeremy Littell

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate...

  17. Preliminary guidelines for prescribed burning under standing timber in western larch/douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Rodney A. Norum

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for safe, effective fire treatments in western larch/Douglas-fir forests. Describes procedures for estimating and limiting the scorching of tree crows. Provides a method for predicting percentage of the forest floor that will be burned down to mineral soil.

  18. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  19. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  20. Characterization of wood strands from young, small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees

    Treesearch

    Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell; Christopher E. Langum

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of strands processed from small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees grown on the Washington coast were analyzed and effects of location within the tree on properties was examined. Reduction factors for strand properties relative to small, clear solid wood specimen properties were determined by correlating strand properties to previously...

  1. Stump-to-truck cable logging cost equations for young-growth douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; Roger D. Fight; Tom L. Ortman

    1986-01-01

    Logging cost simulators and data from logging cost studies have been assembled and converted into a series of equations that can be used to estimate the cost of logging young-growth coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) in mountainous terrain of the Pacific Northwest. These equations were...

  2. HOW to Identify and Control Rhabdocline and Swiss Needlecasts of Douglas-Fir

    Treesearch

    Darrell D. Skilling; Harrison L. Morton

    1983-01-01

    Two needlecast fungus diseases- Rhabdocline (Rhabdocline pseudotsugae) and Swiss needlecast (Phaeocryptus gaumanni)- have become serious problems in Douglas-fir plantations across the United States, particularly in the Northeast and more recently in the Pacific Northwest. These two diseases cause premature needle loss resulting in trees with thin foliage. This...

  3. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Treesearch

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  4. Moisture content of wood for interior use...Douglas-fir and robusta eucalyptus samples studied

    Treesearch

    R. Sidney Boone

    1967-01-01

    Panels of Douglas-fir and robusta eucalyptus blocks showed little seasonal variation in Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of wood at 19 indoor locations on Oahu, Hawaii. Differences in EMC between locations were more variable. Minimum EMC at nonair-conditioned locations was 10 percent;at air-conditioned locations. 8 percent. Maximum EMC at nonairconditioned locations...

  5. Stratification period and germination of Douglas-fir seed from Oregon seed orchards: two case studies.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorenson

    1991-01-01

    Effect of stratification period (S) and incubation temperature (T) on germination be- havior were tested by using two groups of Douglas-fir orchard seedlots that had given low germination percentages in standard tests. One group of seedlots that had experienced different cone-drying regimes, but otherwise were treated comparably, were germinated at T = 15 and 25 °C...

  6. Regeneration in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of Washington.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1983-01-01

    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in the Cascade Range in Washington showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were adequately-stocked with a mixture of advance, natural postharvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Shelterwood cuttings in the...

  7. Understanding the pathology of Douglas-fir seedlings in Pacific Northwest nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Douglas-fir seedlings are infected by a number of Pythium species causing damping-off and root rot. As soil fumigation continues to be more tightly regulated, knowledge about the identity and pathogenicity of Pythium species in forest nurseries will be increasingly important for studies that evaluat...

  8. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes

    2005-01-01

    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  9. Partial DNA sequencing of Douglas-fir cDNAs used in RFLP mapping

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; C.S. Kinlaw; D.B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequences from 87 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) cDNA RFLP probes were determined. Sequences were submitted to the GenBank dbEST database and searched for similarity against nucleotide and protein databases using the BLASTn and BLASTx programs. Twenty-one sequences (24%) were assigned putative functions; 18 of which...

  10. Effects of IBA and NAA treatments on rooting Douglas-fir stem cuttings.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of six IBA and four NAA concentrations, four combinations of IBA and NAA concentrations, and control were tested for their ability to enhance rooting frequency (%) of Douglas-fir cuttings. Two IBA and one NAA treatments were also compared to the control for quality of root system. Between 1984 and 1998, six independent studies were conducted in mist...

  11. Foliar nutrient concentrations in balsam fir as affected by soil drainage and methods of slash disposal

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1979-01-01

    Foliar nutrient concentrations in young balsam fir growing on strip clearcuts were assessed in relation to soil drainage and three methods of slash disposal. Concentrations of N, K, and Mn were higher for trees growing on well-drained soils than for trees growing on poorly drained soils. Mo concentrations were higher on poorly drained soils and all other measured...

  12. Wood productivity of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir: estimates from growth-and-yield models.

    Treesearch

    David D. Marshall; Eric C. Turnblom

    2005-01-01

    With increases in harvest of forests in the Pacific Northwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s came a concern for future timber supplies. Unsuccessful attempts at selective logging in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) and a better understanding of requirements for natural regeneration led to the adoption of moderate-sized...

  13. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth.

    Treesearch

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming

    2005-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  14. Douglas-fir seedlings planted by four methods...results after 10 years

    Treesearch

    R. O. Strothman

    1976-01-01

    Bare-root Douglas-fir seedlings were planted by four methods in late February and late March on a hot, south-facing slope in northwestern California. The four techniques were: standard planting, deep planting at two different depths, and shading of the lower stem. After 10 growing seasons, there were no significant differences in survival attributable to planting...

  15. Logging damage in thinned, young-growth true fir stands in California and recommendations for prevention.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Mike. Srago

    1983-01-01

    Logging-damage surveys and tree-dissection studies were made in commercially thinned, naturally established young-growth true fir stands in the Lassen National Forest in northern California. Significant damage occurred to residual trees in stands logged by conventional methods. Logging damage was substantially lower in stands thinned using techniques designed to reduce...

  16. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

  17. Efficient and accurate optimal linear phase FIR filter design using opposition-based harmony search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.

  18. Prescribed fire opportunities in grasslands invaded by Douglas-fir: state-of-the-art guidelines

    Treesearch

    George E. Gruell; James K. Brown; Charles L. Bushey

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on use of prescribed fire to enhance productivity of bunchgrass ranges that have been invaded by Douglas-fir. Six vegetative "situations" representative of treatment opportunities most commonly encountered in Montana are discussed. Included are fire prescription considerations and identification of the resource objective, fire objective,...

  19. Regeneration of Douglas-fir in the Klamath Mountains region, California and Oregon

    Treesearch

    R. O. Strothmann; Douglass F. Roy

    1984-01-01

    Information on the regeneration of Douglas-fir, one of the most valuable timber species in the United States, is summarized, from seed production to care of young stands. General recommendations are given to guide the practitioner. Seed production can be increased by applying fertilizer and by stem girdling. To prepare sites for planting, mechanical, burning, chemical...

  20. Predicting lumber volume and value of young-growth true firs: user's guide.

    Treesearch

    Susan Ernst; W.Y. Pong

    1982-01-01

    Equations are presented for predicting the volume and value of young-growth red, white, and grand firs. Examples of how to use them are also given. These equations were developed on trees less than 140 years old from areas in southern Oregon, northern California, and Idaho.

  1. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  2. Diameter and height growth of suppressed grand fir saplings after overstory removal.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1980-01-01

    The 2- and 5-year diameter and height growth of suppressed grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) advance reproduction was measured in central Oregon after the overstory was removed. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict growth response as a function of individual tree variables. The resulting equations, although highly...

  3. Growth of Douglas-fir in Southwestern Oregon after removal of competing vegetation.

    Treesearch

    Annabelle E. Jaramillo

    1988-01-01

    After three growing seasons, young Douglas-fir trees in plots of various sizes that had been totally cleared of nonconifer vegetation were larger than trees in plots that had been partially cleared or not cleared at all. On the Bybee unit (Illinois Valley Ranger District, Siskiyou National Forest), height and diameter differences were highly significant between...

  4. Does harvest in west slope Douglas-fir increase peak flow in small forest streams?

    Treesearch

    Jack. Rothatcher

    1973-01-01

    Logging in Douglas-fir has only minor effect on major peak streamflows that occur when soils are thoroughly wet. Exceptions are the early fall storms following the dry summers characteristic of the west coast climate. At this time, peak streamflow from unlogged areas may be less than from the harvested area because the soil in the unlogged area is drier and has greater...

  5. Douglas-fir tussock moth handbook: techniques for monitoring the effects of insecticides on forest fauna

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Shea; Richard C. Reardon; Stamford D. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Information from many sources, published and unpublished, was used in preparing this handbook. The principal source of information was a study in northeastern Oregon conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Expanded Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth Research and Development Program. The purpose of that study was to determine the effects of three chemical...

  6. Computer prediction of insecticide efficacy for western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth

    Treesearch

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Molly W. Stock

    1986-01-01

    A generalized interactive computer model that simulates and predicts insecticide efficacy, over seasonal development of western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth, is described. This model can be used for any insecticide for which the user has laboratory-based concentration-response data. The program has four options, is written in BASIC, and can be operated...

  7. Use of dominant tree heights in determining site index for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1948-01-01

    Measuring heights of Douglas-fir trees for the determination of site index is a time-consuming job, especially in dense stands. Both dominant and codominant trees must be measured since site index curves represent the average height of dominants and codominants. It has been suggested that considerable time might be saved if only dominant trees were measured, since...

  8. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on deer browsing and growth of young Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Crouch; M.A. Radwan

    1981-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied to young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine their effects on deer browsing and tree growth. Nitrogen (N) proauced measurable responses in browsing of terminal shoots and growth of trees the first year, but effects were mostly negligible 2 years after treatments. No responses to...

  9. Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; K.A. McCulloh; J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; B.L. Gartner

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms involved in the regulation of stomatal closure in Douglas-fir and evaluated the potential compensatory adjustments in response to increasing tree height. Stomatal closure was initiated at values of leaf water potential corresponding to nearly complete loss of leaf hydraulic conductance. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopic images...

  10. Dispersion of kaolinite by dissolved organic matter from Douglas-fir roots

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin; Jesse G. Chaney

    1984-01-01

    The organic constituents of water extracts from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) roots that cause kaolinite dispersion were investigated. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated according to molecular size and chemical characteristics into acids, neutrals, and bases of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups.

  11. Logging residues on Douglas-fir region clearcuts—weights and volumes.

    Treesearch

    John D. Dell; Franklin R. Ward

    1971-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ground measurements of logging residue weights and volumes on 30 clearcut units in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington. Additional information is given on quantities of material left as slash which might be utilized. These measurements were made on public lands, using a method developed in Canada.

  12. Management of spruce-fir in even-aged stands in the central Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster

    1980-01-01

    Potential production of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in the central Rocky Mountains is simulated for vario.us combinations of stand density, site quality, ages, and thinning schedules. Such estimates are needed to project future development of stands managed in different ways for various uses.

  13. Arasin in endrin treatments to protect Douglas-fir seed from deer mice.

    Treesearch

    G.L. Crouch; M.A. Radwan

    1972-01-01

    In laboratory bioassays, coating with endrin reduced consumption of Douglas-fir seed by deer mice. Coating with Arasan did not lower seed consumption, but endrin plus Arasan reduced feeding to levels comparable with endrin alone. Substitution of talc for Arasan produced similar results. Endrin had little effect on seed germination, but addition of Arasan caused a...

  14. Evaluation of R-55 and mestranol to protect Douglas-fir seed from deer mice

    Treesearch

    G.L. Crouch; M.A. Radwan

    1971-01-01

    Bioassays using deer mice showed that R-55 a thiocarbamate derivative applied as 2-and 5-percent coatings was ineffective in reducing consumption of Douglas-fir seed. At 2 percent3 mestranol3 an antifertility chemical3 reduced seed consumption to levels comparable with endrin applied at 0.5 percent without impairing germination.

  15. Spruce-fir management and spruce budworm; SAF region VI technical conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel Schmitt; ed.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a technical update of the management of spruce-fir forests. Integrated management of eastern spruce budworm is not yet a reality. The ecological, social, and economic knowledge needed to develop an integrated management system is not available. The conference was designed to move individuals to a higher level of spruce budworm management in the eastern spruce-...

  16. Diversity and productivity of hypogeous fungal sporocarps in a variably thinned Douglas-fir forest.

    Treesearch

    W.C. III Colgan; A.B. Carey; J.M. Trappe; R. Molina; D. Thysell

    1999-01-01

    Although ecosystem management techniques are designed to enhance species diversity in managed forests, no comprehensive study has been conducted to evaluate effects of such techniques on diversity and productivity of hypogeous fungi (truffles). During this study, truffles were collected in a 55- to 65-year-old Douglas-fir forest from March 1993 through December 1995 at...

  17. Pruning and occurrence of heart rot in young Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Childs; Ernest. Wright

    1956-01-01

    Heart rot is sometimes common in pole-size Douglas-firs that had been heavily live-pruned for trail clearance when they were long-crowned saplings, This observation suggested that benefits from pruning for quality increment might be reduced appreciably by heart rot infections occurring through pruning wounds. The study described in this paper was therefore undertaken...

  18. A user's guide to the combined stand prognosis and Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak model

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Nicholas L. Crookston

    1982-01-01

    Documentation is given for using a simulation model combining the Stand Prognosis Model and the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth Outbreak Model. Four major areas are addressed: (1) an overview and discussion of the combined model; (2) description of input options; (3) discussion of model output, and (4) numerous examples illustrating model behavior and sensitivity.

  19. Estimating biomass of shrubs and forbs in central Washington Douglas-fir stands.

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Olson; Robert E. Martin

    1981-01-01

    Understory plants in closed 70-year-old even-aged Douglas-fir stands in north central Washington were destructively sampled to determine the relationship of ground cover and height to dry weight. Weight of plant material can be estimated from the product of plant height and percentage of ground cover on 50- x 100-centimeter (cm) quadrats. Correlation coefficients for...

  20. Seedfall in a young-growth Douglas-fir stand: 1950-1978.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Reukema

    1982-01-01

    A 29-year record of seedfall in thinned and unthinned portions of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand, spanning ages 39 through 68, reveals annual seed production from no seeds to about 3 million per hectare. For the nine largest crops, annual seedfall in the best seed-producing thinning treatment included at least 100 000...

  1. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  2. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  3. Development of western spruce budworm on Douglas-fir callus tissue.

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beckwith; Barry. Goldfarb

    1991-01-01

    The success of feeding and development of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) on callus tissue of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was determined. Fewer insects died when fed pure callus tissue than when fed on standard diet or callus incorporated into the standard diet. The final...

  4. Estimating air-drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    One potential use for small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir timber is in log form. Many potential uses of logs require some degree of drying. Even though these small diameters may be considered small in the forestry context, their size when compared to typical lumber thickness dimensions is large. These logs, however, may require uneconomically long kiln-drying...

  5. Fractionation of Forest Residues of Douglas-fir for Fermentable Sugar Production by SPORL Pretreatment

    Treesearch

    Chao Zhang; J.Y. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; John Sessions

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest residues were physically fractionated through sieving. The bark and wood were separated for large-sized fractions (>12.7 mm), and their contents were determined. The chemical compositions of the large fractions were calculated based on the contents and chemical compositions of the bark and wood. The...

  6. Genetic maladaptation of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings to future climates

    Treesearch

    Brad St. Clair;  Glenn T. Howe

    2007-01-01

    Climates are expected to warm considerably over the next century, resulting in expectations that plant populations will not be adapted to future climates.We estimated the risk of maladaptation of current populations of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to future climates as the proportion of nonoverlap between two normal...

  7. Predicting regeneration in the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Albert R. Stage; Raymond J. Boyd

    1986-01-01

    Conifer establishment following regeneration treatments can be predicted in the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the northern Rocky Mountains. Alternative treatments can be evaluated by a model that represents regeneration establishment and early development. This model is designed to be used with the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station's...

  8. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  9. Nitrogen, corn, and forest genetics: the agricultural yield strategy-implications for Douglas-fir management.

    Treesearch

    Roy R. Silen

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural yield strategy simply aims to increase number of grain bearing stalks per acre. Forestry strategies look to thinning, fertilizer, and genetics, each to provide gains. The agricultural strategies applied to Douglas-fir appear to be impractical for long rotations. Concern is expressed for commitments to perpetual inputs of materials and energy to keep a...

  10. Effect of heart checks on flexural properties of reclaimed 6 by 8 Douglas-fir timbers

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Robert H. Falk; Scott F. Lantz

    2001-01-01

    A sampling of nominal 6- by 8-inch (standard 140- by 184-mm) Douglas-fir timbers was obtained from an industrial military building in Minnesota. Thirty selected timbers had heart checks (boxed heart splits), which are characteristic of most old timbers installed in dry locations. Sixty selected timbers did not have heart checks. Most of the beams would grade as Select...

  11. Prediction of wood Quality in Small-Diameter Douglas-Fir using site and Stand Characteristics

    Treesearch

    C.D. Morrow; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; D.E. Kretschmann; C.A. Hatfield

    2013-01-01

    Standing stress wave measurements were taken on 274 small-diameter Douglas-fir trees in western Montana. Stand, site, and soil measurements collected in the field and remotely through geographical information system (GIS) data layers were used to model dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) in those trees. The best fit linear model developed resulted in an adjusted

  12. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  13. Genetic variation and population structure in fraser fir (Abies fraseri): a microsatellite assessment of young trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; John Framton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson

    2008-01-01

    The island-like populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) have been isolated since the end of the late-Wisconsinian glaciation on the highest peaks of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and therefore offer an opportunity to investigate the genetic dynamics of a long-fragmented forest tree species. An analysis of eight microsatellite...

  14. Genetic variation and population structure in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri): a microsatellite assessment of young trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; Dana C. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    The island-like populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) have been isolated since the end of the late-Wisconsinian glaciation on the highest peaks of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and therefore offer an opportunity to investigate the genetic dynamics of a long-fragmented forest tree species. An analysis of eight microsatellite...

  15. Herbs and brush on California red fir regeneration sites: a species and frequency sampling

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon; Eugene E. Bowen

    1978-01-01

    In a sampling of 32 logged areas in red fir forests of northern California, 58 plant species were found. Species corresponded with less than one-fifth of the 93 species reported in an earlier study of the virgin forest. Sampling of uncut areas adjacent to cuttings does not seem useful for predicting the earlier successional vegetation that will appear when the areas...

  16. Estimating the weight of crown segments for old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Kendall Snell; Timothy A. Max

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate estimators to predict total crown weight and weight of any segment of crown for old-growth felled and bucked Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees. Equations were developed for predicting weight of continuous live crown, total live crown, dead crown, any segment of live crown, and individual branches for old-growth...

  17. Host-environment mismatches associated with subalpine fir decline in Colorado

    Treesearch

    Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Kristina Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Subalpine fir decline (SFD) has killed more trees in Colorado’s high elevation forests than any other insect or disease problem. The widespread nature of this disorder suggests that the cause involves climatic factors. We examined the influence of varying combinations of average annual temperature and precipitation on the incidence and distribution of SFD. Climatic...

  18. Response of Northwest Douglas-fir stands to urea: correlations with forest soil properties.

    Treesearch

    C.E. Peterson; P.J. Ryan; S.P. Gessel

    1984-01-01

    Replicated forest floor and surface soil (0–15 cm) samples were obtained from control plots at 160 field installations to western Washington and Oregon. Six year growth responses of thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in stallations treated with 0, 224, and 448 kg of urea-N ha-1 were correlated with 18 forest...

  19. Effectiveness of fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir shoots from infection by Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    G.A. Chastagner; E.M. Hansen; K.L. Riley; W. Sutton

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of 20 systemic and contact fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir seedlings from infection by Phytophthora ramorum was determined. Some systemic products were applied about a week prior to bud break, while most treatments were applied just after bud break. In addition to the fungicides, two surfactants were included in the post-bud...

  20. Effect of thinning on form of young-growth Douglas-fir trees.

    Treesearch

    Vern P. Yerkes

    1960-01-01

    With the advent of increased thinning activity in managed stands of young-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), knowledge of growth and form development of released trees becomes necessary for calculations of total volume and growth. Any appreciable change in the rate of radial increment at various points along the stem of a released tree...

  1. Lumber-grade recovery from 110-year-old Douglas-fir thinnings.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    What lumber-grade and yield recovery is possible from thinnings in low Site III, 110-year-old, young-growth Douglas -fir stand? A lumber-grade recovery study of sawtimber cut in recent thinning experiments at the Wind River Experimental Forest, Skamania County, Washington, gives some idea of the answer. The thinning experiments were designed to determine increment and...

  2. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  3. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon Douglas-fir plantation.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Edmund L. Obermeyer

    1996-01-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying, we established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various...

  4. Douglas-Fir Seedlings Exhibit Metabolic Responses to Increased Temperature and Atmospheric Drought

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Kirstin; Du, Baoguo; Kayler, Zachary; Siegwolf, Rolf; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kammerer, Bernd; Jaeger, Carsten; Schaub, Marcus; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions. PMID:25436455

  5. Response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus fertilizers.

    Treesearch

    M.A. Radwan; J.S. Shumway

    1985-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus fertilizers on growth and nutrient content of Douglas-fir seedlings potted in Grove and Bunker forest soils were determined. Growth was primarily stimulated with nitrogen in the Grove soil and with phosphorus in the Bunker soil. Fertilization influenced nutrient levels in the seedlings. Growth results agree with observed...

  6. Long-term effects of thinning and fertilization on growth of red fir in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    Jianwei Zhang; William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    To determine the impact of fertilization and thinning on red fir (Abies magnifica) stand growth and development, we established an experiment in a 60-year-old stand using a 2x3 factorial design with nitrogen fertilized and non-fertilized treatments and three stocking levels. Plots were established in 1976 and were measured every 5 years for 26...

  7. Transpiration-induced axial and radial tension gradients in trunks of Douglas-fir trees.

    Treesearch

    J.C. Domec; F. C. Meinzer; B. L. Gartner; D. Woodruff

    2006-01-01

    We determined the axial and radial xylem tension gradients in trunks of young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Axial specific conductivity (ks-a) and sap flux density (Js) were measured at four consecutive depths within the sapwood at a...

  8. Economic availability of logging residue in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams

    1976-01-01

    Large amounts of logging residue are generated each year in timber harvest operations in old-growth forests in the Douglas-fir region of western Washington and western Oregon. Economic availability of each piece, however, depends on its size, condition, location, and on the existence of markets, with an adequate price to cover costs. An estimated 185.8 million cubic...

  9. Bootstrap evaluation of a young Douglas-fir height growth model for the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Eric C. Turnblom; Martin W. Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the stability of a complex regression model developed to predict the annual height growth of young Douglas-fir. This model is highly nonlinear and is fit in an iterative manner for annual growth coefficients from data with multiple periodic remeasurement intervals. The traditional methods for such a sensitivity analysis either involve laborious math or...

  10. A new Pyemotes (Acari: Pyemotidae) reared from the Douglas-fir cone moth

    Treesearch

    J.C. Moser; R.L. Smiley; I.S. Otvos

    1987-01-01

    Pyemotes barbara, n. sp., is illustrated and described.This species is parasitic on pupae of Barbara colfaxiana (Kearfott), one of the important cone and seed pests of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco.The Pyemotes mite considered here is a candidate for the biological control of forest insects.

  11. Genetic selection in coastal Douglas-fir for tolerance to Swiss needle cast disease

    Treesearch

    Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; David Shaw; Terrance Z. Ye

    2012-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, is associated with significant volume growth losses (20 to 50 percent) along the Oregon Coast. Although the pathogen is endemic, disease symptoms have intensified in coastal forests of Oregon...

  12. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Treesearch

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  13. Distribution of fine roots of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir in a central Idaho forest

    Treesearch

    Gabriel Dumm; Lauren Fins; Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2008-01-01

    This study describes soil horizon depth and fine root distribution in cores collected at two distances from the boles of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees at a study site in a central Idaho forest. Concentration and content of fine roots extracted from soil cores were compared among species, soil horizons, tree size, and distance from bole. Approximately 80% of...

  14. Growth of California red fir advance regeneration after overstory removal and thinning

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver

    1985-01-01

    Advance regeneration is common under decadent, old-growth stands of California red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.). Intense competition for the site's resources can create sapling stands of poor vigor and advanced age. When competition is reduced by overstory removal and thinning, suppressed advance regeneration has been shown to respond with...

  15. Analysis and comparison of nonlinear tree height prediction strategies for Douglas-fir forest.

    Treesearch

    H. Temesgen; V.J. Monleon; D.W. Hann

    2008-01-01

    Using an extensive Douglas-fir data set from southwest Oregon, we examined the (I) performance and suitability of selected prediction strategies, (2) contribution of relative position and stand-density measures in improving tree height (h) prediction values, and (3) effect of different subsampling designs to fill in missing h values in a new stand using a regional...

  16. Effects of water suspension and wet-dry cycling on fertility of Douglas-fir pollen.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Copes; Nan C. Vance

    2000-01-01

    Studies were made to determine how long Douglas-fir pollen remains viable after suspension in cool water form 0 to 34 days. Linear regression analysis of in vivo and in vitro tests indicated that filled seed efficiency and pollen viability, respectively, decreased about 3 percent per day. The relation may have been nonlinear the first 6 days, as little decrease...

  17. Estimating effect of Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on Douglas-fir seed production: the new paradigm

    Treesearch

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques; Sylvia Mori

    1993-01-01

    In a pollen exclusion experiment performed on the cones of five Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) trees, the number of seeds infested by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl, did not differ significantly between pollinated and unpollinated cones from the same tree. This finding led to a revision of the...

  18. Foliar nutrient status of young red spruce and balsam fir in a fertilized stand

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; L. O. Safford; Russell D. Briggs

    1980-01-01

    Average dry weight and nutrient levels in current foliage from red spruce and balsam fir seedlings and saplings in the understory of a 25-year old aspen and birch stand were observed 3 years after N, P, and lime treatments were applied. Elemental concentrations were plotted as a function of needle weight and quantity of element per needle. This allows interpretation of...

  19. Evaluation of tree risk in the spruce - fir region of the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. McLintock

    1948-01-01

    In attempting to find possible means of combating recurrent epidemics of the spruce budworm in the Northeast, research has shown that forest management has considerable promise. Reduction in the proportion of balsam fir to spruce and attainment of the highest possible proportion of rapidly growing trees are expected to result in a less severe outbreak and a higher...

  20. How damage to balsam fir develops after a spruce budworm epidemic

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. McLintock

    1955-01-01

    From 1948 to 1952 a light to medium spruce budworm infestation occurred in the spruce-fir forests of northern Maine. During this period both the degree of infestation and the acreage affected fluctuated considerably, but the population remained below the damage level. In 1953 there was a general reduction in budworm population in all portions of northern Maine except a...

  1. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir?

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  2. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2010-01-01

    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  3. Douglas-fir growth in mountain ecosystems: water limits tree growth from stand to region

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Michael Tjoelker

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the nature of growth-climate relationships for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) across the climatic dimensions of its niche. We used a combination of biophysically informed sampling (to identify sample sites) and dendroclimatology (to identify growth-climate relationships) along a climate gradient in...

  4. Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce budworm in Idaho

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; Robert F. Scharpf

    1982-01-01

    Mature grand firs (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D. Don] Lindl.) were sampled in two stands, one cutover and one virgin, in the Little Salmon River drainage in west-central Idaho, to estimate stem volume losses associated with topkilling. Damage to the stands resulted from three outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis...

  5. Genetics of cold hardiness in a cloned full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    T.S. Anekonda; W.T. Adams; S.N. Aitken; D.B. Neale; K.D. Jermstad; N.C. Wheeler

    2000-01-01

    Variation in cold-hardiness traits, and their extent of genetic control and interrelationships, were investigated among individuals (clones) within a single large full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) from Oregon. Cold injury to needle, stem, and bud tissues was evaluated...

  6. Extended rotations and culmination age of coast Douglas-fir: old studies speak to current issues.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Trends of mean annual increment and periodic annual increment were examined in 17 long-term thinning studies in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western Washington, western Oregon, and British Columbia. Maximum ages included ranged from about 90 years on high sites to 117 years on a low site. None of the...

  7. Douglas-fir survival and growth in response to spring planting date and depth

    Treesearch

    R. O. Strothmann

    1971-01-01

    Douglas-fir seedlings were planted by four methods in late February and late March on hot, south-facing slopes in northwestern California. Besides standard planting, the techniques used included deep planting at two different depths, and shading the lower stem. The differences in survival after 3 growing seasons were not statistically significant, but deep planting had...

  8. Natural reproduction of shasta red fir from a single good cone crop.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1954-01-01

    The initiation and rapid increase in harvesting of Shasta red fir mountain hemlock stands in southwestern Oregon have emphasized the lack of information needed to manage these species intelligently. The most important single management practice for converting old growth to managed forests is the application of cutting methods that will assure prompt regeneration of...

  9. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: early results from 12 fir species

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; Fred Hain; John. Frampton

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees produced in North Carolina need to be treated one or more times during their 5- to 10-year rotation to prevent or lessen damage caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). These pesticide applications result in an annual cost to the industry...

  10. Volume growth and response to thinning and fertilizing of Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R.E. Miller; G.W. Clendenen; D. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    From data for 114 thinning and fertilizing trials in forests of southwestern Oregon and northern California with 5 or more years of observation, we produced equations to estimate gross cubic volume growth of 10- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir stands. These equations use stand escriptors (breast-height age, site index, and relative density) and treatment descriptors to...

  11. Genetic variation in response to shade in coastal Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    J. Bradley St. Clair; Richard A. Sniezko

    1999-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have generally relied on testing families in open light environments. With increased interest in multiaged silvicultural systems, some people have questioned whether families selected in the open are appropriate for planting in the shade. We grew Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas-fir. III

    Treesearch

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Daniel L. Bassoni; Keith S. Jech; Gary A. Ritchie; Nicholas C. Wheeler; David B. Neale

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring...

  13. Impact of douglas-fir tussock moth... color aerial phtography evaluates mortality

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman

    1970-01-01

    Thorough evaluation of insect impact on forest stands is difficult and expensive on the ground. In a study of tree damage following Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation in Modoc County, California, large-scale (1:1,584)70-mm. color aerial photography was an effective sampling tool and took lesstime and expense than ground methods. Comparison of the photo...

  14. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Treesearch

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  15. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  16. Growth of young Douglas-fir plantations across a gradient in Swiss needle cast severity.

    Treesearch

    D.A. Maguire; A. Kanaskie; W. Voelker; R. Johnson; G. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC) damage has intensified in many Douglas-fir plantations in the Coast Range of Oregon, particularly along the immediate north coast. In plantations with severe symptoms, growth losses and reduced tree vigor are evident, but the magnitude of growth losses associated with varying intensities of damage is not known. A growth...

  17. Habitat management for red tree voles in Douglas-fir forests.

    Treesearch

    M.H. Huff; R.S. Holthausen; K.B. Aubry

    1992-01-01

    The relations between arboreal rodents and trees causes the animals to be particularly sensitive to the effects of timber harvesting.Among arboreal rodents,we consider the redtree vole to be the most vulnerable to local extinctions resulting from the loss or fragmentation of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Redtree voles are nocturnal,canopy dwelling, and difficult to...

  18. Diameter growth of plantation-grown Douglas-fir trees under varying degrees of release.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Krueger

    1959-01-01

    As an ever-increasing number of young Douglas-fir stands in the Pacific Northwest come under intensive management, development of better tree-marking techniques based on sound scientific principles becomes essential. For this reason, two experiments have been established at the Wind River Experimental Forest near Carson, Wash., to measure the effect of different...

  19. Effect of natural inbreeding on variance structure in tests of wind pollination Douglas-fir progenies.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen; T.L. White

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the mating habits of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) have shown that wind-pollination families contain a small proportion of very slow-growing natural inbreds.The effect of these very small trees on means, variances, and variance ratios was evaluated for height and diameter in a 16-year-old plantation by...

  20. Early genetic evaluation of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; David A. Perry

    1987-01-01

    In a test of early genetic evaluation of the growth potential of 14 families of open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [Mirb.] Franco), measures of growth and phenology of seedligns grown in a coldframe were correlated with height of saplings in evaluation plantations at 9, 12, and 15 years. fifteen-year height was most strongly...

  1. Wrenching Douglas-fir seedlings in August: immediate but no lasting effects.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1984-01-01

    Effects of wrenching Douglas-fir seedlings in August of their second season in the D. L. Phipps State Forest Nursery, Elkton, Oregon, were determined by periodic samplings to learn of changes in phenological, morphological, and growth characteristics. Initial effects of wrenching moderated by January when seedlings were lifted; both wrenched and unwrenched seedlings...

  2. Robust enzymatic saccharification of a Douglas-fir forest harvest residue by SPORL

    Treesearch

    Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs

    2013-01-01

    Forest harvest residues can be a cost-effective feedstock for a biorefinery, but the high lignin content of forest residues is a major barrier for enzymatic sugar production. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome strong recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco var. menziesii) forest residue...

  3. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in Chinese fir forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A; Jiang, Hong; Kimmins, J P Hamish

    2012-02-01

    Nitrogen deposition and its ecological effects on forest ecosystems have received global attention. We used the ecosystem model FORECAST to assess the effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in Chinese fir planted forests in SE China. This topic is important as China is intensifying its reforestation efforts to increase forest carbon sequestration for combating climate change impacts, using Chinese fir as the most important plantation species. A series of scenarios including seven N deposition levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50kg ha(-1)y(-1)), three management regime (rotation lengths of 15, 30 and 50 years) and two site qualities (nutrient poor and fertile sites) were defined for the simulations. Our results showed that N deposition increased carbon sequestration in Chinese fir forests, but the efficiency of the increasing effect is reduced as N deposition levels increase. When N deposition levels exceeded 20-30kg ha(-1)y(-1), the incremental effects of N deposition on forest C pools were marginal. This suggests that N deposition levels above 20-30kg ha(-1)y(-1) could lead to N saturation in Chinese fir forest soils. Any additional amounts of N input from deposition would likely be leached out. Total above-ground C was more sensitive to N deposition than to rotation length and site quality. It was also estimated that the contributions of N deposition to C sequestration in all Chinese fir forests in South-East China are 7.4×10(6)MgCy(-1) under the current N deposition levels (5 to 10kg ha(-1)y(-1)) and could reach up to 16×10(6)MgCy(-1) if N deposition continues increasing and reaches levels of 7.5 to 15kg N ha(-1)y(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Broad Scale Patterns in Subalpine Fir Mortality Across the U.S. Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrego, A.; Harvey, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Rising concerns about warming climate and trends in increased rates of tree mortality detected in forest ecosystems globally have sparked studies which examine factors associated with tree mortality. Although substantial research in subalpine forests has examined pine mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks, and spruce mortality from spruce beetle outbreaks, the third dominant species of subalpine forests (subalpine fir), has received less attention during a period of similarly high mortality. Thus a spatially expansive study of relationships between subalpine fir mortality and potential predictor variables is needed to understand overall forest mortality dynamics. This study presents broad-scale spatial patterns of subalpine fir mortality in subalpine forests of the US Rocky Mountain ecoregion and compares observed patterns with several biotic and abiotic explanatory variables. Using United States Forest Service (USFS) aerial detection surveys (ADS) from 1994-2015 and Geographic information Systems (GIS), we mapped the presence/absence of subalpine fir mortality (SFM) and examined the distribution of each across the spectrum of disturbance and topographic variables. A particular focus was to assess the effects of spatial extent of analysis on findings, examining relationships at the following extents: 1) inclusive - incorporating any areas flown in any year; 2) exclusive - limiting analysis to areas flown every year; and 3) focal - limited only to an area of high mortality. Subalpine fir mortality more frequently occurred in cooler/wetter topographic positions as opposed to forested sites with a high heat load. Most ecological patterns remained consistent across spatial extents, suggesting fair reliability of ADS data at coarse scales. Results of this study demonstrate broad spatial patterns of mortality that corroborate stand- and tree-level analyses, and provide insight into forest dynamics in a warming climate.

  5. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  6. High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Raphael, Patrick D.; Oghalai, John S.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Swept-laser sources offer a number of advantages for Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT). However, inter- and intra-sweep variability leads to calibration errors that adversely affect phase sensitivity. While there are several approaches to overcoming this problem, our preferred method is to simply calibrate every sweep of the laser. This approach offers high accuracy and phase stability at the expense of a substantial processing burden. In this approach, the Hilbert phase of the interferogram from a reference interferometer provides the instantaneous wavenumber of the laser, but is computationally expensive. Fortunately, the Hilbert transform may be approximated by a Finite Impulse-Response (FIR) filter. Here we explore the use of several FIR filter based Hilbert transforms for calibration, explicitly considering the impact of filter choice on phase sensitivity and OCT image quality. Our results indicate that the complex FIR filter approach is the most robust and accurate among those considered. It provides similar image quality and slightly better phase sensitivity than the traditional FFT-IFFT based Hilbert transform while consuming fewer resources in an FPGA implementation. We also explored utilizing the Hilbert magnitude of the reference interferogram to calculate an ideal window function for spectral amplitude calibration. The ideal window function is designed to carefully control sidelobes on the axial point spread function. We found that after a simple chromatic correction, calculating the window function using the complex FIR filter and the reference interferometer gave similar results to window functions calculated using a mirror sample and the FFT-IFFT Hilbert transform. Hence, the complex FIR filter can enable accurate and high-speed calibration of the magnitude and phase of spectral interferograms. PMID:27446666

  7. Experimental performance of a fully tunable complex-coefficient optical FIR filter using wavelength conversion and chromatic dispersion.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Salman; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Yilmaz, Omer F; Tur, Moshe; Haney, Michael W; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2012-08-15

    We experimentally characterize the performance of a continuously tunable all-optical complex-coefficient finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter that exploits nonlinear signal processing (multiplexing and multicasting) and conversion-dispersion-based optical delays. Various length (three and four) optical FIR filters with different tap amplitudes (from 0 to -9 dB), tap phases (from 0 to 2π), and tap delays (~37.4 ps and 25 ps) are realized, showing reconfiguration and tuning capabilities of this FIR filter. The measured frequency responses show close agreement with the theoretical filter responses.

  8. Far infrared ray (FIR) therapy: An effective and oncological safe treatment modality for breast cancer related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Xia, Liang; Liu, Ning Fei; Nicoli, Fabio; Constantinides, Joannis; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; Lazzeri, Davide; Tremp, Mathias; Zhang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of breast cancer related lymphedema is approximately 5%. Far infrared ray (FIR) treatment can potentially reduce fluid volume and extremity circumference as well as the frequency of dermato-lymphangitis (DLA). However, there is no published data on the oncological safety of FIR and the potential for activation of any residual breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety of far infrared ray (FIR) treatment of postmastectomy lymphedema, clinically and in vitro. Patients who underwent mastectomy more than 5years ago complicated by upper extremity lymphedema for more than 1year were included. The enrolled patients were divided into an FIR treatment group and a control group (conservative treatment using bandage compression). Outcome measures included tumor markers (CA153, CA125), ultrasonography of relevant structures and monitoring for adverse reactions 1year after treatment. For the in vitro part of the study, the effects of FIR on human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB231) compared to the effects of FIR on human dermal fibroblasts as a control were considered. The viability, proliferation, cell cycle and apoptotic statistics of the adenocarcinoma and human dermal fibroblast cell lines were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrated that after treatment with FIR, tumor marker (CA153, CA125) concentrations in both the FIR and control groups were not elevated. There was no statistically significant difference between FIR and control group marker expression (p>0.05). Furthermore, no patients were diagnosed with lymphadenectasis or newly enlarged lymph nodes in these two groups. Importantly, there were no adverse events in either group. The in vitro experiment indicated that FIR radiation does not affect viability, proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of fibroblasts, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. FIR should be considered as feasible and safe for the treatment of breast cancer related lymphedema patients 5years

  9. 13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

  10. Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: new spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products.

    PubMed

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

    2014-11-11

    We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

  11. A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

  12. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  13. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca).

    Treesearch

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman

    1993-01-01

    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  14. 13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

  15. Effects of manganese and manganese-nitrogen applications on growth and nutrition of Douglas-fir seedlings.

    Treesearch

    M. A. Radwan; John S. Shumway; Dean S. DeBell

    1979-01-01

    Effects of manganese (Mn) on Douglas-fir grown in soil, with and without urea, and in nutrient solution were investigated. In addition, Mn sorption by forest soils was evaluated. Results show that Douglas-fir does not respond to added Mn and is quite tolerant to high Mn levels. Moreover, Mn sorption by soils is high. It is doubtful that Mn toxicity is of practical...

  16. Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40- and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock.

    PubMed

    Horton, T R; Molina, R; Hood, K

    2005-09-01

    We investigated ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in forest stands containing both early successional Douglas-fir and late successional western hemlock at two points in the typical stand development by identifying EM fungi from roots of Douglas-fir and western hemlock in mixed stands. In an early seral stage forest, EM roots of western hemlock seedlings and intermingling 40-year-old Douglas-fir were sampled. In a late seral stage forest, EM roots of trees of both species were sampled in a 400-year-old stand. We use molecular approaches to identify the symbionts from field samples in this descriptive study. In the early seral stage study, >95% of the western hemlock root tips by biomass were colonized by fungi also colonizing Douglas-fir roots. This result supports the prediction that western hemlock can associate with fungi in Douglas-fir EM networks. In the same study, fungi specific to Douglas-fir colonized 14% of its EM root tips. In the late seral stage study, 14% of the western hemlock root tips were colonized by fungi also observed in association with Douglas-fir, a result strongly influenced by sampling issues and likely represents a conservative estimate of multiple host fungi in this old growth setting. Fungi specific to Douglas-fir colonized 25% of its root tip biomass in the old growth study, in tight coralloid clusters within five of the 24 soil samples. The trends revealed in this study corroborate earlier studies suggesting a predominance of multiple host fungi in mixed communities of EM plants. The role of host-specific fungi in these stands remains unclear.

  17. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  19. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  20. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.