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Sample records for first-generation offspring derived

  1. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  2. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  3. Production of donor-derived offspring by allogeneic transplantation of spermatogonia in the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tetsuro; Kumakura, Naoki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Mitsuboshi, Toru; Ishida, Masashi; Hara, Takashi; Kudo, Satomi; Miwa, Misako; Ihara, Shoko; Higuchi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2012-06-01

    Although the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is the fish most commonly farmed in Japan, breeding of this species has not yet started. This is primarily due to the lack of sufficiently sophisticated methods for manipulating gametogenesis, which makes it difficult to collect gametes from specific dams and sires. If it were possible to produce large numbers of surrogate fish by transplanting germ cells isolated from donor individuals harboring desirable genetic traits, then the probability of acquiring gametes carrying the donor-derived haplotype would increase, and breeding programs involving this species might increase as a result. As a first step, we established a method for the allogeneic transplantation of yellowtail spermatogonia and the production of donor-derived offspring. Donor cells were collected from immature (10-month-old) yellowtail males with testes containing abundant type A spermatogonia, labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye, and transferred into the peritoneal cavities of 8-day-old larvae. Fluorescence observation at 28 days post-transplantation revealed that PKH26-labeled cells were incorporated into recipients' gonads. To assess whether donor-derived spermatogonia could differentiate into functional gametes in the allogeneic recipient gonads, gametes collected from nine male and four female adult recipients were fertilized with wild-type eggs and milt. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers confirmed that some of the first filial (F(1)) offspring were derived from donor fish, with the average contribution of donor-derived F(1) offspring being 66% and the maximum reaching 99%. These findings confirmed that our method was effective for transplanting yellowtail spermatogonia into allogeneic larvae to produce donor-derived offspring. PMID:22460666

  4. Assessment of physical traits of rat offspring derived from mothers exposed to dioxin.

    PubMed

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2015-09-01

    Negative effects of dioxin action are associated with limited abilities of their bio-degradation along with continuously increasing production and long-term bio-accumulation of those toxins in living organisms. Dioxins penetrate through placenta to fetus indicating indirect toxic effects on offspring of mothers exposed to the action of these toxins. During lactation a significant part of dioxins is excreted from organism with milk, which contributes to further accumulation of those compounds and multiple exceeding of maximal permissible dose of dioxins in newborns feeding with mother's milk. The aim of the study was to determine how a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) administered to females 3 weeks before getting pregnant affects the parturition duration, labour delay, number and weight of offspring. The studies were performed on rat offspring deriving from primigravida females from the Buffalo strain, which 3 weeks before getting pregnant were administered with a single dose of TCDD. The obtained results revealed that labours in females exposed to dioxin effects were characterized by significant temporal range and their end occurred 3 weeks later compared to females from the control group, which gave birth within a very narrow temporal range ending within 2 days. Offspring obtained from females exposed to the TCDD action was smaller in number and was characterized by smaller rearing and smaller birth weight even after the first month of life; however weight gain in both groups was similar and it was twelve-fold increase.

  5. Maternally derived carotenoid pigments affect offspring survival, sex ratio, and sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, K. J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Parker, R. S.

    2005-08-01

    In egg-laying animals, mothers can influence the development of their offspring via the suite of biochemicals they incorporate into the nourishing yolk (e.g. lipids, hormones). However, the long-lasting fitness consequences of this early nutritional environment have often proved elusive. Here, we show that the colorful carotenoid pigments that female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) deposit into egg yolks influence embryonic and nestling survival, the sex ratio of fledged offspring, and the eventual ornamental coloration displayed by their offspring as adults. Mothers experimentally supplemented with dietary carotenoids prior to egg-laying incorporated more carotenoids into eggs, which, due to the antioxidant activity of carotenoids, rendered their embryos less susceptible to free-radical attack during development. These eggs were subsequently more likely to hatch, fledge offspring, produce more sons than daughters, and produce sons who exhibited more brightly colored carotenoid-based beak pigmentation. Provisioned mothers also acquired more colorful beaks, which directly predicted levels of carotenoids found in eggs, thus indicating that these pigments may function not only as physiological ‘damage-protectants’ in adults and offspring but also as morphological signals of maternal reproductive capabilities.

  6. Differential expression and costs between maternally and paternally derived immune priming for offspring in an insect.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Caroline; Troussard, Jean-Philippe; Martinaud, Guillaume; Moreau, Jérôme; Moret, Yannick

    2011-11-01

    1. When parasitized, both vertebrates and invertebrates can enhance the immune defence of their offspring, although this transfer of immunity is achieved by different mechanisms. In some insects, immune-challenged males can also initiate trans-generational immune priming (TGIP), but its expressions appear qualitatively different from the one induced by females similarly challenged. 2. The existence of male TGIP challenges the traditional view of the parental investment theory, which predicts that females should invest more into their progeny than males. However, sexual dimorphism in life-history strategies and the potential costs associated with TGIP may nevertheless lead to dissymmetric investment between males and females into the immune protection of the offspring. 3. Using the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, we show that after parental exposure to a bacterial-like infection, maternal and paternal TGIP are associated with the enhancement of different immune effectors and different fitness costs in the offspring. While all the offspring produced by challenged mothers had enhanced immune defence, only those from early reproductive episodes were immune primed by challenged fathers. 4. Despite the fact that males and females may share a common interest in providing their offspring with an immune protection from the current pathogenic threat, they seem to have evolved different strategies concerning this investment. PMID:21644979

  7. The First-Generation Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene

    The formation of super-km-sized planetesimals from mm-sized grains is a first-rank problem in planet formation. An attractive solution is to bind dust particles together by their collective self-gravity. This scenario requires that dust collect into regions of extraordinary density. We propose a comprehensive suite of numerical simulations using a 3D, fully compressible, multi-phase hydrodynamics code including self-gravity --- a first version of which we have recently assembled and tested successfully --- to help realize the promise of gravitational instability. We focus on the possibility that sub-cm particles collapse by self-gravity to form the first-generation planetesimals. Current particle-particle sticking models, which include fragmentation and bouncing, yield no larger than sub-cm particles -- even in gas disks that are not locally turbulent --- and thus there is a pressing need to develop planetesimal formation pathways that do not rely on the well-known streaming instability, whose relevance diminishes as particles sizes fall below ~1 meter. We will test for ourselves the limits of chemical adhesion using our own high-dynamic-range Monte Carlo coagulation code, applied for the first time to icy particles and augmented with new adaptive binning algorithms, in disks of varying turbulence. Armed with realistic estimates of particle stopping times, we will then deploy our new hydrodynamics code, working in both two-fluid and superparticle modes, to address critical issues in planetesimal formation. How much does turbulent concentration accelerate vertical settling? What are the threshold bulk metallicities required to reach Roche density? How much can drag-assisted gravitational instability enhance local metallicities? And most intriguingly, once dust achieves Roche density, how does the nonlinear development of gravitational instability play out? Our novel hydrodynamical simulations of self-gravitating flows will offer answers to these questions for the

  8. Why Do First-Generation Students Fail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sanjay S.; Newbold, John J.; O'Rourke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have determined factors contributing to first-generation student success. This study finds that first-generation students are less involved, have less social and financial support, and do not show a preference for active coping strategies. First-generation students report less social and academic satisfaction as well as lower…

  9. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  10. Academic Characteristics among First-Generation and Non-First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Catrina G.; Hicks, Terence

    2006-01-01

    The present study involved a sample (n = 203) of college students and investigated the differences in academic expectations of first-generation and non-first-generation undergraduates who attended a doctoral-granting public four-year historically Black university on the eastern shore of Maryland. There were 133 first-generation and 70…

  11. Global Adjoint Tomography: First-Generation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdağ, Ebru; Peter, Daniel; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen; Hill, Judith; Podhorszki, Norbert; Pugmire, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the first-generation global tomographic model constructed based on adjoint tomography, an iterative full-waveform inversion technique. Synthetic seismograms were calculated using GPU-accelerated spectral-element simulations of global seismic wave propagation, accommodating effects due to 3D anelastic crust & mantle structure, topography & bathymetry, the ocean load, ellipticity, rotation, and self-gravitation. Fréchet derivatives were calculated in 3D anelastic models based on an adjoint-state method. The simulations were performed on the Cray XK7 named `Titan', a computer with 18,688 GPU accelerators housed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The transversely isotropic global model is the result of 15 tomographic iterations, which systematically reduced differences between observed and simulated three-component seismograms. Our starting model combined 3D mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) with 3D crustal model Crust2.0 (Bassin et al. 2000). We simultaneously inverted for structure in the crust and mantle, thereby eliminating the need for widely used `crustal corrections'. We used data from 253 earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.8~ ≤ ~Mw~ ≤ ~7.0. For the first 12 iterations, we combined ˜30 s body-wave data with ˜60 s surface-wave data. The shortest period of the surface waves was gradually decreased, and in the last three iterations we combined ˜17 s body waves with ˜45 s surface waves. We started using 180 min-long seismograms after the 12th iteration and assimilated minor- and major-arc body and surface waves. The 15th iteration model features enhancements of well-known slabs, an enhanced image of the Samoa/Tahiti plume, as well as various other plumes and hotspots, such as Caroline, Galapagos, Yellowstone, and Erebus. Furthermore, we see clear improvements in slab resolution along the Hellenic and Japan Arcs, as well as subduction along the East of Scotia Plate, which does not exist in the starting model. Point-spread function

  12. Persistence Factors of First-Generation Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Tawanda M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized a qualitative narrative case study method to explore the unknown factors and elements of perseverance in spite of adversity and crisis. The study documented the lives of five African American women in order to describe, understand, and explain the central research question of how and why some first-generation learners…

  13. First-Generation Hybrid Compact Compton Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Krings, T; Lange, D; Hull, E; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Protic, D; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-07

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are pursuing the development of a gamma-ray imaging system using the Compton effect. We have built our first generation hybrid Compton imaging system, and we have conducted initial calibration and image measurements using this system. In this paper, we present the details of the hybrid Compton imaging system and initial calibration and image measurements.

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis of First Generation Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A general enantioselective route to functionalized first generation molecular motors is described. An enantioselective protonation of the silyl enol ethers of indanones by a Au(I)BINAP complex sets the stage for a highly diastereoselective McMurry coupling as a second enhancement step for enantiomeric excess. In this way various functionalized overcrowded alkenes could be synthesized in good yields (up to 78%) and good to excellent enantiomeric excess (85% ee–>98% ee) values. PMID:25079823

  15. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  16. First Generation Korean American Parents’ Perceptions of Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with the professional guidelines of discipline and but also be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first generation Korean American parents’ perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first generation Korean American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first generation Korean American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style and time out, using a sticker chart, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to the mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children’s views on discipline and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean American parents’ perceptions on discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from the western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  17. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.

  18. A Model of First-Generation Latino/a College Students' Approach to Seeking Academic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Reiser, Al; LePeau, Lucy; Davis, Laura; Ruder, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Using grounded theory methodology, we examined the experiences of first-generation Latino/a college students. Themes emerged in students' interactions with and perceptions of peers, advisors, and faculty members. A model derived from the data was developed to describe the unique ways first-generation Latino/a students sought information relating…

  19. [Significance and limitations of first generation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Formerly on the margins of the European agricultural landscape, liquid biofuels for transport have recently come into sharp focus with the help of three drivers: the depletion of oil resources and the political motto of energy independence, international negotiations on climate, and finally - in Europe at least - the overhaul of the common agricultural policy underpinning the need to diversify this sector. This political purpose has led to aggressive development targets in both Europe and the United States, implying a nearly ten-fold increase of biofuel production within ten years. This article introduces the current biofuel production technologies (so-called ;first generation'), whose common marker is the reliance on the storage organs of agricultural plants. This implies a relatively strong demand in arable areas, along with only moderately positive energy and environmental advantages compared to fossil fuels. 'Second generation' biofuels, which are based on generic biomass (ligno-cellulose) are expected to overcome these limitations, but will not be deployed on the market for another ten years.

  20. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  1. Offspring, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

  2. Inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Amanda Maria Sena; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Boeloni, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Ferreira, Andrea da Fonseca; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid that is widely consumed due to its presence in drugs, coffee, tea, and chocolate. This compound passes to offspring through the placenta and milk; can cause teratogenic mutations; and reduces the formation, growth, and mass of bone. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for generating the entire skeleton, we hypothesized that these cells are targets of caffeine. This study evaluated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including one control group and three experimental groups treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine. At weaning, three 21-day-old pups from each dam in each group were euthanized for extraction of bone marrow cells for in vitro tests. Caffeine doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase at 7, 14, and 21 days and the expression of collagen I at 21 days. However, the expression of gene transcripts for alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, and bone sialoprotein, as well as the synthesis of mineralization nodules, decreased significantly in all groups treated with caffeine. The expression of osteocalcin was significantly reduced only in the group treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine. The caffeine that passes from the mother to the offspring during pregnancy and lactation reduces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We propose that this reduction in the osteogenic potential of MSCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteopenia resulting from caffeine consumption. PMID:26634797

  3. Inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Amanda Maria Sena; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Boeloni, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Ferreira, Andrea da Fonseca; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid that is widely consumed due to its presence in drugs, coffee, tea, and chocolate. This compound passes to offspring through the placenta and milk; can cause teratogenic mutations; and reduces the formation, growth, and mass of bone. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for generating the entire skeleton, we hypothesized that these cells are targets of caffeine. This study evaluated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including one control group and three experimental groups treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine. At weaning, three 21-day-old pups from each dam in each group were euthanized for extraction of bone marrow cells for in vitro tests. Caffeine doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase at 7, 14, and 21 days and the expression of collagen I at 21 days. However, the expression of gene transcripts for alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, and bone sialoprotein, as well as the synthesis of mineralization nodules, decreased significantly in all groups treated with caffeine. The expression of osteocalcin was significantly reduced only in the group treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine. The caffeine that passes from the mother to the offspring during pregnancy and lactation reduces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We propose that this reduction in the osteogenic potential of MSCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteopenia resulting from caffeine consumption.

  4. First-Generation Students: Identifying Barriers to Academic Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Angela Felicia

    2012-01-01

    First-generation students are more likely than non-first-generation students to depart from a postsecondary institution before a degree is attained. Factors that could impact academic persistence among first-generation students include low self-efficacy, lack of financial resources and parental support, poor college planning, and minimal school…

  5. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at least three independently-originated stable hybrid taxa. We examine patterns of transcript accumulation in the earliest stages of hybridization of these species via analyses of transcriptome sequences from laboratory-derived F1 offspring of an inbred H. annuus cultivar and a wild H. petiolaris accession. Results While nearly 14% of the reference transcriptome showed significant accumulation differences between parental accessions, total F1 transcript levels showed little evidence of dominance, as midparent transcript levels were highly predictive of transcript accumulation in F1 plants. Allelic bias in F1 transcript accumulation was detected in 20% of transcripts containing sufficient polymorphism to distinguish parental alleles; however the magnitude of these biases were generally smaller than differences among parental accessions. Conclusions While analyses of allelic bias suggest that cis regulatory differences between H. annuus and H. petiolaris are common, their effect on transcript levels may be more subtle than trans-acting regulatory differences. Overall, these analyses found little evidence of regulatory incompatibility or dominance interactions between parental genomes within F1 hybrid individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a legacy or an enabler of introgression between species. PMID:23701699

  6. Maternal transfer of antibodies to the offspring after mice immunization with insect larvae-derived recombinant hepatitis E virus ORF-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Escribano, José M; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis in humans, causing outbreaks and epidemics in regions with sub-optimal sanitary conditions, in many of which it is endemic. Nowadays there is no specific therapy or licensed vaccines against HEV infection. In this study, we have analyzed in mice the immunogenicity of HEV open-reading frame 2 (ORF-2) protein, and a truncated form of it lacking the first 111 amino acids, efficiently expressed in an improved baculovirus-based technology using insects as living biofactories. Both recombinant proteins elicited high and long-lasting specific anti HEV antibodies. Passive transfer of immunity from immunized mothers to their offspring was demonstrated to occur both by transplacental and lactation routes. These results indicate that these insect-derived immunogens constitute low-cost potential vaccine candidate to be further evaluated.

  7. "Chasing a Passion": First-Generation College Graduates at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the college-to-work transition as experienced by first-generation college (FGC) graduates. First-generation graduates are often adjusting to workplaces that are significantly different from parents' work environments. Design/methodology/approach: This phenomenological study explored the…

  8. Early Integration of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Jennifer Bissell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that first-generation college students are less likely to persist to their sophomore year than non-first-generation students (Davis, 2010; Choy, 2001). The first six weeks has been identified as a critical time for adjustment and integration to college (Tinto, 1987; Astin, 1993; Woosley, 2003, 2009). Although…

  9. Enhancing the Academic Experiences of First-Generation Master's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Laura M.; Kwong, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Is being "first generation" significant for undergraduates only? The narratives of 25 first-generation master's students in this phenomenological study suggest not. Participants experienced challenges pursuing their master's degrees, yet these were counterbalanced by other factors. The authors identified five areas that educators may address to…

  10. First Generation Latina Persistence Group Mentoring and Sophomore Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Amy Edith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help increase success for first-generation Latina students at Arizona State University by providing a group mentoring support experience during the spring semester of their sophomore year. Thirteen first-generation Latinas in their sophomore year were recruited from the Obama Scholars Program at Arizona State…

  11. First Generation Students in the 2007 SAT® Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Wiley, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the College Board New England Regional Office (NERO) Forum in Boston in February 2008. This presentation explores first generation SAT test takers in various areas. Focusing on academic preparation, educational plans, work plans and college preferences differ between this group of students and the non-first generation students.

  12. First Generation College Students: Indicators of College Persistence and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    First generation college students are accessing colleges and universities at an increased rate. However, first generation college students, which include a disproportionate number of minorities and low income populations, continue to lag behind their counterparts in graduating from college. More prevalent in the research are factors that cause…

  13. Student Growth from Service-Learning: A Comparison of First-Generation and Non-First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelco, Lynn E.; Ball, Christopher T.; Lockeman, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of service-learning courses on student growth was compared for 321 first-generation and 782 non-first-generation undergraduate students at a large urban university. Student growth encompassed both academic and professional skill development. The majority of students reported significant academic and professional development after…

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance. PMID:23582695

  16. Influence of trans fat on skin damage in first-generation rats exposed to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Raquel Cristine S; Vey, Luciana T; Segat, Hecson Jesser; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Trevizol, Fabíola; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Piccolo, Jaqueline; CristinaVeit, Juliana; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of trans fatty acids (TFA) on lipid profile, oxidative damage and mitochondrial function in the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was assessed. The first-generation offspring of female Wistar rats supplemented from pregnancy with either soybean oil (C-SO, rich in n-6 FA; control group) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in TFA) were continued with the same supplements until adulthood, when half of each group was exposed to UVR for 12 weeks. The HVF group showed higher TFA cutaneous incorporation, increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, decreased functionality of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant defenses of the skin. After UVR, the HVF group showed increased skin thickness and reactive species (RS) generation, with decreased skin antioxidant defenses. RS generation was positively correlated with skin thickness, wrinkles and PC levels. Once incorporated to skin, TFA make it more susceptible to developing UVR-induced disorders.

  17. Observed Parenting Practices of First-Generation Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie; Davis, Melissa R.; Rodriguez, Jesus; Bates, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an established behavioral observation methodology to examine the parenting practices of first-generation Latino parents of children 4 to 9 years of age. The study had three central aims, to examine: (1) the feasibility of using a behavioral observation methodology with Spanish-speaking immigrant families, (2) the utility of the…

  18. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of Knowledge,…

  19. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  20. First-Generation Students' Persistence at Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2016-01-01

    Coupled with the most recent national data set, this study investigated the college persistence behavior of first-generation students and found that they were most likely to withdraw from college during their second year. Moreover, this study unpacked the time-varying nature of academic and social integration. The effect of social integration on…

  1. A Comparison of Family Care Responsibilities of First-Generation and Non-First-Generation Female Administrators in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2010-01-01

    Greater numbers of women are entering and working in higher education. Some of these women are the first in their families to attain academic degrees. They are known as first-generation students, and the care of children and others is often responsible for their withdrawal from academic study. This study addressed the void of information…

  2. Measuring Social Capital among First-Generation and Non-First-Generation, Working-Class, White Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschetti, Roxanne; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of working class, first-generation college students. Social capital is the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can aid students in managing an otherwise unfamiliar…

  3. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  4. A first generation bovine BAC-based physical map

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Laurent; Roig, Anne; Mahé, Marie-Françoise; Save, Jean-Claude; Gautier, Mathieu; Taourit, Sead; Boichard, Didier; Eggen, André; Cribiu, Edmond P

    2004-01-01

    A first generation clone-based physical map for the bovine genome was constructed combining, fluorescent double digestion fingerprinting and sequence tagged site (STS) marker screening. The BAC clones were selected from an Inra BAC library (105 984 clones) and a part of the CHORI-240 BAC library (26 500 clones). The contigs were anchored using the screening information for a total of 1303 markers (451 microsatellites, 471 genes, 127 EST, and 254 BAC ends). The final map, which consists of 6615 contigs assembled from 100 923 clones, will be a valuable tool for genomic research in ruminants, including targeted marker production, positional cloning or targeted sequencing of regions of specific interest. PMID:14713413

  5. Trailblazing: Exploring First-Generation College Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Diane Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between academic self-efficacy beliefs and the academic adjustment of first-generation and non-first-generation students. Findings supported the presence of a differential relationship that was generally weaker for first-generation students. However, findings also suggested first-generation students experienced…

  6. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed.

  7. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  8. Analysis of first generation MANPAD attacks on fast jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, James; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy; Millwood, Nic; Yuen, Peter; James, David

    2009-09-01

    The proliferation of early generation Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) weapon worldwide results in a significant threat to all aircraft. To develop successful countermeasures to the MANPAD a more detailed understanding of the factors affecting the missile engagement is needed. This paper discusses the use of CounterSim, a missile engagement and countermeasure simulation software tool, to model such scenarios. The work starts by analysing simple engagements of a first generation MANPAD against a fast jet with no countermeasures being employed. The engagement simulations cover typical MANPAD ranges and aircraft altitudes quoted in open source literature. From this set of base runs, individual engagements are chosen for further analysis. These may have resulted in hits, misses or near misses. At each time interval in the simulation the aircraft and missile velocities are used to calculate a projected point of closest approach. This is then compared with the simulated impact point. The difference is defined as the ▵d error and plots are produced for hits, misses and near misses. Features of the ▵d error plots are investigated to gain insights into the potential countermeasure capability. Finally, the analysis of the ▵d error plots is used to investigate the possibility of replicating the factors in a simulation that produce a miss through a pre-emptive flare deployment.

  9. First-generation antipsychotics: not gone but forgotten

    PubMed Central

    Dibben, Claire R. M.; Khandaker, Golam M.; Underwood, Benjamin R.; O'Loughlin, Christopher; Keep, Catherine; Mann, Louisa; Jones, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method To identify training needs of the next generation of psychiatrists and barriers in prescribing first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). We have surveyed psychiatry trainees in East Anglia with regard to their training experience, knowledge and attitudes to the use of oral FGAs as regular medication. Results Two-thirds of trainees were aware that first- and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have similar efficacy, and a similar proportion perceived the older drugs to have more or ‘stronger’ side-effects. Lack of training experience was noted as the second leading concern for prescribing FGAs. A quarter of trainees received no training exposure to the older drugs and two-thirds had never initiated these drugs themselves. Although nearly 90% of trainees felt confident about initiating an oral SGA as a regular medication, only about 40% felt confident with FGAs (P<0.001). Clinical implications The survey highlights worrying gaps in training. FGAs can be used effectively, minimising side-effects, by careful dose titration, avoiding antipsychotic polypharmacy, high-dose, and high-potency drugs, thus ensuring they are not lost to future generations of psychiatrists. PMID:27087995

  10. Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-09-08

    The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ) gray-scale fingerprint image compression algorithm involves a symmetric wavelet transform (SWT) image decomposition followed by uniform scalar quantization of each subband. The algorithm is adaptive insofar as the bin widths for the scalar quantizers are image-specific and are included in the compressed image format. Since the decoder requires only the actual bin width values -- but not the method by which they were computed -- the standard allows for future refinements of the WSQ algorithm by improving the method used to select the scalar quantizer bin widths. This report proposes a bit allocation procedure for use with the first-generation WSQ encoder. In previous work a specific formula is provided for the relative sizes of the scalar quantizer bin widths in terms of the variances of the SWT subbands. An explicit specification for the constant of proportionality, q, that determines the absolute bin widths was not given. The actual compression ratio produced by the WSQ algorithm will generally vary from image to image depending on the amount of coding gain obtained by the run-length and Huffman coding, stages of the algorithm, but testing performed by the FBI established that WSQ compression produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20 to 1. The bit allocation procedure described in this report possesses a control parameter, r, that can be set by the user to achieve a predetermined amount of lossy compression, effectively giving the user control over the amount of distortion introduced by quantization noise. The variability observed in final compression ratios is thus due only to differences in lossless coding gain from image to image, chiefly a result of the varying amounts of blank background surrounding the print area in the images. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the proposed method`s effectiveness.

  11. A first generation factory for typing DNA polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.L.; Klug, D.; David, D.

    1994-09-01

    Although linkage mapping of fully penetrant, single-gene disorders can readily be accomplished using {open_quotes}manual{close_quotes} polymorphism genotyping methods, mapping of genes responsible for genetically more complex disorders such as asthma and schizophrenia will likely require more highly automated approaches. Routine clinical application of linkage analysis will also require reliable automated methods. To meet these needs we have initiated a first generation factory for analysis of short tandem repeat polymorphisms. The factory includes an eight-pronged pipetting robot for efficient PCR setup, amplification within high density microtiter plates, and a scanning fluorescence detection system for automatic sizing of amplification products. Initial throughput for the factory will be several hundred thousand genotypes per year. The heart of the factory is a new scanning fluorescence detection system for gel electrophoresis. The system employs an argon laser for excitation and has the capability of simultaneously detecting four different fluorescent dyes. The detector scans across the bottom of short, wide denaturing polyacrylamide gels which routinely contain 144 lanes. Emitted fluorescent light is collected with a high numerical aperture microscope objective and transmitted through a fiber optic cable, dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to a series of photomultiplier tubes. Amplified output from the photomultiplier tubes is digitized and fed into computers for further analysis. Software has been written for viewing the gel images, for lane finding and for allele identification. Rhodamine-labeled {lambda} DNA standard fragments ranging in size from 70 to 300 bases are utilized for lane identification and allele sizing. Each gel run takes 3 hours, and each gel can be loaded at least three times. Multiple markers can be amplified simultaneously and detected without prior concentration.

  12. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  13. Perceived Stress, Mindfulness and Sense of Coherence: A Comparison between First Generation and Non-First Generation Clinical Psychology Doctoral Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Paige Amber

    2014-01-01

    This study compared first generation and non-first generation doctoral students' levels of perceived stress, sense of coherence, and mindfulness. These variables were assessed both separately for each trainee group and in hypothesized relationships with each other. In addition, moderator analyses were conducted to assess whether key relationships…

  14. A Study on Freshman-Year Persistence among First-Generation College Students and Non-First-Generation College Students at Concordia University System Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between first-generation college students' and non-first-generation college students' persistence from freshman year to sophomore year of college. The study investigated if race/ethnicity, family income, gender, and fathers' and mothers'…

  15. The Relationship of Perceived Intellectual and Social Attainment to Academic Success of First-Generation, First-Year College Students Participating in a First Generation Access Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Dyonne Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance understanding of perceived intellectual and social attainment gains of first-generation, first-year college students participating in First Generation Access Programs at the University of South Florida (USF), a large, public research university in Florida. Understanding the self-reported intellectual and…

  16. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring. PMID:27632922

  17. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring.

  18. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  19. Exploring First-Generation Students at Midwestern University and Why They Persist to Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Christie L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of first-generation college students and learn why they believed they persisted to graduation. First-generation students are students whose parents did not attend college. Research literature on the topic reflects a the concern for first-generation students and their decreased likelihood of…

  20. The offspring-development-time/offspring-number trade-off.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Juan; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) states that metabolic rate, ruled mainly by individual mass and temperature, determines many other biological rates. This view of ecology as ruled by the laws of physics and thermodynamics contrasts with life-history-optimization (LHO) theories, where traits are shaped by evolutionary processes. Integrating the MTE and LHO can lead, however, to a synthetic theory of ecology. In this work, we link the two theories to show that offspring development time is the result of both maternal investment in offspring and the metabolic constraints on offspring growth. We formulate a model that captures how offspring development time is the consequence of both offspring growth rate, determined by temperature and allometric scaling in accordance with the MTE, and the size reached by offspring at the end of the developmental period, determined mainly by LHO and reproductive strategies. We first extend the trade-off between offspring size and offspring number to ectotherms, showing that increased body temperatures result in increased resources available for reproduction. We then combine this trade-off with the general ontogenetic growth model to show that there is a trade-off between the number of offspring produced and offspring development time. The model predicts a shorter developmental time in organisms producing larger numbers of offspring.

  1. NOAA Introduces its First-Generation Reference Evapotranspiration Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbins, M.; Geli, H. M.; Lewis, C.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA is producing daily, gridded operational, long-term, reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the National Water Census (NWC). The NWC is a congressional mandate to provide water managers with accurate, up-to-date, scientifically defensible reporting on the national water cycle; as such, it requires a high-quality record of actual ET, which we derive as a fraction of NOAA's land-based ETo a fraction determined by remotely sensed (RS) LST and/or surface reflectance in an operational version of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop). This methodology permits mapping of ET on a routine basis with a high degree of consistency at multiple spatial scales. This presentation addresses the ETo input to this process. NOAA's ETo dataset is generated from the American Society of Civil Engineers Standardized Penman-Monteith equation driven by hourly, 0.125-degree (~12-km) data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Coverage is CONUS-wide from Jan 1, 1979, to within five days of the present. The ETo is verified against agro-meteorological stations in western CONUS networks, while a first-order, second-moment uncertainty analysis indicates when, where, and to what extent each driver contributes to ETo variability (and so potentially require the most attention). As the NWC's mandate requires a nationwide coverage, the ETo dataset must also be verified outside of the measure's traditional, agricultural/irrigated areas of application. In this presentation, we summarize the verification of the gridded ETo product and demonstrate the drivers of ETo variability in space and time across CONUS. Beyond its primary use as a component of ET in the NWC, we further explore potential uses of the ETo product as an input to drought models and as a stand-alone index of fast-developing agricultural drought, or 'flash drought.' NOAA's product is the first consistently modeled, daily, continent-wide ETo dataset that is both up-to-date and as temporally

  2. Breaking down Barriers: Academic Obstacles of First-Generation Students at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Soria, Krista M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived academic obstacles of first-generation students in comparison to non-first-generation students. Using the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) completed by approximately 58,000 students from six research universities, the researchers used nonparametric bootstrapping to analyze…

  3. Exploring First Generation African American Graduate Students: Motivating Factors for Pursuing a Doctoral Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephanie G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose for conducting the study was to examine the factors that motivate African-American first-generation students to pursue doctoral education at a four-year public university. There has been little research on the influence academic or nonacademic factors have on first-generation graduate student motivation. Similarly, little research…

  4. First-Generation College Student Dissertation Abstracts: Research Strategies, Topical Analysis, and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, James H.

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students are students whose parents or guardians did not obtain a four year college degree (Davis, 2012). As a group these students make up a large part of the college student population and are often reported to encounter difficulties in their campus experience. While the topic of first-generation student has received…

  5. Exploring the Experiences of Successful First-Generation Community College Students in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Iliana M.

    2012-01-01

    As jobs become more competitive and demanding of specialized training, the presence of first-generation college students will continue to be a growing reality. However, unless the needs of first-generation students are addressed by educational institutions, the motivation experienced by those students to attend college will be short-lived. Even…

  6. A Different World: African American, First Generation College Women at a Selective University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the academic and social experiences of African American, first generation college students attending a selective university. Following interpretive case study methodology, the major research questions guiding this study were: How do African American, first generation college students…

  7. "Limbo" through the Looking Glass: Adding the Voice of Family to the First Generation College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Malinda Nichols

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 of the 9,793 undergraduates attending the University of Wyoming during the fall semester, 3,453 of them were first generation college students. The cultural assimilation often associated with college for first generation college students is often experienced by not only the student, but also the family left at home. This research serves as…

  8. Career Aspirations and the First Generation Student: Unraveling the Layers with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students who are the first in their immediate family to go to college represent a unique population on campus deserving special attention to their educational and career development needs. We explored career development characteristics of first-generation college students and compared them to those who are not first-generation, using…

  9. Comparing the Determinants of Persistence for First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin Lohfink, Mandy; Paulsen, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined and compared the determinants of first-to-second-year persistence for 1,167 first-generation and 3,017 continuing-generation students at four-year institutions, using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey (Wine, et al., 2002). Because first-generation students are over represented in the most…

  10. The Integration of First-Year, First-Generation College Students from Ohio Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Barbara L.; Mather, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    First-generation college students comprise a substantial proportion of the entire college student population. Despite the increasing likelihood of college enrollment among students whose parents did not attend college, first-generation students are at higher risk of failure than are their nonfirst-generation peers. Also, residents of the…

  11. The First-Generation Adult Community College Student: A Case Study of Persistence Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    All college students face new challenges and transitions, but for first-generation adult community college students, those challenges are more pervasive than those of their second-generation peers. The problem addressed is that first-generation adult community college students are at greater risk than their second-generation peers of dropping out…

  12. Family Support and Institutional Support for Low Income, First Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Clair-Christman, JeanMarie

    2011-01-01

    First generation college students are a diverse group of students who enter college with unique challenges and varying abilities. Understanding the college experience for first generation students involves an examination of their background characteristics as well as the barriers and supports that impact their college success. This study explores…

  13. First-Generation College Students' Descriptions of the Experience of Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that first-generation college students are less likely than their non-first-generation peers to persist to graduation. Impediments to persistence in college education include a lack of knowledge regarding navigating the college system, obstacles with the campus environment, inadequate academic preparation, and lack of family…

  14. Using Data Known at the Time of Admission to Predict First-Generation College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Dika, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use data known at the time of initial enrollment to explore the first-year GPAs and second-year retention of first-generation (FGCS) and non-first-generation (non-FGCS) college students. The setting was a diverse, public, urban doctoral institution (approximately 50% FGCS and 30% minority). Multiple linear and logistic regressions run…

  15. Coursework-Related Information Horizons of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-I

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines first-generation college students' information behaviour through Sonnenwald's theoretical framework of information horizons, a mental map upon which people place the information sources they use. Method: A web survey with 450 first-generation college students and 12 interviews were used to collect data. Interview…

  16. Living-Learning Programs and First-Generation College Students' Academic and Social Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi; Daver, Zaneeta E.; Vogt, Kristen E.; Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of living-learning (L/L) programs in facilitating first-generation students' perceived academic and social transition to college. Using a sample of 1,335 first-generation students from 33 4-year institutions who participated in the National Study of Living-Learning Programs during Spring 2004, the results of the study…

  17. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  18. The Challenges, Persistence, and Success of White, Working-Class, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightweis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses persistence and success of an underrepresented group enrolled in college who are white, working-class first-generation students. The discussion examines these college students and the challenges they face. The discussion analyzes why first-generation college students persist while others do not. Additionally, the discussion…

  19. Mapping Their Road to University: First-Generation Students' Choice and Decision of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutty, Faridah Mydin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative case study that investigated the aspirations and decision-making process of first-generation students concerning university education. The participants comprised of 16 first-generation students at a research university. Data were obtained through interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis method. The…

  20. Understanding the Memorable Messages First-Generation College Students Receive from On-Campus Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the memorable messages first-generation college students received from their on-campus mentors about college and family. Accordingly, 30 first-generation college students shared mentors' memorable messages during in-depth, semistructured, responsive interviews. Four hundred sixty-seven pages of transcripts were analyzed…

  1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

  2. A series of abnormal climatic conditions caused the most severe outbreak of first-generation adults of the meadow moth ( Loxostege sticticalis L.) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Zeng, Juan; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-06-01

    The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented.

  3. Cancer mortality among Techa River residents and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper analyzes the data on leukemia and solid cancers of all types among 28,000 people exposed due to discharges of radioactive waste into the Techa River in the South Urals. Cancer mortality rates for the 33-y period since the beginning of the exposure have been estimated. In addition, the paper discusses malignancy cases among the first generation offspring of the exposed people. In comparison with matched control groups, an increased incidence of malignant neoplasms was observed among the exposed population. The leukemia risk, estimated on the basis of the linear model of absolute risk, was 0.85 per 10,000 person-y Gy of the dose accumulated in red bone marrow. Solid cancer risk (except osteosarcoma), estimated using linear model of relative risk, was 0.65 per Gy of dose accumulated in soft tissues. No increase in cancer mortality has been documented for the offspring of the exposed individuals. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Cheating honeybee workers produce royal offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lyndon A; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Wossler, Theresa C; Beekman, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    The Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis) is unique among honeybees in that workers can lay eggs that instead of developing into males develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis. We show that this ability allows workers to compete directly with the queen over the production of new queens. Genetic analyses using microsatellites revealed that 23 out of 39 new queens produced by seven colonies were offspring of workers and not the resident queen. Of these, eight were laid by resident workers, but the majority were offspring of parasitic workers from other colonies. The parasites were derived from several clonal lineages that entered the colonies and successfully targeted queen cells for parasitism. Hence, these parasitic workers had the potential to become genetically reincarnated as queens. Of the daughter queens laid by the resident queen, three were produced asexually, suggesting that queens can ‘choose’ to produce daughter queens clonally and thus have the potential for genetic immortality. PMID:18048282

  5. Exploring the Impact of First-Generation Status and Family Cohesion on the Career Thoughts of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Roneferiti MaIshia

    2012-01-01

    The impact of first-generation status and family cohesion on the career thoughts of college students was investigated. While prior research had examined the differences between first-generation and non-first-generation college students, few studies have focused on the career decision-making of first-generation college students. No research to date…

  6. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  7. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  8. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  9. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  10. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  11. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students, a population that accounts for nearly a fifth of college students. We report a values affirmation intervention conducted with 798 U.S. students (154 first-generation) in an introductory biology course for majors. For first-generation students, values affirmation significantly improved final course grades and retention in the second course in the biology sequence, as well as overall GPA for the semester. This brief intervention narrowed the achievement gap between first-generation and continuing generation students for course grades by 50% and increased retention in a critical gateway course by 20%. Our results suggest that educators can expand the pipeline for first-generation students to continue studying in the biosciences with psychological interventions. PMID:25049437

  12. The impact of first-generation biofuels on the depletion of the global phosphorus reserve.

    PubMed

    Hein, Lars; Leemans, Rik

    2012-06-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is "first-generation" biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to biofuel production involves a trade-off between climate change mitigation and future food production. We examine biofuel production from seven types of feedstock, and find that biofuels at present consume around 2% of the global inorganic P fertilizer production. For all examined biofuels, with the possible exception of sugarcane, the contribution to P depletion exceeds the contribution to mitigating climate change. The relative benefits of biofuels can be increased through enhanced recycling of P, but high increases in P efficiency are required to balance climate change mitigation and P depletion impacts. We conclude that, with the current production systems, the production of first-generation biofuels compromises food production in the future.

  13. How first-generation students learn to navigate education systems: a case study of First Graduate.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Ben; Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo; Tracy, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Students from underrepresented groups who seek to become the first in their family to attend college confront economically and racially stratified education systems. This article reports findings from an evaluation of First Graduate, an organization that offers college advising, mentoring, tutoring, and case management to first-generation students starting in seventh grade. We highlight three systems that youth say they encountered on their pathway to college: open enrollment, course taking, and college admissions. We describe how youth navigated these systems and the roles that adults played in support. Our conclusion discusses implications for how after-school programs can support first-generation students.

  14. GENECLASS2: a software for genetic assignment and first-generation migrant detection.

    PubMed

    Piry, S; Alapetite, A; Cornuet, J-M; Paetkau, D; Baudouin, L; Estoup, A

    2004-01-01

    GENECLASS2 is a software that computes various genetic assignment criteria to assign or exclude reference populations as the origin of diploid or haploid individuals, as well as of groups of individuals, on the basis of multilocus genotype data. In addition to traditional assignment aims, the program allows the specific task of first-generation migrant detection. It includes several Monte Carlo resampling algorithms that compute for each individual its probability of belonging to each reference population or to be a resident (i.e., not a first-generation migrant) in the population where it was sampled. A user-friendly interface facilitates the treatment of large datasets.

  15. The relationship between offspring size and fitness: integrating theory and empiricism.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, Njal; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    How parents divide the energy available for reproduction between size and number of offspring has a profound effect on parental reproductive success. Theory indicates that the relationship between offspring size and offspring fitness is of fundamental importance to the evolution of parental reproductive strategies: this relationship predicts the optimal division of resources between size and number of offspring, it describes the fitness consequences for parents that deviate from optimality, and its shape can predict the most viable type of investment strategy in a given environment (e.g., conservative vs. diversified bet-hedging). Many previous attempts to estimate this relationship and the corresponding value of optimal offspring size have been frustrated by a lack of integration between theory and empiricism. In the present study, we draw from C. Smith and S. Fretwell's classic model to explain how a sound estimate of the offspring size--fitness relationship can be derived with empirical data. We evaluate what measures of fitness can be used to model the offspring size--fitness curve and optimal size, as well as which statistical models should and should not be used to estimate offspring size--fitness relationships. To construct the fitness curve, we recommend that offspring fitness be measured as survival up to the age at which the instantaneous rate of offspring mortality becomes random with respect to initial investment. Parental fitness is then expressed in ecologically meaningful, theoretically defensible, and broadly comparable units: the number of offspring surviving to independence. Although logistic and asymptotic regression have been widely used to estimate offspring size-fitness relationships, the former provides relatively unreliable estimates of optimal size when offspring survival and sample sizes are low, and the latter is unreliable under all conditions. We recommend that the Weibull-1 model be used to estimate this curve because it provides

  16. How Am I Going to Pay for That?!: First-Generation University Students and Their Financial Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Judith J. Andrews

    2013-01-01

    This study examines first-generation research-university students in relation to their financial considerations. It is driven by the question, What is the relationship between first-generation college-student status and financial considerations among research-university students? It explores the impact of such variables as first-generation student…

  17. 34 CFR 645.4 - What are the grantee requirements with respect to low income and first-generation participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... income and first-generation participants? 645.4 Section 645.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... PROGRAM General § 645.4 What are the grantee requirements with respect to low income and first-generation... selection qualify as both low-income individuals and potential first-generation college students....

  18. Corrective Action in Low Performing Schools: Lessons for NCLB Implementation from First-Generation Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores what lessons we can learn from the experiences of states that instituted NCLB-like accountability systems prior to 2001 (here called first-generation accountability systems). We looked at the experiences of three smaller states (Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina), four larger ones (California, Florida, New York, Texas), and…

  19. Choosing Success: A Paradigm for Empowering First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Louis V.

    2013-01-01

    Louis V. Macias reminds us that educators' attitudes toward first-generation students have a great impact on their eventual success … or failure. Are you serving the best interests of your students with an inspirational, success-oriented mind-set that considers all of their capabilities?

  20. Are College Faculty and First-Generation, Low-Income Students Ready for Each Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schademan, Alfred R.; Thompson, Maris R.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing current research on college readiness as well as the role of cultural agents as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study investigates student and faculty beliefs about readiness and the pedagogical practices that allow instructors to effectively serve as cultural agents for first-generation, low-income students. Three major…

  1. A Cultural Mismatch: The Experience of First-Generation College Students in Elite Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    "First-generation" college students, whose parents have not attended college, are an increasing presence at elite colleges and universities. Admitting these students, however, is not enough to ensure that they can take full advantage of the opportunities available to them in college and succeed there. Indeed, research indicates that…

  2. First-Generation Students of Color: Easing Their Transition to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolari, Laurie Ann

    2012-01-01

    For first-generation students of color, the transition from high school to the community college can be a difficult one. This study explored how high schools and community colleges can work in partnership to improve the transition for first-gen students of color. A mixed-methods analysis aimed to first discern high school students'…

  3. First-Generation Undergraduate Students and the Impacts of the First Year of College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Johnson, Megan P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, our findings suggest that first-generation students are at a significant disadvantage across cognitive and psychosocial outcomes compared to students whose parents have at least some postsecondary education. Furthermore, we tested for the conditional effects of good…

  4. Effects of Employment on Persistence of Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of employment on first-to-second-year persistence of low-income, first-generation college students. Using the data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06), the analysis indicated that the role orientation to academics versus to work was the strongest predictor of…

  5. The Human Spirit and Higher Education: Landscapes of Persistence in First Generation Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of first-generation persons of color attending and persisting at a community technical college. Students of color continue to be an increasing population in our higher education system. Many of these persons of color are choosing to attend two-year institutions. A great deal of research…

  6. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  7. Self-Determination, Success, and College Readiness of First Generation Students in a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and compare if self-determination factors differed in first and non-first generation college students and success levels. Additionally, comparisons of college readiness levels were measured, and finally a measure of factors that contribute to college success based in first and second semester grade point…

  8. First-Generation College Students and Their Pursuit of the American Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks-Santilli, Linda

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students, students whose parents have not earned a four-year degree, are not new to higher education, but their increasing presence at private, four-year institutions requires careful attention from administration and faculty. The rising costs of higher education combined with the nation's recent economic decline have made…

  9. Factors That Relate to the Persistence of First-Generation Undergraduate Students in a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thachil, Shoba Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors that relate to the persistence of first-generation undergraduate students in a 4-year public university in the Southeastern United States. Results were analyzed from a 2011 two-part survey: CARES-I (College Assessment of Readiness for Entering Students-Intent) and CARES-A (College Assessment of Readiness for Entering…

  10. Predicting the Engagement of First-Generation Community College Students: A Quantitative Study Using CCSSE Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Maria Uriydiche Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement is a term that is loosely used throughout education and it is defined differently in the various stages of education. This study sought to find factors that predict student engagement for first-generation community college students using secondary data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). Using the…

  11. An Exploration of First-Generation College Students' Career Development Beliefs and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Kevin A.; Caperton, William; Kaiser, Dakota; Pruitt, Nathan T.; White, Heather; Hall, Eric

    2015-01-01

    First-generation college students (FGCS) represent a large proportion of individuals seeking higher education in the United States; yet this population does not perform as well academically as, and persist to graduation at lower rates than, their peers who have more familial context for the college-going experience. Completing a college degree is…

  12. First-Generation, English-Speaking West Indian Families' Understanding of Disability and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of first-generation, English-speaking West Indian immigrant families, in regard to the education of their children once they are determined to be eligible for special education services. Data were obtained primarily from conducting audio-taped, semi-structured interviews with three families. Grounded theory…

  13. Do Community Colleges Promote Postsecondary and Labor Market Success for First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa; Partlo, Margaret; Hullender, Tammy; Wagner, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are becoming the primary access point for a growing number of underrepresented and underserved students in the higher education system. First-generation college students make up a large proportion of this population, comprising about 45% of community college attendees (Nomi, 2005). Research has explored the transfer success of…

  14. Proving Them Wrong: Academically Resilient First-Generation Latinas in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Rosanna A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the educational trajectories of academically resilient first-generation Latinas in college. More specifically, the study focused on the factors that led them to become academically successful. The researcher of this study conducted a narrative inquiry analysis of the K-16 educational trajectories of five academically resilient…

  15. Student Success: A Qualitative Analysis of the Engagement of the Successful First-Generation Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Mondy R.

    2011-01-01

    The study captured the essence of the core ideas, prevalent themes or events in the student's time in higher education that helped him or her become engaged in such a way as to prevent departure from the university prematurely. It helps understand successful first-generation students. It examined their resiliency, motivation, self-efficacy,…

  16. Facilitating Retention and Transfer for First Generation Students in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    In general, students attending two-year colleges are nontraditional students; i.e., first-generation, studying part-time, employed while attending college, from lower socio-economic status (SES) levels, or having poor high school achievement records. Attrition rates for first-semester two-year college students have been estimated at over 67%, with…

  17. First-Generation Freshman College Students: Factors Impacting Retention for the Subsequent Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura Colson

    2013-01-01

    Against all odds, first-generation college students continue to enroll in postsecondary schools with aspirations of obtaining a bachelor's degree. Unfortunately, many have not successfully reached their goal, which in turn has affected retention rates of colleges and universities. There are programs that provide academic support and advising to…

  18. Counterspaces and Connections in College Transitions: First-Generation Latino Students' Perspectives on Chicano Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how first-generation Latino sophomores in a public research university describe the influence of Chicano Studies classes on their college transition experiences. Students reported that taking Chicano Studies offered them opportunities to handle feelings of isolation, build awareness of community heritage, develop more…

  19. Promising Practices Supporting Low-Income, First-Generation Students at DeVry University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Taylor Smith, Chandra; Nichols, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive description of the academic and social support systems for low-income, first-generation students attending a major four-year, for-profit, multi-campus university. College retention and success research has determined that effective support services succeed in retaining and graduating low-income, first-generation…

  20. First-Generation College Students' 1st-Year College Experiences: Challenges Attending a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students (FGCS) face challenges when switching from high school to college and during their 1st-year in college. Additionally, FGCS may have difficulty understanding the steps required to prepare for and enroll in postsecondary education. The social capital theory examines support of social, academic, and cultural networks…

  1. First-Generation Female College Students' Financial Literacy: Real and Perceived Barriers to Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…

  2. Student Loan Debt Literacy: A Comparison of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jason; Mueller, John A.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the increasing debt burden that college students incur, little research examines student's perceptions of debt. This study sought to determine if student loan debt literacy differs by generation status (first-generation and continuing-generation). The data for this study was collected from a sample of 156…

  3. Graduating from College: The Impossible Dream for Most First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph; Palumbo, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Some colleges engage in unethical practices to balance their budgets, such as accepting "marginal" students who qualify for loans and government-backed financial aid but not providing these students with the services and programs they need to achieve success. Too many low-income students who are often first-generation students find…

  4. How First-Generation Students Learn to Navigate Education Systems: A Case Study of First Graduate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo; Tracy, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Students from underrepresented groups who seek to become the first in their family to attend college confront economically and racially stratified education systems. This article reports findings from an evaluation of First Graduate, an organization that offers college advising, mentoring, tutoring, and case management to first-generation students…

  5. Communication Apprehension: Levels of First-Generation College Students at 2-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Trevor A.; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the oral communication apprehension (CA) levels of first-generation college students at a 2-year case study community institution. Overall and general-context CA were measured using the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The survey was sent by e-mail to 2,040 institutionally-identified first-generation…

  6. Pushing the Boulder Uphill: The Persistence of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Patricia; Woodhouse, Shawn; Cofer, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of background, aspirations, achievement, college experiences, and price on the persistence of first-generation (F-gen) and continuing generation (C-gen) college students at 4-year institutions using the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study of 1995-96 (n = 24,262). The authors found differences between the two…

  7. Ready or Not, Here We Come: Retaining Hispanic and First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Forney, William Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines period between start of high school and first years of undergraduate coursework as it pertains to Hispanic and first-generation student enrollment and retention in college. Reports that among the indicators of college success are mathematics education in high school, parents' education levels, and family income. (Contains seven figures…

  8. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  9. Faculty Perceptions of the First-Generation Student Experience and Programs at Tribal Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jacqueline J.; Akande, Yemi

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of Native Americans are enrolling as first-generation college students (FGS) at postsecondary institutions, the percentage of those attaining bachelor's degrees or higher remains relatively low--11 percent, compared with more than 25 percent for the general population. Native Americans face not only the retention…

  10. Perceptions of the Persistent: Academic Experiences of First Generation Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Anthea E.

    2010-01-01

    While open access is still possible at community colleges and state colleges in Florida through the Florida College System, and the numbers of those enrolling are increasing, retention of first generation students is still an issue. Florida has increased the opportunity to attend college by limiting the barrier that inadequate financial support…

  11. The Perceived Impact of Holding a College Leadership Position on First-Generation Latina Alumnae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Rosalyn Alma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the leadership experiences of first-generation Latina college alumnae in order to gain insight into the intersection of leadership, gender, and social capital. Using a qualitative approach, it examined the ways in which their leadership positions impacted their collegiate experience and their later lives. This descriptive…

  12. First-Generation, Low-Income Students: Strategies for Success at Lyndon State College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Donna; Moore, Carol A.; Whittaker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lyndon State College is a small, four-year public college in the rural Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. In an effort to improve its first-year retention rate, two years ago the authors began to analyze which students return to Lyndon for their second year of college. They found that more than 60% of the students were first-generation college students…

  13. Navigating the Pipeline: How Socio-Cultural Influences Impact First-Generation Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A.; Gardner, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of doctoral students who are the first in their families to graduate from college. First-generation college students constitute one third of doctoral degree recipients in the United States (Hoffer et al., 2002), yet little is known about their graduate school experience. Social capital and reproduction theory…

  14. Opportunities, Obstacles, and Options: First-Generation College Graduates and Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college (FGC) students often encounter a campus environment and set of norms that are substantially different from those they previously experienced. Although the literature exploring the challenges facing these students is growing, less attention has been given to their experiences as they graduate and transition from college to…

  15. "Those Invisible Barriers Are Real": The Progression of First-Generation Students through Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan K.; Holley, Karri A.

    2011-01-01

    Using the conceptual framework of social capital, this study outlines the experiences of 20 first-generation students currently enrolled in doctoral degree programs. The framework highlights those structures and processes that offer tacit knowledge to students about how to pursue higher education. For students who are the first in their families…

  16. Stories as Knowledge: Bringing the Lived Experience of First-Generation College Students into the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehangir, Rashne

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of first-generation, low-income students examines the impact of their participation in a multicultural learning community (MLC) designed to challenge the isolation and marginalization they experience at a large, predominantly White research university. The MLC employed multicultural curriculum and critical pedagogy to bring…

  17. Concurrent and Dual Credit: The Bridge to Postsecondary Education for First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Todd Arron

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significance social challenges facing the United States is increasing the number of students entering postsecondary education and having them persist to degree completion. To accomplish this undertaking, more first-generation college students must matriculate and find academic success. Considerable research exists concerning the…

  18. Self-Regulation across Time of First-Generation Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Paton, Valerie Osland; Lan, William Y.

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills have been associated with positive outcomes for learners. In the current study, we examined the self-regulatory skills of students who are first-generation online learners over the course of their first semester of online instruction. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the online self-regulatory skills of…

  19. Defining College Readiness from the inside out: First-Generation College Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kathleen L.; Macdonald, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    This study provides understanding of college readiness from the perspectives of older first-generation college students who transferred from community colleges. Results indicate that life experiences contribute to academic skills, time management, goal focus, and self-advocacy. Research is recommended to improve nontraditional student advising and…

  20. Factors Influencing College Decision-Making for First-Generation Appalachian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This investigation determined the degree of importance for selected personal-psychological, academic, peer, financial, and family factors influencing the decision to attend college by first-generation, Appalachian (FGA) sophomore students. Outcomes were further related to the degree of academic and social integration in college and the likelihood…

  1. Assets First Generation College Students Bring to the Higher Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Nancy J.; Gardner, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research explored first generation college students (FGCS) from a holistic perspective. The study investigated students' personal assets and provided the field of higher education an alternative to the pervasive deficit-orientation of this under resourced population. Psychological capital (Luthans, et al., 2006), framed within…

  2. The Research Process and the Library: First-Generation College Seniors vs. Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Elizabeth; Logan, Firouzeh

    2013-01-01

    In a follow-up study to the ERIAL (Ethnographic Research in Illinois Academic Libraries) Project, librarians at UIC compared the responses of first-generation college freshmen from the original study to those of seniors. The study's aim was to determine whether student information literacy increases as a result of undergraduate education and to…

  3. Theorizing Multidimensional Identity Negotiation: Reflections on the Lived Experiences of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbe, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Drawing from recent research on first-generation college (FGC) students, this chapter advances an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for understanding how these students enact multiple aspects of their personal, cultural, and social identities. I use dialectical and cross-cultural adaptation theories as a foundation to extend examinations of…

  4. Academic Advising and First-Generation College Students: A Quantitative Study on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swecker, Hadyn K.; Fifolt, Matthew; Searby, Linda

    2014-01-01

    For this quantitative study, we used a multiple logistic regression technique to investigate the relationship between the number of meetings with an academic advisor and retention of first-generation students, as represented by enrollment status and academic standing at a large, public research institution in the Southeast. Consistent with…

  5. The Concept of "First-Generation Student" in the Literature: Implications for South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, L.; Carolissen, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States first-generation students (FGSs), those who are the first in their families to attend university, are recognised as disadvantaged and receive government support. Amidst affirmative action debates in higher education in South Africa, an increased awareness has emerged about challenges that FGSs in this country face. A…

  6. Adventure Education and the Acculturation of First-Generation Chinese Canadians in Vancouver, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Simon; Gidlow, Bob; Cushman, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research that demonstrates how parents in first-generation Chinese families in Vancouver, Canada, most of them from Hong Kong, control their children's involvement in local adventure education (AE) programs and in so doing minimize the likelihood of intergenerational culture conflict involving those children. The research…

  7. First-Generation Latina Graduate Students: Balancing Professional Identity Development with Traditional Family Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Valerie Lester

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the little-examined tensions that female and Latina first-generation college students (FGS) experience while negotiating their ethnic and professional identities. Despite having general parental support for pursuing an education, Latina and female FGS who are graduate students in the author's university department must juggle…

  8. First-generation students’ underperformance at university: the impact of the function of selection

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Mickaël; Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    According to recent research, university not only has the role to educate and train students, it also has the role to select the best students. We argue that this function of selection disadvantages first-generation students, in comparison with continuing-generation students. Thus, the mere activation of the function of selection should be sufficient to produce achievement differences between first-generation and continuing-generation students in a novel academic task. Furthermore, we propose that when the function of selection is salient, first-generation students would be more vigilant to a cue that may confirm their inferiority, which should explain their underperformance. In the present experiment, participants were asked to complete an arithmetic modular task under two conditions, which either made the function of selection salient or reduced its importance. Participants’ vigilance to a threatening cue (i.e., their performance relative to others) was measured through an eye-tracking technique. The results confirmed that first-generation students performed more poorly compared to continuing-generation students only when the function of selection was salient while no differences appeared in the no-selection condition. Regarding vigilance, the results did not confirm our hypothesis; thus, mediation path could not be tested. However, results indicated that at a high level of initial performance, first-generation students looked more often at the threatening cue. In others words, these students seemed more concerned about whether they were performing more poorly than others compared to their continuing-generation counterparts. Some methodological issues are discussed, notably regarding the measure of vigilance. PMID:26074854

  9. On S.N. Bernstein's derivation of Mendel's Law and 'rediscovery' of the Hardy-Weinberg distribution.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Around 1923 the soon-to-be famous Soviet mathematician and probabilist Sergei N. Bernstein started to construct an axiomatic foundation of a theory of heredity. He began from the premise of stationarity (constancy of type proportions) from the first generation of offspring. This led him to derive the Mendelian coefficients of heredity. It appears that he had no direct influence on the subsequent development of population genetics. A basic assumption of Bernstein was that parents coupled randomly to produce offspring. This paper shows that a simple model of non-random mating, which nevertheless embodies a feature of the Hardy-Weinberg Law, can produce Mendelian coefficients of heredity while maintaining the population distribution. How W. Johannsen's monograph influenced Bernstein is discussed.

  10. On S.N. Bernstein's derivation of Mendel's Law and 'rediscovery' of the Hardy-Weinberg distribution.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Around 1923 the soon-to-be famous Soviet mathematician and probabilist Sergei N. Bernstein started to construct an axiomatic foundation of a theory of heredity. He began from the premise of stationarity (constancy of type proportions) from the first generation of offspring. This led him to derive the Mendelian coefficients of heredity. It appears that he had no direct influence on the subsequent development of population genetics. A basic assumption of Bernstein was that parents coupled randomly to produce offspring. This paper shows that a simple model of non-random mating, which nevertheless embodies a feature of the Hardy-Weinberg Law, can produce Mendelian coefficients of heredity while maintaining the population distribution. How W. Johannsen's monograph influenced Bernstein is discussed. PMID:22888285

  11. This, that, and the other. Managing illness in a first-generation Korean-American family.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, S Y

    1992-01-01

    The use of Western medicine and of holistic traditional medicine and healing rituals is common in Korean-American families with a chronically ill member. I present a case as an example of the complexity of health management in first-generation Korean-American immigrants. Immigration and acculturation issues, Confucian-related sociocultural and psychological factors, and the psychiatric diagnosis of Western specialists all elicited family conflict leading to emotional and physiologic distress. PMID:1413775

  12. Triple Therapy with First Generation Protease Inhibitors for Hepatitis C Markedly Impairs Function of Neutrophil Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Schmerböck, Bianca; Zettel, Gabriele; Posch, Andreas; Streit, Andrea; Jurse, Petra; Lemesch, Sandra; Horn, Martin; Wuensch, Gerit; Stiegler, Philipp; Stauber, Rudolf E; Leber, Bettina; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    First-generation HCV protease inhibitors represent a milestone in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), but substantially increased rates of viral clearance are offset by increased rates of infection and infection-associated deaths, especially of patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to assess whether first generation protease inhibitors interfere with neutrophil function. We included 108 consecutive, retrospective CHC patients and 44 consecutive, prospective CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin with or without protease inhibitors according to the guidelines in the period of November 2012 to June 2015. 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. Infection data were evaluated in all patients. Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, elastase and diamine oxidase levels during 12 weeks of triple (n = 23) or dual therapy (n = 21) were studied in the prospective part. In the retro- and prospective cohorts patients experiencing clinically relevant infections were significantly more frequent during protease inhibitor therapy (31% and 26%) than during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (13% and 0%). Neutrophil phagocytosis decreased to 40% of baseline with addition of protease inhibitors to P/R but recovered 6 months after end of treatment. Protease inhibitors also seemed to reduce serum elastase levels but did not impact on gut permeability. Impaired neutrophil function during triple therapy with first generation HCV protease inhibitors may explain the high infection rate associated to these treatments and be of relevance for treatment success and patient survival. PMID:26938078

  13. Social cognitive predictors of first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Garriott, Patton O; Hudyma, Aaron; Keene, Chesleigh; Santiago, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The present study tested Lent's (2004) social-cognitive model of normative well-being in a sample (N = 414) of first- and non-first-generation college students. A model depicting relationships between: positive affect, environmental supports, college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, academic progress, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction was examined using structural equation modeling. The moderating roles of perceived importance of attending college and intrinsic goal motivation were also explored. Results suggested the hypothesized model provided an adequate fit to the data while hypothesized relationships in the model were partially supported. Environmental supports predicted college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, and academic satisfaction. Furthermore, college self-efficacy predicted academic progress while college outcome expectations predicted academic satisfaction. Academic satisfaction, but not academic progress predicted life satisfaction. The structural model explained 44% of the variance in academic progress, 56% of the variance in academic satisfaction, and 28% of the variance in life satisfaction. Mediation analyses indicated several significant indirect effects between variables in the model while moderation analyses revealed a 3-way interaction between academic satisfaction, intrinsic motivation for attending college, and first-generation college student status on life satisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of applying the normative model of well-being to promote first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction.

  14. Triple Therapy with First Generation Protease Inhibitors for Hepatitis C Markedly Impairs Function of Neutrophil Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tawdrous, Monika; Schmerböck, Bianca; Zettel, Gabriele; Posch, Andreas; Streit, Andrea; Jurse, Petra; Lemesch, Sandra; Horn, Martin; Wuensch, Gerit; Stiegler, Philipp; Stauber, Rudolf E.; Leber, Bettina; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    First-generation HCV protease inhibitors represent a milestone in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), but substantially increased rates of viral clearance are offset by increased rates of infection and infection-associated deaths, especially of patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to assess whether first generation protease inhibitors interfere with neutrophil function. We included 108 consecutive, retrospective CHC patients and 44 consecutive, prospective CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin with or without protease inhibitors according to the guidelines in the period of November 2012 to June 2015. 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. Infection data were evaluated in all patients. Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, elastase and diamine oxidase levels during 12 weeks of triple (n = 23) or dual therapy (n = 21) were studied in the prospective part. In the retro- and prospective cohorts patients experiencing clinically relevant infections were significantly more frequent during protease inhibitor therapy (31% and 26%) than during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (13% and 0%). Neutrophil phagocytosis decreased to 40% of baseline with addition of protease inhibitors to P/R but recovered 6 months after end of treatment. Protease inhibitors also seemed to reduce serum elastase levels but did not impact on gut permeability. Impaired neutrophil function during triple therapy with first generation HCV protease inhibitors may explain the high infection rate associated to these treatments and be of relevance for treatment success and patient survival. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02545400 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02545335 PMID:26938078

  15. Childhood Environment Influences Adrenarcheal Timing among First-Generation Bangladeshi Migrant Girls to the UK

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Lauren C.; Cooper, Gillian D.; Booth, Mark; Chowdhury, Osul A.; Troisi, Rebecca; Ziegler, Regina G.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Bentley, Gillian R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adrenarche is a key early life event that marks middle childhood at approximately 7 years of age. Earlier work with British-Bangladeshi migrant women suggested that environmental conditions experienced before adrenarche influence adult reproductive function. We therefore investigated whether Bangladeshi children who migrate to the United Kingdom (UK) reach adrenarche earlier than non-migrants in Bangladesh or the United Kingdom. Methods and Findings Healthy girls, aged 5–16 years, were recruited from schools in Sylhet, Bangladesh and London, England comprising four groups: Sylhetis (n = 165), first-generation migrants to the United Kingdom (n = 42), second-generation girls (n = 162), and British girls of European origin (n = 50). Anthropometric measurements were collected together with questionnaire data for migration and socioeconomic characteristics. Saliva samples were assayed for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Multiple linear regressions tested for group differences in anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and DHEAS levels. Median ages at adrenarche (DHEAS>400 pg/ml) were estimated using Weibull regression models for parametric survival analysis. Hazard ratios for reaching adrenarche earlier and 95% confidence intervals (CI), both unadjusted and adjusted for anthropometric variables, were estimated from the survival analyses. First-generation migrants had a median age at adrenarche (5.3 years) that was significantly earlier than Sylheti (7.2), second-generation (7.4), and European (7.1) girls. In univariate analyses, first-generation girls reached adrenarche significantly earlier than Sylhetis [HR (CI): 2.8 (1.4–5.5]. In multivariate models, first generation girls still reached adrenarche earlier than Sylhetis after adjusting for height [HR(CI): 1.9 (0.9–4.1)] and weight [HR(CI):1.7 (0.8–3.8)], but these results were attenuated. Conclusions We suggest that rapid catch-up growth

  16. STEMujeres: A case study of the life stories of first-generation Latina engineers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielma, Karina I.

    Research points to the many obstacles that first-generation, Latina students face when attempting to enter fields in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, STEM. This qualitative, case study examined the personal and educational experiences of first-generation Latina women who successfully navigated the STEM educational pipeline earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in various fields of engineering. Three research questions guided the study: (1) How does a first-generation Latina engineer and scientist describe her life experiences as she became interested in STEM? (2) How does she describe her educational experiences as she navigated the educational pipeline in the physics, mathematics, and/or engineering field(s)? (3) How did she respond to challenges, obstacles and microaggressions, if any, while navigating the STEM educational pipeline? The study was designed using a combination of Critical Race Theory frameworks---Chicana feminist theory and racial microaggressions. Through a life history case study approach, the women shared their stories of success. With the participants' help, influential persons in their educational paths were identified and interviewed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and thematic results indicated that all women in this study identified their parents as planting the seed of interest through the introduction of mathematics. The women unknowingly prepared to enter the STEM fields by taking math and science coursework. They were guided to apply to STEM universities and academic programs by others who knew about their interest in math and science including teachers, counselors, and level-up peers---students close in age who were just a step more advanced in the educational pipeline. The women also drew from previous familial struggles to guide their perseverance and motivation toward educational degree completion. The lives of the women where complex and intersected with various forms of racism including

  17. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, Diane C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveals that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TOS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  18. Search for first generation leptoquark pair production in the electron + missing energy + jets final state

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-10-11

    We present a search for the pair production of first generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. In the channel LQLQ → eqνeq, where q,q are u or d quarks, no significant excess of data over background is observed, and we set a 95% C.L. lower limit of 326 GeV on the leptoquark mass, assuming equal probabilities of leptoquark decays to eq and νeq.

  19. Endurance testing of first generation (Block 1) commercial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    To determine lifetimes of the first generation (Block 1) commercial solar cell modules used in solar cell arrays, a program was initiated to expose these modules to a range of environments. The conditions endured by these modules encompassed hot and dry, hot and humid, tropical rain forests, sea-air, urban industrial and urban clean. Exposures were for periods up to 1 year. The effect of outdoor exposure on the performance of the modules was determined using current-voltage curves. Short-circuit current (I sub sc) and maximum power (P sub max) were the parameters monitored. In all cases, there was a loss of performance of the modules with outdoor exposure.

  20. A particle dark matter footprint on the first generation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2014-05-01

    Dark matter particles with properties identical to those of dark matter candidates hinted at by several international collaborations dedicated to the experimental detection of dark matter (DAMA, COGENT, CRESST, and CDMS-II, although not, most notably, by LUX), which also have a dark matter asymmetry that is identical to the observed baryon asymmetry (Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe), may produce a significant impact on the evolution of the first generation of low-metallicity stars. The lifetimes of these stars in different phases of stellar evolution are significantly extended, namely, in the pre-main sequence, main sequence, and red giant phases. In particular, intermediate-mass stars in the red giant phase experience significant changes in their luminosity and chemical composition. The annihilations of dark matter particles affect the interior of the star in such a way that the 3α reaction becomes less efficient in the production of carbon and oxygen. This dark matter effect contradicts the excess of carbon and other metals observed today in stars of low mass and low metallicity. Hence, we can impose an upper limit on the dark matter halo density, and therefore on the redshift, at which the first generation of low-metallicity stars formed.

  1. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis against postoperative infection after spine surgery: Limit of the first generation cephem.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasuaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Keiji; Tsuge, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Yuichirou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Fukano, Ryoichi; Takamatsu, Ryo; Wada, Akihito; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In our department, first-generation cephem (CEZ) are generally administered for 2 days as antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for spinal surgery. However, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) has recently increased, particularly cases involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) as an etiologic agent. The objective was to elucidate the problems with the current AMP and the risk factors of SSI through a retrospective investigation of affected cases. The subjects were patients who underwent spine surgery at our department between August 2007 and June 2013. The subjects were divided into those who developed SSI (S group) and who did not develop SSI (non-SSI (N) group), patients who developed CNS infection in the S group was subdivided as C group, and the risk factors were investigated. The significance of each factor was analyzed using cross tabulation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with 22 of the investigation factors as explanatory variables. The incidence of SSI was 2.55%, and the etiologic agent was CNS in 17 patients. Upon comparison between the S and N groups, the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss were extracted as significant risk factors. Upon comparison between the C and N groups, emergency surgery and intra- and postoperative steroid administration were extracted as significant risk factors, in addition to the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss. The effect of the current AMP using first generation cephem is limited, and reconsideration of the protocol may be necessary. PMID:26806151

  3. Skill, Judgement and Conduct for the First Generation of Neurosurgeons, 1900-1930.

    PubMed

    Gavrus, Delia

    2015-07-01

    Historical contingency complicates a reading of skill as a self-explanatory and always positive attribute. By focusing on the attempts of the first generation of neurosurgeons to build a community and fashion a collective neurosurgical self, this article highlights the extent to which the relationship between surgical skill and professional judgement is reflected in broader concerns that shape the landscape of medicine at a given time. Some early twentieth-century surgeons expressed concern about the spectacularisation of surgery and the skilful but problematic work of 'brilliant operators'. The neurosurgeons' policies of inclusion and exclusion show that in the process of fashioning a neurosurgical persona, this first generation sanctioned specific norms of conduct underwritten by similar moral imperatives, such as self-control. These norms governed the doctors' work both in the operating room and on the public stage (in their engagement with the press). The meetings of the first neurosurgical society staged a critical encounter between the host neurosurgeon and the members who watched him perform surgery. These technical performances in the operating theatre, followed by discussions, were designed to encourage particular norms, to negotiate surgical knowledge, and to demonstrate the skills and character of the neurosurgeon. The performances acted as a technology of the self that aligned the operator to a community and helped that community refine its norms of surgical conduct. The awkward surgeon with inferior technical ability was preferable to the brilliant but vain operator who lacked the capacity to judge when he should not deploy his spectacular skills. PMID:26090734

  4. Investigating the Low-NOx Isoprene Oxidation Pathway Through the First Generation Product: ISOPOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, J. C.; Crounse, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J.; Hansel, A.; Jud, W.; Kaiser, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Mikoviny, T.; Nguyen, T. B.; St Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of oxidative processes in the atmosphere is guided by measurements of directly-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products. Mechanisms for this oxidation have been proposed based on these measurements. These mechanisms usually fall into two regimes: high-NOx and low-NOx (NOx = NO + NO2). High-NOx mechanisms are typical of urban environments while low-NOx mechanisms tend to dominate rural or remote areas. Understanding the low-NOx pathway presents a unique challenge. The first-generation products of this pathway are organic hydroperoxides. This class of atmospherically-relevant compounds are not commercially available and the synthetic methods used to prepare them are still underdeveloped. This work focuses on the synthesis and measurement of several isomers of isoprene hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), the main first-generation products of the low-NOx isoprene oxidation pathway. We present work that demonstrates that ISOPOOH is an interference in both GC and PTR-MS measurements, appearing as product of the high-NOx oxidation pathway. We suggest a possible mechanism for this interference and also discuss the implications of this interference on studies of OH reactivity, O:C ratios, OH recycling and SOA potential for these compounds. We also present results of the experiments investigating air-water partitioning and the condensed phase chemistry of these compounds.

  5. Mexican American First-Generation Students' Perceptions of Siblings and Additional Factors Influencing Their College Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias McAllister, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the college choice process of Mexican American first-generation students who had an older sibling with college experience. While a considerable amount of research exists on factors influencing the college choice process of first-generation college students, and a few studies…

  6. Finding Purpose in Pain: Using Logotherapy as a Method for Addressing Survivor Guilt in First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Kevin A.; Williams, Cyrus, III; Harden, Dia

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students face a variety of academic and personal challenges, including survivor guilt (Piorkowski, 1983). Survivor guilt for these students involves negative emotions related to leaving family and friends "behind" in difficult contexts and lived experiences. This article provides (a) an overview of first-generation college…

  7. Making Their Way: An Interpretive Case Study of Male First-Generation Students Attending a Highly Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the experiences of eight male first-generation college students attending Kenmont College (pseudonym), a highly selective, residential liberal arts college located in the Midwestern United States. While first-generation college students have been studied in various contexts, very little is known about what…

  8. College 411: Get the Scoop. A Small Group Plan to Promote College Success for First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Christy W.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2013-01-01

    First generation college students have more difficulty preparing for and succeeding in post-secondary institutions. Informed by the literature review and relevant research the school counselor presents a small group design for high school students in their junior year. This small group plan for first generation college students addresses issues of…

  9. Underrepresented and In/visible: A Hispanic First-Generation Student's Narratives of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, Kimberly B.; Means, Darris R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite improvements in the rates of college admission over the past few decades, college persistence, retention, and graduation rates continue to be problematic for underrepresented students--students of color and students from low-income and/or first-generation families. This article presents a case study of a female, first-generation,…

  10. Ethnicity as Social Capital: An Examination of First-Generation, Ethnic-Minority Students at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birani, Aisha; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we use interview data collected in a four-year longitudinal study of first-generation university students to answer the question: how might the ethnicity of first-generation students impact their university experiences? After briefly examining previous literature written on the educational achievement levels of ethnic-minority…

  11. First-Generation College Student Achievement and the First-Year Seminar: A Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Angela; Parra, Janessa; Lalonde, Trent

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown consistently that first-generation college students are less prepared academically for college, have a higher risk for dropping out, and are less likely to obtain a degree. This study investigated the effect of first-generation students' participation in a first-year seminar (FYS) on academic achievement and persistence to…

  12. Is It Really up to Me? Academic and Life Tensions for "Double First-Generation" College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Jennifer Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of first-generation college students who were enrolled in online degree programs at a traditional brick-and-mortar university located in the western United States. These students were viewed as "double first-generation" because they were not only the first in their family to pursue a bachelor's…

  13. The Academic Success of First-Generation African American Male College Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewing, Venus

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…

  14. Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Onore, Charity E.; Schwartzer, Jared J.; Careaga, Milo; Bennan, Robert F.; Ashwood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation (MIA) models. More recently, permanent changes in T cell cytokine responses were reported in children with autism and in offspring of MIA mice; however, the cytokine responses of other immune cell populations have not been thoroughly investigated in these MIA models. Similar to changes in T cell function, we hypothesized that following MIA, offspring will have long-term changes in macrophage function. To test this theory, we utilized the poly (I:C) MIA mouse model in C57BL/6J mice and examined macrophage cytokine production in adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given either a single injection of 20 mg/kg polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid, poly (I:C), or saline delivered intraperitoneally on gestational day 12.5. When offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams reached 10 weeks of age, femurs were collected and bone marrow-derived macrophages were generated. Cytokine production was measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated for 24 h in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/LPS, or IFN-γ/LPS. Following stimulation with LPS alone, or the combination of IFN-γ/LPS, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams produced higher levels of IL-12(p40) (p < 0.04) suggesting an increased M1 polarization. In addition, even without the presence of a polarizing cytokine or LPS stimulus, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams exhibited a higher production of CCL3 (p = 0.05). Moreover, CCL3 levels were further increased when stimulated with LPS, or polarized with either IL-4/LPS or IFN-γ/LPS (p < 0.05) suggesting a general increase in production of this chemokine. Collectively, these data suggest that MIA can produce lasting

  15. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  16. Health Promotion Programs and Healthy Lifestyle: First Generation African Black Males’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well documented that black males are more likely to suffer from heart disease, type II diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic diseases than any other racial group in the United States. It is also undeniable fact that physical activity, healthy eating behavior, and accessing routine medical checkups can help prevent or control some of those chronic diseases. However, little is known about black African males’ physical activity, nutritional and health screening behaviors in the US. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the first generation black African males’ perceptions, beliefs and attitudes about healthy lifestyle and preventive care and culturally appropriate way to promote health promotion programs among them. Methods Convenient sample and snowball methods were used to recruit 50 (mean age=38 years) first generation black African males to participate in an one hour long face-to-face interview. Fifteen semi-structured open ended questions were used but there were other follow-up questions. The interview data were descriptively analyzed to find trends. Results The study reveals obesity and overweight problem among the participants. However, most of the participants; lead sedentary behavior, engage in poor eating habit, and do not access routine physical checkups. More than half (n=28) of the participants reported that they do not do exercise or engage in physical activities because of: lack of time, laziness, lack of discipline, and lack of understanding of the importance of physical activities. Some of the participants also indicated that having a physical activity regimen is foreign to their African culture. Most of the respondents reported that they do not eat balanced diet regularly and most of their daily food intake contains too much carbohydrate. In addition, they eat similar food almost every day, skip meals which results in eating large portion size at irregular eating time. On accessing routine health

  17. Measuring the X-ray background in the reionization era with first generation 21 cm experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-09-01

    The X-ray background during the epoch of reionization is currently poorly constrained. We demonstrate that it is possible to use first generation 21 cm experiments to calibrate it. Using the semi-numerical simulation, 21cmFAST, we calculate the dependence of the 21 cm power spectrum on the X-ray background flux. Comparing the signal to the sensitivity of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) we find that in the redshift interval z =8-14 the 21 cm signal is detectable for certain values of the X-ray background. We show that there is no degeneracy between the X-ray production efficiency and the Lyα production efficiency and that the degeneracy with the ionization fraction of the intergalactic medium can be broken.

  18. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-12-01

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

  19. Massive stars. A chemical signature of first-generation very massive stars.

    PubMed

    Aoki, W; Tominaga, N; Beers, T C; Honda, S; Lee, Y S

    2014-08-22

    Numerical simulations of structure formation in the early universe predict the formation of some fraction of stars with several hundred solar masses. No clear evidence of supernovae from such very massive stars has, however, yet been found in the chemical compositions of Milky Way stars. We report on an analysis of a very metal-poor star SDSS J001820.5-093939.2, which possesses elemental-abundance ratios that differ significantly from any previously known star. This star exhibits low [α-element Fe] ratios and large contrasts between the abundances of odd and even element pairs, such as scandium/titanium and cobalt/nickel. Such features have been predicted by nucleosynthesis models for supernovae of stars more than 140 times as massive as the Sun, suggesting that the mass distribution of first-generation stars might extend to 100 solar masses or larger. PMID:25146286

  20. Tungsten fiber reinforced FeCralY: A first generation composite turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Tungsten-fiber/FeCrAlY (W/FeCrAlY) was identified as a promising aircraft engine, first generation, turbine blade composite material. Based on available data, W/FeCrAlY should have the stress-rupture, creep, tensile, fatigue, and impact strengths required for turbine blades operating from 1250 to 1370 K. It should also have adequate oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling damage resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. Concepts for potentially low cost blade fabrication were developed. These concepts were used to design a first stage JT9D convection cooled turbine blade having a calculated 50 K use-temperature advantage over the directionally solidified superalloy blade.

  1. Search for first generation leptoquark pair production in the electron + missing energy + jets final state

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-10-11

    We present a search for the pair production of first generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. In the channel LQLQ → eqνeq, where q,q are u or d quarks, no significant excess of data over background is observed, and we set a 95% C.L. lower limit of 326 GeV on the leptoquark mass, assuming equal probabilities of leptoquark decays to eq and νeq.

  2. Massive stars. A chemical signature of first-generation very massive stars.

    PubMed

    Aoki, W; Tominaga, N; Beers, T C; Honda, S; Lee, Y S

    2014-08-22

    Numerical simulations of structure formation in the early universe predict the formation of some fraction of stars with several hundred solar masses. No clear evidence of supernovae from such very massive stars has, however, yet been found in the chemical compositions of Milky Way stars. We report on an analysis of a very metal-poor star SDSS J001820.5-093939.2, which possesses elemental-abundance ratios that differ significantly from any previously known star. This star exhibits low [α-element Fe] ratios and large contrasts between the abundances of odd and even element pairs, such as scandium/titanium and cobalt/nickel. Such features have been predicted by nucleosynthesis models for supernovae of stars more than 140 times as massive as the Sun, suggesting that the mass distribution of first-generation stars might extend to 100 solar masses or larger.

  3. Skill, Judgement and Conduct for the First Generation of Neurosurgeons, 1900–1930

    PubMed Central

    Gavrus, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Historical contingency complicates a reading of skill as a self-explanatory and always positive attribute. By focusing on the attempts of the first generation of neurosurgeons to build a community and fashion a collective neurosurgical self, this article highlights the extent to which the relationship between surgical skill and professional judgement is reflected in broader concerns that shape the landscape of medicine at a given time. Some early twentieth-century surgeons expressed concern about the spectacularisation of surgery and the skilful but problematic work of ‘brilliant operators’. The neurosurgeons’ policies of inclusion and exclusion show that in the process of fashioning a neurosurgical persona, this first generation sanctioned specific norms of conduct underwritten by similar moral imperatives, such as self-control. These norms governed the doctors’ work both in the operating room and on the public stage (in their engagement with the press). The meetings of the first neurosurgical society staged a critical encounter between the host neurosurgeon and the members who watched him perform surgery. These technical performances in the operating theatre, followed by discussions, were designed to encourage particular norms, to negotiate surgical knowledge, and to demonstrate the skills and character of the neurosurgeon. The performances acted as a technology of the self that aligned the operator to a community and helped that community refine its norms of surgical conduct. The awkward surgeon with inferior technical ability was preferable to the brilliant but vain operator who lacked the capacity to judge when he should not deploy his spectacular skills. PMID:26090734

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Practices Among First-Generation Immigrant Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Results: Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. Conclusions: This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers. PMID:24865517

  5. The intramammary efficacy of first generation cephalosporins against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. PMID:22677480

  6. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M.; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C.; Flory, Janine D.; Bader, Heather; Harris, Iris R.; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24 hour urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-hr urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. PMID:24485493

  7. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation.

  8. Maternal immunomodulation of the offspring's immunological system.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sylvia M N; de Oliveira, Vivian L; Lessa, Leonardo; Vita, Melissa; Conceição, Marcia; Andrade, Luiz Antonio Botelho; Teixeira, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil

    2014-11-01

    The mother's and the offspring's immunological system are closely related thus one can influence the other. This hypothesis drove our aim to study the impact of the mother's immunological status over the immunological response of their offspring. For this, female mice tolerant or allergic to peanuts were exposed or not to a challenge diet containing peanuts during the gestation-lactation period (TEP/AEP; TNEP/ANEP, respectively). After weaning the offspring was submitted to the peanut allergy or peanut tolerization protocol and then challenged with a peanut diet. Our results showed that when the offspring is submitted to the allergy induction protocol, they behave differently depending on their mother's immunological status. Offspring born to TEP mothers produced the lowest antibody titters while those born to AEP mothers produced the highest antibody titters compared to mice born to TNEP and ANEP. On the other hand when the offspring was submitted to the tolerization protocol all groups presented low antibody titers with no significant difference between groups, independent of the mothers immunological status and/or contact with peanuts during the gestation-lactation period. The analysis of the histological profile of the offspring correlates well to the serological response. In other words, offspring born to TEP mothers and submitted to the allergy induction protocol presented a normal histological profile, while the offspring born to AEP mothers produced the worst gut inflammation. These results indicate that mothers, exposed to the antigen (by the oral route) during gestation, actively influence the immune response of their offspring. This work sheds some light on the importance of the immunomodulation induced by dietary antigens during gestation and their influence on the immunological response of their offspring. However, more work is needed to elucidate the molecular and cellular components of this regulatory phenomenon.

  9. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    PubMed

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

  10. Structural characterization of a first-generation articulated-truss joint for space crane application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Wu, K. Chauncey; Riutort, Kevin T.; Laufer, Joseph B.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A first-generation space crane articulated-truss joint was statically and dynamically characterized in a configuration that approximated an operational environment. The articulated-truss joint was integrated into a test-bed for structural characterization. Static characterization was performed by applying known loads and measuring the corresponding deflections to obtain load-deflection curves. Dynamic characterization was performed using modal testing to experimentally determine the first six mode shapes, frequencies, and modal damping values. Static and dynamic characteristics were also determined for a reference truss that served as a characterization baseline. Load-deflection curves and experimental frequency response functions are presented for the reference truss and the articulated-truss joint mounted in the test-bed. The static and dynamic experimental results are compared with analytical predictions obtained from finite element analyses. Load-deflection response is also presented for one of the linear actuators used in the articulated-truss joint. Finally, an assessment is presented for the predictability of the truss hardware used in the reference truss and articulated-truss joint based upon hardware stiffness properties that were previously obtained during the Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) Technology Development Program.

  11. Characterizing static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior of a first generation graphite/epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.; Krueger, R.; Kussmaul, K.; Alberti, M. von; Gaedke, M.

    1997-12-31

    The characterization of interlaminar fracture--with the goal to obtain a database that can be used in design--is demonstrated for a first generation graphite/epoxy composite widely used by European aircraft manufacturers. Critical energy release rates for Mode I and Mode II failure have been obtained from static tests using double cantilever beam, end notched flexure, and transverse crack tension specimens. An interaction criterion for the mixed mode case is formulated based on the results from mixed mode bending tests. Fatigue tests have been carried out to determine the Paris law parameters for pure Mode I, pure Mode II, and mixed mode conditions as well as threshold energy release rates that could be used as a design limit in a no-growth concept. In accordance with the static case, an interaction criterion is formulated for the crack growth rate under mixed mode conditions. Delamination progression in more complex specimens has been measured, and mixed mode energy release rates have been computed along the delamination fronts. Results lie well within the scatter band of the Paris law as obtained by the specimens employed for characterization. This confirms that the data obtained from the characterization of interlaminar fatigue growth can be applied for predictions in design.

  12. Vandhalla - A Sport Centre and a Successful Example of First-Generation Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse; Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'Evaluation of Vandhalla' is a study of the perceived quality of the new building as well as the design competition and design process leading to the final design. The evaluation focuses on the mindset of the winning entry, the design process, the design solution and the value of Vandhalla. Vandhalla is a sport centre including an indoor swimming pool at the Danish folk high school, Egmont. Empirically, the evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and walkthroughs on site with the architects, the client, personnel and students. The evaluation shows that Vandhalla is a successful example of an inclusive building in Denmark. The paper points at two factors having an impact on the result: the client as a key driver and the understanding of the users. The general use of knowledge as well as the winning design team's use of knowledge in the work with the design is problematized. It is suggested that Vandhalla should be regarded as a contribution to the first generation of Universal Design (UD) in Denmark. The Evaluation was conducted by the authors at SBi Aalborg University and financed by Realdania. PMID:27534310

  13. Performance of a first generation X-band photoelectron rf gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; McCormick, D.; Dunning, M.; Jobe, K.; Li, H.; Raubenheimer, T.; Vrielink, A.; Vecchione, T.; Wang, F.; Weathersby, S.

    2016-05-01

    Building more compact accelerators to deliver high brightness electron beams for the generation of high flux, highly coherent radiation is a priority for the photon science community. A relatively straightforward reduction in footprint can be achieved by using high-gradient X-band (11.4 GHz) rf technology. To this end, an X-band injector consisting of a 5.5 cell rf gun and a 1-m long linac has been commissioned at SLAC. It delivers an 85 MeV electron beam with peak brightness somewhat better than that achieved in S-band photoinjectors, such as the one developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The X-band rf gun operates with up to a 200 MV /m peak field on the cathode, and has been used to produce bunches of a few pC to 1.2 nC in charge. Notably, bunch lengths as short as 120 fs rms have been measured for charges of 5 pC (˜3 ×107 electrons), and normalized transverse emittances as small as 0.22 mm-mrad have been measured for this same charge level. Bunch lengths as short as 400 (250) fs rms have been achieved for electron bunches of 100 (20) pC with transverse normalized emittances of 0.7 (0.35) mm-mrad. We report on the performance and the lessons learned from the operation and optimization of this first generation X-band gun.

  14. Comparison of Replication-Competent, First Generation, and Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A.; Nehete, Pramod N.; Buchl, Stephanie S.; Senac, Julien S.; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Barry, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    All studies using human serotype 5 Adenovirus (Ad) vectors must address two major obstacles: safety and the presence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies. Helper-Dependent (HD) Ads have been proposed as alternative vectors for gene therapy and vaccine development because they have an improved safety profile. To evaluate the potential of HD-Ad vaccines, we compared replication-competent (RC), first-generation (FG) and HD vectors for their ability to induce immune responses in mice. We show that RC-Ad5 and HD-Ad5 vectors generate stronger immune responses than FG-Ad5 vectors. HD-Ad5 vectors gave lower side effects than RC or FG-Ad, producing lower levels of tissue damage and anti-Ad T cell responses. Also, HD vectors have the benefit of being packaged by all subgroup C serotype helper viruses. We found that HD serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6 induce anti-HIV responses equivalently. By using these HD serotypes in heterologous succession we showed that HD vectors can be used to significantly boost anti-HIV immune responses in mice and in FG-Ad5-immune macaques. Since HD vectors have been show to have an increased safety profile, do not possess any Ad genes, can be packaged by multiple serotype helper viruses, and elicit strong anti-HIV immune responses, they warrant further investigation as alternatives to FG vectors as gene-based vaccines. PMID:19333387

  15. Functional layer-by-layer design of xerogel-based first-generation amperometric glucose biosensors.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Nicholas G; Hall, Jackson R; Leopold, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    Xerogel-based first-generation amperometric glucose biosensors, constructed through specific layer-by-layer assembly of films featuring glucose oxidase doped xerogel, a diffusion-limiting xerogel layer, and capped with both electropolymerized polyphenol and blended polyurethane semipermeable membranes, are presented. The specific combination of xerogels formed from specific silane precursors, including propyl-trimethoxysilane, isobutyl-trimethoxysilane, octyl-trimethoxysilane, and hydroxymethyl-triethoxysilane, exhibit impressive dynamic and linear ranges of detection (e.g., ≥24-28 mM glucose) and low response times, as well as significant discrimination against common interferent species such as acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, sodium nitrite, oxalic acid, and uric acid as determined by selectivity coefficients. Additionally, systematic electrochemical and contact angle studies of different xerogel silane precursors, varying in structure, chain length, and/or functional group, reveal that sensor performance is more dependent on the tunable porosity/permeability of the layered interfaces rather than the hydrophobic character or functional groups within the films. While the sensing performance largely exceeds that of existing electrochemical glucose sensing schemes in the literature, the presented layered approach establishes the specific functionality of each layer working in concert with each other and suggests that the strategy may be readily adaptable to other clinically relevant targets and is amenable to miniaturization for eventual in situ or in vivo sensing. PMID:25562760

  16. Comparative risk assessment of the first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone to raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Horak, Katherine E.; Volker, Steven F.; Campton, Christopher M.; Eisemann, John D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Johnson, John J.

    2012-01-01

    New regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in the United States, and in some situations this action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds. We have recently conducted several studies with captive adult American kestrels and eastern screech-owls examining the toxicity of diphacinone (DPN) using both acute oral and short-term dietary exposure regimens. Diphacinone evoked overt signs of intoxication and lethality in these raptors at exposure doses that were 20 to 30 times lower than reported for traditionally used wildlife test species (mallard and northern bobwhite). Sublethal exposure of kestrels and owls resulted in prolonged clotting time, reduced hematocrit, and/or gross and histological evidence of hemorrhage at daily doses as low as 0.16 mg DPN/kg body weight. Findings also demonstrated that DPN was far more potent in short-term 7-day dietary studies than in single-day acute oral exposure studies. Incorporating these kestrel and owl data into deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments indicated that the risks associated with DPN exposure for raptors are far greater than predicted in analyses using data from mallards and bobwhite. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs.

  17. Vandhalla - A Sport Centre and a Successful Example of First-Generation Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse; Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'Evaluation of Vandhalla' is a study of the perceived quality of the new building as well as the design competition and design process leading to the final design. The evaluation focuses on the mindset of the winning entry, the design process, the design solution and the value of Vandhalla. Vandhalla is a sport centre including an indoor swimming pool at the Danish folk high school, Egmont. Empirically, the evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and walkthroughs on site with the architects, the client, personnel and students. The evaluation shows that Vandhalla is a successful example of an inclusive building in Denmark. The paper points at two factors having an impact on the result: the client as a key driver and the understanding of the users. The general use of knowledge as well as the winning design team's use of knowledge in the work with the design is problematized. It is suggested that Vandhalla should be regarded as a contribution to the first generation of Universal Design (UD) in Denmark. The Evaluation was conducted by the authors at SBi Aalborg University and financed by Realdania.

  18. Structure-Dependent Photophysics of First-Generation; Phenyl-Cored Thiophene Dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W. J.; Ferguson, A. J.; Kose, M. E.; Rupert, B. L.; Ginley, D. S.; Rumbles, G.; Shaheen, S. E.; Kopidakis, N.

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared two series of first-generation thiophene-bridge dendrimers, with either three (3G1) or four (4G1) arms attached to a phenyl core, to elucidate their structure-property relationships. Optical properties were investigated with a combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Steady-state spectroscopic data for the 3-arm dendrimers suggests that the exciton is delocalized over the {alpha}-conjugated thiophene segment and the phenyl core, but that the meta-linking of the dendrons prevents their electronic communication. In contrast, conjugation through the core to dendrons in the ortho and para positions is permitted in the 4-arm dendrimers, although the data suggest that the conjugation length does not extend over the full length of the {alpha}-conjugated sections of two coupled dendrons. This observation is due to steric interactions between neighboring arms, which forces the arms to twist and bend out of the plane of the phenyl core, and is particularly prevalent in disrupting the conjugation through the ortho positions. As expected, our results show that an increase in the bridge length results in an increase in the conjugation length for both dendrimers, and a subsequent red-shift of the absorption and emission. In addition, an increase in the dendron length results in an increase in the photoluminescence quantum yield and lifetime, suggesting that the ground and excited-state geometries are very similar and that the electronic transition is coupled to fewer vibrational modes.

  19. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels☆

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Alison; Raman, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Aims The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). PMID:24926117

  20. Na-O abundances in M53: A Mostly First Generation Globular Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5- meter telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster's horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs withmultiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = -2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previouslypublished results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find thatthe Na-O anti-correlation is not as extended as other GCs with similarly high masses. The fraction of SG to FG stars in our sample is approximately 1:3 and the SG is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  1. HAWCPol: a first-generation far-infrared polarimeter for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Cook, Brant T.; Harper, D. Al; Lin, Lung-Sheng; Looney, Leslie W.; Novak, Giles; Stephens, Ian; Berthoud, Marc; Chuss, David T.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Houde, Martin; Jones, Terry J.; Krejny, Megan; Lazarian, Alexandre; Moseley, S. Harvey; Tassis, Kostas; Vaillancourt, John E.; Werner, Michael W.

    2010-07-01

    We describe our ongoing project to build a far-infrared polarimeter for the HAWC instrument on SOFIA. Far-IR polarimetry reveals unique information about magnetic fields in dusty molecular clouds and is an important tool for understanding star formation and cloud evolution. SOFIA provides flexible access to the infrared as well as good sensitivity to and angular resolution of continuum emission from molecular clouds. We are making progress toward outfitting HAWC, a first-generation SOFIA camera, with a four-band polarimeter covering 50 to 220 microns wavelength. We have chosen a conservative design which uses quartz half-wave plates continuously rotating at ~0.5 Hz, ball bearing suspensions, fixed wire-grid polarizers, and cryogenic motors. Design challenges are to fit the polarimeter into a volume that did not originally envision one, to minimize the heating of the cryogenic optics, and to produce negligible interference in the detector system. Here we describe the performance of the polarimeter measured at cryogenic temperature as well as the basic method we intend for data analysis. We are on track for delivering this instrument early in the operating lifetime of SOFIA.

  2. Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J

    2014-01-01

    Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1h after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. PMID:24157927

  3. First-generation science cases for ground-based terahertz telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Koch, Patrick M.; Matsushita, Satoki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Urata, Yuji; Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Wei-Hao; Takahashi, Satoko; Tang, Ya-Wen; Chang, Hsian-Hong; Huang, Kuiyun; Morata, Oscar; Otsuka, Masaaki; Lin, Kai-Yang; Tsai, An-Li; Lin, Yen-Ting; Srinivasan, Sundar; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Pu, Hung-Yi; Kemper, Francisca; Patel, Nimesh; Grimes, Paul; Huang, Yau-De; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yen-Ru; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Burgos, Roberto; Chen, Ming-Tang; Inoue, Makoto; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Ground-based observations at terahertz (THz) frequencies are a newly explorable area of astronomy in the coming decades. We discuss science cases for a first-generation 10-m class THz telescope, focusing on the Greenland Telescope as an example of such a facility. We propose science cases and provide quantitative estimates for each case. The largest advantage of ground-based THz telescopes is their higher angular resolution (˜ 4″ for a 10-m dish), as compared to space or airborne THz telescopes. Thus, high-resolution mapping is an important scientific argument. In particular, we can isolate zones of interest for Galactic and extragalactic star-forming regions. The THz windows are suitable for observations of high-excitation CO lines and [N II] 205-μm lines, which are scientifically relevant tracers of star formation and stellar feedback. Those lines are the brightest lines in the THz windows, so they are suitable for the initiation of ground-based THz observations. THz polarization of star-forming regions can also be explored since it traces the dust population contributing to the THz spectral peak. For survey-type observations, we focus on "sub-THz" extragalactic surveys, the uniqueness of which is detecting galaxies at redshifts z ˜ 1-2, where the dust emission per comoving volume is the largest in the history of the Universe. Finally we explore possibilities of flexible time scheduling, which enables us to monitor active galactic nuclei, and to target gamma-ray burst afterglows. For these objects, THz and submillimeter wavelength ranges have not yet been explored.

  4. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5024 (M53): A Mostly First Generation Globular Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster’s horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs with multiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by the second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = -2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previously published results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find that the Na-O anti-correlation in M53 is not as extended as other GCs with similar masses and metallicities. The ratio of SG to the total number of stars in our sample is approximately 0.27 and the SG generation is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  5. A first-generation X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Carrel, L; Cottle, A A; Goglin, K C; Willard, H F

    1999-12-01

    In females, most genes on the X chromosome are generally assumed to be transcriptionally silenced on the inactive X as a result of X inactivation. However, particularly in humans, an increasing number of genes are known to "escape" X inactivation and are expressed from both the active (Xa) and inactive (Xi) X chromosomes; such genes reflect different molecular and epigenetic responses to X inactivation and are candidates for phenotypes associated with X aneuploidy. To identify genes that escape X inactivation and to generate a first-generation X-inactivation profile of the X, we have evaluated the expression of 224 X-linked genes and expressed sequence tags by reverse-transcription-PCR analysis of a panel of multiple independent mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing a normal human Xi but no Xa. The resulting survey yields an initial X-inactivation profile that is estimated to represent approximately 10% of all X-linked transcripts. Of the 224 transcripts tested here, 34 (three of which are pseudoautosomal) were expressed in as many as nine Xi hybrids and thus appear to escape inactivation. The genes that escape inactivation are distributed nonrandomly along the X; 31 of 34 such transcripts map to Xp, implying that the two arms of the X are epigenetically and/or evolutionarily distinct and suggesting that genetic imbalance of Xp may be more severe clinically than imbalance of Xq. A complete X-inactivation profile will provide information relevant to clinical genetics and genetic counseling and should yield insight into the genomic and epigenetic organization of the X chromosome.

  6. First-generation Hispanic freshmen perceptions of selecting a STEM major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrandi Molina, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Hispanic first-generation college students (FGCSs) who made the immediate transition from high school into a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) field of study at a public, four-year higher education institution in South Florida. The conceptual foundation for this study was Bourdieu's (1986) Theory of Cultural Capital and Bandura's (1977) Theory of Self-Efficacy. Ten purposefully sampled participants engaged in face-to-face interviews or Skye/FaceTime with a total maximum duration of 90 minutes including member checking. As a result of the data collection and analysis, a total of six themes emerged: lack of cultural capital transmitted by cultural activities, high levels of parental encouragement/involvement, high levels of cultural capital transmitted through formal schooling, high levels of self-efficacy, beliefs of personal success, and overcoming challenges. Theme one evoked two subthemes: challenges and family life. Theme two produced two subthemes: home culture and cultural values. Theme three formed two subthemes: course rigor and teacher-student communication/relationships. Theme four conjured three subthemes: mindset, vicarious experiences, and home discourse. Theme five yielded two subthemes: verbal persuasion and performance accomplishments/mastery experiences. Finally, theme six formed one subtheme: biases. Findings from this study may benefit the literature on the lack of representation of Hispanic FGCSs in STEM fields in higher education and may serve as a starting point for the conception of programs and initiatives to spark and sustain student interest in STEM, and ultimately influence a student's decision to pursue a STEM degree in higher education.

  7. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    PubMed

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research. PMID:19579905

  8. Ecological analysis of the first generation of community clinical oncology programs.

    PubMed Central

    Schopler, J H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. An ecological framework is proposed for assessing factors important to consider in allocating funds to promote sound performance of interorganizational programs. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING. This framework is used to examine the first generation of Community Clinical Oncology Programs (CCOPs) funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) from 1983-1986 to coordinate clinical research activity at the local level. The research reported is based on secondary data collected for the Community Cancer Care Evaluation at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. STUDY DESIGN. A repeated measures design was used to analyze differences in the level and patterns of CCOP productivity, a measure of the number of patients enrolled on NCI-approved Phase III trials. The predictive dimensions include (1) measures of environmental inputs (population density, organizational dominance, professional support, NCI funding); (2) measures of organizational inputs (number of hospitals, number of staff, number of physicians, NCI experience, clinical research experience); and (3) structural measures (functional specialization, administrative concentration). Predicted relationships were assessed using general linear models procedures. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Data obtained from NCI files were supplemented by interviews with NCI personnel and published statistics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Funding level, clinical research experience, and number of staff are the most important predictors of patient enrollment. Clinical research experience has a positive relationship with patient enrollment and a negative association with changes in enrollment. The reversal is explained by the influence of the CCOPs that had the greatest amount of clinical research experience at the beginning of the program. CONCLUSIONS. The ecological approach provides a useful framework for understanding factors that should be considered in funding interorganizational programs and promoting their development. Most

  9. Biocompatibility Assessment of the First Generation PediaFlow Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Daly, Amanda R.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Snyder, Shaun T.; Verkaik, Josiah E.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Antaki, James F.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kameneva, Marina V.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow pediatric ventricular assist device is a miniature magnetically levitated mixed flow pump under development for circulatory support of newborns and infants (3–15 kg) with a targeted flow range of 0.3–1.5 L/min. The first generation design of the PediaFlow (PF1) was manufactured with a weight of approximately 100 g, priming volume less than 2 mL, length of 51 mm, outer diameter of 28 mm, and with 5-mm blood ports. PF1 was evaluated in an in vitro flow loop for 6 h and implanted in ovines for three chronic experiments of 6, 17, and 10 days. In the in vitro test, normalized index of hemolysis was 0.0087 ± 0.0024 g/100L. Hemodynamic performance and blood biocompatibility of PF1 were characterized in vivo by measurements of plasma free hemoglobin, plasma fibrinogen, total plasma protein, and with novel flow cytometric assays to quantify circulating activated ovine platelets. The mean plasma free hemoglobin values for the three chronic studies were 4.6 ± 2.7, 13.3 ± 7.9, and 8.8 ± 3.3 mg/dL, respectively. Platelet activation was low for portions of several studies but consistently rose along with observed animal and pump complications. The PF1 prototype generated promising results in terms of low hemolysis and platelet activation in the absence of complications. Hemodynamic results validated the magnetic bearing design and provided the platform for design iterations to meet the objective of providing circulatory support for young children with exceptional biocompatibility. PMID:20626737

  10. Development of covalent inhibitors that can overcome resistance to first-generation FGFR kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Wang, Jun; Tanizaki, Junko; Huang, Zhifeng; Aref, Amir R.; Rusan, Maria; Zhu, Su-Jie; Zhang, Yiyun; Ercan, Dalia; Liao, Rachel G.; Capelletti, Marzia; Zhou, Wenjun; Hur, Wooyoung; Kim, NamDoo; Sim, Taebo; Gaudet, Suzanne; Barbie, David A.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Yun, Cai-Hong; Hammerman, Peter S.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Jänne, Pasi A.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    The human FGF receptors (FGFRs) play critical roles in various human cancers, and several FGFR inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. Resistance usually results from selection for mutant kinases that are impervious to the action of the drug or from up-regulation of compensatory signaling pathways. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that resistance to FGFR inhibitors can be acquired through mutations in the FGFR gatekeeper residue, as clinically observed for FGFR4 in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Here we report on the use of a structure-based drug design to develop two selective, next-generation covalent FGFR inhibitors, the FGFR irreversible inhibitors 2 (FIIN-2) and 3 (FIIN-3). To our knowledge, FIIN-2 and FIIN-3 are the first inhibitors that can potently inhibit the proliferation of cells dependent upon the gatekeeper mutants of FGFR1 or FGFR2, which confer resistance to first-generation clinical FGFR inhibitors such as NVP-BGJ398 and AZD4547. Because of the conformational flexibility of the reactive acrylamide substituent, FIIN-3 has the unprecedented ability to inhibit both the EGF receptor (EGFR) and FGFR covalently by targeting two distinct cysteine residues. We report the cocrystal structure of FGFR4 with FIIN-2, which unexpectedly exhibits a “DFG-out” covalent binding mode. The structural basis for dual FGFR and EGFR targeting by FIIN3 also is illustrated by crystal structures of FIIN-3 bound with FGFR4 V550L and EGFR L858R. These results have important implications for the design of covalent FGFR inhibitors that can overcome clinical resistance and provide the first example, to our knowledge, of a kinase inhibitor that covalently targets cysteines located in different positions within the ATP-binding pocket. PMID:25349422

  11. Search for first-generation scalar leptoquarks in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T

    2005-06-01

    We report on a search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 203 pb{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF experiment. We observe no evidence for LQ production in the topologies arising from LQLQ{yields}eqeq and LQLQ{yields}eq{nu}q, and derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the LQ production cross section. The results are combined with those obtained from a separately reported CDF search in the topology arising from LQLQ{yields}{nu}q{nu}q and 95% C.L. lower limits on the LQ mass as a function of {beta}=BR(LQ{yields}eq) are derived. The limits are 236, 205 and 145 GeV/c{sup 2} for {beta}=1, {beta}=0.5 and {beta}=0.1, respectively.

  12. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  13. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits.

  14. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  15. Embryonic intraventricular exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies produces alterations in autism-like stereotypical behaviors in offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen; de Water, Judy Van; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have implicated a role of maternal autoantibodies reactive against fetal brain proteins specific to autism in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study, we examined the impact of brain-reactive maternal autoantibodies of mothers of children with autism (MAU) on offspring behavior in mice compared to offspring exposed to non-reactive IgG of mothers of typically developing children (MTD). Embryonic offspring were exposed to a single intraventricular injection of MAU or MTD IgG on embryonic day 14. Offspring were allowed to mature to adulthood and were subsequently tested for sociability and stereotypic behaviors using a 3-chambered social approach task, marble burying task, and assessment of spontaneous grooming behaviors in response to a novel environment. Results indicate that MAU offspring display autistic-like stereotypic behavior in both marble burying and spontaneous grooming behaviors. Additionally, small alterations in social approach behavior were also observed in MAU offspring compared to MTD offspring. This report demonstrates for the first time the effects of a single, low dose intraventricular exposure of IgG derived from individual MAU samples on offspring behavior. PMID:24613242

  16. Embryonic intraventricular exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies produces alterations in autistic-like stereotypical behaviors in offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Jasmin; Jones, Karen; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen; Van de Water, Judy; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-06-01

    Multiple studies have implicated a role of maternal autoantibodies reactive against fetal brain proteins specific to autism in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study, we examined the impact of brain-reactive maternal autoantibodies of mothers of children with autism (MAU) on offspring behavior in mice compared to offspring exposed to non-reactive IgG of mothers of typically developing children (MTD). Embryonic offspring were exposed to a single intraventricular injection of MAU or MTD IgG on embryonic day 14. Offspring were allowed to mature to adulthood and were subsequently tested for sociability and stereotypic behaviors using a 3-chambered social approach task, marble burying task, and assessment of spontaneous grooming behaviors in response to a novel environment. Results indicate that MAU offspring display autistic-like stereotypical behavior in both marble burying and spontaneous grooming behaviors. Additionally, small alterations in social approach behavior were also observed in MAU offspring compared to MTD offspring. This report demonstrates for the first time the effects of a single, low dose intraventricular exposure of IgG derived from individual MAU samples on offspring behavior.

  17. Monoterpene SOA - Contribution of first-generation oxidation products to formation and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutzel, Anke; Rodigast, Maria; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the consecutive reactions of first-generation terpene oxidation products provides insight into the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). To this end, OH radical reactions with α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene were examined along with the OH-oxidation of nopinone as a β-pinene oxidation product and pinonaldehyde and myrtenal as α-pinene oxidation products. The SOA yield of β-pinene (0.50) was much higher than that of α-pinene (0.35) and the limonene/OH system (0.30). This is opposite to the ozonolysis SOA yields described in the literature. The growth curve of SOA from β-pinene shows the contribution of secondary reactions, such as further reaction of nopinone. This contribution (17%) and the high SOA yield of nopinone (0.24) might lead to the high SOA formation potential observed for β-pinene. The majority of the C9 oxidation products observed from β-pinene can be attributed to the consecutive reaction of nopinone, whereas in the case of pinonaldehyde, only a few α-pinene oxidation products were identified. Nopinone contributes significantly to the formation of pinic acid (51%), homoterpenylic acid (74%), and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butane-tricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, 88%) during β-pinene oxidation. The oxidation of pinonaldehyde was expected to produce important SOA markers, but only negligible amounts were identified. This indicates that their formation by oxidation of α-pinene must proceed via different pathways from the further oxidation of pinonaldehyde. Only pinonic acid and MBTCA were found in considerable amounts and were formed in α-pinene oxidation with 57% yield, while that for the pinonaldehyde/OH reaction was 33%. The lack of important SOA marker compounds might cause the low SOA yield (0.07) observed for pinonaldehyde. Based on the low SOA yield, pinonaldehyde contributes only 4.5% to α-pinene SOA. Myrtenal was identified among the gas-phase products of α-pinene oxidation. A majority of α-pinene SOA marker compounds was

  18. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  19. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development. PMID:8669783

  20. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-01-01

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  1. MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE TRIFID NEBULA M20: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION IN TRIGGERING THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST GENERATION STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, K.; Enokiya, R.; Sano, H.; Yoshiike, S.; Hanaoka, N.; Ohama, A.; Furukawa, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Moribe, N.; Oishi, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Maezawa, H.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-09-01

    A large-scale study of the molecular clouds toward the Trifid Nebula, M20, has been made in the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO. M20 is ionized predominantly by an O7.5 star HD164492. The study has revealed that there are two molecular components at separate velocities peaked toward the center of M20 and that their temperatures-30-50 K as derived by a large velocity gradient analysis-are significantly higher than the 10 K of their surroundings. We identify the two clouds as the parent clouds of the first generation stars in M20. The mass of each cloud is estimated to be {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub sun} and their separation velocity is {approx}8 km s{sup -1} over {approx}1-2 pc. We find that the total mass of stars and molecular gas in M20 is less than {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 3} M{sub sun}, which is too small by an order of magnitude to gravitationally bind the system. We argue that the formation of the first generation stars, including the main ionizing O7.5 star, was triggered by the collision between the two clouds in a short timescale of {approx}1 Myr, a second example alongside Westerlund 2, where a super-star cluster may have been formed due to cloud-cloud collision triggering.

  2. Molecular Clouds in the Trifid Nebula M20: Possible Evidence for a Cloud-Cloud Collision in Triggering the Formation of the First Generation Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, K.; Enokiya, R.; Sano, H.; Yoshiike, S.; Hanaoka, N.; Ohama, A.; Furukawa, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Moribe, N.; Oishi, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, A.; Fukui, Y.

    2011-09-01

    A large-scale study of the molecular clouds toward the Trifid Nebula, M20, has been made in the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO and 13CO. M20 is ionized predominantly by an O7.5 star HD164492. The study has revealed that there are two molecular components at separate velocities peaked toward the center of M20 and that their temperatures—30-50 K as derived by a large velocity gradient analysis—are significantly higher than the 10 K of their surroundings. We identify the two clouds as the parent clouds of the first generation stars in M20. The mass of each cloud is estimated to be ~103 M sun and their separation velocity is ~8 km s-1 over ~1-2 pc. We find that the total mass of stars and molecular gas in M20 is less than ~3.2 × 103 M sun, which is too small by an order of magnitude to gravitationally bind the system. We argue that the formation of the first generation stars, including the main ionizing O7.5 star, was triggered by the collision between the two clouds in a short timescale of ~1 Myr, a second example alongside Westerlund 2, where a super-star cluster may have been formed due to cloud-cloud collision triggering.

  3. Parent Support and Stress among First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Female Students during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…

  4. First-Generation College Students and the Four-Year College Environment: An Exploration of Supplementary and Complementary Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    Enrollment in higher education in the United States has experienced significant growth in the last two decades. Growth is not only seen in the increasing numbers; diversity is increasing with more minority and non-traditionally aged students attending college. Many of these students are first-generation college (FGC) students; those whose parents…

  5. Hispanic First-Generation Commuter Students at a Private College Reflect on Their Experience through the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurvey, Phyllis C.

    2011-01-01

    A volunteer sample of 16 Hispanic first-generation commuter college students, 9 women and 7 men, 18-30 years of age, attending a private college in the Northeast, were interviewed about their first-year college experience, with an emphasis on issues related to cultural capital and habitus. Five aspects of cultural capital were of interest:…

  6. Relationship between Academic Resilience and College Success: Cross-National Experiences of Low-Income/First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbindyo, Margaret N.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between academic resilience (defined as the ability to effectively deal with setbacks, stress, or pressure in an academic setting) and the experiences of US students served by TRIO intervention programs (federally funded programs) that serve low-income/first-generation students. Based on a sample of 106,…

  7. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  8. The Effect of Delayed Enrollment, Regional Wealth, and First-Generation Status on Community College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sunita Etwaroo

    2014-01-01

    For many students, the path to earning a postsecondary educational degree is often met with personal and social obstacles, but first-generation students are less likely to even enroll in postsecondary education and they have a higher probability for attrition when compared to their counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  9. "Desafios y Bendiciones": A Multiperspective Examination of the Educational Experiences and Coping Responses of First-Generation College Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-01-01

    Taking a multiperspective approach, seven Latina students, two student services personnel, and one mental health service provider are interviewed to gain different stakeholder perspectives regarding Latina first-generation college educational and coping experiences. Familial involvement and connections with family, peers, and university personnel…

  10. Predicting the Math/Science Career Goals of Low-Income Prospective First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to predict the math/science goal intentions of a sample of low-income prospective first-generation college students (N = 305). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model depicting relationships between contextual (i.e., social class, learning…

  11. The Effects of Learning Styles and Online Education on Low-Income and First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Marissa Arboe

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of a learning style intervention on persistence and success of low-income and first-generation college students enrolled in online courses. With the continuing rise of online education, there is potential for both promise and problems within higher academia. The TRiO Student Support Services…

  12. "Tightly Wound Rubber Bands": Exploring the College Experiences of Low-Income, First-Generation White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Georgianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how low-income, first-generation, White students experienced their social class during college. Particular attention was given to how students' spent their time, energy, and resources during college. Overall, participants' stories reflected students who felt overextended and overwhelmed during college mostly due to…

  13. Experiences of Latina First Generation College Students: Exploring Resources Supporting the Balancing of Academic Pursuits and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona-Ordonez, Hercilia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a qualitative interview approach and thematic analysis (Braune and Clark, 2006) to interview first generation college student Latinas, exploring their experiences with higher education, their navigation/negotiation of resources for academic success and for wellness of self and family, and barriers they face as they attempt to both…

  14. The Road Less Travelled: Tracing the Path of First-Generation Students from Rural Areas to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsdon, Michelle Caron

    2012-01-01

    Narrative inquiry was used to trace the educational journeys of 11 first-generation university students from rural areas of Colorado in an effort to identify the experiences, beliefs, and people that impacted their decision to attend a 4-year institution. Students were asked to convey their experiences growing up within the contexts of their…

  15. Country Roads Take Me...?: An Ethnographic Case Study of College Pathways among Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine college pathways or college access and success of rural, first-generation students. Most research on college pathways for low- and moderate-income students focuses on those students as a whole or on urban low-socioeconomic status (SES) students. (Caution is in order when generalizing the experiences of…

  16. First-Generation Latino Males in Latino Fraternities at a Predominately White Institution: Psychological, Social, and Cultural College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sheila Marie

    2011-01-01

    This research study explores the first-generation undergraduate Latino male student experience at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI) affiliated within Latino Greek fraternities. The Psychosociocultural (PSC) model (Gloria & Rodriguez, 2000; Pope & Reynolds, 2000) that is used highlights the psychological, social and cultural contributing…

  17. Achieving College Access Goals: The Relevance of New Media in Reaching First-Generation and Low-Income Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krywosa, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    With so much interest around the use of new media, many people concerned with improving college access are striving to master this emerging set of resources in order to better reach students, who without encouragement, are unlikely to pursue higher education. But, how much do individuals understand about the way low-income, first-generation, and…

  18. Earning and Learning: Exploring the Meaning of Work in the Experiences of First-Generation Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuñez, Anne-Marie; Sansone, Vanessa A.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how working influences students' college experiences, extending the predominantly quantitative research in this area. Findings based on interviews with Latino first-generation students who work reveal three themes. First, these students bring a familial orientation that motivates them to increase occupational…

  19. Learning as Liberation: How Liberal Arts Education Transforms First-Generation/Low Socio-Economic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 first-generation college students. Profound changes to the students resulting from exposure to academic liberal arts course content were documented. Specifically, this study explores evident thematic trends and specific examples of how liberal arts course work provided students with profound…

  20. Perceptions of the College Experience Held by Life Partners of Rural, Nontraditionally-Aged, First-Generation Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methvin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rural community colleges serve a large population of nontraditional, first-generation students, many of whom encounter obstacles to degree completion. A life partner who cohabits with a college student impacts the perceptions and actions of that student. However, a gap in research exists about the experiences and perceptions of those life…

  1. A Continuum of Persistence: Low-Income and First-Generation College Students' Perceptions of Critical Factors for Postsecondary Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganuza Hoaglund, Zoila M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore similarities and differences among low-income and first-generation (LIFG) students' perceptions of influential academic, psychosocial, and contextual factors that shaped their persistence at different stages at the postsecondary level. This study consisted of 29 LIFG students from a large, urban research…

  2. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  3. First-Generation Social and Ethnic Minority Students in Christian Universities: Student Recommendations for Successful Support of Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article, the second in a two-part series, provides an overview of the literature regarding first-generation college students (FGCS), which has been largely based on studies of students in public universities. The author shares outcomes from structured dialogues with FGCS attending Christian universities. The students described how their…

  4. An Exploration of Intersecting Identities of First-Generation, Low-Income Students. Research Reports on College Transitions No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehangir, Rashne R.; Stebleton, Michael J.; Deenanath, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the White House urged that college be made more accessible for low-income Americans. Yet, moving beyond access to success requires knowing more about the experiences of these students. A new research report captures the challenges low-income, first-generation students faced in their collegiate journey, examining the strategies…

  5. Socialization and Information Horizons: Source Use Behavior of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-I

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college (FGC) students have been described as an underrepresented group in comparison to their continuing-generation counterparts (non-FGC students). Studying college students' socialization experiences and their use of academic resources can help us understand how to facilitate their academic success. Incorporating…

  6. Supporting and Preparing Future First-Generation College Students in the High School Environment: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jill K.; Nicolas, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed college freshmen from two different institutions in order to examine differences between First-Generation College Students and Continuing-Generation College Students. Differences between groups emerged for high school academic preparation, college exploration behaviors, college application behaviors, and college decision-making…

  7. First-Generation College Seniors: A Phenomenological Exploration of the Transitional Experience of the Final College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton-Healy, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the transitional experience of college seniors who are also first-generation status. This topic merits investigation because there is an increasing interest in various demographics of college students, and because college seniors represent an important retention demographic for American higher education, where the retention…

  8. Rejection-(dis)identification and ethnic political engagement among first-generation Latino immigrants to the United States.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Shaun; Lawrence, Delysha; Figueroa, Jessica; Percontino, Rosanna

    2013-07-01

    Immigrants to the United States face rejection from other Americans on the basis of their ethnic group membership. Among members of ethnic minority groups who were born in the United States, rejection is tied to higher ethnic identification and less positive attitudes toward the national majority. Relatively little research has examined this relationship among first-generation immigrants (i.e., people who were born in another country but who migrated to the United States) or has considered political engagement on behalf of one's ethnic group as an outcome. In this study we examined the relationship among ethnic-based rejection, ethnic and national identification, and ethnic political engagement among first-generation Latino immigrants in the northeastern United States. We found that first-generation Latino immigrants who perceived ethnic-based rejection were less likely to identify with Americans and less likely to report willingness to engage politically on behalf of their ethnic group in the United States. Perceived rejection was not significantly associated with ethnic identification, which was not related to ethnic political engagement. The study demonstrates that ethnic-based rejection has unique implications for identification and ethnic political engagement among first-generation Latino immigrants.

  9. Still Humble and Hopeful: Two More Recommendations on Welcoming First-Generation Poor and Working-Class Students to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, "About Campus" published the author's article "Humble and Hopeful: Welcoming First-Generation Poor and Working-Class Students to College." It has been used as a handout in various student orientations, included as a chapter in Teresa Heinz Housel and Vickie Harvey's "The Invisibility Factor: Administrators and Faculty Reach Out to…

  10. Family Capital: How First-Generation Higher-Education Students Break the Intergenerational Cycle. Discussion Paper No. 1322-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gofen, Anat

    2007-01-01

    The first children in a family to attain a higher education, referred to as "first-generation students," embody the realization of social mobility. Previous analysis has often portrayed them as succeeding despite their family background. This research suggests that although they face many material challenges, their families are often a key…

  11. The Four-Year Experience of First-Generation Students at a Small Independent University: Engagement, Student Learning, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explored the four-year college experience of first-generation and continuing-generation students at a small private institution. Using Astin's I-E-O model (1970), the following variables in the student experience were considered: precollege student characteristics (input); engagement in academic experiences, cocurricular…

  12. Navigating Multiple Worlds: A Grounded Theory of Latina Students' Identity as Latina First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Patricia Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students. Constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006) was used to explore two research questions: (a) For Latina students who are the first in their family to go to college, what is their understanding of being a Latina…

  13. Self-Directed Learning Characteristics of First-Generation, First-Year College Students Participating in a Summer Bridge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance understanding of self-directed learning characteristics of first-year, first-generation college students participating in a summer bridge program. Understanding the experience of these students in higher education can lead to the development of programmatic and pedagogical strategies to better meet the…

  14. Perceptions of Challenges and Values of Higher Education between First Generation and Subsequent Generations on Male Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sylvia Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This research study focused on the perceptions of challenges and values of higher education between first-generation and subsequent-generation male Latinos and their factors affecting academic success. According to Gandara (2009), Latinas are making advancements in higher education, being committed to continue with college, and maintaining higher…

  15. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  16. An Emerging Professional Identity: Influences on the Achievement of High-Ability First-Generation College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Rinker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Using a qualitative interview design, this study examined factors contributing to the academic achievement of gifted first-generation college females. Findings indicated an emerging professional identity as the primary influence on achievement. The participants' high ability served as a passport to accessing coursework, extracurricular…

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among First-Generation Latino Youths in an English as a Second Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Adrian J.; Lakhwani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    First-generation Latino youths and their families may encounter significant challenges as they experience changes in their culture after migrating to a new country. Some Latino youths enter the United States having experienced trauma through premigration, migration, and postmigration stages of their transition. Many symptoms and behaviors…

  18. First Generation College Students in Engineering: A Grounded Theory Study of Family Influence on Academic Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Denise Rutledge

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a constructivist grounded theory describing the influence of family and those that serve a role similar to family on the academic decision making of undergraduate first generation in college (FGC) students majoring in engineering. FGC students, in this study, are students with neither parent having attained a bachelor's…

  19. A Phenomenological Study of How High School Advanced Placement Classes Prepared First-Generation College Students for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…

  20. Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Fryberg, Stephanie A; Markus, Hazel Rose; Johnson, Camille S; Covarrubias, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    American universities increasingly admit first-generation college students whose parents do not have 4-year degrees. Once admitted, these students tend to struggle academically, compared with continuing-generation students--students who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year degree. We propose a cultural mismatch theory that identifies 1 important source of this social class achievement gap. Four studies test the hypothesis that first-generation students underperform because interdependent norms from their mostly working-class backgrounds constitute a mismatch with middle-class independent norms prevalent in universities. First, assessing university cultural norms, surveys of university administrators revealed that American universities focus primarily on norms of independence. Second, identifying the hypothesized cultural mismatch, a longitudinal survey revealed that universities' focus on independence does not match first-generation students' relatively interdependent motives for attending college and that this cultural mismatch is associated with lower grades. Finally, 2 experiments at both private and public universities created a match or mismatch for first-generation students and examined the performance consequences. Together these studies revealed that representing the university culture in terms of independence (i.e., paving one's own paths) rendered academic tasks difficult and, thereby, undermined first-generation students' performance. Conversely, representing the university culture in terms of interdependence (i.e., being part of a community) reduced this sense of difficulty and eliminated the performance gap without adverse consequences for continuing-generation students. These studies address the urgent need to recognize cultural obstacles that contribute to the social class achievement gap and to develop interventions to address them.

  1. Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Fryberg, Stephanie A; Markus, Hazel Rose; Johnson, Camille S; Covarrubias, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    American universities increasingly admit first-generation college students whose parents do not have 4-year degrees. Once admitted, these students tend to struggle academically, compared with continuing-generation students--students who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year degree. We propose a cultural mismatch theory that identifies 1 important source of this social class achievement gap. Four studies test the hypothesis that first-generation students underperform because interdependent norms from their mostly working-class backgrounds constitute a mismatch with middle-class independent norms prevalent in universities. First, assessing university cultural norms, surveys of university administrators revealed that American universities focus primarily on norms of independence. Second, identifying the hypothesized cultural mismatch, a longitudinal survey revealed that universities' focus on independence does not match first-generation students' relatively interdependent motives for attending college and that this cultural mismatch is associated with lower grades. Finally, 2 experiments at both private and public universities created a match or mismatch for first-generation students and examined the performance consequences. Together these studies revealed that representing the university culture in terms of independence (i.e., paving one's own paths) rendered academic tasks difficult and, thereby, undermined first-generation students' performance. Conversely, representing the university culture in terms of interdependence (i.e., being part of a community) reduced this sense of difficulty and eliminated the performance gap without adverse consequences for continuing-generation students. These studies address the urgent need to recognize cultural obstacles that contribute to the social class achievement gap and to develop interventions to address them. PMID:22390227

  2. Efavirenz a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of first-generation: Approaches based on its medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Mônica M; Costa, Carolina C P; Bezerra, Talitha C; da Silva, Fernando de C; Boechat, Núbia

    2016-01-27

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that affects individuals on all continents. In 1987, the antiretroviral therapy began increasing survival rates and improving the quality of life for patients. Efavirenz (EFV) is a drug widely used in the treatment of HIV-AIDS since 1998. Belonging to a class of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), it directly blocks the action of the enzyme and consequently the multiplication of the virus. Although EFV has provided excellent results in reducing viral load, cases of resistance associated with adverse effects have led to the search to find new analogs of this drug. Although many researchers are involved in this quest, curiously there is still no clinical substitute for EFV. To develop a second-generation version of EFV, it is essential understand the structure-activity relationships of the derivative compounds. Thus, the aims of the present review are to compare EFV and its derivatives using medicinal chemistry and to describe the main synthetic routes. PMID:26708112

  3. Efavirenz a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of first-generation: Approaches based on its medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Mônica M; Costa, Carolina C P; Bezerra, Talitha C; da Silva, Fernando de C; Boechat, Núbia

    2016-01-27

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that affects individuals on all continents. In 1987, the antiretroviral therapy began increasing survival rates and improving the quality of life for patients. Efavirenz (EFV) is a drug widely used in the treatment of HIV-AIDS since 1998. Belonging to a class of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), it directly blocks the action of the enzyme and consequently the multiplication of the virus. Although EFV has provided excellent results in reducing viral load, cases of resistance associated with adverse effects have led to the search to find new analogs of this drug. Although many researchers are involved in this quest, curiously there is still no clinical substitute for EFV. To develop a second-generation version of EFV, it is essential understand the structure-activity relationships of the derivative compounds. Thus, the aims of the present review are to compare EFV and its derivatives using medicinal chemistry and to describe the main synthetic routes.

  4. Search for first-generation scalar leptoquarks in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Arnoud, Y.; Askew, A.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2004-12-01

    The authors report on a search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 252 pb{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the D0 detector. They observe no evidence for LQ production in the topologies arising from LQ{ovr LQ} {yields} eqeq and LQ{ovr LQ} {yields} eqvq, and derive 95% C.L. lower limits on the LQ mass as a function of {beta}, where {beta} is the branching fraction for LQ {yields} eq. The limits are 241 and 218 GeV/c{sup 2} for {beta} = 1 and 0.5, respectively. These results are combined with those obtained by D0 at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV, which increases these LQ mass limits to 256 and 234 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  5. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  6. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  7. Preconception Alcohol Increases Offspring Vulnerability to Stress.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Shaima; Chastain, Lucy G; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Cabrera, Miguel A; Sochacki, Kamil; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-10-01

    The effect of preconception drinking by the mother on the life-long health outcomes of her children is not known, and therefore, in this study using an animal model, we determined the impact of preconception alcohol drinking of the mother on offspring stress response during adulthood. In our preconception alcohol exposure model, adult female rats were fed with 6.7% alcohol in their diet for 4 weeks, went without alcohol for 3 weeks and were bred to generate male and female offspring. Preconception alcohol-exposed offsprings' birth weight, body growth, stress response, anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in stress regulatory gene and protein hormone levels were evaluated. In addition, roles of epigenetic mechanisms in preconception alcohol effects were determined. Alcohol feeding three weeks prior to conception significantly affected pregnancy outcomes of female rats, with respect to delivery period and birth weight of offspring, without affecting maternal care behaviors. Preconception alcohol negatively affected offspring adult health, producing an increased stress hormone response to an immune challenge. In addition, preconception alcohol was associated with changes in expression and methylation profiles of stress regulatory genes in various brain areas. These changes in stress regulatory genes were normalized following treatment with a DNA methylation blocker during the postnatal period. These data highlight the novel possibility that preconception alcohol affects the inheritance of stress-related diseases possibly by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27296153

  8. Life cycle assessment of first-generation biofuels using a nitrogen crop model.

    PubMed

    Gallejones, P; Pardo, G; Aizpurua, A; del Prado, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to assess the impacts of biofuel production using a method integrating the simulated values of a new semi-empirical model at the crop production stage within a life cycle assessment (LCA). This new approach enabled us to capture some of the effects that climatic conditions and crop management have on soil nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions, crop yields and other nitrogen (N) losses. This analysis considered the whole system to produce 1 MJ of biofuel (bioethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed). Non-renewable energy use, global warming potential (GWP), acidification, eutrophication and land competition are considered as potential environmental impacts. Different co-products were handled by system expansion. The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the variability due to site-specific conditions of climate and fertiliser management of the LCA of two different products: biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from wheat produced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), and (ii) to improve the estimations of the LCA impacts due to N losses (N₂O, NO₃, NH₃), normally estimated with unspecific emission factors (EFs), that contribute to the impact categories analysed in the LCA of biofuels at local scale. Using biodiesel and bioethanol derived from rapeseed and wheat instead of conventional diesel and gasoline, respectively, would reduce non-renewable energy dependence (-55%) and GWP (-40%), on average, but would increase eutrophication (42 times more potential). An uncertainty analysis for GWP impact showed that the variability associated with the prediction of the major contributor to global warming potential (soil N₂O) can significantly affect the results from the LCA. Therefore the use of a model to account for local factors will improve the precision of the assessment and reduce the uncertainty associated with the convenience of the use of biofuels.

  9. Life cycle assessment of first-generation biofuels using a nitrogen crop model.

    PubMed

    Gallejones, P; Pardo, G; Aizpurua, A; del Prado, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to assess the impacts of biofuel production using a method integrating the simulated values of a new semi-empirical model at the crop production stage within a life cycle assessment (LCA). This new approach enabled us to capture some of the effects that climatic conditions and crop management have on soil nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions, crop yields and other nitrogen (N) losses. This analysis considered the whole system to produce 1 MJ of biofuel (bioethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed). Non-renewable energy use, global warming potential (GWP), acidification, eutrophication and land competition are considered as potential environmental impacts. Different co-products were handled by system expansion. The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the variability due to site-specific conditions of climate and fertiliser management of the LCA of two different products: biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from wheat produced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), and (ii) to improve the estimations of the LCA impacts due to N losses (N₂O, NO₃, NH₃), normally estimated with unspecific emission factors (EFs), that contribute to the impact categories analysed in the LCA of biofuels at local scale. Using biodiesel and bioethanol derived from rapeseed and wheat instead of conventional diesel and gasoline, respectively, would reduce non-renewable energy dependence (-55%) and GWP (-40%), on average, but would increase eutrophication (42 times more potential). An uncertainty analysis for GWP impact showed that the variability associated with the prediction of the major contributor to global warming potential (soil N₂O) can significantly affect the results from the LCA. Therefore the use of a model to account for local factors will improve the precision of the assessment and reduce the uncertainty associated with the convenience of the use of biofuels. PMID:25461117

  10. Embracing Resistance at the Margins: First-Generation Latino Students' Testimonios on Dual/Concurrent Enrollment High School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite moderate gains in equal educational opportunities over the past 60 years, low-income students of color continue to lag behind their middle-class, White peers. This is particularly true for first-generation Latina/o students who: (a) have the highest K-12 drop-out rate than any other ethnic group in U.S. schools; (b) are underrepresented in…

  11. Impact of stent length on clinical outcomes of first-generation and new-generation drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hirokazu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Dohi, Tomotaka; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Naito, Ryo; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare first- and new-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) which are implanted in long lesion. Stent length is known to be a predictor of adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even with the first-generation DESs. The introduction of new-generation DESs has reduced the rates of adverse clinical events. However, the impact of stent length on long-term clinical outcomes is not well known. A total of 1181 consecutive patients who underwent PCI using either a first-generation DES (n = 885) or a new-generation DES (n = 296) between 2004 and 2011 were investigated. In each of the stent groups, the patients were divided into two groups by stent length (>32 and ≤32 mm) and compared. During the follow-up period, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) was significantly higher for patients with long stents implanted than with short stents (P < 0.01; log-rank test) in the first-generation DES group. However, there was no difference in the incidence of MACEs between the long- and short-stent groups in the new-generation DES group (P = 0.24; log-rank test). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, stent length was not associated with adverse events in the new-generation DES groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.87; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.71-1.04; P = 0.14]. Implanted stent length was significantly associated with a higher risk of MACEs in patients who received first-generation DESs, but not in patients who received the new-generation DESs.

  12. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor.

    PubMed

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring.

  13. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    PubMed Central

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  14. Too close and too rigid: applying the Circumplex Model of Family Systems to first-generation family firms.

    PubMed

    Michael-Tsabari, Nava; Lavee, Yoav

    2012-06-01

    Despite growing research interest in family businesses, little is known about the characteristics of the families engaging in them. The present paper uses Olson's (Journal of Psychotherapy & the Family, 1988, 4(12), 7-49; Journal of Family Therapy, 2000, 22, 144-167) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems to look at first-generation family firms. We describe existing typologies of family businesses and discuss similarities between the characteristics of first-generation family firms and the rigidly enmeshed family type described in the Circumplex Model. The Steinberg family business (Gibbon & Hadekel (1990) Steinberg: The breakup of a family empire. ON, Canada: MacMillan) serves to illustrate the difficulties of rigidly enmeshed first-generation family firms. Implications for understanding troubled family businesses are discussed together with guidelines for the assessment of a family business in crisis and for intervention: enhancing open communication; allowing for more flexible leadership style, roles, and rules; and maintaining a balance between togetherness and separateness. PMID:22765328

  15. Too close and too rigid: applying the Circumplex Model of Family Systems to first-generation family firms.

    PubMed

    Michael-Tsabari, Nava; Lavee, Yoav

    2012-06-01

    Despite growing research interest in family businesses, little is known about the characteristics of the families engaging in them. The present paper uses Olson's (Journal of Psychotherapy & the Family, 1988, 4(12), 7-49; Journal of Family Therapy, 2000, 22, 144-167) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems to look at first-generation family firms. We describe existing typologies of family businesses and discuss similarities between the characteristics of first-generation family firms and the rigidly enmeshed family type described in the Circumplex Model. The Steinberg family business (Gibbon & Hadekel (1990) Steinberg: The breakup of a family empire. ON, Canada: MacMillan) serves to illustrate the difficulties of rigidly enmeshed first-generation family firms. Implications for understanding troubled family businesses are discussed together with guidelines for the assessment of a family business in crisis and for intervention: enhancing open communication; allowing for more flexible leadership style, roles, and rules; and maintaining a balance between togetherness and separateness.

  16. Modeling of Solar Resource from VIS Images of Meteosat First Generation over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, M.; Singal, L.; Martin, L.; Polo, J.

    2012-04-01

    The commencement of India's ambitious program to install a power generation capacity of 20 GW from solar PV and CSP technologies by 2022 requires detailed study of the solar resource over India especially in view of the non-availability of accurate and qualified data. This is further compounded by the presence of aerosols due to anthropogenic emissions and dynamic presence of water vapour in the atmosphere, particularly affecting direct normal irradiation when no measured DNI historical data is available. The use of satellite images as an input for deriving solar irradiance time series is accepted as a reliable methodology with good accuracy. There are several models aimed at this objective and the use of Heliosat-2 and Heliosat-3 methods, based on the first and second generation of Meteosat satellites is widespread in Europe. This approach with a modified model was proposed with the inclusion of additional independent variables to the cloud index, such as the movements of the cloud index distribution and the air mass; and daily turbidity values between others variables. This paper is aimed at describing the work with Heliosat-3 based on MFG images and characteristics. A comparison with 51 ground data for 2011 was performed and the results were similar to studies in Europe, that is, less than 10% RMSE in global horizontal and direct normal irradiance. Further, the data was compared with other methodologies used, particularly NASA averages from years 1985 - 2005 and NREL data for years 2002 - 2007. 1. DATA India sites (51 C-WET) 2. RESULTS The DNI data using adopted modifications of the Heliostat models was found to be the closest to data from 51 ground stations. Data from satellite modeling was closest to measured data emphasized the large loading of aerosols when measuring DNI. GHI data exhibited insignificant impact from aerosols. 3. COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results emphasize the importance of the knowledge of aerosol loading especially in countries with high

  17. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  18. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Akiko; Morinobu, Shigeru; Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-06-01

    It is known that the early environment affects the mental development of rodent and human offspring. However, it is not known specifically whether a postpartum depressive state influences the depressive state in offspring. Using learned helplessness (LH) in rats as an animal model of depression, we examined the influence of maternal postpartum LH on responses to the LH test of offspring. Dam rats were judged as LH or non-helpless (nLH) on postnatal days (PN) 2-3, and maternal behavior was recorded during PN2-14. On PN 45-46, offspring were subjected to the LH test. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were measured before and after the LH test in offspring. Active nursing in LH dams was significantly lower than that in nLH dams. Susceptibility to LH in the offspring of LH dams was significantly higher than in those of nLH dams, and was negatively correlated with active nursing by LH dams. The GR mRNA levels before and after the LH test were lower in the offspring of LH dams than in those of nLH dams, and the reduced basal GR mRNA and protein might have resulted in the higher CORT response after the LH test. There was no significant difference in BDNF mRNA in the offspring of LH and nLH dams. These findings suggest that early postpartum LH decreased active nursing and increased depression-like behavior in the adolescent offspring via dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:19341740

  19. Evaluation of first generation synthetic cannabinoids on binding at non-cannabinoid receptors and in a battery of in vivo assays in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N; Huffman, John W; Thomas, Brian F

    2016-11-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that abused synthetic cannabinoids produce cannabis-like "highs," but some of their effects may also differ from traditional cannabinoids such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study examined the binding affinities of first-generation indole-derived synthetic cannabinoids at cannabinoid and noncannabinoid receptors and their effects in a functional observational battery (FOB) and drug discrimination in mice. All seven compounds, except JWH-391, had favorable affinity (≤159 nM) for both cannabinoid receptors. In contrast, binding at noncannabinoid receptors was absent or weak. In the FOB, THC and the six active compounds disrupted behaviors in CNS activation and muscle tone/equilibrium domains. Unlike THC, however, synthetic cannabinoids impaired behavior across a wider dose and domain range, producing autonomic effects and signs of CNS excitability and sensorimotor reactivity. In addition, mice acquired JWH-018 discrimination, and THC and JWH-073 produced full substitution whereas the 5-HT2B antagonist mianserin did not substitute in mice trained to discriminate JWH-018 or THC. Urinary metabolite analysis showed that the compounds were extensively metabolized, with metabolites that could contribute to their in vivo effects. Together, these results show that, while first-generation synthetic cannabinoids shared some effects that were similar to those of THC, they also possessed effects that differed from traditional cannabinoids. The high nanomolar (or absent) affinities of these compounds at receptors for most major neurotransmitters suggests that these divergent effects may be related to the greater potencies and/or efficacies at CB1 receptors; however, action(s) at noncannabinoid receptors yet to be assessed or via different signaling pathways cannot be ruled out. PMID:27449567

  20. Evaluation of first generation synthetic cannabinoids on binding at non-cannabinoid receptors and in a battery of in vivo assays in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N; Huffman, John W; Thomas, Brian F

    2016-11-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that abused synthetic cannabinoids produce cannabis-like "highs," but some of their effects may also differ from traditional cannabinoids such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study examined the binding affinities of first-generation indole-derived synthetic cannabinoids at cannabinoid and noncannabinoid receptors and their effects in a functional observational battery (FOB) and drug discrimination in mice. All seven compounds, except JWH-391, had favorable affinity (≤159 nM) for both cannabinoid receptors. In contrast, binding at noncannabinoid receptors was absent or weak. In the FOB, THC and the six active compounds disrupted behaviors in CNS activation and muscle tone/equilibrium domains. Unlike THC, however, synthetic cannabinoids impaired behavior across a wider dose and domain range, producing autonomic effects and signs of CNS excitability and sensorimotor reactivity. In addition, mice acquired JWH-018 discrimination, and THC and JWH-073 produced full substitution whereas the 5-HT2B antagonist mianserin did not substitute in mice trained to discriminate JWH-018 or THC. Urinary metabolite analysis showed that the compounds were extensively metabolized, with metabolites that could contribute to their in vivo effects. Together, these results show that, while first-generation synthetic cannabinoids shared some effects that were similar to those of THC, they also possessed effects that differed from traditional cannabinoids. The high nanomolar (or absent) affinities of these compounds at receptors for most major neurotransmitters suggests that these divergent effects may be related to the greater potencies and/or efficacies at CB1 receptors; however, action(s) at noncannabinoid receptors yet to be assessed or via different signaling pathways cannot be ruled out.

  1. Maternal diabetes modulates renal morphogenesis in offspring.

    PubMed

    Tran, Stella; Chen, Yun-Wen; Chenier, Isabelle; Chan, John S D; Quaggin, Susan; Hébert, Marie-Josée; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2008-05-01

    Maternal diabetes leads to an adverse in utero environment, but whether maternal diabetes impairs nephrogenesis is unknown. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in pregnant Hoxb7-green fluorescence protein mice at embryonic day 13, and the offspring were examined at several time points after birth. Compared with offspring of nondiabetic controls, offspring of diabetic mice had lower body weight, body size, kidney weight, and nephron number. The observed renal dysmorphogenesis may be the result of increased apoptosis, because immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly more apoptotic podocytes as well as increased active caspase-3 immunostaining in the renal tubules compared with control mice. Regarding potential mediators of these differences, offspring of diabetic mice had increased expression of intrarenal angiotensinogen and renin mRNA, upregulation of NF-kappaB isoforms p50 and p65, and activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In conclusion, maternal diabetes impairs nephrogenesis, possibly via enhanced intrarenal activation of the renin-angiotensin system and NF-kappaB signaling.

  2. Attributes and characteristics of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) high school program for first-generation Latino students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ramon

    This study used a web-based survey collected data from 28 first-generation Latino engineers who participated in the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) program during their high school years. From the set of 28 respondents, 5 volunteered to participate in an optional telephone interview. The purpose of this study was to describe the critical attributes and characteristics of the MESA program that lead to success at both the high school and college levels for first-generation Latino students. Success at the high school level was operationally defined as successfully graduating with a high school diploma. Success at the college level was operationally defined here as college graduation with an engineering degree. Using a mixed-methods technique, the researcher attempted to secure consensus of opinion from a sample population of 28 first-generation Latino engineers. The mixed-methods technique was chosen since it allowed the researcher to draw on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to the findings, the typical respondent felt that mentoring was the attribute of the MESA program that most prepared him to graduate from high school. The respondents felt that the following MESA attributes most helped them transition into an undergraduate engineering program: Academic and University Advising; Enrichment Activities; Career Advising; Field Trips; Mentoring; Scholarship Incentive Awards; and Speakers. The respondents viewed study groups as the MESA attribute that best prepared them to graduate college with an engineering degree. This study was purposefully designed as a descriptive study. Future research is required to extend this work into an evaluative study. This would allow for the generalization of the critical attributes to the general student population serviced by the MESA program.

  3. Offspring size in a resident species affects community assembly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kurt; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-03-01

    Offspring size is a trait of fundamental importance that affects the ecology and evolution of a range of organisms. Despite the pervasive impact of offspring size for those offspring, the influence of offspring size on other species in the broader community remains unexplored. Such community-wide effects of offspring size are likely, but they have not been anticipated by theory or explored empirically. For a marine invertebrate community, we manipulated the size and density of offspring of a resident species (Watersipora subtorquata) in the field and examined subsequent community assembly around that resident species. Communities that assembled around larger offspring were denser and less diverse than communities that assembled around smaller offspring. Differences in niche usage by colonies from smaller and larger offspring may be driving these community-level effects. Our results suggest that offspring size is an important but unexplored source of ecological variation and that life-history theory must accommodate the effects of offspring size on community assembly. Life-history theory often assumes that environmental variation drives intraspecific variation in offspring size, and our results show that the converse can also occur.

  4. Offspring size in a resident species affects community assembly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kurt; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-03-01

    Offspring size is a trait of fundamental importance that affects the ecology and evolution of a range of organisms. Despite the pervasive impact of offspring size for those offspring, the influence of offspring size on other species in the broader community remains unexplored. Such community-wide effects of offspring size are likely, but they have not been anticipated by theory or explored empirically. For a marine invertebrate community, we manipulated the size and density of offspring of a resident species (Watersipora subtorquata) in the field and examined subsequent community assembly around that resident species. Communities that assembled around larger offspring were denser and less diverse than communities that assembled around smaller offspring. Differences in niche usage by colonies from smaller and larger offspring may be driving these community-level effects. Our results suggest that offspring size is an important but unexplored source of ecological variation and that life-history theory must accommodate the effects of offspring size on community assembly. Life-history theory often assumes that environmental variation drives intraspecific variation in offspring size, and our results show that the converse can also occur. PMID:26046291

  5. Leadership's Role in Recruitment and Retention of First Generation, Low-Income Latino Students into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Eliseo A.

    Fostering resiliency and educational success in students that are faced with adversity is not a simple task. The gap in educational success and achievement among low-income, first generation, traditionally marginalized students continues to be significant. California's educational system needs to stop the hemorrhaging from its educational pipeline, also known as the P-20 pipeline, of all students, especially those groups of students with larger gaps in educational attainment. One potential path towards fixing California's educational pipeline for all students is to form and keep partnerships with programs such as Upward Bound, AVID, and Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). In 2010-11, the California Department of Education (CDE) reported that over 51% of students enrolled in California's school system and 51% of all California high school seniors were Latino were Latino. Of the 231,231 Latino high school seniors, 79%, graduated. However, of those that graduated, only 26%, met University of California/California State University (UC/CSU) college entrance requirements. Even though 79% of Latinos graduated, 74% did not qualify to apply to a UC or CSU. If the majority of Latino students continue to fall through holes in the educational pipeline, companies will continue to look abroad to fill STEM jobs that remain unfilled by American workers (California Department of Education [CDE], 2012). Alongside the U.S.'s current economic woes, the lack of college preparedness and knowledge by parents and students has led to a decrease in first generation, low-income Latino students' higher education enrollment (Camacho & Lord, 2011). With strong and positive leadership from family, supplemented by the MESA program, these youths can exert their resiliency, face adversity, and overcome extraordinary barriers. Leaders in education such as teachers, coordinators, advisers, administrators, and parents are in the best position to teach students about resilience (Ginsburg, 2007

  6. Performance and cycle life test results of a PEVE first-generation prismatic nickel/metal-hydride battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, B. G.; Duong, T. Q.; Bloom, I.

    A first-generation, prismatic, nickel/metal-hydride battery pack from Panasonic EV Energy Company Ltd. (PEVE) was characterized following the standard PNGV test procedures and then cycle life tested at 25 °C. The pack met, or exceeded, PNGV power and energy goals at the beginning of life. After more than 500,000 cycles, the data for capacity and discharge pulse power capability showed no measurable fade; similarly, discharge pulse resistance at 60% DOD also showed no measurable change. After the same pack was tested with two size factors, it still met or exceeded the PNGV goals.

  7. Meiotic recombination in normal and clone bulls and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Hart, E J; Pinton, A; Powell, A; Wall, R; King, W A

    2008-01-01

    Homologous chromosome pairing and recombination are essential components of meiosis and sexual reproduction. The reshuffling of genetic material through breakage and reunion of chromatids ensure proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in reduction division and genetic diversity in the progeny. The advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) as a reproductive biotechnology for use in livestock industry has made it easy to bypass these vital steps. However, few studies have been carried out on the impact of SCNT on the reproductive characteristics of cloned animals and, none to date, on the meiotic processes in animals, which were created by circumventing meiosis. In an attempt to assess the impact of cloning by SCNT on the meiotic processes, we undertook an immunocytological comparison of recombination in normal and clone bulls using antibodies raised against the synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) to label the lateral elements and the mismatch repair protein 1 (MLH1) foci on bivalents as indicators of recombination events. Our studies involving five normal bulls of proven fertility, two SCNT-derived bulls, and four mature offspring of SCNT bulls showed that the mean number of crossing over per spermatocyte for normal bulls (42 +/- 4 SD; ranging from 33 to 56), was not significantly different from that of SCNT-derived bulls (43 +/- 5 SD; ranging from 35 to 56), and the offspring of SCNT-derived bulls (43 +/- 5 SD; ranging from 37 to 58). It would appear that circumventing meiosis to produce these animals does not influence the meiotic processes revealed by MLH1 foci detected in spermatocytes.

  8. Loss of anti-contractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue in offspring of obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaborska, K E; Wareing, M; Edwards, G; Austin, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop obesity and associated cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anti-contractile effect on the vasculature, which is reduced in hypertension and obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop PVAT dysfunction in later life. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 10% (control) or 45% fat (high fat diet, HFD) for 12 weeks prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were killed at 12 or 24 weeks of age and tension in PVAT-intact or -denuded mesenteric artery segments was measured isometrically. Concentration–response curves were constructed to U46619 and norepinephrine. Results: Only 24-week-old HFD offspring were hypertensive (P<0.0001), although the anti-contractile effect of PVAT was lost in vessels from HFD offspring of each age. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with 100 μM l-NMMA attenuated the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and increased contractility of PVAT-denuded arteries (P<0.05, P<0.0001). The increase in contraction was smaller in PVAT-intact than PVAT-denuded vessels from 12-week-old HFD offspring, suggesting decreased PVAT-derived NO and release of a contractile factor (P<0.07). An additional, NO-independent effect of PVAT was evident only in norepinephrine-contracted vessels. Activation of AMP-activated kinase (with 10 μM A769662) was anti-contractile in PVAT-denuded (P<0.0001) and -intact (P<0.01) vessels and was due solely to NO in controls; the AMPK effect was similar in HFD offspring vessels (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively) but was partially NO-independent. Conclusions: The diminished anti-contractile effects of PVAT in offspring of HFD dams are primarily due to release of a PVAT-derived contractile factor and reduced NO bioavailability. PMID:27102050

  9. First generation biofuels compete.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marshall A

    2010-11-30

    Rising petroleum prices during 2005-2008, and passage of the 2007 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act with a renewable fuel standard of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, encouraged massive investments in U.S. ethanol plants. Consequently, corn demand increased dramatically and prices tripled. This created a strong positive correlation between petroleum, corn, and food prices resulting in an outcry from U.S. consumers and livestock producers, and food riots in several developing countries. Other factors contributed to higher grain and food prices. Economic growth, especially in Asia, and a weaker U.S. dollar encouraged U.S. grain exports. Investors shifted funds into the commodity's future markets. Higher fuel costs for food processing and transportation put upward pressure on retail food prices. From mid-2008 to mid-2009, petroleum prices fell, the U.S. dollar strengthened, and the world economy entered a serious recession with high unemployment, housing market foreclosures, collapse of the stock market, reduced global trade, and a decline in durable goods and food purchases. Agricultural commodity prices declined about 50%. Biotechnology has had modest impacts on the biofuel sector. Seed corn with traits that help control insects and weeds has been widely adopted by U.S. farmers. Genetically engineered enzymes have reduced ethanol production costs and increased conversion efficiency. PMID:20601265

  10. First generation biofuels compete.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marshall A

    2010-11-30

    Rising petroleum prices during 2005-2008, and passage of the 2007 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act with a renewable fuel standard of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, encouraged massive investments in U.S. ethanol plants. Consequently, corn demand increased dramatically and prices tripled. This created a strong positive correlation between petroleum, corn, and food prices resulting in an outcry from U.S. consumers and livestock producers, and food riots in several developing countries. Other factors contributed to higher grain and food prices. Economic growth, especially in Asia, and a weaker U.S. dollar encouraged U.S. grain exports. Investors shifted funds into the commodity's future markets. Higher fuel costs for food processing and transportation put upward pressure on retail food prices. From mid-2008 to mid-2009, petroleum prices fell, the U.S. dollar strengthened, and the world economy entered a serious recession with high unemployment, housing market foreclosures, collapse of the stock market, reduced global trade, and a decline in durable goods and food purchases. Agricultural commodity prices declined about 50%. Biotechnology has had modest impacts on the biofuel sector. Seed corn with traits that help control insects and weeds has been widely adopted by U.S. farmers. Genetically engineered enzymes have reduced ethanol production costs and increased conversion efficiency.

  11. Predicting the math/science career goals of low-income prospective first-generation college students.

    PubMed

    Garriott, Patton O; Flores, Lisa Y; Martens, Matthew P

    2013-04-01

    The present study used social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to predict the math/science goal intentions of a sample of low-income prospective first-generation college students (N = 305). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model depicting relationships between contextual (i.e., social class, learning experiences, proximal supports and barriers) and person-cognitive (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals) variables as hypothesized in SCCT and based on previous literature on low-income first-generation college students. Results indicated that the hypothesized model provided the best representation of the data. All paths in the model were statistically significant, with the exceptions of paths from self-efficacy to goals, outcome expectations to interests, and perceived barriers to self-efficacy. Bootstrapping procedures revealed that the relationships between social class, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations were mediated through learning experiences. Furthermore, the relationship between social supports and goals was mediated by self-efficacy and interests and the relationships between self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals were mediated by interests. Contrary to hypotheses, the relationship between barriers and goals was not mediated by self-efficacy and interests. The hypothesis that proximal contextual supports and barriers would moderate the relationship between interests and goals was not supported. The final model explained 66% and 55% of the variance in math/science interests and goals, respectively. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  12. First-generation black-hole-forming supernovae and the metal abundance pattern of a very iron-poor star.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-04-24

    It has been proposed theoretically that the first generation of stars in the Universe (population III) would be as massive as 100 solar masses (100 M(O)), because of inefficient cooling of the precursor gas clouds. Recently, the most iron-deficient (but still carbon-rich) low-mass star--HE0107-5240--was discovered. If this is a population III star that gained its metals (elements heavier than helium) after its formation, it would challenge the theoretical picture of the formation of the first stars. Here we report that the patterns of elemental abundance in HE0107-5240 (and other extremely metal-poor stars) are in good accord with the nucleosynthesis that occurs in stars with masses of 20-130 M(O) when they become supernovae if, during the explosions, the ejecta undergo substantial mixing and fallback to form massive black holes. Such supernovae have been observed. The abundance patterns are not, however, consistent with enrichment by supernovae from stars in the range 130-300 M(O). We accordingly infer that the first-generation supernovae came mostly from explosions of approximately 20-130 M(O) stars; some of these produced iron-poor but carbon- and oxygen-rich ejecta. Low-mass second-generation stars, like HE0107-5240, could form because the carbon and oxygen provided pathways for the gas to cool.

  13. Neutron Dosimetry on the Full-Core First Generation VVER-440 Aimed at Reactor Support Structure Load Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodkin, P.; Borodkin, G.; Khrennikov, N.; Konheiser, J.; Noack, K.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor support structures (RSS), especially the ferritic steel wall of the water tank, of first-generation VVER-440 are non-restorable reactor equipment, and their lifetime may restrict plant-life. All operated Russian first generation VVER-440 have a reduced core with dummy assemblies except Unit 4 of Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP). In comparison with other reactors, the full-core loading scheme of this reactor provides the highest neutron fluence on the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and RSS accumulated over design service-life and its prolongation. The radiation load parameters on the RPV and RSS that have resulted from this core loading scheme should be evaluated by means of precise calculations and validated by ex-vessel neutron dosimetry to provide the reliable assessment of embrittlement parameters of these reactor components. The results of different types of calculations and their comparison with measured data have been analyzed in this paper. The calculational analysis of RSS fluence rate variation in dependence on the core loading scheme, including the standard and low leakage core as well as the introduction of dummy assemblies, is presented in this paper.

  14. A mathematical model on the optimal timing of offspring desertion.

    PubMed

    Seno, Hiromi; Endo, Hiromi

    2007-06-01

    We consider the offspring desertion as the optimal strategy for the deserter parent, analyzing a mathematical model for its expected reproductive success. It is shown that the optimality of the offspring desertion significantly depends on the offsprings' birth timing in the mating season, and on the other ecological parameters characterizing the innate nature of considered animals. Especially, the desertion is less likely to occur for the offsprings born in the later period of mating season. It is also implied that the offspring desertion after a partially biparental care would be observable only with a specific condition.

  15. A mathematical model on the optimal timing of offspring desertion.

    PubMed

    Seno, Hiromi; Endo, Hiromi

    2007-06-01

    We consider the offspring desertion as the optimal strategy for the deserter parent, analyzing a mathematical model for its expected reproductive success. It is shown that the optimality of the offspring desertion significantly depends on the offsprings' birth timing in the mating season, and on the other ecological parameters characterizing the innate nature of considered animals. Especially, the desertion is less likely to occur for the offsprings born in the later period of mating season. It is also implied that the offspring desertion after a partially biparental care would be observable only with a specific condition. PMID:17328918

  16. Academic and Social Integration: A Phenomenological Study of First-Generation, Female Student Experience and Persistence in Community College TRiO Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Brianna Bates

    2012-01-01

    First-generation, female college students often face an uphill battle in their quest for degree attainment. Literature suggests several areas in which first-generation college students struggle, but there are programs designed to help this demographic of student; specifically the TRiO program, a federally-funded operation that specializes in…

  17. Enrollment Factors that Predict Persistence of At-Risk (Low Income and First Generation) Students' Journey towards Completion of a Baccalaureate Degree at Idaho State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizar, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, track, and predict longitudinal differences (over the course of six years beginning fall semester 2001) between and among ISU low income, first generation, or the combination of low income and first generation freshman students; regarding persistence rate, and associated persistence factors, such as ACT…

  18. Science as a Classed and Gendered Endeavor: Persistence of Two White Female First-Generation College Students within an Undergraduate Science Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rachel E.; Kittleson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities aim for greater diversity in their undergraduate populations, one population researchers consider is first-generation students, or students whose parents do not have a college education. The research reported here addresses first-generation college students' discipline of study (e.g., biology) and its impact on…

  19. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  20. Chronic prenatal stress epigenetically modifies spinal cord BDNF expression to induce sex specific visceral hypersensitivity in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with abdomen pain as one of the primary symptoms. The etiology of IBS remains unknown. Epidemiological studies found that a subset of these patients have a history of adverse early-life events. We tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) epigenetically enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord to aggravate colon sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) differentially in male and female offspring. Methods We used heterotypic intermittent chronic stress (HeICS) protocols in pregnant dams from E11 until delivery. Results CPS induced significant visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) to CRD in male and female offspring. A second exposure to HeICS in adult offspring exacerbated VHS greater in female offspring that persisted longer than in male offspring. CPS upregulated BDNF expression in the lumbar-sacral dorsal horn that correlated with the exacerbation of VHS in female, but not in male offspring. The upregulation of BDNF was due to a significant increase in RNA Pol II binding, histone H3 acetylation and significant decrease in histone deacetylase 1 association with the core promoter of BDNF in female offspring. Other chronic prenatal and neonatal stress protocols were less effective than HeICS. Conclusion & Inferences The development of visceral hypersensitivity, which contributes to the symptom of intermittent abdominal pain, is a two-step process, chronic in utero stress followed by chronic stress in adult-life. This two-step process induces aggravated and persistent colon hypersensitivity in female than in male offspring. Our preclinical model explains several clinical features in IBS patients. PMID:24588943

  1. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, C A

    2015-08-13

    The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970's drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford's SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  2. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, C A

    2015-08-13

    The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970's drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford's SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975.

  3. Butanol production in a first-generation Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery: technical aspects and economics of greenfield projects.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economics of greenfield projects of a first-generation sugarcane biorefinery aimed to produce ethanol, sugar, power, and n-butanol was conducted taking into account different butanol fermentation technologies (regular microorganism and mutant strain with improved butanol yield) and market scenarios (chemicals and automotive fuel). The complete sugarcane biorefinery with the batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was simulated using Aspen Plus®. The biorefinery was designed to process 2 million tonne sugarcane per year and utilize 25%, 50%, and 25% of the available sugarcane juice to produce sugar, ethanol, and butanol, respectively. The investment on a biorefinery with butanol production showed to be more attractive [14.8% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.99] than the conventional 50:50 (ethanol:sugar) annexed plant [13.3% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.80] only in the case butanol is produced by an improved microorganism and traded as a chemical.

  4. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana de Oliveira; Panício, Maurício Isaac; Dantas, Marcos Paulo Suehiro; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring. PMID:25628190

  5. Direct costs of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

    PubMed

    Sethi, N; Tapper, E B; Vong, A; Sethi, S; Rourke, M; Afdhal, N H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Hepatitis C therapy, robust real-world data are needed to understand the costs and benefits of treatment alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the true direct cost of treatment in an unselected sequential population of patients treated at a tertiary care centre for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. A total of 200 consecutive patients were treated with interferon, ribavirin and a first-generation direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) between 2011 and 2013. A total of 41% had cirrhosis, 31% were prior relapsers, and 41% were prior partial or null responders. Costs used were wholesale acquisition cost prices for medications, average hospital costs per day for each diagnosis code based on US inpatient hospital charges. All costs were adjusted to 2013 dollars. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved in 97 patients (48.5%). A total of 14% experienced relapse, 19% breakthrough or nonresponse, and 18.5% discontinued secondary to side effects. Twenty per cent of patients had at least one hospitalization attributable to a complication of therapy. Thirty-seven per cent of patients required erythropoietin-stimulating agents, 16% received filgastrim, and 15% needed a red blood cell transfusion. The mean overall cost of treatment was $83,851 per patient. The cost per SVR was $172,889; $266,670 for patients with cirrhosis. The costs per SVR after treatment with first-generation DAAs are dependent on the stage of disease and therapy side effects. These real-world costs significantly exceed those described in prior cost-effectiveness assessments and should be used instead for future studies.

  6. Measuring immigration stress of first-generation female Korean immigrants in California: Psychometric evaluation of Demand of Immigration Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Norman, Gregory J.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Chhay, Douglas; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the US, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores the psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands of Immigration (DI) Scale among first-generation female Korean immigrants in California. Analyses included evaluation of factor structure, reliability, validity, and descriptive statistics of subscales. Design A surname driven sampling strategy was applied to randomly select a representative sample of adult female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. Study sample included 555 first-generation female Korean immigrants who were interviewed in Korean language. The 22-item DI scale was used to assess immigration stress in the study sample. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested six correlated factors existed in the DI scale: language barriers, sense of loss, not feeling at home, perceived discrimination, novelty, and occupation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated the factor structure. Language barriers accounted for the most variance of the DI Scale (29.11%). The DI scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Conclusion Evidence has been offered that the Korean-translated DI scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool to examine immigration stress among Korean immigrants. The Korean-translated DI scale has replicated factor structure obtained in other ethnicities, but addition of cultural-specific items is suggested for Korean immigrants. High levels of language and occupation related stress warrant attention from researchers, social workers and policy makers. Findings from this study will inform future interventions to alleviate stress due to demands of immigration. PMID:21213157

  7. Factors Associated With Electronic Cigarette Users’ Device Preferences and Transition From First Generation to Advanced Generation Devices

    PubMed Central

    Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Nichols, Travis T.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Foulds, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are becoming increasingly popular but little is known about how e-cig users’ transition between the different device types and what device characteristics and preferences may influence the transition. Methods: Four thousand four hundred twenty-one experienced e-cig users completed an online survey about their e-cig use, devices, and preferences. Participants included in analysis were ever cigarette smokers who used an e-cig at least 30 days in their lifetime and who reported the type of their first and current e-cig device and the nicotine concentration of their liquid. Analyses focused on transitions between “first generation” devices (same size as a cigarette with no button) and “advanced generation” devices (larger than a cigarette with a manual button) and differences between current users of each device type. Results: Most e-cig users (n = 2603, 58.9%) began use with a first generation device, and of these users, 63.7% subsequently transitioned to current use of an advanced generation device. Among users who began use with an advanced generation device (n = 1818, 41.1%), only 5.7% transitioned to a first generation device. Seventy-seven percent of current advanced generation e-cig users switched to their current device in order to obtain a “more satisfying hit.” Battery capabilities and liquid flavor choices also influenced device choice. Conclusion: E-cig users commonly begin use with a device shaped like a cigarette and transition to a larger device with a more powerful battery, a button for manual activation and a wider choice of liquid flavors. PMID:25744966

  8. Uptake of health services for common mental disorders by first-generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty AS; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Tuinebreijer, Wilco C; Gorissen, Wim HM; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Dekker, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background Migration and ethnic minority status have been associated with higher occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD), while mental health care utilisation by non-Western migrants has been reported to be low compared to the general population in Western host countries. Still, the evidence-base for this is poor. This study evaluates uptake of mental health services for CMD and psychological distress among first-generation non-Western migrants in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods A population-based survey. First generation non-Western migrants and ethnic Dutch respondents (N = 580) participated in structured interviews in their own languages. The interview included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Uptake of services was measured by self-report. Data were analysed using weighting techniques and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of subjects with a CMD during six months preceding the interview, 50.9% reported care for mental problems in that period; 35.0% contacted specialised services. In relation to CMD, ethnic groups were equally likely to access specialised mental health services. In relation to psychological distress, however, Moroccan migrants reported less uptake of primary care services (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.88). Conclusion About half of the ethnic Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan population in Amsterdam with CMD contact mental health services. Since the primary purpose of specialised mental health services is to treat "cases", this study provides strong indications for equal access to specialised care for these ethnic groups. The purpose of primary care services is however to treat psychological distress, so that access appears to be lower among Moroccan migrants. PMID:19698174

  9. Direct costs of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

    PubMed

    Sethi, N; Tapper, E B; Vong, A; Sethi, S; Rourke, M; Afdhal, N H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Hepatitis C therapy, robust real-world data are needed to understand the costs and benefits of treatment alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the true direct cost of treatment in an unselected sequential population of patients treated at a tertiary care centre for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. A total of 200 consecutive patients were treated with interferon, ribavirin and a first-generation direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) between 2011 and 2013. A total of 41% had cirrhosis, 31% were prior relapsers, and 41% were prior partial or null responders. Costs used were wholesale acquisition cost prices for medications, average hospital costs per day for each diagnosis code based on US inpatient hospital charges. All costs were adjusted to 2013 dollars. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved in 97 patients (48.5%). A total of 14% experienced relapse, 19% breakthrough or nonresponse, and 18.5% discontinued secondary to side effects. Twenty per cent of patients had at least one hospitalization attributable to a complication of therapy. Thirty-seven per cent of patients required erythropoietin-stimulating agents, 16% received filgastrim, and 15% needed a red blood cell transfusion. The mean overall cost of treatment was $83,851 per patient. The cost per SVR was $172,889; $266,670 for patients with cirrhosis. The costs per SVR after treatment with first-generation DAAs are dependent on the stage of disease and therapy side effects. These real-world costs significantly exceed those described in prior cost-effectiveness assessments and should be used instead for future studies. PMID:26010946

  10. Endonuclease G depletion may improve efficiency of first generation adenovirus vector DNA replication in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Misic, V; El-Mogy, M; Haj-Ahmad, Y

    2015-01-01

    First generation adenovirus (Ad5 ΔE1,E3) vectors are able to replicate their DNA in many tumour cells and can be used for oncotherapy. Highest rates of viral DNA replication occur in the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. In this study, we tried to increase the efficiency of Ad5 ΔE1,E3 DNA replication in the cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by using RNA interference (RNAi) to target endonuclease G (EndoG) whose depletion leads to an accumulation of cells in the G2/M transition. Targeting of EndoG by an shRNA encoded on an Ad5 ΔE1,E3 vector resulted in an early proliferation defect of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. This effect coincided with enhanced DNA replication and encoded transgene expression of an Ad5 ΔE1,E3 vector. Applied in high concentrations, the EndoG-targeting Ad5 ΔE1,E3 vector showed enhanced HeLa cell killing ability relative to control Ad5 ΔE1,E3 vectors. These effects are most likely the result of EndoG depletion, which causes cells to accumulate in the G2/M transition of the cell cycle and extends favourable cellular conditions for Ad5 ΔE1,E3 DNA replication. Targeting of EndoG by RNAi may be a viable strategy for improving both the levels of transgene expression and the oncolytic properties of first generation adenovirus vectors.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risks of suicidal acts in young offspring.

    PubMed

    Cnattingius, Sven; Svensson, Tobias; Granath, Fredrik; Iliadou, Anastasia

    2011-06-01

    Obstetric and neonatal complications have been associated with completed and attempted suicide (suicidal acts) in young offspring. Maternal smoking is one of the most important risk factors for obstetric complications, but the association between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring risk of suicidal acts is unknown. We performed a population-based study of 1,449,333 single births born in Sweden between 1983 and 1996, derived from linked registry data. Maternal smoking and risks of suicidal acts in offspring were estimated using hazard ratios, derived from proportional-hazard models, controlling for potential confounding of parental socio-demographic factors and psychiatric care in first degree relatives. To control for unmeasured familial confounding, a matched case-control analysis of suicidal acts was performed within sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure. In the cohort analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio for completed suicide among offspring to women smoking 1-9 cigarettes and at least 10 cigarettes per day were 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-2.16, and 1.54, 95% CI, 1.12-2.10. For suicidal acts, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.28, 95% CI 1.21-1.35 and 1.48, 95% CI 1.39-1.57, respectively. However, in sibling pairs discordant for suicidal acts and prenatal smoking exposure, we found no evidence that prenatal smoking exposure increased the risk of suicidal acts. We conclude that the association between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring risk of suicidal acts is probably confounded by unmeasured familial factors.

  12. Stable isotope tracer reveals that viviparous snakes transport amino acids to offspring during gestation.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beaupre, Steven J

    2012-03-01

    Viviparity and placentation have evolved from oviparity over 100 times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). The independent origins of placentation have resulted in a variety of placental morphologies in different taxa, ranging from simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues to endotheliochorial implantation that is homoplasious with mammalian placentation. Because the eggs of oviparous squamates transport gases and water from the environment and calcium from the eggshell, the placentae of viviparous squamates are thought to have initially evolved to accomplish these functions from within the maternal oviduct. Species with complex placentae have also been shown to rely substantially, or even primarily, on placental transport of organic nutrients for embryonic nutrition. However, it is unclear whether species with only simple placentae are also capable of transporting organic nutrients to offspring. Among viviparous squamates, all of the snakes that have been studied thus far have been shown to have simple placentae. However, most studies of snake placentation are limited to a single lineage, the North American Natricinae. We tested the abilities of four species of viviparous snakes - Agkistrodon contortrix (Viperidae), Boa constrictor (Boidae), Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae) and Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae: Natricinae) - to transport diet-derived amino acids to offspring during gestation. We fed [(15)N]leucine to pregnant snakes, and compared offspring (15)N content with that of unlabeled controls. Labeled females allocated significantly more (15)N to offspring than did controls, but (15)N allocation did not differ among species. Our results indicate that viviparous snakes are capable of transporting diet-derived amino acids to their offspring during gestation, possibly via placentation.

  13. Construction of a California condor BAC library and first-generation chicken-condor comparative physical map as an endangered species conservation genomics resource.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Michael N; Koriabine, Maxim; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Ryder, Oliver A

    2006-12-01

    To support genomic analysis of the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), a BAC library (CHORI-262) was generated using DNA from the blood of a female. The library consists of 89,665 recombinant BAC clones providing approximately 14-fold coverage of the presumed approximately 1.48-Gb genome. Taking advantage of recent progress in chicken genomics, we developed a first-generation comparative chicken-condor physical map using an overgo hybridization approach. The overgos were derived from chicken (164 probes) and New World vulture (8 probes) sequences. Screening a 2.8x subset of the total library resulted in 236 BAC-gene assignments with 2.5 positive BAC clones per successful probe. A preliminary comparative chicken-condor BAC-based map included 93 genes. Comparison of selected condor BAC sequences with orthologous chicken sequences suggested a high degree of conserved synteny between the two avian genomes. This work will aid in identification and characterization of candidate loci for the chondrodystrophy mutation to advance genetic management of this disease.

  14. A theoretical study of the OH-initiated gas-phase oxidation mechanism of β-pinene (C10H16): first generation products.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, L; Peeters, J

    2012-03-21

    An extensive mechanism for the OH-initiated oxidation of β-pinene up to the first-generation products was derived based on quantum chemical calculations, theoretical kinetics, and structure-activity relationships. The resulting mechanism deviates from earlier explicit mechanisms in several key areas, leading to a different product yield prediction. Under oxidative conditions, the inclusion of ring closure reactions of unsaturated alkoxy radicals brings the predicted nopinone and acetone yields to an agreement with the experimental data. Routes to the formation of other observed products, either speciated or observed as peaks in mass spectrometric studies, are also discussed. In pristine conditions, we predict significant acetone formation following ring closure reactions in alkylperoxy radicals; in addition, we predict some direct OH recycling in subsequent H-migration reactions in alkylperoxy radicals. The uncertainties on the key reactions are discussed. Overall, the OH-initiated oxidation of β-pinene is characterized by the formation of a few main products, and a very large number of products in minor to very small yields.

  15. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring. PMID:23916757

  16. Physiological and behavioral responses in offspring mice following maternal exposure to sulfamonomethoxine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Ye, Kui; Liu, Kaiyong; Sheng, Jie; Liu, Yehao; Hu, Chunqiu; Ruan, Liang; Li, Li; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-06-15

    Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), a veterinary antibiotic, is widely used in China. However, the impacts of maternal SMM exposure on neurobehavioral development in early life remain little known. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal SMM exposure during pregnancy on behavioral and physiological responses in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three SMM-treated groups, namely low-(10mg/kg/day), medium-(50mg/kg/day), and high-dose (200mg/kg/day), and a control group. The pregnant mice in the SMM-treated groups received SMM by gavage daily from gestational day 1-18, whereas those in the control received normal saline. On postnatal day (PND) 50, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and anxiety was measured using the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. The results showed significantly increased blood glucose in pups whose mothers received a high SMM dose. In addition, maternal SMM exposure increased anxiety-related activities among the offspring; spatial learning and memory were impaired more severely in the male offspring. The contents of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) on PND 22 were significantly reduced in the male offspring of the high-dose group compared with the controls. These findings indicate that SMM may be identified as a risk factor for cognitive and behavioral development on the basis of gender and that it may be associated with diminished BH4 and BDNF levels early in life. PMID:27173165

  17. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  18. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59 years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ≥30 kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are

  19. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  20. Effectiveness and safety of first-generation protease inhibitors in clinical practice: Hepatitis C virus patients with advanced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Salmerón, Javier; Vinaixa, Carmen; Berenguer, Rubén; Pascasio, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Ruano, Juan José; Serra, Miguel Ángel; Gila, Ana; Diago, Moisés; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Navarro, José María; Testillano, Milagros; Fernández, Conrado; Espinosa, Dolores; Carmona, Isabel; Pons, José Antonio; Jorquera, Francisco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Ramón; Montero, José Luis; Granados, Rafael; Fernández, Miguel; Martín, Ana Belén; Muñoz de Rueda, Paloma; Quiles, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluates the effectiveness and safety of the first generation, NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) in clinical practice against chronic C virus, especially in patients with advanced fibrosis. METHODS: Prospective study and non-experimental analysis of a multicentre cohort of 38 Spanish hospitals that includes patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, treatment-naïve (TN) or treatment-experienced (TE), who underwent triple therapy with the first generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors, boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR), in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The patients were treatment in routine practice settings. Data on the study population and on adverse clinical and virologic effects were compiled during the treatment period and during follow up. RESULTS: One thousand and fifty seven patients were included, 405 (38%) were treated with BOC and 652 (62%) with TVR. Of this total, 30% (n = 319) were TN and the remaining were TE: 28% (n = 298) relapsers, 12% (n = 123) partial responders (PR), 25% (n = 260) null-responders (NR) and for 5% (n = 57) with prior response unknown. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) by intention-to-treatment (ITT) was greater in those treated with TVR (65%) than in those treated with BOC (52%) (P < 0.0001), whereas by modified intention-to-treatment (mITT) no were found significant differences. By degree of fibrosis, 56% of patients were F4 and the highest SVR rates were recorded in the non-F4 patients, both TN and TE. In the analysis by groups, the TN patients treated with TVR by ITT showed a higher SVR (P = 0.005). However, by mITT there were no significant differences between BOC and TVR. In the multivariate analysis by mITT, the significant SVR factors were relapsers, IL28B CC and non-F4; the type of treatment (BOC or TVR) was not significant. The lowest SVR values were presented by the F4-NR patients, treated with BOC (46%) or with TVR (45%). 28% of the patients interrupted the treatment

  1. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior.

  2. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  3. Parental effects enhance risk tolerance and performance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2015-08-01

    Predation risk can strongly influence community dynamics through its effects on prey foraging decisions that often involve habitat shifts (i.e., from risky to refuge habitats). Although the within-generation effects of risk on prey are well appreciated, the effects of parental experience with risk on offspring decision-making and growth are poorly understood. The capacity of parents to prepare their offspring for potential risk exposure may be adaptive when the likelihood of eventual risk exposure is high and be instrumental in shaping how offspring allocate their foraging effort and habitat use. Using a simple rocky intertidal food chain, we examined the influence of parental exposure to predator risk cues on the behavior, foraging, and tissue maintenance of offspring exposed to the presence and absence of risk. We found that offspring of risk-experienced parents were bolder. When confronted with risk, these offspring spent more time out of refuge habitat, foraged more, and maintained more tissue than offspring of risk-free parents. Thus, parental experience with risk was most important when offspring were exposed to risk. These results suggest that the effects of parental experience with predation risk on offspring traits strongly shape the transmission of risk effects in ecological communities. PMID:26405730

  4. Selection for increased allocation to offspring number under environmental unpredictability.

    PubMed

    Simons, A M

    2007-03-01

    According to life-history theory, the evolution of offspring size is constrained by the trade-off between allocation of resources to individual offspring and the number of offspring produced. Existing models explore the ecological consequences of offspring size, whereas number is invariably treated simply as an outcome of the trade-off with size. Here I ask whether there is a direct evolutionary advantage of increased allocation to offspring number under environmental unpredictability. Variable environments are expected to select for diversification in the timing of egg hatch and seed germination, yet the dependence of the expression of diversification strategies, and thus parental fitness, on offspring number has not previously been recognized. I begin by showing that well-established sampling theory predicts that a target bethedging diversification strategy is more reliably achieved as offspring number increases. I then use a simulation model to demonstrate that higher offspring number leads to greater geometric mean fitness under environmental uncertainty. Natural selection is thus expected to act directly to increase offspring number under assumptions of environmental unpredictability in season quality.

  5. Stress, Illness, and the Social Environment: Depression among First Generation Mandarin Speaking Chinese in Greater Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueling; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Irving, Veronica; Chhay, Doug; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study documents the indirect effects of social and environmental variables as mediated by immigrant stress and physical health. Methods Using data from a large dual frame sample of first generation mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles counties with the largest groups of Chinese immigrants, this study uses a path analytic approach to trace how predictors are related to depressive symptoms and to measure direct and indirect influences of variables. Results Although bivariate analyses suggested that many predictors were associated with depressive symptoms, multivariate path analysis revealed a more complex structure of mediated associations. In the multivariate path analysis only reports of physical health and immigrant stress were directly related to depressive symptoms (P<.05), while acculturation, time in the U.S., income, U.S. citizenship, and distance of persons on whom one could rely were related to stress (but not to physical health status) and only to depressive symptoms as mediated by stress. Age and educational attainment were related to health status (and to stress as mediated by physical health) and to depressive symptoms as mediated by both health and stress. These variables were also unrelated directly to health status and to depressive symptoms. Associations were evaluated using statistical significance, P<.05. Conclusions This study demonstrates the significance of stress and health as mediators of variables in the larger context of the physical environment and suggests that the mechanisms linking ecological characteristics of immigrants to depressive symptoms may be stress and physical health among immigrants. PMID:24306282

  6. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range.

  7. Phenotypic features of first-generation transgenic goats for human granulocyte-colony stimulation factor production in milk.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Melo, Carlos H S; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Melo, Luciana M; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2014-11-01

    Human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor used in neutropenic patients. It is produced in transgenic bacteria or cultured mammalian cells. As an alternative, we now show that hG-CSF can be expressed in the mammary gland of first-generation (F1) transgenic goats during induced lactation. Despite lower milk production, transgenic females presented a similar milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) when compared to non-transgenic (p > 0.05) ones. The mean concentration (±SD) of recombinant hG-CSF in milk during lactation was 360 ± 178 µg ml(-1). All clinical parameters, as well as kidney and liver function, indicated that F1 transgenic goats were healthy. Additionally, no ectopic hG-CSF expression was detected in studied tissues of F1 transgenic males. Thus, F1 hG-CSF-transgenic goats can express the recombinant protein in milk at quantities compatible with their use as bioreactors in a commercial-scale protein-production program.

  8. Time to rehospitalization in patients with schizophrenia discharged on first generation antipsychotics, non-clozapine second generation antipsychotics, or clozapine.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Ana Paula; Hallak, Jaime Cecilio; Nakano, Eduardo; Elkis, Helio

    2011-08-15

    Rehospitalization is an important outcome of drug effectiveness in schizophrenia. In this study, the hypothesis that clozapine and some second generation antipsychotics (SGA) were superior to first generation antipsychotics (FGA) in preventing rehospitalization of patients with schizophrenia discharged from a university hospital in Brazil was tested. A retrospective observational study was conducted designed to evaluate time to rehospitalization of patients with schizophrenia discharged on a regimen of oral FGA, depot FGA, risperidone, olanzapine and amisulpride, other SGA, or clozapine, during a three-year follow-up period. Risk factors associated with rehospitalization were examined. Of the 464 patients with schizophrenia discharged from hospital, 242 met criteria for study entry. Higher rehospitalization rates were observed in patients treated with depot FGA (30%), risperidone (30%) and other SGA groups (28.5%), respectively. Clozapine was significantly associated with lower rehospitalization risk compared with risperidone. The risk of rehospitalization in patients on olanzapine and amisulpride, and oral FGA, was similar to that of patients in use of clozapine. These results however, are limited by the heterogeneity of illness severity across the groups. PMID:21596442

  9. Stress, illness, and the social environment: depressive symptoms among first generation mandarin speaking Chinese in greater Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueling; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irving, Veronica; Chhay, Doug; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2014-12-01

    This study documents the indirect effects of social and environmental variables as mediated by immigrant stress and physical health. Using data from a large dual frame sample of first generation mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles counties with the largest groups of Chinese immigrants, this study uses a path analytic approach to trace how predictors are related to depressive symptoms and to measure direct and indirect influences of variables. Although bivariate analyses suggested that many predictors were associated with depressive symptoms, multivariate path analysis revealed a more complex structure of mediated associations. In the multivariate path analysis only reports of physical health and immigrant stress were directly related to depressive symptoms (P < 0.05), while acculturation, time in the US, income, US citizenship, and distance of persons on whom one could rely were related to stress (but not to physical health status) and only to depressive symptoms as mediated by stress. Age and educational attainment were related to health status (and to stress as mediated by physical health) and to depressive symptoms as mediated by both health and stress. These variables were also unrelated directly to health status and to depressive symptoms. Associations were evaluated using statistical significance, P < 0.05. This study demonstrates the significance of stress and health as mediators of variables in the larger context of the physical environment and suggests that the mechanisms linking ecological characteristics of immigrants to depressive symptoms may be stress and physical health among immigrants.

  10. First generation solar adaptive optics system for 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Chang-Hui; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Lan-Qiang; Bao, Hua; Ma, Xue-An; Gu, Nai-Ting; Guan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Dong-Hong; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zen-Yu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    The first generation solar adaptive optics (AO) system, which consists of a fine tracking loop with a tip-tilt mirror (TTM) and a correlation tracker, and a high-order correction loop with a 37-element deformable mirror (DM), a correlating Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor (WFS) based on the absolute difference algorithm and a real time controller (RTC), has been developed and installed at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) that is part of Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO). Compared with the 37-element solar AO system developed for the 26-cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope, administered by Yunnan Astronomical Observatories, this AO system has two updates: one is the subaperture arrangement of the WFS changed from square to hexagon; the other is the high speed camera of the WFS and the corresponding real time controller. The WFS can be operated at a frame rate of 2100 Hz and the error correction bandwidth can exceed 100 Hz. After AO correction, the averaged residual image motion and the averaged RMS wavefront error are reduced to 0.06″ and 45 nm, respectively. The results of on-sky testing observations demonstrate better contrast and finer structures of the images taken with AO than those without AO.

  11. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range. PMID:25244071

  12. Butanol production in a first-generation Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery: technical aspects and economics of greenfield projects.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economics of greenfield projects of a first-generation sugarcane biorefinery aimed to produce ethanol, sugar, power, and n-butanol was conducted taking into account different butanol fermentation technologies (regular microorganism and mutant strain with improved butanol yield) and market scenarios (chemicals and automotive fuel). The complete sugarcane biorefinery with the batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was simulated using Aspen Plus®. The biorefinery was designed to process 2 million tonne sugarcane per year and utilize 25%, 50%, and 25% of the available sugarcane juice to produce sugar, ethanol, and butanol, respectively. The investment on a biorefinery with butanol production showed to be more attractive [14.8% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.99] than the conventional 50:50 (ethanol:sugar) annexed plant [13.3% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.80] only in the case butanol is produced by an improved microorganism and traded as a chemical. PMID:23127845

  13. Long-term Results of a First-Generation Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Young, Active Patients.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Ramteke, Alankar A; Nawabi, Danyal; Meftah, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    The survivorship of total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is dependent on the wear characteristics of the bearing surfaces. Long-term results with conventional polyethylene in young patients show a high failure rate. This study assessed the long-term results of a first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients. Between 1999 and 2003, 112 total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in 91 patients with an average University of California Los Angeles activity score of 8 and mean age of 53 years (range, 24-65 years) were included from a prospective database. In all patients, a 28-mm metal femoral head on annealed HCLPE (Crossfire; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) was used. At minimum 10-year follow-up (11.5±0.94 years), Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 97% for all failures (1 periprosthetic infection and 1 late dislocation) and 100% for mechanical failure (no revisions for osteolysis or loosening). This study showed low revision rates for wear-related failure and superior survivorship in young, active patients. Oxidation causing failure of the locking mechanism has not been a problem with Crossfire for up to 10 years. PMID:26811959

  14. Discussing dying in the diaspora: attitudes towards advance care planning among first generation Dutch and Italian migrants in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Craig; Smith, Jessica; Toussaint, Yann; Auret, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and interpreted using a Foucauldian perspective on knowledge and power. Migration experiences, ongoing contact with the native country and participation in migrant community support networks influenced attitudes towards ACP. Dutch participants framed ACP discussions with reference to euthanasia, and adopted a more individualist approach to medical decision-making. Italian participants often spoke of familial roles and emphasized a family-based decision making style. The importance of migrant identity has been neglected in previous discussions of cultural factors influencing ACP uptake among ethnic minority groups. The unique migration experience should be considered alongside culturally appropriate approaches to decision-making, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP among migrant groups. PMID:24560228

  15. A Difference-Education Intervention Equips First-Generation College Students to Thrive in the Face of Stressful College Situations.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Townsend, Sarah S M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin; Manzo, Vida

    2015-10-01

    A growing social psychological literature reveals that brief interventions can benefit disadvantaged students. We tested a key component of the theoretical assumption that interventions exert long-term effects because they initiate recursive processes. Focusing on how interventions alter students' responses to specific situations over time, we conducted a follow-up lab study with students who had participated in a difference-education intervention 2 years earlier. In the intervention, students learned how their social-class backgrounds mattered in college. The follow-up study assessed participants' behavioral and hormonal responses to stressful college situations. We found that difference-education participants discussed their backgrounds in a speech more frequently than control participants did, an indication that they retained the understanding of how their backgrounds mattered. Moreover, among first-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not have 4-year degrees), those in the difference-education condition showed greater physiological thriving (i.e., anabolic-balance reactivity) than those in the control condition, which suggests that they experienced their working-class backgrounds as a strength.

  16. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970’s drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford’s SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  17. Gestational IV nicotine produces elevated BDNF in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system of adolescent rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Steven B.; Lacy, Ryan T.; Zhu, Jun; Hughes, Benjamin A.; Perna, Marla K.; Brown, Russell W.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with enduring psychopathology, such as increased likelihood of substance use, in offspring. Various animal models demonstrate that continuous nicotine exposure produces teratogenic effects in offspring, as well. In the present experiment, a novel intravenous (IV) exposure model was utilized to determine if gestational nicotine (GN) treatment produced alterations in methamphetamine-induced sensitization and the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system of adolescent offspring. Dams were injected with IV saline or nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) 3x/day on gestational days 8–21. Habituation was measured on postnatal day (PND) 25–27 and baseline activity on PND 28. On PND 29–35, offspring were injected with saline or methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) and locomotor activity was measured after the first and seventh injections. On PND 36, brains were removed, flash frozen, and BDNF protein levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), dorsal striatum (Str), frontal cortex (FC), and hippocampus (Hipp) were analyzed. GN did not affect habituation or the induction of methamphetamine-induced sensitization. Interestingly, GN, but not adolescent methamphetamine treatment, elevated levels of BDNF in the NAcc and Str; however, the GN-induced increase in BDNF in the FC was attenuated by adolescent methamphetamine treatment. Both GN and adolescent methamphetamine treatment increased BDNF in the Hipp. These findings indicate that GN exposure will result in increased levels of BDNF protein throughout the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during adolescent development, and suggests that methamphetamine abuse will modulate the expression of BDNF in motivational circuitries of adolescent offspring exposed to GN. PMID:21990022

  18. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring.

  19. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring. PMID:26771675

  20. Postnatal Treadmill Exercise Alleviates Prenatal Stress-Induced Anxiety in Offspring Rats by Enhancing Cell Proliferation Through 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders in offspring later in life. The effects of treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation were investigated using rats exposed to prenatal stress. Methods: Exposure of pregnant rats to a hunting dog in an enclosed room was used to induce stress. Anxiety-like behaviors of offspring were evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of 5-bromo-2ʹ- deoxyuridine and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5-HT1A) in the dorsal raphe was conducted. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in the hippocampus were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results: Offspring of maternal rats exposed to stress during pregnancy showed anxiety-like behaviors. Offspring also showed reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, and DCX in the dentate gyrus, decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe. Postnatal treadmill exercise by offspring, but not maternal exercise during pregnancy, enhanced cell proliferation and expression of these proteins. Conclusions: Postnatal treadmill exercise ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in offspring of stressed pregnant rats, and the alleviating effect of exercise on these behaviors is hypothesized to result from enhancement of cell proliferation through 5-HT1A activation in offspring rats. PMID:27230461

  1. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  2. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  3. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  4. Correlating Permafrost Organic Matter Composition and Characteristics with Methane Production Potentials in a First Generation Thermokarst Lake and Its Underlying Permafrost Near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, J.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes, formed in permafrost-thaw depressions, are known sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The organic carbon (OC) utilized in the production of these greenhouse gases originates from microbial decomposition of aquatic and terrestrial organic matter (OM) sources, including soils of the lakes' watersheds and permafrost thaw beneath the lakes. OM derived from permafrost thaw is particularly important given the thickness of permafrost soils underlying some lakes (typically 10-30 m in yedoma permafrost); however, OM heterogeneity remains a significant uncertainty in estimating how microbial decomposition responds to permafrost thaw. This study correlates OM and water-extractable OC (WEOC) composition with CH4 production potentials determined from anaerobic laboratory incubations. Samples were collected from 21 depths along a 5.9-m deep thermokarst-lake sediment core and 17 depths along an adjacent 40-m deep undisturbed yedoma permafrost profile near Vault Creek, Alaska. The Vault Lake core, collected in the center of a 3230 m2 first generation thermokarst lake, includes surface lake sediments, the talik (thaw bulb), and permafrost actively thawing beneath the lake. Soil OM composition was characterized using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) and the most prevalent compounds were grouped into six indices based on their likely origin. WEOC was characterized using fluorescence spectrometry. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, we found that CH4 production was negatively correlated with WEOC aromaticity (p = 0.018) and fulvic acids (p = 0.027). CH4 production was positively correlated with lipids and carboxylic acids (p < 0.001), polysaccharides (p = 0.036) and the degree of WEOC humification (p = 0.013). Results suggest OM and WEOC composition can be correlated with CH4 production, indicating potential for model building to better predict greenhouse gas release from permafrost thaw.

  5. Inhibition-based first-generation electrochemical biosensors: theoretical aspects and application to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Bollella, Paolo; Fusco, Giovanni; Tortolini, Cristina; Sanzò, Gabriella; Antiochia, Riccarda; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2016-05-01

    In this work, several theoretical aspects involved in the first-generation inhibition-based electrochemical biosensor measurements have been discussed. In particular, we have developed a theoretical-methodological approach for the characterization of the kinetic interaction between alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) as representative inhibitor studied by means of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. Based on these findings, a biosensor for the fast, simple, and inexpensive determination of 2,4-D has been developed. The enzyme has been immobilized on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). To optimize the biosensor performances, several carbon-based SPEs, namely graphite (G), graphene (GP), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), have been evaluated. AlP was immobilized on the electrode surface by means of polyvinyl alcohol with styryl-pyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ) as cross-linking agent. In the presence of ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P) as substrate, the herbicide has been determined, thanks to its inhibition activity towards the enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of A2P to ascorbic acid (AA). Under optimum experimental conditions, the best performance in terms of catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated by MWCNTs SPE-based biosensor. The inhibition biosensor shows a linearity range towards 2,4-D within 2.1-110 ppb, a LOD of 1 ppb, and acceptable repeatability and stability. This analysis method was applied to fortified lake water samples with recoveries above 90%. The low cost of this device and its good analytical performances suggest its application for the screening and monitoring of 2,4-D in real matrices. PMID:26874693

  6. Development of a Polarizable Force Field For Proteins via Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry: First Generation Model and Gas Phase Tests

    PubMed Central

    KAMINSKI, GEORGE A.; STERN, HARRY A.; BERNE, B. J.; FRIESNER, RICHARD A.; CAO, YIXIANG X.; MURPHY, ROBERT B.; ZHOU, RUHONG; HALGREN, THOMAS A.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of developing a methodology suitable for producing molecular mechanics force fields with explicit treatment of electrostatic polarization for proteins and other molecular system of biological interest. The technique allows simulation of realistic-size systems. Employing high-level ab initio data as a target for fitting allows us to avoid the problem of the lack of detailed experimental data. Using the fast and reliable quantum mechanical methods supplies robust fitting data for the resulting parameter sets. As a result, gas-phase many-body effects for dipeptides are captured within the average RMSD of 0.22 kcal/mol from their ab initio values, and conformational energies for the di- and tetrapeptides are reproduced within the average RMSD of 0.43 kcal/mol from their quantum mechanical counterparts. The latter is achieved in part because of application of a novel torsional fitting technique recently developed in our group, which has already been used to greatly improve accuracy of the peptide conformational equilibrium prediction with the OPLS-AA force field.1 Finally, we have employed the newly developed first-generation model in computing gas-phase conformations of real proteins, as well as in molecular dynamics studies of the systems. The results show that, although the overall accuracy is no better than what can be achieved with a fixed-charges model, the methodology produces robust results, permits reasonably low computational cost, and avoids other computational problems typical for polarizable force fields. It can be considered as a solid basis for building a more accurate and complete second-generation model. PMID:12395421

  7. Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like proteases: biology, function, and potential in the development of first generation liver fluke vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Neill, Sandra O; Stack, Colin; Collins, Peter; Walshe, Alan; Sekiya, Mary; Doyle, Sean; Mulcahy, Grace; Hoyle, Deborah; Khaznadji, Eric; Moiré, Nathalie; Brennan, Gerard; Mousley, Angela; Kreshchenko, Natalia; Maule, Aaron G; Donnelly, Sheila M

    2003-09-30

    Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L proteases that facilitate the penetration of the parasite through the tissues of its host, and also participate in functions such as feeding and immune evasion. The major proteases, cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) and cathepsin L2 (FheCL2) are members of a lineage that gave rise to the human cathepsin Ls, Ks and Ss, but while they exhibit similarities in their substrate specificities to these enzymes they differ in having a wider pH range for activity and an enhanced stability at neutral pH. There are presently 13 Fasciola cathepsin L cDNAs deposited in the public databases representing a gene family of at least seven distinct members, although the temporal and spatial expression of each of these members in the developmental stage of F. hepatica remains unclear. Immunolocalisation and in situ hybridisation studies, using antibody and DNA probes, respectively, show that the vast majority of cathepsin L gene expression is carried out in the epithelial cells lining the parasite gut. Within these cells the enzyme is packaged into secretory vesicles that release their contents into the gut lumen for the purpose of degrading ingested host tissue and blood. Liver flukes also express a novel multi-domain cystatin that may be involved in the regulation of cathepsin L activity. Vaccine trials in both sheep and cattle with purified native FheCL1 and FheCL2 have shown that these enzymes can induce protection, ranging from 33 to 79%, to experimental challenge with metacercariae of F. hepatica, and very potent anti-embryonation/hatch rate effects that would block parasite transmission. In this article we review the vaccine trials carried out over the past 8 years, the role of antibody and T cell responses in mediating protection and discuss the prospects of the cathepsin Ls in the development of first generation recombinant liver fluke vaccines.

  8. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  9. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. PMID:26728747

  10. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence.

  11. Effects of prenatal stress on male offspring sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nancy; Mayer, Nora; Gauna, Héctor F

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stimulations have been shown to have long-term effects on at reproductive activity. We evaluated the influence of the prenatal stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in male offsprings from mothers with high number of offsprings per litter (HNL) and low number of offsprings per litter (LNL) after hypothesizing that the number of offsprings per litter may modify the effect of the prenatal stress on the HPG of adult offsprings. Pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. Immobilization (IMO) stress was used, 30 min, 3 times per week, from the 5th to 21st day of pregnancy. The weight of adrenal and gonads, and the corticosterone (COR), testosterone (TES) and luteinizing hormone (LH) plasmatic levels were analyzed in the male offspring at 30, 45 and 70 days of age. The offspring males coming from LNL showed a decrease in testicle weight and TES levels, without changes in the plasmatic LH levels. However, the offspring of HNL showed a decrease of LH levels. It is possible to conclude that in LNL prenatal stress would produce alterations to gonadal level, while in HNL the effect of stress would be evident at pituitary level.

  12. Positive genetic correlation between female preference and offspring fitness.

    PubMed

    Hine, Emma; Lachish, Shelly; Higgie, Megan; Blows, Mark W

    2002-11-01

    In many species, females display preferences for extreme male signal traits, but it has not been determined if such preferences evolve as a consequence of females gaining genetic benefits from exercising choice. If females prefer extreme male traits because they indicate male genetic quality that will enhance the fitness of offspring, a genetic correlation will evolve between female preference genes and genes that confer offspring fitness. We show that females of Drosophila serrata prefer extreme male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends, and that this preference affects offspring fitness. Female preference is positively genetically correlated with offspring fitness, indicating that females have gained genetic benefits from their choice of males. Despite male CHCs experiencing strong sexual selection, the genes underlying attractive CHCs also conferred lower offspring fitness, suggesting a balance between sexual selection and natural selection may have been reached in this population.

  13. The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Brian T.; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older ‘proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

  14. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  15. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  16. Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring After Seeing Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Lynch, Zachary R.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Schlenke, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Hosts have numerous defenses against parasites, of which behavioral immune responses are an important but under-appreciated component. Here we describe a behavioral immune response Drosophila melanogaster utilizes against endoparasitoid wasps. We found that when flies see wasps they switch to laying eggs in alcohol-laden food sources that protect hatched larvae from infection. This oviposition behavior change, mediated by neuropeptide F, is retained long after wasps are removed. Flies respond to diverse female larval endoparasitoids but not to pupal endoparasitoids or males, showing they maintain specific wasp search images. Furthermore, the response evolved multiple times across the genus Drosophila. Our data reveal a behavioral immune response based on anticipatory medication of offspring, and outline a non-associative memory paradigm based on innate parasite recognition by the host. PMID:23430653

  17. Enhancing the separation performance of the first-generation silica monolith using active flow technology: parallel segmented flow mode of operation.

    PubMed

    Soliven, Arianne; Foley, Dominic; Pereira, Luisa; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Cabrera, Karin; Ritchie, Harald; Edge, Tony

    2014-03-21

    Active flow technology (AFT) columns are designed to minimise inefficient flow processes associated with the column wall and radial heterogeneity of the stationary phase bed. This study is the first to investigate AFT on an analytical scale 4.6mm internal diameter first-generation silica monolith. The performance was compared to a conventional first-generation silica monolith and it was observed that the AFT monolith had an increase in efficiency values that ranged from 15 to 111%; the trend demonstrating efficiency gains increasing as the volumetric flow to the detector was decreased, but with no loss in sensitivity.

  18. Maternal Obesity Promotes Diabetic Nephropathy in Rodent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad A.; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Though diabetes is a key risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between maternal obesity and CKD has not been clearly defined. In this study, a mouse model of maternal obesity was employed to determine the impact of maternal obesity on development of diabetic nephropathy in offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow diet. At postnatal Week 8, offspring were randomly administered low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day for five days) to induce diabetes. Assessment of renal damage took place at postnatal Week 32. We found that offspring of obese mothers had increased renal fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Importantly, offspring exposed to maternal obesity had increased susceptibility to renal damage when an additional insult, such as STZ-induced diabetes, was imposed. Specifically, renal inflammation and oxidative stress induced by diabetes was augmented by maternal obesity. Our findings suggest that developmental programming induced by maternal obesity has implications for renal health in offspring. Maternal obesity should be considered a risk factor for CKD. PMID:27277011

  19. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  20. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Mancini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels. PMID:24910599

  1. CHRONIC ZEBRAFISH PFOS EXPOSURE ALTERS SEX RATIO AND MATERNAL RELATED EFFECTS IN F1 OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Wei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 μg/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 μg/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. Environ. PMID:21671259

  2. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Mancini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels.

  3. Developmental programming of offspring obesity, adipogenesis, and appetite.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2013-09-01

    A newly recognized primary cause of the obesity epidemic is the developmental programming effects of infants born to mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes, intrauterine growth-restricted newborns, and offspring exposed to environmental toxins including bisphenol A. The mechanisms which result in offspring obesity include the programming of the hypothalamic appetite pathway and adipogenic signals regulating lipogenesis. Processes include nutrient sensors, epigenetic modifications, and alterations in stem cell precursors of both appetite/satiety neurons and adipocytes which are modulated to potentiate offspring obesity. Future strategies for the prevention and therapy of obesity must address programming effects of the early life environment.

  4. Family functioning in families with older institutionalized retarded offspring.

    PubMed

    Kazak, A E

    1989-12-01

    Psychological distress, marital satisfaction, family adaptability, and cohesion are explored in 31 families with mentally retarded (MR) institutionalized offspring (late adolescence and young adulthood) and 38 comparison families. Multivariate analyses indicate no differences between the groups, although univariate analyses point to higher levels of cohesion in the families with MR offspring and the importance of the construct of adaptability in understanding family functioning. The results are discussed in terms of the adaptive coping mechanisms of the families with MR offspring and the implications of this for intervention, research, and policy.

  5. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Calvo, Anna; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Padrós-Fornieles, Marta; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Núria; Frangou, Sophia; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27), offspring of patients with BD (N = 39) and offspring of community control parents (N = 40). We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26885824

  6. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Calvo, Anna; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Padrós-Fornieles, Marta; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Núria; Frangou, Sophia; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7–19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27), offspring of patients with BD (N = 39) and offspring of community control parents (N = 40). We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26885824

  7. Corrective Action in Low-Performing Schools: Lessons for NCLB Implementation from State and District Strategies in First-Generation Accountability Systems. CSE Report 657

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores what lessons can be learned from the experiences of states that instituted NCLB-like accountability systems prior to 2001 (here called first-generation accountability systems). It looks at the experiences of three smaller states (Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina), four larger ones (California, Florida, New York, Texas), and…

  8. Corrective Action in Low-Performing Schools: Lessons for NCLB Implementation from State and District Strategies in First-Generation Accountability Systems. CSE Report 641

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores what lessons we can learn from the experiences of states that instituted NCLB-like accountability systems prior to 2001 (here called first-generation accountability systems). We looked at the experiences of three smaller states (Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina), four larger ones (California, Florida, New York, Texas), and…

  9. The Beliefs That Parents of First Generation College-Bound Students Hold to Effectively Guide Their Child Who Seeks a Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Lauren Renee Lacombe

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined parents of first generation college-bound student's beliefs about roles and responsibilities to guide their child who aspires to a postsecondary education. Interviews were conducted with 23 parents of high school tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students. In the sample, parents represented…

  10. Comparison of Retention Factors between First-Generation and Second- and Third-Generation College Students and Development of the Likelihood of Success Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gerri Brown

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention factors between first-generation college students and second- and third-generation college students in the postsecondary educational setting. This study examined the differences in the preselected retention factors: faculty-student interaction, college mentor, academic support, residential…

  11. Formational Turning Points in the Transition to College: Understanding How Communication Events Shape First-Generation Students' Pedagogical and Interpersonal Relationships with Their College Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tiffany R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, I explored student-teacher interaction, student-teacher relationship formation and development, and the ways in which student-teacher interaction and relationships facilitated support and persistence for first-generation (FG) students during the transition to college. Using transition theory as a sensitizing framework, I took…

  12. First-Generation Students: What We Ask, What We Know and What It Means: An International Review of the State of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas; Bednarek, Antje

    2013-01-01

    In the course of educational expansion, student populations have become more diverse. This paper represents an international literature review on the topic of first-generation students (FGS), i.e. students whose parents have not obtained a higher education qualification. On the basis of more than 70 research articles and reports on FGS from…

  13. First-Generation College Students and Undergraduate Research: Narrative Inquiry into the University of Arizona's Ronald E. McNair Achievement Program and the Phenomenon of Student Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of first-generation college students enrolling in colleges and universities across the US, so too is the need to begin preparing such underrepresented students for graduate school and a career in academia. As a phenomenological case study of student transformation, this dissertation examines the experience of nine…

  14. Graduation Hazards and Surviving College: A Descriptive Study of the Longitudinal Nature of Low-Income, First Generation, and Minority Student Enrollment and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There are ambitious institutional and national goals that aspire to improve the six year graduation rate for undergraduate students. An important element of increasing the overall rate lies in decreasing the educational attainment gaps for low-income, first generation, and other historically underserved students. Comprehensive theoretical…

  15. Yttrium-90 internal pair production imaging using first generation PET/CT provides high-resolution images for qualitative diagnostic purposes.

    PubMed

    Kao, Y H; Tan, E H; Lim, K Y; Ng, C E; Goh, S W

    2012-07-01

    Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) internal pair production can be imaged by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and is superior to bremsstrahlung single-photon emission CT/CT for evaluating hepatic (90)Y microsphere biodistribution. We illustrate a case of (90)Y imaging using first generation PET/CT technology, producing high-quality images for qualitative diagnostic purposes.

  16. Exploring Home-School Value Conflicts: Implications for Academic Achievement and Well-Being among Latino First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Burgos-Cienfuegos, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    U.S. colleges place a high value on the fulfillment of academic obligations by their students. The academic achievement of each individual student is the institutional priority; this is an individualistic frame of reference. However, many Latino first-generation college students have been raised to prioritize family obligations; their home…

  17. What Are the Motivational Factors of First-Generation Minority College Students Who Overcome Their Family Histories to Pursue Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Edith; Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2014-01-01

    The pathway to college is not equal for all students. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and minorities often face difficult challenges in trying to obtain a college education. Thus, this study utilized a qualitative grounded theory approach to explore and to understand how first-generation minority college students are motivated to…

  18. Putting Money in the Right Places: Supporting First-Generation African American Women in College. Policy Brief. ASHE/Lumina Fellows Series. Issue 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2008-01-01

    This brief considers the policy implications of the college experiences of African American women at a predominantly White, research institution. The findings of this ethnographic study indicate that first-generation Black women grappled with academic and financial barriers to both their initial and continued transitions through college. Their…

  19. The New Emerging Adult in Chiapas, Mexico: Perceptions of Traditional Values and Value Change among First-Generation Maya University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    Social changes in indigenous Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico toward increasing levels of formal education, commercialization, and urbanization are transforming traditional Maya developmental pathways toward adulthood. This mixed-methods study is based on interviews with a sample of 14 first-generation Maya university students who have also…

  20. To Work or Not to Work: Student Employment, Resiliency, and Institutional Engagement of Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Edward F.; Bilges, Dolores C.; Shabazz, Sherrille T.; Miller, Rhoda; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the difference between two college persistence factors--resiliency and institutional engagement--for low-income, working, first-generation college students. Participants in the study consisted of 52 respondents to the Family History Knowledge and College Persistence Survey. Among respondents, 50 students reported…

  1. First to the Finish Line: A Case Study of First Generation Baccalaureate Degree Completers in the University of Maryland Student Support Services Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Christine Pour

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors first generation college graduates identify as impacting their successful baccalaureate degree attainment. This research was conducted using qualitative case study method, and a cross case analysis of individual case summaries was completed. Through a review of degree attainment, persistence, and first generation…

  2. An Exploration of Social and Educational Sustainability: Conversations from the Lived Experiences of Low-Income and First-Generation Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gregory York

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how low-income and first-generation community college students perceive the notion of social and educational sustainability. The study focused on research participants' understanding of (a) the meaning of social sustainability and its importance in developing human agency; (b) the notion of…

  3. First-Generation College Students in Christian Academia. Part 1: Academic and Local Church Collaboration in the Preparation of Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a two-part series focused on first-generation college students (FGCS) in Christian colleges. It provides an overview of the literature regarding the pre-enrollment needs and experiences of these students and will be followed by a second article focused on the support needs and persistence of FGCS. Because much of the…

  4. Navigating New Worlds: A Real-Time Look at How Successful and Non-Successful First-Generation College Students Negotiate Their First Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2012-01-01

    This study of fifteen first generation American college freshmen documents their initial semester with a focus on factors and dispositions contributing to eventual success or failure. Students were identified prior to campus arrival, allowing for immediate and real-time data collection as they were experiencing the beginning of their college…

  5. Race, Age, and Identity Transformations in the Transition from High School to College for Black and First-Generation White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Race and class differences in academic and social integration matter for educational success, social mobility, and personal well-being. In this article, I use interview data with students attending predominantly white four-year research universities to investigate the integration experiences of black and first-generation white men. I examine each…

  6. An Oral History of First-Generation Leaders in Education of Children with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Part 1: The Accidental Special Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn S.; Teagarden, James M.; Zabel, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    As the first part of an oral history of education of students with emotional/behavioral disorders, 15 first-generation leaders were asked to relate how they entered the field and to describe their careers, which span the past 35 to 50 years. Their videotaped responses were transcribed and are reported here together with discussion of several…

  7. A Case Study of Students' Perceptions of Social Integration Strategies to Retain First-Generation Underprepared Students at a Private Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Charlene L.

    2012-01-01

    For many first-generation students, college is one of the biggest transitions they will make. Community colleges' open door policy has allowed entry to a significant number of these students despite the inability to meet their immeasurable needs. Vast attention has been placed on research supporting the integration of academic and social…

  8. "Who Do You Think You Are?": A Multidimensional Analysis of the Impact of Disparities in Higher Educational Attainment within Families of First-Generation College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, April

    2013-01-01

    This project explores the impact of disparate educational attainment between first-generation college graduates and their family members. This is a conscious shifting of the unit of analysis, from the changing social position and power of an individual student/graduate, to the relational capacity, tensions, and strategies of the family unit that…

  9. Family and Individual Predictors of First-Generation and Low Family Income First-Year Undergraduates' Integration at a Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilotte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how first-year undergraduates' family background characteristics (i.e., first-generation status and low family income) and individual attributes (i.e., sex, motivation, and best friend attachment) are related to institutional integration (faculty and student integration). Low and non-low family income students (N = 961)…

  10. Expectations and Experiences: The Voice of a First-Generation First-Year College Student and the Question of Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieha, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    This single case study takes a phenomenological approach using the voice centered analysis to analyze qualitative interview data so that the voice of this first-generation college student is brought forward. It is a poignant voice filled with conflicting emotional responses to the desire for college success, for family stability, for meaningful…

  11. Exploring New Paths: The First-Year Experiences for First-Generation College Students and the Impact of Participating in Comprehensive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The academic and social integration of first-generation college students into institutions of higher education continues to be a topic of concern for university administrators, faculty, and staff. Students enter college with different background traits and experiences as well as have different college experiences that can either permit or prohibit…

  12. Effect of oil of nutmeg on the fertility and induction of meiotic chromosome rearrangements in mice and their first generation.

    PubMed

    Pecevski, J; Savković, D; Radivojević, D; Vuksanović, L

    1981-01-01

    The dose-dependent effects of oil of nutmeg on the fertility and induction of chromosomal translocations in treated mice and their F1 males were examined. C3H male mice were treated with oil of nutmeg for 8 successive weeks at 60, 80, 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The greatest reduction of fertility occurred in the group treated with 400 mg/kg; chromosomal translocation in directly treated animals was not found. The chromosomal translocations in F1 males, derived from males treated with oil of nutmeg at dose levels of 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg. PMID:7194525

  13. First-Generation Versus Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions: Two-Year Results of a Multicenter Registry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheol Woong; Kim, Je Sang; Lee, Hyun Jong; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Ho Joon; Choi, Young Jin; Roh, Young Moo; Shim, Won-Heum; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sang Hoon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) versus first-generation DES in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of second-generation DES with those of first-generation DES for the treatment of CTO. Methods and Results Between March 2003 and February 2012, 1,006 consecutive patients with CTO who underwent successful PCI using either first-generation DES (n = 557) or second-generation DES (n = 449) were enrolled in a multicenter, observational registry. Propensity-score matching was also performed. The primary outcome was cardiac death over a 2-year follow-up period. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of cardiac death (first-generation DES versus second-generation DES; 2.5% vs 2.0%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 1.98; p = 0.72) or major adverse cardiac events (MACE, 11.8% vs 11.4%; HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.50; p = 0.99). After propensity score matching, the incidences of cardiac death (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.35 to 2.06; p = 0.86) and MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.63 to 1.37; p = 0.71) were still similar in both groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between sirolimus-eluting, paclitaxel-eluting, zotarolimus-eluting, and everolimus-eluting stents regarding the incidence of cardiac death or MACE. Conclusion This study shows that the efficacy of second-generation DES is comparable to that of first-generation DES for treatment of CTO over 2 years of follow-up. PMID:27314589

  14. Moderate Exercise during Pregnancy in Wistar Rats Alters Bone and Body Composition of the Adult Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Brielle V.; Blair, Hugh T.; Vickers, Mark H.; Dittmer, Keren E.; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Knight, Cameron G.; Firth, Elwyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  15. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  16. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Barrio, Luis C.; Lerma, Milagros; de la Peña, Gema; Serna, Jorge; Pastor, Oscar; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Busto, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively), have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI)-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid), which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and coatomer subunit β (β-COP) were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes’ internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality. PMID:26999125

  17. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  18. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  19. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  20. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal and Offspring Thyroxine in Rats*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological and laboratory data have demonstrated that disruption of maternal thyroid hormones during fetal developmental may result in irreversible neurological consequences in offspring. In a short-term exposure paradigm, triclosan decreased systemic thyroxine (T4) concentr...

  1. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict.

  2. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  3. Maternal undernutrition upregulates apoptosis in offspring nephrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tafti, S A; Nast, C C; Desai, M; Amaya, K E; Ross, M G; Magee, T R

    2011-08-01

    Maternal undernutrition (MUN) results in growth-restricted newborns with reduced nephron numbers that is associated with increased risk of hypertension and renal disease. The total adult complement of nephrons is set during nephrogenesis suggesting that MUN affects the staged development of nephrons in as yet unknown manner. A possible cause may be the increased renal apoptosis; therefore, we investigated whether apoptotic signaling and cell death were increased in MUN rat kidneys. Pregnant rat dams were fed an ad libitum diet [control] or were 50% food restricted (MUN) starting at embryonic day (E) 10. Male offspring kidneys (n = 5 each, MUN and control) were analyzed for mRNA using quantitative PCR (E20) and for protein expression using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (E20 and postnatal day 1, P1). Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Upregulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression was detected at E20 (Fas receptor, caspase 9) and at P1 (caspase 3, Bax). The anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2 was significantly decreased in P1 kidneys. Kidney TUNEL showed apoptotic nuclei significantly increased in the P1 nephrogenic zone (MUN 3.3 + 0.3 v. C 1.6 + 0.5, P = 0.002). The majority of apoptotic nuclei co-localized to mesenchyme and pretubular aggregates in the nephrogenic zone. Differential regulation of apoptosis in mesenchyme and pretubular aggregates following parturition suggests a mechanism for nephropenia in gestational programming of the kidney.

  4. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  5. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  6. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    PubMed

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size.

  7. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Young, A J; Spong, G; Jordan, N R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2007-02-22

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper 'fitness' from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term.

  8. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Young, A J; Spong, G; Jordan, N R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2007-02-22

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper 'fitness' from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  9. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    PubMed

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success. PMID:26986090

  10. Predicting the timing of first generation egg hatch for the pest redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Garrick; Umina, Paul A; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mangano, Peter; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-03-01

    Integrated pest management in Australian winter grain crops is challenging, partly because the timing and severity of pest outbreaks cannot currently be predicted, and this often results in prophylactic applications of broad spectrum pesticides. We developed a simple model to predict the median emergence in autumn of pest populations of the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, a major field crop and pasture pest in southern Australia. Previous data and observations suggest that rainfall and temperature are critical for post-diapause egg hatch. We evaluated seven models that combined rainfall and temperature thresholds derived using three approaches against previously recorded hatch dates and 2013 field records. The performance of the models varied between Western Australia and south-eastern Australian States. In Western Australia, the key attributes of the best fitting model were more than 5 mm rain followed by mean day temperatures of below 20.5 °C for 10 days. In south-eastern Australia, the most effective model involved a temperature threshold reduced to 16 °C. These regional differences may reflect adaptation of H. destructor in south-eastern Australia to varied and uncertain temperature and rainfall regimes of late summer and autumn, relative to the hot and dry Mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia. Field sampling in 2013 revealed a spread of early hatch dates in isolated patches of habitat, ahead of predicted paddock scale hatchings. These regional models should assist in monitoring and subsequent management of H. destructor at the paddock scale.

  11. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  12. The Synergistic Roles of the Chronic Prenatal and Offspring Stress Exposures in Impairing Offspring Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Chen, Ke-Yang; Han, Zhen-Min; Wang, Qi-Hong; Yao, Yu-You

    2016-04-23

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive experimental studies have demonstrated a negative impact of chronic stress during various stages of life (including prenatal phase) on some aspects of AD pathology. Nevertheless, presently, few studies have been involved in the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathology elicited by the chronic prenatal stress (CPS) and the chronic offspring stress (COS) exposures simultaneously, particularly for the adult male APPswe/PS1dE9 murine offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CPS on learning and memory impairments induced by COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice and the related mechanism. Our study firstly demonstrates that 14-day exposure to CPS could exacerbate the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathological damages in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and cortex neurons, which is induced by the 28-day exposure to COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice. In addition, CPS could potentiate the production of AβPP, Aβ42, and corticosterone in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring that also suffer COS. In conclusion, our novel findings strongly implicate the synergistic roles of the CPS and COS exposures in impairing offspring learning and memory. Moreover, CPS potentiating the production of Aβ42 might be mediated by glucocorticoids through increasing the expression of APP and BACE1 gene.

  13. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI

    PubMed Central

    MOREIRA, Pedro; PÉREZ-CEREZALES, Serafín; LAGUNA, Ricardo; FERNÁNDEZ-GONZALEZ, Raúl; SANJUANBENITO, Belén Pintado; GUTIÉRREZ-ADÁN, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  14. A search for first generation scalar leptoquarks at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    A search for first generation scalar leptoquarks was done at the DO detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory from 15 pb{minus}1 of data taken during the 1992--1993 colder run. At Fermilab`s p{bar p} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV, leptoquarks are produced mostly by the strong force in pairs. Leptoquarks carry fractional charge, color, and also lepton and baryon quantum numbers. First generation leptoquarks couple exclusively to the electron, electron neutrino, and the u and d quarks; such a leptoquark would decay into, for example, an electron plus a quark. Signatures for leptoquarks at p{bar p} colliders that have been investigated at DO are two electrons plus two jets and one electron plus missing energy (from an electron neutrino) plus two jets.

  15. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Four Second-Generation Antipsychotics and One First-Generation Antipsychotic on Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use in Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott

    2015-07-01

    No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.

  16. Search for First Generation Scalar Leptoquarks in the evjj channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-09-01

    A search for pair-production of first generation scalar leptoquarks is performed in the final state containing an electron, a neutrino, and at least two jets using proton-proton collision data at sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The data were collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the predictions for standard model processes. Prior CMS results in the dielectron channel are combined with this electron+neutrino search. A 95% confidence level combined lower limit is set on the mass of a first generation scalar leptoquark at 340 GeV for beta=0.5, where beta is the branching fraction of the leptoquark to an electron and a quark. These results represent the most stringent direct limits to date for values of beta greater than 0.05.

  17. Search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

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Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Ziegler, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gu, J; Hill, C; Killewald, P; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Rodenburg, M; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Lopes Pegna, D; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Zatserklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Boulahouache, C; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Flacher, H; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Gotra, Y; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Barker, A; Duggan, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hits, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Patel, R; Richards, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Nguyen, C N; Osipenkov, I; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Bardak, C; Damgov, J; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Mane, P; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Appelt, E; Brownson, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Gabella, W; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Lamichhane, P; Mattson, M; Milstène, C; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Reeder, D; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M

    2011-05-20

    A search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks is performed in the final state containing two electrons and two jets using proton-proton collision data at √s = 7 TeV. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 33 pb⁻¹ collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the predictions for the standard model background processes, and an upper limit is set on the leptoquark pair production cross section times β² as a function of the leptoquark mass, where β is the branching fraction of the leptoquark decay to an electron and a quark. A 95% confidence level lower limit is set on the mass of a first-generation scalar leptoquark at 384 GeV for β = 1, which is the most stringent direct limit to date.

  18. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed.

  19. Search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Benucci, L; Cerny, K; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Beauceron, S; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; McCartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xu, M; Yang, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhang, L; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Cabrera, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Assran, Y; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Xiao, H; Megrelidze, L; Roinishvili, V; Lomidze, D; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Masetti, G; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H

    2011-05-20

    A search for pair production of first-generation scalar leptoquarks is performed in the final state containing two electrons and two jets using proton-proton collision data at √s = 7 TeV. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 33 pb⁻¹ collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the predictions for the standard model background processes, and an upper limit is set on the leptoquark pair production cross section times β² as a function of the leptoquark mass, where β is the branching fraction of the leptoquark decay to an electron and a quark. A 95% confidence level lower limit is set on the mass of a first-generation scalar leptoquark at 384 GeV for β = 1, which is the most stringent direct limit to date. PMID:21668220

  20. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed. PMID:27552398

  1. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  2. Comparing overall survival between first generation EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy in lung cancer patients with Del19/L858R

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Lei, Yuanyuan; Liu, Siyang; Yang, Jinji; Tu, Haiyan; Yan, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combined overall survival (OS) analysis of Lux-Lung 3 and Lux-Lung 6 demonstrated that patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions (Del19) would benefit from first-line second generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) afatinib but not for those with L858R. This study was to investigate the survival difference between first-line first generation EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy in patients with either Del19 or L858R, and to directly compare OS in these two mutation groups. Methods Eligibles were all prospective and retrospective studies comparing EGFR-TKIs with conventional chemotherapy or receiving single agent EGFR-TKIs and demonstrating survival analysis based on mutation types. The primary outcome was OS measured as pooled hazard ratios (HRs). All measures were pooled using randomeffects models and 95% confidential interval (95% CI) was calculated. Results A total of 14 studies incorporating 1,706 patients with either Del19 or L858R were included. Enrolling patients with Del19 or L858R in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), first-line first generation EGFR-TKIs were associated with no OS benefit, compared with chemotherapy (pooled HRTKI/Chemo for Del19: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.64-1.06, P = 0.14; pooled HRTKI/Chemo for L858R: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.85-1.56, P = 0.38). Direct comparison of Del19 with L858R receiving with first-line first generation EGFR-TKIs demonstrated no significant survival difference (pooled HR19/21: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.67-1.16, P = 0.37). Conclusions Among patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring Del19 and L858R, first-line first generation EGFR-TKIs demonstrated no survival benefit comparing with chemotherapy. Direct comparison between Del19 and L858R revealed no significant survival difference after first-line first generation EGFR-TKIs. PMID:27478319

  3. Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Barry, Katherine L

    2016-06-29

    Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism. PMID:27358366

  4. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  5. Mammal reproductive strategies driven by offspring mortality-size relationships.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2009-06-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season. Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them. PMID:19374555

  6. Low functional programming of renal AT{sub 2}R mediates the developmental origin of glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring induced by prenatal caffeine exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Ying; Sun, Zhaoxia; Hu, Shuangshuang; Zuo, Na; Li, Bin; Yang, Shuailong; Xia, Liping; Wu, Yong; Wang, Linlong; He, Zheng; Wang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study has indicated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) of offspring. Recent research suggested that IUGR is a risk factor for glomerulosclerosis. However, whether PCE could induce glomerulosclerosis and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate the induction to glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring by PCE and its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of IUGR was established by PCE, male fetuses and adult offspring at the age of postnatal week 24 were euthanized. The results revealed that the adult offspring kidneys in the PCE group exhibited glomerulosclerosis as well as interstitial fibrosis, accompanied by elevated levels of serum creatinine and urine protein. Renal angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT{sub 2}R) gene expression in adult offspring was reduced by PCE, whereas the renal angiotensin II receptor type 1a (AT{sub 1a}R)/AT{sub 2}R expression ratio was increased. The fetal kidneys in the PCE group displayed an enlarged Bowman's space and a shrunken glomerular tuft, accompanied by a reduced cortex width and an increase in the nephrogenic zone/cortical zone ratio. Observation by electronic microscope revealed structural damage of podocytes; the reduced expression level of podocyte marker genes, nephrin and podocin, was also detected by q-PCR. Moreover, AT{sub 2}R gene and protein expressions in fetal kidneys were inhibited by PCE, associated with the repression of the gene expression of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/tyrosine kinase receptor (c-Ret) signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that PCE could induce dysplasia of fetal kidneys as well as glomerulosclerosis of adult offspring, and the low functional programming of renal AT{sub 2}R might mediate the developmental origin of adult glomerulosclerosis. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure induces glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring. • Prenatal caffeine

  7. Persistent Interneuronopathy in the Prefrontal Cortex of Young Adult Offspring Exposed to Ethanol In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Skorput, Alexander G. J.; Gupta, Vivek P.; Yeh, Pamela W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational exposure to ethanol has been reported to alter the disposition of tangentially migrating GABAergic cortical interneurons, but much remains to be elucidated. Here we first established the migration of interneurons as a proximal target of ethanol by limiting ethanol exposure in utero to the gestational window when tangential migration is at its height. We then asked whether the aberrant tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons persisted as an enduring interneuronopathy in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) later in the life of offspring prenatally exposed to ethanol. Time pregnant mice with Nkx2.1Cre/Ai14 embryos harboring tdTomato-fluorescent medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived cortical GABAergic interneurons were subjected to a 3 day binge-type 5% w/w ethanol consumption regimen from embryonic day (E) 13.5–16.5, spanning the peak of corticopetal interneuron migration in the fetal brain. Our binge-type regimen increased the density of MGE-derived interneurons in the E16.5 mPFC. In young adult offspring exposed to ethanol in utero, this effect persisted as an increase in the number of mPFC layer V parvalbumin-immunopositive interneurons. Commensurately, patch-clamp recording in mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons uncovered enhanced GABA-mediated spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission, shifting the inhibitory/excitatory balance toward favoring inhibition. Furthermore, young adult offspring exposed to the 3 day binge-type ethanol regimen exhibited impaired reversal learning in a modified Barnes maze, indicative of decreased PFC-dependent behavioral flexibility, and heightened locomotor activity in an open field arena. Our findings underscore that aberrant neuronal migration, inhibitory/excitatory imbalance, and thus interneuronopathy contribute to indelible abnormal cortical circuit form and function in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The significance of this study is twofold. First, we demonstrate that a time

  8. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution.

  9. Maternal drinking and risky sexual behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-04-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth.

  10. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function. PMID:24680198

  11. Outcomes of offspring born to mothers with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Noel Pratheepan; Subasinghe, Chandrika Jayakanthi; Maheshi Gimhani Amarawardena, Wickrama Kankanamge

    2016-09-01

    With the global explosion of Diabetes and obesity at epidemic proportions, keeping Asia at its epicenter, 1 in 7 live births get complicated with hyperglycaemia; either pre-existing Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes. In utero, exposure to an adverse metabolic environment with nutrient excess or deficiencies and toxic metabolites with teratogenic potential, leads to short and long term consequences to the offspring. Multisystemic congenital malformations, macrosomia associated obstetric complications and perinatal metabolic derangements complicate the early neonatal stage. Epigenetic changes taking place during foetal development initiate foetal metabolic programming and create adverse metabolic memory leading to childhood obesity, metabolic syndrome and Diabetes. Hyperglycaemia and poor metabolic parameters throughout pregnancy correlate with adverse offspring outcomes. Novel management strategies targeting near normoglycaemia have achieved marked improvements in rates of perinatal mortality and other adverse outcomes. Therapies for management of Diabetes in pregnancy should be carefully selected upon the safety profile for the offspring. PMID:27582165

  12. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  13. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    PubMed Central

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J. M.; Noordwijk, A. J. van

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large clutches have a higher fitness than birds with originally small clutches. No evidence was found that fitness was related to the original clutch size, and in this population clutch size is thus not related to the parental capacity to raise offspring. However, offspring from larger original clutches recruited better than their nest mates that came from smaller original clutches. This suggests that early maternal or genetic variation in viability is related to clutch size.

  14. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-ichi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1+/− male mice. Healthy Prm1+/− offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1+/− mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles. PMID:27250771

  15. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution. PMID:25480298

  16. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function.

  17. Resolving the Effects of Maternal and Offspring Genotype on Dyadic Outcomes in Genome Wide Complex Trait Analysis (“M-GCTA”)

    PubMed Central

    Pourcain, Beate St.; Smith, George Davey; York, Timothy P.; Evans, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is extended to include environmental effects of the maternal genotype on offspring phenotype (“maternal effects”, M-GCTA). The model includes parameters for the direct effects of the offspring genotype, maternal effects and the covariance between direct and maternal effects. Analysis of simulated data, conducted in OpenMx, confirmed that model parameters could be recovered by full information maximum likelihood (FIML) and evaluated the biases that arise in conventional GCTA when indirect genetic effects are ignored. Estimates derived from FIML in OpenMx showed very close agreement to those obtained by restricted maximum likelihood using the published algorithm for GCTA. The method was also applied to illustrative perinatal phenotypes from ∼4,000 mother-offspring pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The relative merits of extended GCTA in contrast to quantitative genetic approaches based on analyzing the phenotypic covariance structure of kinships are considered. PMID:25060210

  18. Commentary: Where Are the Bipolar Offspring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2005-01-01

    High-risk studies are undertaken for at least four reasons: (1) to derive predictors of who will develop the condition being studied that will allow earlier intervention and prevention; (2) to understand the breadth of risk (i.e., if there are other related symptoms, conditions, and impairment related to the condition being studied); (3) to…

  19. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of latent toxoplasmosis on mothers and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Amir; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the world's population is latently infected. Infection generally occurs via oral the route and maternal transmission. Damage of the central nervous system is one of the most serious consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. Moreover, recent investigations proposed that acute and sub-acute congenital toxoplasmosis as well as latent toxoplasmosis during pregnancy; play various roles in the etiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders in mothers and their offspring. This paper reviews new findings about the role of latent toxoplasmosis in the etiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders in mothers and their offspring.

  20. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming.

  1. In utero and neonate exposure to nonylphenol develops hyperadrenalism and metabolic syndrome later in life. I. First generation rats (F(1)).

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S

    2012-11-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor (ENDR). It is a chemical associated with the production and degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). NPE is widely used as nonionic surfactants. Previously, we observed that NP increased the production of corticosterone and aldosterone from zona fasciculata-reticularis, and zona glomerulosa cells, respectively. By the "fetal origins adult diseases" (Barker hypothesis), we examined the possible impact of NP exposure during developmental (in utero and neonatal) period with focus on disturbed adrenal function and related hyperadrenal syndrome, i.e. Cushings syndrome/metabolic syndrome. In this study, female rats drink NP water during pregnancy and lactation conferred F(1) generation: (1) increase the corticosterone, aldosterone concentration in plasma; (2) increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity in liver and adipose tissue; (3) increase aldosterone synthase activity in adrenal for adult offspring. Furthermore, it can increase body weight, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration in plasma, 11β-HSD1 protein expression in liver, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and 11β-hydroxylase activity in adrenal for male adult offspring. In summary, NP exposure during developmental period bestowed F(1) generation with hyperadrenalism and its consequence of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p = 0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

  3. Adult exercise effects on oxidative stress and reproductive programming in male offspring of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750

  4. Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined critical periods in development to determine when offspring were most susceptible to dietary sodium manipulation leading to amphetamine sensitization. Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl; HN) during the prenatal or early postnatal period (birth to 5 wk). Offspring were fed normal chow thereafter until testing at 6 mo. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured. BW was similar for all offspring. Offspring from the prenatal and postnatal HN group had increased BP, NaCl intake, and salt preference and decreased water intake relative to NN offspring. Prenatal HN offspring had greater BP than postnatal HN offspring. In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring. In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. These results indicate that early life experience with low- and high-sodium diets, during the prenatal or early postnatal period, is a stress that produces long-term changes in responsiveness to amphetamines and to subsequent stressors.

  5. One-step multicomponent self-assembly of a first-generation Sierpiński triangle: from fractal design to chemical reality.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajarshi; Guo, Kai; Moorefield, Charles N; Saunders, Mary Jane; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Newkome, George R

    2014-11-01

    A novel terpyridine-based architecture that mimics a first-generation Sierpiński triangle has been synthesized by multicomponent assembly and features tpy-Cd(II)-tpy connectivity (tpy=terpyridine). The key terpyridine ligands were synthesized by the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Mixing two different terpyridine-based ligands and Cd(II) in a precise stoichiometric ratio (1:1:3) produced the desired fractal architecture in near-quantitative yield. Characterization was accomplished by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Detraining in pregnancy and/or lactation modulates neuropeptidergic hypothalamic systems in offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leandro; Calegare, Bruno F A; Cavalcante-Silva, Vanessa; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-12-01

    Manipulations in metabolic parameters during pregnancy/lactation can impact the development of short- and long-term energy control mechanisms, which are mainly modulated by neural and hormonal inputs to the hypothalamus. Thus, we tested how mice training and detraining during pregnancy and lactation affect hypothalamus gene expression and change biometric and metabolic profiles of the offspring. Three-month-old female Swiss mice were submitted to an 8-week exercise program (swimming 5 times/week, 1 h/day). Following this physical exercise protocol, these conditioned animals and the control group were submitted to matting. After pregnancy verification, the animals were distributed into four groups: training during pregnancy and lactation (T); detraining after pregnancy confirmation (DP); detraining during lactation (DL); and control (CT), without interventions. After weaning, the offspring of the four groups were derived into these as follows: TO, DPO, DLO, and CTO, respectively. The body weight was lower in conditioned females compared to control at weeks 4-8 of the exercise regimen. No statistical difference in dam's body weight was observed during pregnancy. Related to offspring, at post-natal day 90, the animals were euthanized and DPO and DLO showed decrease in Npy and Cart expression in hypothalamus, and DLO also had increased Lep gene expression in white adipose tissue. Additionally, DPO showed increase in plasma triglycerides levels, total liver weight, and decrease in brown adipose tissue compared to CTO. Together, these results support that detraining during critical periods of development leads to altered gene expression in hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems.

  7. Maternal fructose-intake-induced renal programming in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Wu, Kay L H; Lee, Wei-Chia; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition in pregnancy can elicit long-term effects on the health of offspring. Although fructose consumption has increased globally and is linked to metabolic syndrome, little is known about the long-term effects of maternal high-fructose (HF) exposure during gestation and lactation, especially on renal programming. We examined potential key genes and pathways that are associated with HF-induced renal programming using whole-genome RNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) to quantify the abundance of RNA transcripts in kidneys from 1-day-, 3-week-, and 3-month-old male offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with HF (60% diet by weight) during the entire period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring exhibited programmed hypertension at 3 months of age. Maternal HF intake modified over 200 renal transcripts from nephrogenesis stage to adulthood. We observed that 20 differentially expressed genes identified in 1-day-old kidney are related to regulation of blood pressure. Among them, Hmox1, Bdkrb2, Adra2b, Ptgs2, Col1a2 and Tbxa2r are associated with endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). NGS also identified genes in arachidonic acid metabolism (Cyp2c23, Hpgds, Ptgds and Ptges) that may be potential key genes/pathways contributing to renal programming and hypertension. Collectively, our NGS data suggest that maternal HF intake elicits a defective adaptation of interrelated EDHFs during nephrogenesis which may lead to renal programming and hypertension in later life. Moreover, our results highlight genes and pathways involved in renal programming as potential targets for therapeutic approaches to prevent metabolic-syndrome-related comorbidities in children with HF exposure in early life.

  8. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  9. SOFIA First Generation Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Meyer, Allan W.

    2003-01-01

    SOFIA will provide 0.3- 1600 pm wavelength coverage, excellent FIR/submm angular resolution, a variety of focal plane instruments, and access to them throughout a 20-year lifetime. These attributes assure SOFIA a vital role in future observations of the interstellar medium, and in numerous other studies. SOFIA is a joint program of NASA in the U.S. and DLR in Germany. Observing time will be arranged by annual peer review of proposals, with roughly 80 percent of the time granted by the U.S. and 20 percent of the time granted by Germany. International proposals may be submitted to either time allocation committee. SOFIA is expected to begin science flights in 2005.

  10. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  11. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  12. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  13. Family Risk Factors, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Associations between parents' poor marital adjustment, parent-child discord, affectionless control, low family cohesion, and parental divorce and DSM-III diagnoses were explored among 220 offspring of parents with and without major depression. Parental depression and family risk factors were significant predictors of conduct disorder. (RH)

  14. Parental Abuse as a Mediator of Codependence among Alcoholics' Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; And Others

    Despite little empirical evidence, many psychotherapists believe that parental alcoholism inevitably results in codependence among alcoholics' offspring. The present study examines the hypothesis that intervening factors, such as abusive parenting, mediate the development of codependence. To test this premise, 247 undergraduates completed…

  15. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

  16. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  17. Maternal exposure to predator scents: offspring phenotypic adjustment and dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Aubret, Fabien; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a strong selective pressure generating morphological, physiological and behavioural responses in organisms. As predation risk is often higher during juvenile stages, antipredator defences expressed early in life are paramount to survival. Maternal effects are an efficient pathway to produce such defences. We investigated whether maternal exposure to predator cues during gestation affected juvenile morphology, behaviour and dispersal in common lizards (Zootoca vivipara). We exposed 21 gravid females to saurophagous snake cues for one month while 21 females remained unexposed (i.e. control). We measured body size, preferred temperature and activity level for each neonate, and released them into semi-natural enclosures connected to corridors in order to measure dispersal. Offspring from exposed mothers grew longer tails, selected lower temperatures and dispersed thrice more than offspring from unexposed mothers. Because both tail autotomy and altered thermoregulatory behaviour are common antipredator tactics in lizards, these results suggest that mothers adjusted offspring phenotype to risky natal environments (tail length) or increased risk avoidance (dispersal). Although maternal effects can be passive consequences of maternal stress, our results strongly militate for them to be an adaptive antipredator response that may increase offspring survival prospects. PMID:25122225

  18. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  19. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  20. The oxidative costs of territory quality and offspring provisioning.

    PubMed

    Guindre-Parker, S; Baldo, S; Gilchrist, H G; Macdonald, C A; Harris, C M; Love, O P

    2013-12-01

    The costs of reproduction are an important constraint that shapes the evolution of life histories, yet our understanding of the proximate mechanism(s) leading to such life-history trade-offs is not well understood. Oxidative stress is a strong candidate measure thought to mediate the costs of reproduction, yet empirical evidence supporting that increased reproductive investment leads to oxidative stress is equivocal. We investigated whether territory quality and offspring provisioning increase oxidative stress in male snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) using a repeated sampling design. We show that arrival oxidative stress is not a constraint on territory quality or the number of offspring fledged. Nevertheless, owners of higher-quality territories experienced an oxidative cost, with this cost increasing more rapidly in younger males. Males that provisioned offspring at a high rate also experienced increased oxidative stress. Together, these findings support the potential role of oxidative stress in mediating life-history trade-offs. Future work should consider that reproductive workload is not limited to offspring care, and other activities - including territory defence - may contribute significantly to the costs of reproduction. PMID:24118294

  1. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  2. Family Functioning in Families with Older Institutionalized Retarded Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazak, Anne E.

    1989-01-01

    Psychological distress, marital satisfaction, family adaptability, and cohesion are explored in 41 families with mentally retarded (MR) institutionalized youth and 38 comparison families. Multivariate analyses found no differences between groups, but univariate analyses revealed greater cohesion in families with MR offspring and stressed the…

  3. Maternal exposure to predator scents: offspring phenotypic adjustment and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Aubret, Fabien; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2014-10-01

    Predation is a strong selective pressure generating morphological, physiological and behavioural responses in organisms. As predation risk is often higher during juvenile stages, antipredator defences expressed early in life are paramount to survival. Maternal effects are an efficient pathway to produce such defences. We investigated whether maternal exposure to predator cues during gestation affected juvenile morphology, behaviour and dispersal in common lizards (Zootoca vivipara). We exposed 21 gravid females to saurophagous snake cues for one month while 21 females remained unexposed (i.e. control). We measured body size, preferred temperature and activity level for each neonate, and released them into semi-natural enclosures connected to corridors in order to measure dispersal. Offspring from exposed mothers grew longer tails, selected lower temperatures and dispersed thrice more than offspring from unexposed mothers. Because both tail autotomy and altered thermoregulatory behaviour are common antipredator tactics in lizards, these results suggest that mothers adjusted offspring phenotype to risky natal environments (tail length) or increased risk avoidance (dispersal). Although maternal effects can be passive consequences of maternal stress, our results strongly militate for them to be an adaptive antipredator response that may increase offspring survival prospects. PMID:25122225

  4. Mother-offspring interactions affect natal dispersal in a lizard.

    PubMed Central

    Le Galliard, Jean-François; Ferrière, Régis; Clobert, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between relatives operate strong selective pressures on dispersal. Recently, a correlative study in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) suggested that natal dispersal might respond plastically to mother-offspring interactions. Here, we describe a factorial experiment supporting this observation. Two crossed treatments were applied to experimental patches of the common lizard: (i) presence versus absence of the mother, inducing a difference of kinship in offspring neighbourhoods; and (ii) high versus low patch density, resulting in two levels of conspecific abundance and modulating the effect of mother presence on the average kinship within a patch. Dispersal of the same cohort of offspring was observed at the juvenile and yearling stages. We found a sex-dependent response of offspring dispersal to the removal of the mother at the two stages. During the juvenile stage, higher dispersal was found in females in the presence of the mother, with males unaffected. During the yearling stage, the responses of both sexes to the presence of the mother opposed each other. In addition, we found a negative relationship between dispersal and patch density at the juvenile stage. No interaction between density and the presence of the mother was detected, which suggests that behavioural responses to kinship and density are disconnected and that kinship is assessed at a small social scale. We discuss the role of competition and inbreeding avoidance to explain the observed pattern. PMID:12816655

  5. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

  6. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    PubMed

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  7. The Relation of Fear of Failure, Procrastination and Self-Efficacy to Academic Success in College for First and Non First-Generation Students in a Private Non-Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth Moores

    2013-01-01

    First-generation students enroll in college expecting to be the first in their families to obtain a bachelor's degree, yet historically; the number of these students who graduate with four-year degrees is much lower than their non first-generation peers (Nunez & Cuccara-Alamin; Choy, 2001; Glenn, 2008). Limited research exists on the…

  8. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Shona L; Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Argenton, Marco; Dhonye, Hannah; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W

    2009-06-11

    Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb) rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH), which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  9. Face-Emotion Processing in Offspring at Risk for Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Lissek, Shmuel; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Panic disorder (PD) has been linked to perturbed processing of threats. This study tested the hypotheses that offspring of parents with PD and offspring with anxiety disorders display relatively greater sensitivity and attention allocation to fear provocation. Method: Offspring of adults with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), or no…

  10. Parentally biased favouritism: why should parents specialize in caring for different offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Lessells, C M

    2002-01-01

    'Parentally biased favouritism' occurs when the two parents differentially care for individual offspring or kinds of offspring. Examples in birds include brood division and differential investment by the two parents in relation to the size or sex of the offspring. This paper uses mathematical models to investigate which ideas can, in theory, explain parentally biased favouritism. One previous explanation is that the parents differ in their cost of reproduction and that the parent who consequently invests least concentrates its care on the more valuable offspring. However, a mathematical model predicts the total care given by each parent and received by each offspring, not how much each parent cares for each offspring, and hence does not explain parentally biased favouritism. Parentally biased favouritism towards particular types of offspring can be explained by a difference between the parents in the benefits of caring for a given type of offspring or in the effort incurred in providing care to a given type of offspring, but then it is extreme, with at least one of the parents providing care to only one type of offspring. Parentally biased favouritism towards particular individual offspring (brood division) can be explained by parent-offspring conflict or sexual conflict. PMID:11958706

  11. Parentally biased favouritism: why should parents specialize in caring for different offspring?

    PubMed

    Lessells, C M

    2002-03-29

    'Parentally biased favouritism' occurs when the two parents differentially care for individual offspring or kinds of offspring. Examples in birds include brood division and differential investment by the two parents in relation to the size or sex of the offspring. This paper uses mathematical models to investigate which ideas can, in theory, explain parentally biased favouritism. One previous explanation is that the parents differ in their cost of reproduction and that the parent who consequently invests least concentrates its care on the more valuable offspring. However, a mathematical model predicts the total care given by each parent and received by each offspring, not how much each parent cares for each offspring, and hence does not explain parentally biased favouritism. Parentally biased favouritism towards particular types of offspring can be explained by a difference between the parents in the benefits of caring for a given type of offspring or in the effort incurred in providing care to a given type of offspring, but then it is extreme, with at least one of the parents providing care to only one type of offspring. Parentally biased favouritism towards particular individual offspring (brood division) can be explained by parent-offspring conflict or sexual conflict. PMID:11958706

  12. Mother's exercise during pregnancy programmes vasomotor function in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Bahls, Martin; Sheldon, Ryan D; Taheripour, Pardis; Clifford, Kerry A; Foust, Kallie B; Breslin, Emily D; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Cabot, Ryan A; Harold Laughlin, M; Bidwell, Christopher A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behaviour and programmes atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mothers' exercise during pregnancy improves endothelial function in 3-, 5- and 9-month-old porcine offspring. The pregnant sows in the exercise group ran for an average of 39.35 ± 0.75 min at 4.81 ± 0.35 km h(-1) each day for 5 days per week for all but the last week of gestation. This induced a significant reduction in resting heart rate (exercised group, 89.3 ± 3.5 beats min(-1); sedentary group, 102.1 ± 3.1 beats min(-1); P < 0.05) but no significant differences in gestational weight gain (65.8 ± 2.1 versus 63.3 ± 1.9%). No significant effect on bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation with and without l-NAME was observed. A significant main effect was identified on sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation (P = 0.01), manifested by a reduced response in femoral arteries of all age groups from exercised-trained swine. Nitric oxide signalling was not affected by maternal exercise. Protein expression of MYPT1 was reduced in femoral arteries from 3-month-old offspring of exercised animals. A significant interaction was observed for PPP1R14A (P < 0.05) transcript abundance and its protein product CPI-17. In conclusion, pregnant swine are able to complete an exercise-training protocol that matches the current recommendations for pregnant women. Gestational exercise is a potent stimulus for programming vascular smooth muscle relaxation in adult offspring. Specifically, exercise training for the finite duration of pregnancy decreases vascular smooth muscle responsiveness in adult offspring to an exogenous nitric oxide donor. PMID:24163423

  13. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  14. Comparison of Subjective Experiences and Effectiveness of First-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Risperidone Long-Acting Injectables in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted. PMID:27580495

  15. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E

    2016-05-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers to learning and, in turn, connect children to community and school supports aligned with their strengths and needs. By exploiting within-school changes in the implementation of the intervention, the present study revealed statistically and practically significant treatment effects indicating improvements in math and reading achievement at the end of elementary school. In addition, the intervention appears to considerably narrow achievement gaps between English language learners and immigrant children proficient in English.

  16. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cox, Sharon E; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J; Moore, Sophie E

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is growing for the long-term effects of environmental factors during early-life on later disease susceptibility. It is believed that epigenetic mechanisms (changes in gene function not mediated by DNA sequence alteration), particularly DNA methylation, play a role in these processes. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the involvement of C1 metabolism and methyl donors and cofactors in maternal diet-induced DNA methylation changes in utero as an epigenetic mechanism. Methyl groups for DNA methylation are mostly derived from the diet and supplied through C1 metabolism by way of choline, betaine, methionine or folate, with involvement of riboflavin and vitamins B6 and B12 as cofactors. Mouse models have shown that epigenetic features, for example DNA methylation, can be altered by periconceptional nutritional interventions such as folate supplementation, thereby changing offspring phenotype. Evidence of early nutrient-induced epigenetic change in human subjects is scant, but it is known that during pregnancy C1 metabolism has to cope with high fetal demands for folate and choline needed for neural tube closure and normal development. Retrospective studies investigating the effect of famine or season during pregnancy indicate that variation in early environmental exposure in utero leads to differences in DNA methylation of offspring. This may affect gene expression in the offspring. Further research is needed to examine the real impact of maternal nutrient availability on DNA methylation in the developing fetus.

  17. Variation in parent–offspring kinship in socially monogamous systems with extra‐pair reproduction and inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M.; Bocedi, Greta; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Duthie, A. Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E.; Gow, Elizabeth A.; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Female extra‐pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems is predicted to cause cuckolded socially‐paired males to conditionally reduce paternal care, causing selection against extra‐pair reproduction and underlying polyandry. However, existing models and empirical studies have not explicitly considered that cuckolded males might be related to their socially‐paired female and/or to her extra‐pair mate, and therefore be related to extra‐pair offspring that they did not sire but could rear. Selection against paternal care, and hence against extra‐pair reproduction, might then be weakened. We derive metrics that quantify allele‐sharing between within‐pair and extra‐pair offspring and their mother and her socially‐paired male in terms of coefficients of kinship and inbreeding. We use song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) paternity and pedigree data to quantify these metrics, and thereby quantify the joint effects of extra‐pair reproduction and inbreeding on a brood's total allelic value to its socially‐paired parents. Cuckolded male song sparrows were almost always detectably related to extra‐pair offspring they reared. Consequently, although brood allelic value decreased substantially following female extra‐pair reproduction, this decrease was reduced by within‐pair and extra‐pair reproduction among relatives. Such complex variation in kinship within nuclear families should be incorporated into models considering coevolutionary dynamics of extra‐pair reproduction, parental care, and inbreeding. PMID:27174154

  18. Variation in parent-offspring kinship in socially monogamous systems with extra-pair reproduction and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Bocedi, Greta; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Gow, Elizabeth A; Arcese, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems is predicted to cause cuckolded socially-paired males to conditionally reduce paternal care, causing selection against extra-pair reproduction and underlying polyandry. However, existing models and empirical studies have not explicitly considered that cuckolded males might be related to their socially-paired female and/or to her extra-pair mate, and therefore be related to extra-pair offspring that they did not sire but could rear. Selection against paternal care, and hence against extra-pair reproduction, might then be weakened. We derive metrics that quantify allele-sharing between within-pair and extra-pair offspring and their mother and her socially-paired male in terms of coefficients of kinship and inbreeding. We use song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) paternity and pedigree data to quantify these metrics, and thereby quantify the joint effects of extra-pair reproduction and inbreeding on a brood's total allelic value to its socially-paired parents. Cuckolded male song sparrows were almost always detectably related to extra-pair offspring they reared. Consequently, although brood allelic value decreased substantially following female extra-pair reproduction, this decrease was reduced by within-pair and extra-pair reproduction among relatives. Such complex variation in kinship within nuclear families should be incorporated into models considering coevolutionary dynamics of extra-pair reproduction, parental care, and inbreeding. PMID:27174154

  19. Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

  20. Propofol exposure during late stages of pregnancy impairs learning and memory in rat offspring via the BDNF-TrkB signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liang; Luo, Foquan; Zhao, Weilu; Feng, Yunlin; Wu, Liuqin; Lin, Jiamei; Liu, Tianyin; Wang, Shengqiang; You, Xuexue; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) (BDNF-TrkB) signalling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating learning and memory. Synaptophysin provides the structural basis for synaptic plasticity and depends on BDNF processing and subsequent TrkB signalling. Our previous studies demonstrated that maternal exposure to propofol during late stages of pregnancy impaired learning and memory in rat offspring. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the BDNF-TrkB signalling pathway is involved in propofol-induced learning and memory impairments. Propofol was intravenously infused into pregnant rats for 4 hrs on gestational day 18 (E18). Thirty days after birth, learning and memory of offspring was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. After the MWM test, BDNF and TrkB transcript and protein levels were measured in rat offspring hippocampus tissues using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. The levels of phosphorylated-TrkB (phospho-TrkB) and synaptophysin were measured by western blot. It was discovered that maternal exposure to propofol on day E18 impaired spatial learning and memory of rat offspring, decreased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and TrkB, and decreased the levels of both phospho-TrkB and synaptophysin in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) reversed all of the observed changes. Treatment with 7,8-DHF had no significant effects on the offspring that were not exposed to propofol. The results herein indicate that maternal exposure to propofol during the late stages of pregnancy impairs spatial learning and memory of offspring by disturbing the BDNF-TrkB signalling pathway. The TrkB agonist 7,8-DHF might be a potential therapy for learning and memory impairments induced by maternal propofol exposure.

  1. Relay cropping cauliflower with lettuce as a means to manage first-generation cabbage maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and minimize cauliflower yield loss.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C K; Dixon, P L; Colbo, M

    2007-06-01

    First-generation cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), can cause extensive damage to newly transplanted brassica crops. This study investigated the use of relay cropping, a form of intercropping that involves overlapping two crops in the same field for a short period, as a means to 1) reduce first-generation D. radicum egg numbers by disrupting female host finding and 2) minimize yield loss by reducing the time that crops overlap. Because of the high incidence of two other Delia species, Delia platura (Meigen) and Delia florilega (Zetterstedt), treatment effects on these insects also were considered. In both years of the study (2003 and 2004), there were fewer D. radicum eggs collected from the base of cauliflower, Brassica oleracea variety botrytis, plants relay cropped with lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., than in monoculture. D. platura/D. florilega also laid fewer eggs on cauliflower in the relay crop than in monoculture in 2003, but in 2004 the opposite was true, there were more D. platura/D. florilega eggs laid on the relay-cropped cauliflower. After peak D. radicum oviposition, the lettuce was harvested. Cauliflower curd weights and diameters were comparable between treatments in both years. Plant loss because of D. platura/ D. florilega feeding in the 2004 relay-cropped plots resulted in reduced yields in these plots compared with the monoculture. Although further investigation is needed into the effects of relay cropping on other pests within this system, this is the first study to demonstrate that relay cropping can reduce egg laying by D. radicum at the scale studied while minimizing competition between component crops for key resources. PMID:17598546

  2. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  3. Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior. PMID:22522078

  4. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring—not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. PMID:25232132

  5. Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín-Calderón, J L; Del Arco, I; Bartolomé, S; Villanúa, M A; Navarro, M

    1998-11-01

    The possible existence of an increased susceptibility to the reinforcing properties of morphine was analyzed in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Maternal exposure to low doses of THC (1 and 5 mg/kg), relevant for human consumption, resulted in an increased response to the reinforcing effects of a moderate dose of morphine (350 microg/kg), as measured in the place-preference conditioning paradigm (CPP) in the adult male offspring. These animals also displayed an enhanced exploratory behavior in the defensive withdrawal test. However, only females born from mothers exposed to THC 1 mg/kg exhibited a small increment in the place conditioning induced by morphine. The possible implication of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed by monitoring plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in basal and moderate-stress conditions (after the end of the CPP test). Female offspring perinatally exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed high basal levels of corticosterone and a blunted adrenal response to the HPA-activating effects of the CPP test. However, male offspring born from mothers exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed the opposite pattern: normal to low basal levels of corticosterone, and a sharp adrenal response to the CPP challenge. The present study reveals that maternal exposure to low doses of THC results in an increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of morphine in the adult male offspring, and in sexually dimorphic behavioral and endocrine alterations in the adaptative responses to stressors such as novelty or place-preference testing. These results support the growing evidence of the importance of monitoring the long-term consequences of maternal consumption of cannabis derivatives.

  6. Periodic maternal deprivation may modulate offspring anxiety-like behavior through mechanisms involving neuroplasticity in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Berman, Ariel Kupfer; Lott, Rhonda B; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2014-02-01

    Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of behavioral and endocrine systems. In rats, periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) serves as an early life stressor that directly influences maternal care by promoting more pup-directed behaviors in stressed dams. To further assess the qualities of PMD that may ameliorate long-term anxiety effects in trait anxiety animals, we coded behaviors across lactation (postnatal day (PND) 5, 16, 21) in dams phenotyped as high (HAn) and low-anxiety (LAn). We assessed anxiety-like behavior in male offspring using the elevated plus maze (EPM), focusing on percent open arm (%OA) time and latency to enter OA (OA LAT) as measures of anxiety-like behavior. Finally, we examined the brains of representative male pups to determine if the stress-related protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might show persistent changes in the amygdala. Dams phenotyped as HAn had lower %OA time and longer OA LAT relative to dams designated as LAn. During PMD, HAn dams had higher incidences of licking-grooming (L/G) and more pup-directed behaviors on PND 5 and 16 compared to LAn dams. Further, as adults, HAn male offspring exhibited less anxiety traits than their maternal line with greater %OA time and %OA entries relative to LAn. HAn offspring showed markedly more BDNF immunoreacted cells in the amygdala than LAn. The combination of these findings suggests that the mild stressor, PMD alters anxiety-like behavior in offspring likely by influencing HAn dams' L/G activity and altering stress related proteins in the amygdala.

  7. Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín-Calderón, J L; Del Arco, I; Bartolomé, S; Villanúa, M A; Navarro, M

    1998-11-01

    The possible existence of an increased susceptibility to the reinforcing properties of morphine was analyzed in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Maternal exposure to low doses of THC (1 and 5 mg/kg), relevant for human consumption, resulted in an increased response to the reinforcing effects of a moderate dose of morphine (350 microg/kg), as measured in the place-preference conditioning paradigm (CPP) in the adult male offspring. These animals also displayed an enhanced exploratory behavior in the defensive withdrawal test. However, only females born from mothers exposed to THC 1 mg/kg exhibited a small increment in the place conditioning induced by morphine. The possible implication of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed by monitoring plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in basal and moderate-stress conditions (after the end of the CPP test). Female offspring perinatally exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed high basal levels of corticosterone and a blunted adrenal response to the HPA-activating effects of the CPP test. However, male offspring born from mothers exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed the opposite pattern: normal to low basal levels of corticosterone, and a sharp adrenal response to the CPP challenge. The present study reveals that maternal exposure to low doses of THC results in an increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of morphine in the adult male offspring, and in sexually dimorphic behavioral and endocrine alterations in the adaptative responses to stressors such as novelty or place-preference testing. These results support the growing evidence of the importance of monitoring the long-term consequences of maternal consumption of cannabis derivatives. PMID:9768557

  8. Maternal preeclampsia and risk for cardiovascular disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Contag, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) has been associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular risk, including stroke, myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. These two entities share common risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. This article will evaluate the current literature on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular risks posed by HDP. The landmark study by Barker et al. demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in growth-restricted infants, which may also be associated with HDP. Research has demonstrated the effects that HDP may have on the vascular and nephron development in offspring, particularly with respect to endothelial and inflammatory markers. In order to control for confounding variables and better understand the relationship between HDP and lifetime cardiovascular risk, future research will require following blood pressure and metabolic profiles of the parturients and their offspring.

  9. Paradox of mother's curse and the maternally provisioned offspring microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wade, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Strict maternal transmission creates an "asymmetric sieve" favoring the spread of mutations in organelle genomes that increase female fitness, but diminish male fitness. This phenomenon, called "Mother's Curse," can be viewed as an asymmetrical case of intralocus sexual conflict. The evolutionary logic of Mother's Curse applies to each member of the offspring microbiome, the community of maternally provisioned microbes, believed to number in the hundreds, if not thousands, of species for host vertebrates, including humans. Taken together, these observations pose a compelling evolutionary paradox: How has maternal transmission of an offspring microbiome become a near universal characteristic of the animal kingdom when the genome of each member of that community poses a potential evolutionary threat to the fitness of host males? I review features that limit or reverse Mother's Curse and contribute to resolving this paradox. I suggest that the evolution of vertical symbiont transmission requires conditions that mitigate the evolutionary threat to host males.

  10. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed.

  11. Mediators of Aggression Among Young Adult Offspring of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the connection between maternal depression and offspring aggression during the transition to adulthood, expanding the scope of prior research on this topic. Both family-level factors (including parent-child relationship quality and maternal relationship quality) and youth factors (including depression history and social functioning in mid-adolescence) were tested as potential mediators in a longitudinal community sample of 710 youth at ages 15 and 20. The results suggest that maternal depression confers a risk for higher levels of aggressive behavior by offspring at age 20. Structural Equation Models suggested that the association between maternal depression and youth aggression is fully mediated by youth history of depression by mid-adolescence, even when accounting for the stability of aggression between ages 15 and 20. Parent-child relationship quality, youth social functioning, and maternal relationship quality were not unique mediators of this association. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:20919790

  12. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  13. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-11-01

    Early - intrauterine - environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life.

  14. Altered adipocyte structure and function in nutritionally programmed microswine offspring

    PubMed Central

    DuPriest, E. A.; Kupfer, P.; Lin, B.; Sekiguchi, K.; Morgan, T. K.; Saunders, K. E.; Chatkupt, T. T.; Denisenko, O. N.; Purnell, J. Q.; Bagby, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction links obesity of any cause with cardiometabolic disease, but whether early-life nutritional deficiency can program adipocyte dysfunction independently of obesity is untested. In 3–5-month-old juvenile microswine offspring exposed to isocaloric perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR) and exhibiting accelerated prepubertal fat accrual without obesity, we assessed markers of acquired obesity: adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels and adipocyte size in intra-abdominal (ABD-AT) and subcutaneous (SC-AT) adipose tissues. Plasma cortisol, leptin and insulin levels were measured in fetal, neonatal and juvenile offspring. In juvenile low-protein offspring (LPO), adipocyte size in ABD-AT was reduced 22% (P=0.011 v. controls), whereas adipocyte size in SC-AT was increased in female LPO (P=0.05) and normal in male LPO; yet, adiponectin mRNA in LPO was low in both sexes and in both depots (P<0.001). Plasma leptin (P=0.004) and cortisol (P<0.05) were reduced only in neonatal LPO during MPR. In juveniles, correlations between % body fat and adiponectin mRNA, TNF-α mRNA or plasma leptin were significant in normal-protein offspring (NPO) but absent in LPO. Plasma glucose in juvenile LPO was increased in males but decreased in females (interaction, P=0.023); plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity were unaffected. Findings support nutritional programming of adipocyte size and gene expression and subtly altered glucose homeostasis. Reduced adiponectin mRNA and adipokine dysregulation in juvenile LPO following accelerated growth occurred independently of obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy or inflammatory markers; thus, perinatal MPR and/or growth acceleration can alter adipocyte structure and disturb adipokine homeostasis in metabolically adverse patterns predictive of enhanced disease risk. PMID:25102010

  15. Sentinel and other mutational effects in offspring of cancer survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    To date, no agent has been documented to cause germ cell mutation in human beings, with the possible exception of radiation causing abnormal meiotic chromosomes in testes. For studies in humans, mutation epidemiologists prefer the cohort approach, starting with an exposed population and looking for mutations that may be expressed in offspring as variants in health, chromosomes, proteins, or nucleic acids. Currently patients with cancer are the cohort exposed to the largest doses of potential mutagens, i.e., radiotherapy and drugs. In 12 large studies with over 825 patients and 1573 pregnancies, 46 (4%) of 1240 liveborns had a major birth defect, a rate comparable to that in the general population. One of these was a classic sentinel phenotype, i.e., a new sporadic case of a dominant mendelian syndrome. In collaboration with 5 U.S. cancer registries, we interviewed a retrospective cohort of 2383 patients diagnosed with cancer under age 20 years, from 1945 through 1975. Records were sought to verify major genetic disease, defined as a cytogenetic or single gene disorder or 1 of 15 isolated birth defects. In 2308 offspring of survivors, 5 had a chromosomal syndrome, 11 had a single gene disorder, and 62 had at least one major malformation. Among 4722 offspring of sibling controls, the respective numbers were 7, 12, and 127, nonsignificant differences. 7% of the parents of the offspring with possibly new mutations received potentially mutagenic therapy, compared with 12% of parents of normal children. Since pregnancy in or by cancer survivors is still a rare event, future efforts to document germ cell mutation may be best studied through international cooperation coupled with diverse laboratory measures of mutation.

  16. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  17. Maternal hyperthyroidism in rats impairs stress coping of adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S; Medina-Pizarro, Mauricio; Valle-Leija, Pablo; Vega-González, Arturo; Morales, Teresa

    2008-05-01

    Given the evidence that maternal hyperthyroidism (MH) compromises expression of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in the late fetal brain by accelerated neuronal differentiation, we investigated possible consequences of MH for the emotional and cognitive functions of adult offspring during acute and subchronic stress coping. Experimental groups consisted of male rat offspring from mothers implanted with osmotic minipumps infusing either thyroxine (MH) or vehicle (Ctrl) during pregnancy. Body weight and T4 level were monitored during the first 3 postnatal months, and no differences were found with the controls. We analyzed hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate granular cell morphology during several postnatal stages and found increased dendritic arborization. On postnatal day 90 a modified subchronic mild stress (SCMS) protocol was applied to experimental subjects for 10 days. The Morris water maze was used before, during, and after application of the SCMS protocol to measure spatial learning. The tail suspension test (TST) and forced-swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate behavioral despair. The MH rats displayed normal locomotor activity and spatial memory prior to SCMS, but impaired spatial learning after acute and chronic stress. In both the FST and TST we found that MH rats spent significantly more time immobile than did controls. Serum corticosterone level was found to increase after 30 min of restraint stress, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity was found to be increased in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our results suggest that MH in rats leads to the offspring being more vulnerable to stress in adulthood.

  18. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  19. Fathering in rodents: Neurobiological substrates and consequences for offspring.

    PubMed

    Bales, Karen L; Saltzman, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Paternal care, though rare among mammals, is routinely displayed by several species of rodents. Here we review the neuroanatomical and hormonal bases of paternal behavior, as well as the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of paternal behavior for offspring. Fathering behavior is subserved by many of the same neural substrates which are also involved in maternal behavior (for example, the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus). While gonadal hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, as well as hypothalamic neuropeptides such as oxytocin and vasopressin, and the pituitary hormone prolactin, are implicated in the activation of paternal behavior, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of their actions, as well as pronounced differences between species. Removal of the father in biparental species has long-lasting effects on behavior, as well as on these same neuroendocrine systems, in offspring. Finally, individual differences in paternal behavior can have similarly long-lasting, if more subtle, effects on offspring behavior. Future studies should examine similar outcome measures in multiple species, including both biparental species and closely related uniparental species. Careful phylogenetic analyses of the neuroendocrine systems presumably important to male parenting, as well as their patterns of gene expression, will also be important in establishing the next generation of hypotheses regarding the regulation of male parenting behavior. PMID:26122293

  20. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076